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THE TEXTURING PROCESSES

In the texturing processes, a continuous filament yarn has to undergo a major change in its physical form, by
becoming crimped, coiled or looped along its lengths. . Only multifilament continuous filament yarns are
suitable for texturing. There are various methods that may be used to produce textured continuous filament
yarns. Most are only applicable to thermoplastic continuous filament yarns as they involve heating the
filaments while effecting the textured profile, then cooling to retain it in the filaments. From the technical
perspective, the ones most commonly referred to are

Knife Edge: where the Filament yarn is heated and pulled across a knife at an acute angle. When the
yarn is cooled and released it retains a spring or curled ribbon appearance, i.e. the profile is heat-set.

Stuffer Box: here the filaments pass through a heated box, but are fed into it faster than their removal
rate i.e. an overfeed. This forces them to adopt a random wavy crimped pattern while heated; subsequent
cooling sets their textured form.

Air Jet: with this method overfeeding of filaments at high speed into a chamber is also employed, but
instead of using heat to facilitate the texture profile, compressed air is blown into the chamber and this
causes the loose lengths of the filaments in the yarn to spread apart and form entangled random loops. The
entanglement retains the texture of random loops

False twist: in this method the continuous filament yarns are twisted and heated simultaneously, and
then untwisted when cold, thereby loosely retaining the heat-set helical shape of the twist.

Knit-De-Knit: here Filament yarns are knitted into a narrow diameter tube and heat-set (i.e. heated
and then cooled). The yarns are then de-knitted, giving them a wavy configuration.

Bicomponent Process: with this method the texture is obtained by twisting to together filaments of
high and low potential shrinkage. Subjecting the resulting yarn to washing or steaming results in the
differential shrinkage of the filaments to form the bulked profile.

False-twist Texturing
Principle and process
Filament yarns like polyester and nylon and thermoplastic. They soften and can be easily deformed with the
application of heat; and upon cooling; the filaments remain in their deformed state (i.e. the filaments become
heat-set). Normally if filaments are twisted, torsional stress develops in the filaments and the filaments will
want to untwist to release the stress. However, if such filaments are twisted and heat-set (i.e. heated above
their glass transition temperature and then cooled below their glass transition temperature), their torsional
stress will be relaxed and the filaments will remain twisted even though the external force is removed. If
these filaments are then untwisted, stress will develop again in the individual filaments. If these stressed
filaments are allowed to relax, they will seek the minimum-energy-state (or least stressed state!) by
forming adjacent helices and snarls. These helices and snarls prevent the individual filaments from staying
as closely packed as before and the filaments will occupy a much greater volume than before. In other
words, the filaments become bulky and textured. This process is illustrated in Figure.1

Flat
filaments

Textured
filaments

HEAT
SET

TWIST

Stress
free

Under
stress

UNTWIST

Stress
relaxed

Stressed
again

RELAX

Stress
relaxed

Fig.1: Principle of filament texturing by twisting, heat-setting and untwisting


In the early days of filament yarn texturing, the three steps of twisting, heat-setting, and untwisting are
carried out in separate stages as indicated in figure 2. This traditional process has now become obsolete. But
the principle has been used in modern continuous false twist (FT) texturing processes.

Figure 2: Traditional filament yarn texturing with separate twisting, heat-setting, and untwisting stages

In principle, continuous false-twist (FT) texturing is very similar to a dynamic false-twisting process, as
indicated in figure 3. The main difference is that in FT texturing, heating setting is involved. This is also
why FT texturing can only work on thermoplastic filaments. Non-thermoplastic filaments, such as glass
filaments, can not be false-twist textured.

F.T.
Cool
Heat

Stationary
false-twisting

Dynamic
false-twisting

Cool
Heat

False-twist
texturing

Fig. 3: Difference between stationary false twisting, dynamic false twisting, and false-twist texturing
A typical false-twist texturing process is shown in Figure 4.
Cooling zone

Twisti ng
device

First
heater

Second
heater
(if required)

