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m. || patosorena: |
4 UNIT 2: Chap.4: Forces |PRINCLPIA)
| oeeemevares
wo
AP B Physics
—
Newton's Force
1. Nanetf
at rest or me
vow:
@ at constant velocity. Fra =0 or ZF =O.
(think of inertia as a lack of a net force so an object’s motion doesn’t change)
Vnsclug uel
2. Met force creates accel
speed and/or direction changes. Faet= ma
3. Coblects share aYgrce: Every action force has 2 mirror reaction force Frou “Fans
7 \ ~ Bf rveten Fee
B. Force diagrams: resolve forces into x and y components, then find vector sum of the forces.
Then determine acceleration : a= Fnet/m
~ CC. Special forces:
1. Friction:
2. Gravity:
+N where j= coefficient of friction, N is the normal force
m*m,/ d? where G= constant, m’s are masses, d is distance between
. Circular Acceleration has 2 kinds!
41. going in a circle requires a centripetal force: F=mv'/r where V=2n*r/T (r= radius, T= period)
2. Going faster speed requires a tangent force: F= ma = mAv/t
3, Total acceleration must be found with vectors: a=a,+a= vi/r+Av/t
Fay
Wdey cerde oF flock Grd binder. — Ler eqns =
Fone 4ebk — vectors >Me
\o\""
resistance to change, no units, related to mass (more mass, more inertia)
measure of mass used in old british empire (1slug = 14.6 ke)
old british unit of weight (1 stone= 14 Ibs)
Pound: british unit of weight (1 Ib = 32 ft/s?* slugs)
Newton: metric measure of weight or any force (1N= 0.225 lbs)
Inertial reference frame: something you compare your motion to which is not accelerating
(Earth, constant speed car, but not a braking car, free falling elevator etc)
External forces: outside forces acting on an object , covered by Newton's laws
Internal forces: forces inside a body acting on itself, (often create heat, damage, energy not conserved)
Free body diagram: shows all external forces acting on an object 5h emt ek
Fundamental forces: all forces derive from 3 basic fundamental forces: gravity, nucldar, & electroweak
Universal gravity: fundamental attraction between any two masses (doesn’’ repel)
Weight: gravitational pull between earth and any object
Normal force: force a surface exerts on an object (could be horizontal or vertical surfaces)
‘Apparent weight: the normal force you feel from floor holding you up, not always equal to your weight
static friction: no motion, two surfaces resist another like “cold welding”
Sliding friction: motion, surfaces rubbing or rolling
‘Constants:
“
G= 6.67 x 10-11 N*m’/kg?__(universal gravity constant) r
n
(EE ame ys
feight= m*g where m is mass in kg
Weight = GMe/r? where M.= mass of earth, r= distance from object to center of earth
Acceleration: a= Fnet/m Cao toad
Friction: f= H*N for static or kinetic friction, j1= coefficient of friction
Static friction ona ramp: = tan(9) where 9 = angle of ramp 9
Net force: Fret = Fi + F2-+3 but use vectors or components.
=V(FIX+F2x+F3x)? + (Fly + F2y+F3y) carefully!
Tes me
Force Vectors: C= A+B draw tail to tip and add vectors by adding components
VectorA Vector B Vector ¢
‘Ax= Acos(1) Bx= Bcos(2) Ce A+B,
Ay= Asin(1) By= Bcos(2) cy=A,+B,
Roath, B= Bi +B%, Care,
tan(1)}=A/A, tan(2}=8,/8, tan(3)= C/G,
yeas prs—————™
‘ Tevhs
Force misconceptions CAL whl)
ge teace to keep obigets 0 motion
2, fan object is #e=@kt, NO actly on the object.
3. a vpeeabjetastohsseateaeciorer steal inanimate objects cand apply forces "he
aia TREE Fate wk ed
50 Te” ca Te hen 2 neat
ere we ret A .
6. AN ject Hog force a CN baie cune our eFtoreest sions ONS
7 me reetion of an object is always in the direction of the net force applied to the object.
zhe ara
2 Eide objectncnerteerentertoreesren matt objects, yet bes — Tee
9. pore P TERRE TOREGT ject moving with a constant speed. Auf —— Are
ats be
10. Friction alwerystmders: orci you abaye wart ae aeOENOM
egularit moving pasteachoth ae
1. Frictional forces are due to irres sularities in surfaces er. # -
Ot gerese ee m
oon " PP sae done Gre Aa FO wee
Math Hints:
4, Consider all positive forces acting on the body (air, friction normal, ete)
include action, not reaction forces since only want forces acting O° the body
Create a free-body diagram (watch out for directions)
Make a table of all x direction forces, and y-direction forces
| instead of making x and y forces, YOU can add them using vectors, tip tO tail
2.
