Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 159

TR A N M A N H T U O N G

- T a i lieu d a n h c h o g ia o vien, h o c sin h


- G iu p on thi tot n g h ie p p h o thong, dai hoc, c a o d lin g
- B a i ta p Crng d u n g

N H A X U A T B A N D A I H O C SU P H A M

C A C D AN G BAI T A P

n g l Ta m v

ti/ vung

t i p ;n g a n h

TRAN MANH TlfdNG

Cac dang bai tap


n g C a m v A tit v u n g

TIENG ANH

NHA XUAT BAN DAI HQC SIT PHAM

Parti

PHONETICS (NGUrAM)
A. PRONOUNCIATION
S O U N D D IS C R IM IN A TIO N 1

Spellings of Sounds III

Spelling o f sound /I/: The English vowel III normally appears in


the following spelling forms:
1. Letter A in the final ATE, AGE:
Ex:

intimate, delicate, village, cottage

2. Letter E in the prefixes BE, DE, RE:


Ex:

begin, become, decide, return

3. EY:
Ex:

money, storey. But: key /k i:/

4. Letter I in words o f monosyllable ending with I + CONSONANT


Ex:

bit, sit, dim, him, twin

5. UI:
Ex:
But:

build, guilt, guitar, equivalent, colloquial


mosquito /m9skwi: 19u/

6. Y in an unstressed syllable of a word:


Ex:

copy, candy, quality, gravity, slowly

But:

qualify /GI/, modify /Oil

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. evening

b. key

c. envelope

d. secret

2. a. light

b. fine

c. knife

d.. principle

3.

a. farm

b. card

c. bare

d. m arvelous

4.

a. both

b. bottle

c. Scotland

d. cotton

5.

a. park

b. farm

c. warm

d. m armalade

b. p u re'

c. picture

d. culture

b. failure

c. fairly

d. painted

b. cover

c. economical

d. ceiling-*

b. sew

c. few

d. nephew

b. library^

c. willing

d. if

6. a. nature
7.

a. faithful

8. a. country
9.

a. n e w .

10. a. with

S O U N D D IS C R IM IN A T IO N 2

Spellings of Sounds /i:/


The English vowel /vJ normally appears in the follow ing
spelling forms:
1. Letter E before the final form: CONSONANT + E
Ex:

be, he, she, me


Scene, complete. Vietnamese

2. EA:
Ex:

easy, east, dean, heat, neat, dream, beam, breathe,


creature

3. EE:
Ex:

see, free, agree, heel, screen, cheese, guarantee

4. El:
Ex:

seize, ceiling, deceive, receive, receipt

5. Letter I in some words from the French origin


Ex:

Machine, regime, mandoline, sardine, routine, magazine,


chemise / J dmr.zJ

6 . IE when it is inside vowels of a word:


Ex:

grief, chief, believe, belief

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the following words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. reliable

b. liquid

c. revival

d. final

2 . a. houses

b. faces

c. horses

d. places

3.

a. pudding

b. put

c. pull

d. puncture

4.

a. sovereign

b. fountain

c. determine

d. routine

5.

a. beard

b. word

c. heard

-d. third

6. a. ghost

b. hostage

c. lost

d. frosty

7.

b. cherish

c. chaos

d. scholar

8. a. measure

b. pleasure

c. treasure

d. ensure

9.

b. could

c. would

d. put

b. thanks

c. think

d.' father

a. chorus
a. mouse -

10. a. three

S O U N D D IS C R IM IN A T IO N 3

Spellings of Sounds le i
The English vowel /e/ normally appears in the following
spelling forms:
1. Letter E in words of monosyllable ending with one or more
consonants (except R), or in a stressed syllable of a word:
Ex:

bed, get, met, them, debt, send, member, November,


eleven
But: her, term / 3:/, interpret /lnt3':prlt/

2. EA:
Ex:

head, bread, breath, breakfast, steady, jealous /dieldsl,


meadow, measure, leather, pleasure.

