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PRODUCT DESIGN & MANUFACTURING


{PDM}

Co-ordinator & Faculty Incharge:


Dr. Shivaprakash Y.M
Dept. of Mech. & Mfg. Engg

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
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Driven by needs

Product
Development
PDM

PRODUCTS/
GOODS
TO CUSTOMERS

Product Development Process (PDP)?


PLANNING
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
SYSTEM LEVEL DESIGN
DETAIL DESIGN
TESTING & REFINEMENT
PRODUCTION

Defn..Product development

Product development: It is the set of activities

beginning with the perception of a market


opportunity and ending in the production, sale, and
delivery of a product.

Non-Isolated activity

Product development is a interdisciplinary activity


Its

a coordinated activity between- Marketing


dept.,Design Dept.,and Manufacturing dept.,
Marketing Dept.: opportunities, mediator between
to establish communication between customers & firm, sets prices & oversees
firm & customers Helps
the launch and promotion of a product
Design Dept.: physical form to product
Mechanical, Electrical, Software etc..
- Engineering design
-Industrial design (aesthetics, ergonomics user
interfaces)

Manufacturing Dept.: design and operate the

production system to produce products


Mfg. may also often include in purchasing, distribution and installation

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Expected to meet the customer needs
Profit=Product price-product cost
Products success depends on Quality, Price & Performance

#Product
Product is some thing sold by an enterprise to its
customers
#Stages in product development Rough form, arrangement that meets needs
Select few feasible/optimal ideas which can be physically realizable
Idea generation
Idea screening
Detailed idea generation, adding details & scaled model
Preparation & testing
Concept development & Testing
Profit margins, profit share in market, competitor's etc.
Business analysis
Semi finalized shape to product
Supply to market/test initial launch response from market
Test marketing
Commercialization or Launching Add full features, advertise & launch in full fledge
If previous step is OK
When to, where to launch ?

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Idea generation
Brain storming, Market analysis, Futuristic studies, Gap analysis,

Life style watching


Idea screening
Profitability, Marketability and cost of production
Concept development & Testing
Arrive at clear concept by check of meeting needs?
Business analysis
Decide worth while ness into the venture
Semi finalized shape to product
Test marketing
Obtaining feed back from customers
Commercialization or Launching
Time and zone

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Successful product development depends uponShould meet needs, serve intended purpose, easy to handle & use, durable & reliable

Product quality
Cheap & Best
Product cost
Less/least, sense quickly the needs, respond quickly to survive in market
Development time
Directly affects the price & profit
Development cost
Development capability
Capability reflects on competitiveness of developed product in the market

Challenges in product development


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Trade offs-Properly identify, understand & manage

Eg: Reducing air plane weight would increase


manufacturing costs
Dynamics-has to be in pace with-Technology changes,
customer preference, competetion
Time pressure
Creativity
Satisfaction of customer
Team diversity
Team spirit
1.1

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Chap:1
Design Concepts

Overview of product design


Design by evolution & innovation
Factors influencing Product Design
Phases of design process
Product strategies
Standardization
Aesthetics
ergonomics

Improved version of an existing or new version


Of anything that not existed before
Its a creative process needs experience
& knowledge
NEED & PROBLEM..?

What is DESIGN?

PRODUCT DESIGN
PROCESS DESIGN

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Design: The form, parts, or details of something

according to a plan (or) to conceive or to form a plan


for
Objective of design is to satisfy a need someone has
Outcomes of engineering design: Consumer goods,
petrochemical plant, building, bridge, missile
system, jet transport plane or electrical power
generation station

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Types of design
1. Original design: Design of Microprocessor
Also called as innovative design, result of invention
2. Adaptive design: Adapting ink-jet printer in RP Machine
Adapt known solution to produce an application
3. Redesign: Change shape to reduce stress or use new material to reduce
weight/cost
Improve the existing design
standard components like
4. Selection design: Select
Bearings, motors, pumps for design
Selection of components with required performance, quality and
cost
5. Industrial design: Human factors related to a product
Improving appeal of a product to human senses