3.
4
5, Add all forces in each direction £0 find the net force in that direction
6.
7. Use a= Fret/m to find the acceleration or use a= Av/t
8.
_ ifcircular motion, remember 2 =v/r or
= Fnet/m where Fnet is perpendicular to the
circle
9, The final direction of the acceleration is always in the same direction as thepet force
*Solving Problems: the Method for all force Problems, esp. ramps!
1. Draw a sketch of what is happening,
2: Draw a force diagram and label all forces,
5. Apply F-ma to perpendicular and Parallel direct
fogether all forces along that axis including directions. Break forces ints ‘components if they do not fall
‘exactly along an axis,
A ox slides down a 30 degree Famp with an acceleration of 1.2 m/s?
Determine the coefficient. “ee Between the box and the ramp
Down the ramp is positive.
w Attach signs to force component
Gata: Angle = 30 degrees a= 1.2 m/s?
B= 9.8 m/s?
N- Weos(30) = 0 Wsin(30) -f= ma,
N- mgcos(30) = 0 ™mgsin(30) -f = ma,
N= mgcos(30) = mgsin(30)~ma,
‘cal UN and substitute from the two equations above, fSUN
‘mgsinA ~ma,= lmgcosA} ‘Notice there is an m in each term. Cancel it
4-2, = paral. Solve for p.
H= (gsin(30)-ay) = (9.81 m/s*¥sin30) - 1.2 mys
‘Bc0s(30) (9.81 m/s*\( cos 30)
RSsigns, ete (ax 0, forces balance in one ‘or more directions)
‘sign is supported by chain 2ny below. Find the force of tension 19 the chain and the force
inthe bar. The sign has 2 mass rie 1.0 ke and the angle between the ‘chain and the bar is 52 degrees:
Remember vectors have direction ‘and amount! (answer: bar 27.2, tension= 12.4N)
T
\d a bar as shown
poe
\ 7 N
A
"52° Free body diagram:
Nae 2 mc ene 18H
—
oO oe ee
\
vector wes wt |
[_* Teas (sz) eae
r
Chain: T
L_-N_<
Ww [total forces: Tew (s2) yan #020 | Ten (s2)re
DF, =m
a qsins2 2484
> ER= max
Tease) =
rs —
12.4 fas(s2) HOSED
2.Friction is feuN
est with a 200N force acting at 30" ale above the
‘person pulls on 2 50 Ke:
sorrntal (bythe desk). THe desk ace Tes at 2.5 m/s? tothe rie
The 3S whan
T praw a force diagram for the desk
We
b. Write the equation to describe the forces “ in the x-direction.
Teast 30) a tins ma = SOK ASN =125N
¢. Write the exuntonto devi te a eatcare direction.
Wwe a Maco SD Ns vit,
4, Determine the x and ¥ centers he tension in their arms(To=373N,T¥=100N)
“oon, Tye rTeate) = dos esis €1739) Tyetmonte) Crom
« petermine the value of the normal fore. (not equal 1° the weight!) (390N)
N= Wi gol1By= 2 Saw) TU —1 GB 7)
f. peer the vate of the frictional ec (48N)
eee 2 13-
Las = (8A,
& catcuatette Coefficient of friction between ete floor odie “‘e
f- an ac, od 6D)
YEE A370
a
© eae en ae
\ES
3.Fnet = ma (no Famps)
An elevator is moving up at a constant veloci
IY Of 2.5 m/s, as illustrated
ws The man has amass of 85, kg
Construct a force diagram for the man,
a
News since
sup 3
tt oak Velsety a 3)
What force does the floor exert on the man? (833N)
A Gre
N= wis mgs BS kon 18° 33W)
. The elevator now. accelerates ‘Upward at 2.0 m/s2,
Construgt a force diagram forthe man,
a
Nout Sinee acee bretes \p
SS NEWI tma © eexqe fp &S (2)
=Q>e30
While descending the cable suddenly breaks
What is the force of the flooronthe man?