3. El:
Ex:

leisure, heifer /h<f7: bo nai to

4. Special case:
Ex:

pallm all /pelmel/, thames Itemzl


7

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a- lively

b. kite

c. driven

d. bite

2. a / sale*

b. band^

c. sand

d. tan

c. decided

d. coincided

\Jb. looked

3.

a. started

4.

a. blow

b. show

c. hole

d . cow

5.

a. sung

,b. supper

c. supply

d. nun

6. a.v mule

b. mug

c. mud

d. multiply

7.

a. cats

b. tapes

c. lives

d. cooks

8. a. ground

^b. should

c. about

d. am ount

b. bread

c. ahead

v d. m e a n /

b. other

c. there

\d. breathe

9.

a. weather

10. a. author

S O U N D D IS C R IM IN A TIO N 4
Spellings of Sounds /*/
Spelling o f Sound //: The English vowel /ae/ norm ally appears in
the following spelling forms:
1. Letter A in words of monosyllable ending with one or more
consonants:
Ex:

lad, dam, fan, map, rank, thanks, catch, thatch


Scene, complete. Vietnam ese

2. Letter A when it is in a stressed syllable of a word having more


than one syllable and stands before consonants:
Ex:

candle, captain, baptize, latter /laeta/, narrow, manner,


calculate

But:

stranger /ei/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. feather

b. leather

c. feature

d. m easure

c. advertising d. arising
d. photography
c. classify^

2. a. practising

b. amusing

3.

a. geology

b. psychology

4.

a. walks

j b. begins

c. helps

d. cuts

5.

a. idiom

b. ideal

c. item

d. identical

6 . a. blow

b. show

c. hole

7.

b. supper

c. supply

d. nun

8. a. mule

b. mug

c. mud

d. multiply

9.

a. cats

b. tapes

d. cooks

10. a. ground

j b. should

Cv lives
c. about

a. sung

v d. cow

d. amount

S O U N D D IS C R IM IN A T IO N 5

Spellings of Sounds /a:/


The English vowel lad normally appears in the following
spelling forms:
1. Letter A in words o f monosyllable ending with R or R +
CONSONANT, or in a syllable of a word when A stands before R +
CONSONANT:
Ex:

bar, far, star, barn, cart, harm, charm, departure

But:

scarce /skeDs/, quart /kwD:t/, sparrow /spaerau/

2. EU:
Ex:

aunt, laugh, draught

3. Special case:
Ex:

clerk /kla:k/, derby /da:bl/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. candy

b. sandy

c. many

d. handy

2. a. earning

b. learning

c. searching

-d. clearing

3. a. waited

b. mended

c. naked

d. faced *

4.

a. given

b. risen

c. ridden

-d . whiten

5.

a. cough-

b. tough

c. rough

d. enough

6. a. accident

b. jazz

c. stamps

d. watch

7.. -a. this;

b. thick

c. maths

d. thin

8. a. gas

b. gain

d. goods

9.

b. nought

c. germ
/\
c. plough

b. gear

c. fear

d. pear

a. bought

10. a. spear

d. thought

S O U N D D IS C R IM IN A T IO N 6

Spellings of Sounds IrJ


The English vowel IrJ normally appears in the follow ing
spelling forms:
1. Letter 0 in words of monosyllable and in the stressed syllable of
word having more than one syllable:
Ex:

come, some, done, love, does, other, does, other, among,


monkey, mother, brother, honey, nothing, com pany,
through /0Ar9/

2. OU:
Ex:

young, rough, touch, tough, enough, contry, couple,


double, trouble, cousin/kAzn/, nourish /nAr i/ / , flourish,
southern

3. Letter U in the prefixes UN-, UM- and in some com m on words:


Ex:

cup, gun, skull, uneasy, unable, umbrella

But:

busy III, bury lei, mimute /I/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. enough

b. rough

c. laugh

d. though

2. a. stage

b. village

c. manage

d. package

3.

a. license

b. combine

c. seaside

d. police

4.

a. some

b. done

c. once

d. home

5.

a. not

b. nobody

c. wrote

d. spoken

b. born

c. work

d. boring

6. a. before

10

7.

a. bee

b. beer

8. a. peach
9.

b.