Engineering design- ITERATION MODEL


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Technical
information
Business
information

Specific
Information

Explore alternative concepts that satisfy a


specific need
Mathematical modelling and simulation
Specifying/identifying parts to construct a
sub system
Material selection

General
Information

Design
operation

Outcome

Next step
No
Iterative nature of design process

Evaluation

Yes

Steps in Design process


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1. Recognition of a need
2.Definition of a problem
3.Gathering of information
4.Conceptualization
5.Evaluation
6.Communication of the Design
Above steps are shown in iteration model of design

1.Recognition of a need

Driving force for design

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Needs come from inputs of operating or service

personnel or from customers through sales or


marketing representatives
Needs are also generated by outside consultants,
purchasing agents, government agencies or trade
associations or by the attitudes or decisions of the
general public
Needs arise from dissatisfaction with the existing
situation, they may be to reduce cost , increase
reliability or performance or just change because the
public has bored with the product
STEPS: GATHER INFORMATION ON NEED----INTERPRET THE RAW DATA----CLASSIFY NEEDS AS PRIMARY,
SECONDARY & TERTIARY---- ---ESTABLISH RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NEEDS----REFLECT ON DESIGN

2.Definition of a problem
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This is an important step because, final design depends

on how well we define a problem Be clear with design problem


A wrong or an inaccurate definition can greatly differ the
final design Final design depends on problem statement, wrong problem definition leads to wrong
design which results in REJECTION of entire lot
The definition of a problem should include writing down
a formal problem statement ,which should express
as specifically as possible what the design is intended to
accomplish Mistake in production may lead to rejection of one component but its is not so for design
It should include objectives and goals, definitions of
special technical terms, constraints placed on the design
and criteria that will be used to evaluate the design

3.Gathering of information
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While collecting information we ask ourselvesProcess should be QUICK, RELIABLE & ACCURATE information to
be collected

Where can I find it?


How can I get it?
How credible and accurate is the information?
How should the information be interpreted for
my specific need?
When do I have enough information?
What decisions result from the information?
SOURCES: libraries, internet, govt. reports, intellectual properties like patents, copyrights & trademarks,
personal contacts, customers

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Some times a problem may not have even single

basic reference on the subject nor it may have no


previous background Example: RESEARCH PROBLEM Screen useful & reliable information
Also there may be situations where in there will be
loads of information(excess) on the problem
But whatever the situation is, the immediate task will
be to identify the needed pieces of information and
find or develop that information

Develop concepts of design by determining


Elements, mechanisms, process or
Configurations in some combination
that result in a design that satisfies
design

4.Conceptualization
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The conceptualization step is to generate alternative

solutions for a problem


Very often we formulate the analytical models and
experimental models in this step
A vital aspect of the conceptualization step is
synthesis
Synthesis is the process of taking elements of the
concept and arranging them in the proper order,
sized and dimensioned in the proper way
OUTCOME OF THIS STEP: rough design

We refine the rough design

5.Evaluation
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Evaluation refers to through analysis of the design

and decision making


In this step we calculate the performance of the
design by using analytical model Computer simulations
In some cases the analysis may involve extensive
simulated service testing of an experimental model
or full sized prototype
As the design nears completion we do the checks like
mathematical checks and engineering sense checks
Mathematical checks involve checking arithmetic
and equations used in analytical mode

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Engineering sense checks have to do with whether

the answers feel right

6.Communication of the design


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The finalized design must be properly communicated

to sponsor
The communication may be by oral presentation or
and by a written design report
Design team-----management (sponsorer)
By written documents or by presentations
Design gets approval if business strategies are met for that design

2.2

Overview of PRODUCT DESIGN


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In our study referred to Physical goods

Product design is a part of product development


Product Design Deals with conversion of ideas into

reality and, as in other forms of human activity, aims at


fulfilling human needs
By testing
Designer produces a proto-type, which if successful is
used for mass production
Design may be of any type from a dress to a engineering
product
An error made by production department will lead to
rejection of one product but an error made by design
department will lead to rejection of entire lot