Supply
yarn

Textured
yarn

Figure 4: A continuous FT texturing process


Without the second heating process, the textured yarn is called a stretch yarn, which is bulky and stretchy.
The stretch yarn is suitable for hosiery and sportswear (track-suiting, stretch pants, and swimwear etc). If
less stretch is required, the yarn can pass through a 2 nd heater under controlled tension. This results in a
modified stretch (or set) yarn, which retains certain bulk, but with much reduced extensibility, suitable for
outwear applications.
FALSE TWIST DEVICES
A key element of a false-twist texturing system is the actual false-twister. The false twister should satisfy the
following requirements:

Grip yarn well to rotate it


Allow yarn to travel through
Insert twist at high speed, and
Easy to thread up
(A) Pin-spindle false twister (False-twist with hollow spindle)
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The machines, which use such system, are the so-called 1st generation machines.
A hollow tube, inside which a pin is fixed crosswise, forms the twisting device; the yarn is wound around
this pin with a full rotate on of 360.

Twisting with hollow spindle


Each rotation of the spindle around its own axis entails the insertion into the yarn of a false-twist, which
moves in length direction along the yarn.
Originally spindles got rotated on ball bearings by friction belts: in this way speeds of 40.000- 80.000 t/min.
could be obtained, wear characteristics of the bearings permitting. Later on mechanical bearings were
replaced by magnetic bearings, which permitted to attain spindle speeds up to 900.000 t/min (yarn speed
max. 200 m/min). Such high speeds constitute a limit both from the mechanical point of view (there are
nowadays no mechanical components working at higher industrial speeds) and from the
processing/technological aspect; in fact higher speeds would heavily damage the yarn in consequence of the
tensions occurring during the yarn winding around the spindle pin.
(B) Stacked disk type false twister
This is the most widely used false twister in filament yarn texturing. It consists of three sets of stacked disks
mounted on three shafts, through which the filament yarn runs. The rotation of the disks not only inserts
twist into the filament, but also drives the filament through the disks. By setting the surface speed ratio
between the disk and the yarn (the D/Y ratio) correctly, equal yarn tension can be achieved at both sides of
the false twister. For easy threading of the filament, one disk shaft is movable while the other two are fixed.

Twisting with friction disks


(C) Crossed-belts false twister
As shown in figure, this false twister has two belts crossed at a specific angle. The filament yarn is twisted
and driven between two belt surfaces by the rotation of the belts. It is said to give a soft yarn texturing with
little yarn damage. This type of false twister is difficult to work with fine denier filaments (eg. <78 dtex).

Twisting with crossed belts


Heating and Cooling Zones
These zones are an integral part of the false-twist texturization process.
In fact, as already pointed out, the twisting action, which the yarn went through in the false-twist group, is
transmitted to the preceding yarn path; the oven, which is positioned in that zone, makes filaments
thermoplastic and is followed by a cooling track, which blocks the twisting deformation.
With the increase of machine speeds, also these elements experienced substantial improvements.
The primary oven is composed of a series of grooves or tubes which are arranged in blocks, through which
run the single yarns and which have a variable length from 1 to 2,5 m about; these blocks are heated by
resistors with heat exchange (Dowtherm) fluids, with higher temperature ranges, the shorter the permanence
times of the yarn in the oven (times are function of processing speed and of oven length).
In traditional ovens, temperature may range between 160 and 250 for 2000 mm oven length and
between 200 and 320 for 1400 mm oven length; in all cases, tolerances must be narrow and strictly
controlled (1C inside the oven).
Recently high temperature ovens ( through HT resistors) have been developed; these allow temperatures up
to 500-600C with convection heating, which offers the advantage of reducing further oven lengths and of
favoring the removal (by combustion) of deposits (finishes, polymeric remnants) originated inside the oven.

AIR-JET TEXTURING
Principle and process
Air-jet texturing is a versatile process. It works with both thermo-plastic (eg. Polyester and nylon) and nonthermoplastic (e.g. rayon, glass filament) filaments. In air-jet texturing, yarn morphology is modified without
disturbing the internal structure of individual filaments. This is achieved by creating loops and air pockets in
the yarn by opening up the yarn structure, buckling the filaments, and locking up the structure again.
The principle of loop formation in air jet texturing can be described as:
Overfeed the filament yarn into an air nozzle
Open the feed yarn (or parent yarn) in a turbulent air stream
The air stream displaces the filaments, and convert the excess length into loops
interlace filaments to stabilise the loop structure
Supply ya rn
Com press ed air in
Wetting
Turbulence

Overfeeding

Air jet

Air jet textured yarn


(with pro truding loops)

Air jet texturing process


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The process can be considered as mechanical if the air jet is cold; the textured yarn obtained through a
simple aerodynamic stress presents structural characteristics which are considerably different from those of a
false-twist yarn (higher bulkiness, lower elasticity, similarity to traditional yarns).
Wetting of the filaments before the air nozzle is used for the following reasons:

to reduce between-filament friction


to reduce friction between filaments and nozzle wall
to improve separation of filaments
to get better texturing effect with smaller and more even and frequent loops

A yarn with good textured effect is shown in figure below.