a. sound

10. a. design

teach

d. flee

c. seem

d. meat

,c. nieasure

Jo. touch

c. down

d. account

\b. preserve
5

c. basic

d. physical

S O U N D D I S C R IM IN A T IO N 7
Spellings of Sounds I d I
The English vowel Id/ normally appears in the following
spelling forms:
1. Letter A in the stressed syllable of words of monosyllable
beginning with W:
Ex:
But:

was / wdz/, want, wash, watch


way, waste, wax /wasks/ (sap ong)

2. Letter 0 in words of monosyllable ending with one consonant


and in the stressed syllable of words having more than one
syllable:
Ex:

cod, lot, snob, logic, coffee, doctor, modern, solitary,


oppsite

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the following words is pronounced differently
from the others?
Jt
1. a. hear
b. clear
/ c. bear
d. ear
b. great

c. beat

d. beak

3.v a. blood

b. pool

c. food

d. tool

4.

b. unique

c. unit

,d . undo

5. ^a. mouse

b. could

c. would

6. a. faithful

b. failure

c. fairly

7.

b. court

c. pour

2.

a. heat
a. university

a. course

8. a. worked
9.

a. new

10. a. sun

b. stopped
v b. sew
b. sure

d. putfainted
V d. courage

v c. forced

d. wanted

c. few

d. nephew

c. success

d. sort

11

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 8
Spellings of Sounds I d:I
The English vowel /^./normally appears in the follow ing
spelling forms:
1. Letter A in words o f monosyllable ending with L L
Ex:

all, call, tall, small, fall, ball, hall, wall

But:

shall//ael/

2. AU in most cases:
Ex:

fault, haunt, launch, audience, daughter, naughty,


laundry

3. AW in all cases:
Ex:

law, dawn, crawl, draw, awful, awkward

4. Letter 0 when it stands before R + CONSONANT:


Ex:

born, corpse, horn, lord, north, pork, sort, fortify,


morning, portable, portrait

5. OA when it stands before R + CONSONANT


Ex:

oar, roar, board, soar

6. OU:
Ex:

four, pour, court, course, mourn, source, cough, ought,


bought, fought

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. faithful

b. failure

c. fairly

d. fainted

2. a. course

b. court

c. coursing

d. courage

3.

a. worked

b. stopped

c. forced

d. wanted

4.

a. bought

b. nought

c. plough

d. cough

5.

a. do

kJ

c. brother

d. som etim es

b. clothes

c. both

d. boat

b. cHmb

c. sign

d. limb

b. receive

c. weight

d. great

6. a. cloth
7.

a. reply

8. a. neighbour
12

. mother

9.

a. double

10. a. lose

b. round

c. allow

d. south

b. rude

c. comb

d. fruit

S O U N D D ISC R IM IN A TIO N 9
* Spellings of Sounds /u/
The English vowel /u/ normally appears in the following
spelling forms:
1. Letter O
Ex:

bosom, movie

2. OU:
Ex:

could, should, would, douche /d u //

3. 0 0 :
Ex:

book, brook, good, look

4. Letter U:
Ex:

bush, full, pull, push, put, butcher, bullock, bullet

5. Special case:
Ex:

W orcester /w u sta/, bouquet /b u kel/, bosom / b o zam/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the following words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1.

a. ^ pUrity

2 . a. see

b. burning

c. cure

d. durable

b. seen

c. sportsman

d. sure

c. plural

3.

a. pull

b. sugar

4.

a. course

b. court

5. ,a. bark

b. share

6. a. cotton

b. bottle

7.

a. dear

8 . a. bury
9.

a. fork -

10. a. shout

>id. study

c. courage

d. cough

c. dare

a. bare

JC.

cold

d. common

b. hear

c. bear

d. clear

b. curtain

c. burn

d. turn

b. work

c. pork

d. corn

b. sugar

c. share

d. surgery

13

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 10
Spellings of Sounds lu:l
The English vowel Ixi'J normally appears in the follow ing
spelling forms:
1. Letter 0
Ex:

two, who, you, do, move, lose, prove, tomb


Scene, complete, Vietnam ese

2. 0 0 :
Ex:

booth, cool, food, goose, soot, spoon, tool, tooth, bam boo,
cuckoo, doomsday, zoo.