CRUDE/ROUGH design>>>>>>>>>By refinement over long duration of time>>>>>>>FINAL DESIGN

1.Design by Evolution
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Design if evolve over a long period of time then such

design we call as design by evolution


The slow pace of technological change reduced the
IMPROVEMENTS IN DESIGN
risk of making errors in design TECHNICAL
WILL BE VERY SLOW
The circumstances rarely demands analytical
capabilities of designer resulting in design by
No need of analytical simulations in
evolution
Such design
Eg :- Development of a bicycle from its crank
operated model to present day model took over a
period of about a century
ADVANTAGE: no errors in design because of slow transformation in technology

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Present day bicycle designs


have evolved from over a period
of 100 years

Disadvantages of Design by Evolution


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Unsuitability for mass production:- Evolved


design is crude and is more oriented towards
design by masses for production by masses
2. Difficulty in modification:- A design by evolution is
shaped by demands of time
3. Inability to tap new technologies:- A new
technology can result in totally new design based
on a different working principle as compared with
evolutionary design which relies on modifications
in existing design
1.

HW: SOME MORE EXAMPLES OF DESIGN BY EVOLUTION

It is important in todays world for survival of industries


Industries are driven by innovative designs

By invention NEW TECHNOLOGY

2.Design by Innovation
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Invention of LASER

A-1

A-2

A-3

A-4

Medical surgery (surgery tools are obsolete)


Engineering Laser cutting (gas cutting is obsolete)

A new scientific discovery leads to new body of

technical knowledge which can be used in various


spheres of scientific fields
The implementation of new discovery will be
different from the conventional methods
Eg.:- Invention of Laser beam resulted in obsolete of
surgical knife and gas cutting ,invention of solid state
electronic devices resulting in miniaturization of
electronic products which has made vacuum tubes
obsolete

Factors influencing product design


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Need :- A design should be in response to the social

needs of the society which can be satisfied by the


technological knowledge
Physical Realizability:-A design must be practical, it
should be physically realizable Worth producing (by gaining profits)
Worth buying (from utilization point of view)
Economic Worthwhileness:- The goods or service must
have utility to consumer which equals or exceeds the sum
of total cost of making it available to him
Example: Bulb with luminous intensity 3 and life 4 on a ten
point scale has a lower utility than a bulb with luminous
intensity 2.5 and life 5

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Financial Feasibility:- The operations of designing,

Manufacturing and marketing should be financially


Profit/Unit = Price/unit Cost/unit
feasible
Optimality:- The design concept has to be optimal so
that it satisfies all the technical specifications at
reasonable price
Design Criterion:- Optimality has to be established
relative to design criterion which represents
designers compromise for required design
Strength criterion
parameters
Weight criterion
Cost criterion

HW: Develop a design tree for protection device for combating automobile head-on-crash

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Morphology:-Design

is progression from the


abstract to concrete. One has to carefully consider
the phase related to primary design and production
consumption cycle
Design process:- design is an iterative problem
solving process (refer: iterative model)
Sub problems:-during the process of solution of a
design problem, a sub layer of sub problems appears.
The solution of the original problem is dependent on
the solution of the sub problems
Design tree approach
(for checking physical Realizability)

SP-4

SP-1

Design concept

SP-2
SP-3

SOLUTIONS

SP-5
SP-6

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Reduction of uncertainty:-design is derived after

processing of information that results in a


transition from uncertainty about the success or
the design uncertainties
failure of a design towards certainty AsHavewetorefine
be reduced/eliminated
Economic
worth
of
evidence:-information
gathering and processing have a cost that must be
balanced by the worth of evidence, which affects
the success or failure of design. Authentic
information should be gathered to make the design
project a success Economic justification for each activity

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Bases for decision:-A design project is terminated

when it is obvious that its failure calls for its


abandonment. It is continued when the confidence
in an available design solution is high enough to
indicate the commitment of resources necessary for
Manpower, Money & Time
next phase
Minimum commitment:-In the solution of a design
problem at any stage of the process, commitments
which will fix future design decisions must not be
made beyond what is necessary to execute
immediate solution