STR" foe fl ae m4.8
s> NZo
only fora is wt q.. moLire,/
chine (2 obj mee |
lifferent direction:
icting’on each object,
Sumy 4enssaq Same on both bheke
fe block and mats, (3.26 mys")
nel Ema for both blcke oe hue €9N5, tivo vaknony
¢) Calculate the tension in the cord. (T=
is SSN) mac Roky x answer te
Kes 1 [7 MO
: a2)
OSS ume maves Cooht oe
»)5. Angled motion: ramps, pulling a cart
K6RE mass is allowed to accelerate down a frictionless 15° ramp.
0 kg
xy"
J Is
SNe
a. Drawa force diagram for the block.
. Calculate the weight of the mass: (1961
We Woy = ax 9% 7 /9N
¢. Calculate the normal force holding up the mass: (189 N)
ne Why ewe eas tie) = nb eesti) BAN)
d. Determine the value of the x-component of the force of gravity (Wx = 50.7N)
W down ramp = MRCAECIS) = 184 cos¢15) E23)
e. Use F=ma to find the acceleration of the block down the ramp: (2.54 m/s”)
Esme alo, y direchod Calon, ramp )
wh =™*
4 sints) = Ko
AB seCis) s@¥ab®)Force rams (Free Body Diagrams) Notes
***Force diagrams are pictures which show the forces which are acting on an object
The Method:
1. For each situation, begin by drawing a box that represents the object.
2. Draw an arrow from the box in the direction of each push or pull
3. Label each force arrow with a letter or word describing it.
This think
1. Is the object on or near the Earth? If so, add a weight vector! Weight always acts downward, no matter
whether the object is sitting on the floor, sliding downhill, or falling through the air.
2. |s there a surface supporting the object? If so, add a normal vector. Surfaces support perpendicular to
themselves. Therefore, a horizontal floor pushes up on you so you don’t crash through it. A slanted floor
pushes up and out at an angle.
3. Are any surfaces rubbing against each other? if so, add a friction force vector. Friction opposes motion,
30 if you are standing on a hill friction acts up the hill. You know this s true, because if you didn’t have
friction (if someone oiled the hillside) you would slide downhill. Thus, friction must be pulling you uphill. Air
friction will only be considered for something moving very fast, such as a jet plane or a person who falls out
of a jet plane. A person falling down a hill will not experience air friction.
4.1s a rope or chain pulling on the object? If so, add a tension vector. Tension is always in the same
direction as the rppe or chain. Recall the wisdom “you can’t push on a rope” and you'll do fine.
5. Is anything else pushing or pulling on the object? If so, add another force vector and label it.
Example: A person glides along the ice on skates.
Force diagram: N t
dw
Notice there are no horizontal vectors. That is because there are no horizontal forces, since the person is
{gliding (not pushing off the ice) and ice is considered frictionless.Demnss Elaine, Po
Tones
Gr tod
FREE BODY DIAGRAM WORKSHEET
We connecting SHiag,
/ connected ymasseS
AP. PHYSICS
At wood ple
Spoms
+ preg s
Teco leyer
Directions: In each described situation, construct a free body diagram, labeling each force. Also
in each case, state whether or not the body is in equilibrium, ie, forces are balanced. An
example is given.