An air jet textured yarn with good texturing effect


As can be seen from figure, air jet textured yarn closely resembles a spun yarn, with the protruding loops
mimicking surface hairs of a spun yarn. For this reason, air jet textured yarns have found applications in a
wide range of products, such as jackets, shirts, blouses, suits, outwear, furnishing fabrics etc.
Air-jet texturization is at present less productive than false-twist texturization, which fact hampers
economically its application for end-uses which require fine count yarns (that is, finer than 100 dtex).
Air-jet machines are mechanically derived from false-twist machines; besides the air-jet device, they are
equipped with preliminary drawing zones (for POY yarns), ovens for loop setting after texturization, and
humidifiers of the yarn at its introduction into the nozzle, to improve the efficiency of the texturing process.
A machine for universal use is composed of following parts:
Multilevel creel for up to 20 kg bobbins
Thread cutter with sensor to detect and stop possible broken ends
Feed shafts in variable number, which fix draft ratios through a yarn holding system
Fixed heated pins or heated gadgets, positioned in the drawing zone to heat the yarn
Nozzles (air-jets), placed along with yarn humidifiers at the feed side
Oven: Dowtherm heated oven (length: 100-1500 mm, operating range: 140-240C)
Oiling device
Take-up: through centralized system or with single take-up positions
Computerized machine control system: setting and control of the various process parameters

KNIFE - EDGE METHOD


Filament yarn is pulled over a blunt edge. Effects produced are as follows:
Molecules of filaments near the Scraping Edge reorient parallel to the edge. Molecules of filaments
away from the edge become parallel to the fibre axis. This change in orientation of molecules will
shorten the filaments on scraped side and therefore induce a crimp.
Bending of the filaments over the edge produces compression on the lower side and extension on the
upper side. As the stresses decay, filaments will be set in a crimped state. The above two effects will
cause the mono or multifilament yarn to coil up on release of tension and each filament of the Edgecrimped yarn will take the form of a torque free reversing helix

STUFFER BOX METHOD


The Stuffer Box Method depends on the ability of the filament to acquire a permanent set by heat.
Crimping and heat setting are carried out in one operation as follows:
A pair feed rollers supplies the filament yarn with producers twist amounting to 0.5 turns per
inch into an electrically heated tube. The yarn is packed within the Stuffer Box.
The individual filaments are sharply bent by the compression created by yarn packing. This
produces crimp in the yarn.
The crimp is simultaneously heat set by the electric heating element while the yarn is in
compressed condition. The electric heating element surrounds the tube as shown in Fig.
On leaving the Stuffer Box, the yarn is cleared of any broken fibers or other imperfections
and also oiled to facilitate subsequent process of cone winding

VERY IMPORTANT
Twist-texturizing (including false twist): A filament yarn which has been twisted under the
influence of heat is straightened again. Highly elastic (HE) yarn, good extensibility and large bulk
volume, as stabilized (set) yarn, lofty with less elongation
Air jet texturizing: Yarn is crimped in a turbulent current of air (gas or steam).Inelastic yarn
increased loftiness due to capillary thread loop formation fancy yarn
Knit/de-knit texturizing: Yarn is knitted, subjected to heat treatment and then de-knitted. Wavy
crimp, elongation, yarn produces a loftiness crepe effect
Stuffer box-texturizing: Yarn is crimped by means of compression. Zig-zag to wavy crimp,low
elasticity
Asymmetrical heat-texturizing: Contraction of the filaments on one side only is induced by
asymmetrical heat treatment.
Edge-texturizing: Yarn is pulled over an edge at an acute angle. Helical crimp, elastic yarn low with
increased bulk volume
Gear wheel-texturizing: Yarn is crimped between two sprockets.