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Communication:-design

must
be
properly
communicated to sponsor, communication could be
through drawings,3D renderings or cut away views of
a product

Morphology of design process


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ASIMOWS MODEL FOR DESIGN
Asimow is the first person to give a detailed
Primitive need
description of complete design process
This model gives a graphical picture of
Phase 1 Feasibility study
logical sequence of activities that leads
from problem definition to detail design

Phase 2 Preliminary design


Phase 3 Detailed design

Phase 4 Planning for production


PHASE
RELATED TO
PRODUCTION
CONSUMPTION
CYCLE

Phase 5 Planning for distribution


Phase 6 Planning for consumption
Phase 7 Planning for reirement

PRIMARY
DESIGN PHASE

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Morphology

of design refers to the study of


chronological structure of design process
Seven phases in this chronological structure are1.Feasibility study
Primary design phases
2.Preliminary design
3.Detailed design
4.Planning the production process
5.Planning for distribution
Related to production &
consumption cycle
6.Planning for consumption and
7.Planning for retirement
3.3

Design team reevaluates the Needs/Ideas


If need to be satisfied
Many feasible solutions

Phase I-Feasibility study


Only potential solutions

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It is analysis of the viability of an idea through a

disciplined and documented process of thinking


through the idea from its logical beginning to its
logical end.
A feasibility study provides an Investigating
function that helps answer Should we proceed
with the proposed project idea? Is it a viable
business venture?
A feasibility study should be conducted to
determine
the viability of an idea BEFORE
proceeding with the development of a business.

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Levels in feasibility study

Operational Feasibility

Technical Feasibility

Will it work?
Can it be built?

Economic Feasibility
Will it make economic sense if it works and is built?
Will it generate PROFITS?

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Why to carry out Feasibility study??


Related to design, production or may be the economic issues

Provide

a thorough examination of all issues and


assessment of probability of business success Sets objective of design procject
& alternative ways to execute it
Give focus to the project and outline
alternatives
Most feasible & economic solutions
Narrow business alternatives Alternative design solutions new business opportunities could be found
Surface new opportunities through the investigative process
Identify reasons NOT to proceed By filtering unfeasible solutions
Enhance the probability of success by addressing and
mitigating factors early on that could affect the project
This enhances confidence in design

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Decision making is supported by this phase

Provide quality information for decision making


Help to increase investment in the company
If a design is found feasible more investments can be made to make it reality

Provide documentation that the business venture


documentation is made in this phase which
was thoroughly investigated Authentic
acts as basis for business expansion
Help in securing funding from lending institutions
and other monetary sources

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Which are the Sources of data for feasibility study?


Data required for a feasibility study can come from
primary or secondary sources

Primary data can include formal interviews and surveys

Collection of primary data can be expensive and time consuming

Secondary data can include industry and trade publications,


statistics of industry associations, and government agency
reports

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Different Steps in the feasibility study


Step :1 The NEED-establishing its economic existence
By economic existence of a need we mean that
individuals, institutions or society will recognize the
need and will pay the price of the product ? which
can satisfy the need
The starting point of a design project is a
hypothetical need which may have been observed
currently on the socio-economic scene
Need when realized must be achievable or meet able
If worked on need customers must be satisfied and company should have fair business & profits

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Need if projects or arises in future must also be met economically

The need may not yet exist, but there may be

evidence that it is latent and that it may arise when


economic means for its satisfaction become available
Economic existence of a need must be established
with sufficient confidence to justify the commitment
of the funds necessary to explore the feasibility of
developed means satisfying it
If satisfying need is economical then budget allocation can be done with confidence

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Step :2 The design problem-identification and formulation


The information available comes from the results of
the preceding step particularly the specifications of
desired outputs, and from relevant technical
knowledge about environments, resources and the
general engineering principle
With this information, an activity analysis is
performed where by the design problem is given a
technical formulation
If need is ecconomical identify specifications formulate the design problem or need

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Which are feasible

Step :3 The synthesis of possible solutions


Synthesis implies combining or bringing different
ideas to produce an integrated whole
This requires innovative and creative effort
Step :4 Physical realizability
The design should be practical and it should be
physically realizable
Identify the feasible solutions which are producible