1. Object sliding down a ramp at constant velocity
Nar F, or normal
a
mg or Wor weight
2. Object in projectile motion from ground
to ground, at a point in its way upward,
still decelerating (include air drag)
a,WE
9
‘ wh8. Object oscillating vertically on a spring,
displacement x=0 Gy o- ax FD
Vas
9. Object oscillating horizontally on a
spring on a table surface, displacement x=0
ay =o
7? 4 ay 20
Ya
10. Object being pushed down a ramp,
accelerating
LOR Fae 2 ©
Wie Nz Wty
11. Coin dropped into a funnel, as it spirals
downward toward the narrow end
eS
12. Object at the end of a string, whirled in
a horizontal circle at constant velocity
bf
» Abra tang &y 20
My °
> thee
4a
Ky co
=
deny
10mos00te
[A crane is used to het oad of mass m, = S00 kilograms. The load is suspended by a cable rom a
hook of mass m = 50 Kograms, as shown in the gram above, The lad ised upward at a
conetant acceleration of ms
‘2 Onthe cagrars below craw and label the forses acting onthe ok and the forces acting onthe
(eed as they ecesterte upward T%
att
a
wVJegesne Vereen
Determine the tension Ts in the lower cable andthe tension Ts inthe upper cable 35 the ook
‘2d and load oe accelerated upward at 2 mes. Use g= TO mist
ele: Ter Tete mr &
Z
/ Tee Tt mart
co hwo + ez) a Sole) 2 Cheon
lah ee NS
ve Fm
S goal) + Serle) = 600”
SD oc wk + bod dogethen
te — wk = (mama
Tz 5 (atre)le + Ay to) & 1
$59 (a) + ss 12 © S600
areson
ee com tt
‘A 10 klogram bcs inti on table a8 shown n cass Ia sbove The coeiient of
Slog ction between the block andthe table is 0.2. The beck is connected toa cor of rape
mass, which hangs ow @ massless Rctonosspuley. In cate a force ot 0 newions apples To
the cord. n case an object of mass §klograms is hung on the bottom ofthe cond Use p= 10,
‘melee por second saves
| Caleuate the acceleration of he 10 kiogram block in ca |
Th = ma
So-mmg = A
ye S — 2) 0) = casi
dad cna :
» LO etter
wit oxP
& Galeulate the acceleration ofthe 10 klogram block in case
Ns Sane Sma More mans 1S Movins
By Sky wt Snetso
s(e) - ang
eS) - Cle)
> go -2n TB
be Me RIFT ES keg
_____ ao
7 Fon / 2
a /
> z
A® “18hy 7K: ae fer Qa
{ 20 Kg t Las dear
tHN 7 ‘ s
sou = GS ye
4 ih We. 7
Tee ck of manos 1.0, 20, nd 40 Koga coma sles singe one ich
W435 patte a conens py sfnegigtn sy ae shown sbow Casas coer eng
|8._ The acceleration ofthe 4 kilogram block
we (BP Ta ula) = Hea
Comlane [ED 7 T, - 3003) = 2°
== 43 jt
48 Fa > zs Te
The tention into sting suporting the kaspam bck
Y@s)- Te 4
77 4/4S)s 4fag) 1*(2\ N
Tieton the sng conecta othe og ck
Toma ee
Te- 1 (48) = \0 a8
+
Trt Ven aeg
cw
oBEESESEE
Whe Swwemr Po $ * 5 ene
‘A student whose noma weighs 00 newtens stands on a sal in an slew ac records the sale
‘Aidng ess trcton oto” Te dates shown nine gag aba. At ime = 0, he eloetr a
‘Senolomentx 0 wa ety 70, Astute port recto Rr epicerat lohy
me {nd acouertion ae uowerd
12 Onthe diagram below, daw anc abe i of the forces on the student at = 8 seconds.
t ve N>we
1b. Caeulate the acceleration, oof the elastor fx each § second intent
Teindcate your results by completing the flowing table
2 Fi l= -
Tien) 02° Sto os 1520 aria Mowe Un se
ame =O 4 oH a
Tm)
aol a; eat
«. Pea os ay vel sn et tn a ca
‘inte your rei by completing the flowing table.
tmavienay) 08 is Ret Ban = HOC)
ves) om PY »d
|. Pot he velcty as a fnetion of time onthe lowing orph.ene
ng)
Wash: Lae ee RS
Ver shits ms ain fnia
1" To My
Te My
yp de iu tra ca neem obs tem
; Rese tamer atte wee eat ava ae re
K oO: patna Sisk ee it gre MENea tg
Bom Sistecar ga bua conse iru Heil eeonbnk one
eeatea
cen A uf
2 + one tov an a tt nt Nye 1
wr
1 ™9
_ mpg sad + 1,2 Tyo oF 2
eer
YAgS5NS 41 e Mg “2h 22
ws
', Detemine the concent ofknetic fiction between the icned plane an block 1
\ “SE ©. (am \grne — Mg mK Smigsne 1 F -
<< (Mutm)sne - M (Ors ag suo = Mg 34
”~ 3me8 O) ‘
.c. Determine the value of the suspended maed M that allows blocks 1 and 2 to move with constant
‘acct dm ne ae
Fru = -triemiasiag + hg - 34 so
Miz Creme sino = Syme caso) eumioe 38)
14. The ering between blocks 1 nd 2 is now ext. Determine the accelration of block 1 wh it is
on the inclined plane.
oe Pat migeme — AM9 2 (Sas ## More From TajiriMollel

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