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Step :5 Economic worthwhileness of a design


It means that final design must be of sufficient value to
repay off effort
Value is measured in the market place, which is
quantitatively in terms of money
Utility is a good measure of economic worthwhileness of
a product
Step:6 Financial feasibility of design project
The project should be financially feasible and it must be
realizable mobilizing resources for its implementation

Phase II-Preliminary design


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The preliminary design is intended to establish an

overall concept for a project, which will serve as a


guide for detailed design.
Optimization is the main objective in this phase
Different Steps in the Preliminary design phase
Step:1 Selection of the design concept
In the set of useful solutions developed in the
feasibility study, the most promising one must be
Describes technology used, working principle
identified
& form of the product

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usage

The design concept is selected based on the utility

Factors like reliability, safety, cost, user friendliness

must be considered to select the best concept


Step:2 Formulation of mathematical model
Mathematical models enable useful software to be
developed so that the design can be optimized on a
computer
Mathematical model involves design parameters and
input ,output variables
Equation that include variable in design alternatives & get optimum solution

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Step:3 Sensitivity analysis


In this step we would like to know how sensitive the
performance of the system is to the adjustment of
several design parameters
Those which critically affect the performance must
be carefully adjusted whereas others which are less
critical can be adapted to suit convenience
Step:4 Compatibility analysis
A system consists of subsystems the subsystems
must be compatible with each other for example
electric motor and pump combination

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Step:5 Stability analysis


Systems and devices are generally exposed to
dynamic environment and hence they must be
internally stable and should not under go
catastrophic failures or malfunctions
Step:6 Formal optimization
Once the major design parameters are fixed they
must be assigned specific design values
Among all the feasible combinations of parameter
values there is one superior to all others, namely the
optimal combination

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Step:7 Projections into future


Design concept selected must be realizable in least time
The development period for a product should not be
so large that by the time it comes in the market, the
competitor would have launched a superior product
Shelf life of product best before
Step:8 Prediction of system behavior
A system must function in an acceptable manner
throughout a reasonable service life
The desired output must be produced over a span of
time as well as the start when the system is new
Reliable

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prototype
Step:9 Testing the design concept
The new design concept can be tested with a scale model
or through computer simulation
Step:10 Simplification of design
Overall concept must be brought to a state of design that
is clearly physically realizable
This state is achieved by finally constructing a prototype
from a full set of design instructions, testing it and
making the necessary revisions in both prototype and
design instructions until the system or device is
satisfactory
for
production,
distribution
and
consumption
Think on to trim redundant features or achieve more than one function by a single part etc.

4.4

Phase III-Detailed design


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Missing information is added on the
arrangement, form, dimensions, tolerances,
surface
properties,
materials
&
manufacturing processes of each part
Finalize all details of design, drawings &
specifications

Step:1 Preparation for design


In order to go ahead we need budgetary approvals
and a strong design team
The commitment to produce is not final because
relatively close estimates of time and money are
needed, prior to design
Step:2 Overall design of sub system
Sub systems are to be examined to evaluate the
quality of overall system concept

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Each sub system must be looked at as an individual

entity, compatibility of one sub system with the other


also needs to be verified
Finally a provisional master layout is prepared for
each sub system which translates the results of the
subsystem design into drawings
Step:3 Overall design of components
Just as the system comprises several sub systems, so
the sub systems usually comprise a certain number
of components which are developed in the same way
as the subsystem

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Step:4 Detailed design of parts


For part design one can use sophisticated method
like photo elasticity and FEM
Here a clear statement on parts shape, material,
surface treatment is made
Step:5 Preparation of assembly drawings
After constituent parts have been designed the form
of a component can be fixed
The provisional layout of the component can now be
replaced by tentative final assembly drawings

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In producing the assembly drawings, cases of

incompatibility and oversight in the compatibility


analysis will generally be revealed Here checked
The affected parts are suitably modified
The assembly drawings can be undertaken using
computers
Step:6 Experimental construction
Once the drawings are in hand, prototypes in full
scales can be prepared and subjected to experiments
under actual conditions of work

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Step:7 Product test program


Programs can be expensive if not planned properly,
they yield insufficient evidence for or against the
design
Step:8 Analysis and prediction
With the notes and records of the experimental
construction and the data and other general
observations of the test program, preparation for
revision or redesign can begin if necessary

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Step:9 Redesign
If the experimental construction and the test
program have not found the design inadequate, the
work of redesign may be just that of minor revision
If there are major flaws and short comings then
redesign may reach major proportions and entirely
new concepts may have to be sought for major
components and sub systems

Phase IV-Planning for production process


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Detailed planning is done for the production of the

design
A method of manufacture is established for each
component in the system

Design of tooling and fixtures, designing of


process sheet and production line, planning the
work schedules, the quality assurance system and
the system of information flow

We prepare process sheet that contains sequential list of all manufacturing operations to be performed on a component

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Steps in this phase are Detailed process planning for every part , sub
assembly and final assembly
Design of tools and fixtures
Planning, specifying or designing new production
and plant facilities
Planning the quality control system
Planning for production personnel
Planning for production control

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Planning for information flow system


Financial planning

Phase V-Planning for distribution


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Produced components distributed

The purpose of this phase is to plan an effective

flexible system of distribution of the designed goods


Plan for packaging, shipping, warehousing
Steps in this phase are as under- and distribution of product to customer
1. Designing the packaging of the product
Individual and special packaging may be needed to
secure protection from shock and weather
Special strapping and palletizing may be needed to
facilitate handling-[strong wooden or metal base for
moving or storing goods]

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2. Planning for warehousing systems


Economically favourable locations for ware house
are determined and the warehousing facilities are
designed
3. Planning the promotional activity
Technical sales brochures based on design
information and test data may have to be developed

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4.Designing the product for conditions arising in


distribution
Factors like shelf-life, attractive display and final
conditioning may affect the design of the product

Phase VI-Planning for consumption


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Or planning for USE

The purpose of this phase is to incorporate in the design,

adequate service features


Design for consumption must consider the following factors Here we will know how a consumer reacts to a product
1. Design for maintenance
For a positive reaction consider all factors in design process like
2. Design for durability/reliability
3. Design for safety
4. Design for convenience in use taking into account human
factors
5. Design for aesthetic features
6. Design for operational economics
7. Design for adequate duration of services
8. Obtain service data for next generation designs

Obsolete/waste

Phase VII-Planning for retirement


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This should not be early in the products life

Final phase in the design process is safe disposal of

the retired(reaching end of useful life) product


Under ideal conditions the system should be
designed so that it wears out physically as it becomes
technically obsolete

Useful life: determined by actual


deterioration & wear, by technological
obsolescence
Recycling, reuse or remanufacture

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Designing Achieve long service/performance of a product


1. To reduce the rate of obsolescence by taking into
account the anticipated effect of technical development
2. Physical life to match anticipated service life
3. Several levels of use so that when service life at higher
level of use is terminated product will be adaptable for
further use at lower level
4. Reusable and long life materials can be recovered for
further use
5. Examining and testing of service terminated products
in laboratory

5.5

Product strategies
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Its a marketing plan for a product


Marketing plan based on characteristics of the target

market, market share objectives, desired product


positioning with in the market, and profit objectives.
Strategic plan for a product are based on decisions
regarding product, place, price, promotion, financial
targets & budgets and tactical plans.
Why to frame?
To promote products in market & to increase sales
To stay ahead in market

Marketing plan
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Should contain following information:


Evaluation of market segments, with explanation on reasons
for choosing target market
Identify competitive products
Identify early product adopters
Clear understanding of benefits of product to customers
Estimation of market size and share Local, national or international
Determination of product variants
Estimation of product life
Determination of product volume/price relationships
Complete financial plan including time to market, ten year
projection of costs and income
When to release the product

Different product strategies


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FOUR

1. Pricing strategy
Pricing refers to the process of setting a price for a product.
An effective pricing strategy willPrice-cost=profit
Meet the profit objectives
Meet or beat the competitors price
Retain or increase the market share
One pricing strategy is set low price irrespective of quality
which will increase sales volume
Marginal profit per product will lead to substantial gains

Variety of price modifiers


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Buy 2 get 1 free

Quantity discount: an incentive to buy more


Promotional discount: a discount for a specific

period of time 50% discount from to date


Seasonal discount: an incentive to clear seasonally
sensitive stock Monsoon sale, stock clearance sale
Delivery fee: an amount you charge for delivering the
product
Credit card fee: an amount you charge on credit card
purchases

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2. Product quality strategy Set price based on quality


Some manufacturers define their aim is high quality,
what ever be the cost
Eg: air craft industry, precision instrument makers
3.Product luxurious strategy Luxury & comfort at low cost
Luxury and comfort are the primary considerations
and cost becomes secondary.
Eg: automobile manufacturers
There may not be high profits resulting by this strategy

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4.Product utility strategy


Offer low price to increase volume of sales
Incorporate new features and innovations

China goods

Standardization
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ISO, BIS, ASME, ASTM, JIS, DIN

It is the process of establishing a technical standard

resulting in standard specification, standard test


method, standard definition or standard procedure.
Standardization means that there is a standard
specification, unit, instruction or something that is
understood globally
If a consumer is using standardized product then he
will have option to use their own choice of items
along with what they already own.
EXAMPLE: motor-pump assembly, PC assembly

Advantages of standardization
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Reduction of material waste and obsolescence


Concentration of effort in manufacturing, hence

simplification and specialization.


Reduction in inventories, both of materials and semi
finished and finished products
Reduction in book keeping and other paper work
Lowering the grades of skill required in manufacture
and assembly
Reduction in price hence expansion of the market
Reduction in repair and maintenance costs.

Activities in standardization
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Physical dimension and tolerances of components

with in a defined range


Rating of machines or equipment
Specification of physical and chemical properties of
materials
Methods of testing characteristics or performances
Methods of installation to comply with minimum
precautionary measures and convenience of use.

Aesthetics in Product Design


79

Cloths, shoes, watches, jewelry, automobiles etc.

The appearance of a product is the total visual effect

produced by structure, form, material ,dimension


and surface finish(including color)
For a product to be classed as aesthetic following
factors are most essential1.Unity
A product must appear as a finished, complete unit
and its separate elements and details harmonized
in a logical way
There must be no elements that appear as if they are
superfluous and cause surprise

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2.Order
To achieve unity, all the component elements in the subject
should be related to the whole. This relationship is called
as order
3.Purpose(Form and style)
Aesthetic concept of design will be incomplete if it does
not exhibit the purpose
The concept of purpose is especially relevant to the
design of industrial equipment
It implies that form should follow function
Style is a collection of shapes that give a product a
particular character

Ergon: WORK
Nomos: LAW, RULE

Ergonomics in design
Human factors in design

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Easy to use & safe to use

Ergonomics is applied in engineering design to-

1.Design a product that is pleasing and easy to use


2.To improve the safety, health and comfort of
operators of machinery and production equipment
3.To increase the productivity of workers
Performance of operator depends on ergonomics so environment & equipment must be ergonomically designed
Environment: HOT/COLD, SAFETY-hazardous, suffocating, LIGHT, AIR, WATER, Some require quite operation

Equipment: SAFE, REACHEBLE, EASY TO HANDLE, COMFORTNESS, RESPOND TO OPERATOR,FATIGUE

6.6

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Issue Date: 13th August-2016

ASSIGNMENT-1

Test on : 25th August-2016


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1. What is the objective of Preliminary Design Phase in Asimovs Model for product
design? List and explain in detail the different steps in it.

2. Draw the block diagram of Morphology of Design, explain the detailed design phase
and the different steps in it.
3. Explain Design by Evolution (Explain with at least three examples for the same) and
Design by innovation with merits and demerits.
4. List and explain the essential factors influencing the product design? State the use of
design tree approach and explain the same with an practical example.
5.What is standardization? Explain the advantages and the activities in standardization.