3. OU:
Ex:

group, troupe (ganh hat), wounded, soup

4. Letter U:
Ex:

blue, flute /flu:t/, brutal, brute (ngifdi tho bao), lunar,


salute, lunatic, lubricate

5. UI:
Ex:

bruise, fruit, juice, recruit /rikru:t/

But: fluid /flu ld/, ruin /ru ln/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. put

b. cut

c. run

d. son

2. a. hope

b. soap

c. home

d. rob

3.

a. ship

b. sheep

c. deep

d. green

4.

a. tooth

b. hood

c. book

d. look

5.

a. joke

b. yet

c. Europe

d. use

6. a. nice

b. price

c. rice

d. pink

7.

b. mile

c. still

d. Uke

8. a. noon

b. took

c. look

d. book

a. poor

b. tour

c. pool ^

d. sure

b. flour

c. floor

d. found

9.

a. size

10. a. flower
14

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 11
Spellings of Sounds 13:1
The English vowel /3:/normally appears in the following
spelling forms:
1. EA
Ex:

learn, earth, heard, earn, pearl, search

But:

ocea n /9 u/an/,

2. Letter U in words of monosyllable ending in U+R and in words


having U + R + CONSONANT
Ex:

blur, fur, urge, burn, curse, hurt, nurse, hurt, nurse,


purse, burglar, furnish, surgery, Thursday

3. Special case:
Ex:

connaisseur /kDnIs3:/, colonel /k3:nl/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the following words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. leather

b. feather

c. teacup

d. pleasure

2 . a. about

b. count

c. shout

d. wounded

3.

a. title

b. icon

c. httle

d. hide

4.

a. tour

b. course

c. court

d. pour

5.

a. bank

b. back

c. bark

d. baggy

b. breath

c. tooth

d. with

b. measure

c. rise

d. pause

b. longer

c. finger

d. stronger

b. punched

c. pleased

d. pushed

b. magazines

c. newspapers d. vegetables

6 . a. myth
7.

a. please

8 . a. singer
9.

a. packed

10. a. biscuits

15

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 12
Spellings of Sounds /a/
The English vowel /a/ normally appears in the follow ing
spelling forms:
1. Letter A in most o f the unstressed syllable of a word.
Ex:

separate, changeable, balance, explanation, capacity,


national

2. Letter E in an unstressed syllable of a word:


Ex:

silent, open, chicken, prudent, generous, different,


sentence, punishment

3. Letter 0 in an unstressed syllable of words having more than


on syllable:
Ex:

atom, bosom, compare, control, freedom, handsom e,


random, pardon.

Cumulative practice
W hich of the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. butter

b. put

c. sugar

d. push

2. a. few

b. new

c. threw

d. knew

3.

a. pretty

b. get

c. send

d. well

4.

a. grew

b. threw

c. knew

d. flew

5.

a. close

b. chose

c. lose

d. rose

6. a. beard

b. fur

c. search

d. prefer

a. are

b. fair

c. there

d. wear

b. living

c. revival

d. final

b. nasty

c. tasty

d. wastage

b. read

c. dead

d. recede

7.

8. a. reliable
9.

a. hasty

10. a. bead

16

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 13
Spellings of Sounds /ei/
The English vowel /ei/ normally appears in the following
spelling forms:
1. Letter A is pronounced as leil:
a/ In a syllable just before the final ION and IAN
Ex:

translation, liberation, Australian, Asian, Canadian,


nation

But:

companion, mansion, Italian, librarian /ae/

b/ In words o f monosyllable having the final form: A +


CONSONANT + E
Ex:

cane, late, cape, fate, lake, gate, safe, tape, date

2. AI when it stands before a consonant except R:


Ex:

mail, nail, sail, maid, wait, faint, afraid

3. AY in all words having it:


Ex:

day, hay, gay, play, ray, stay, tray, pay, lay

But:

quay /ki:/, mayor /mea/, papaya /papaia/

4. EA as in:
Ex:

great, break, steak

5. EI as in:
Ex:

eight, weight, neighbour

6 . EY as in:
Ex:

they, grey, obey

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. bought

b. daughter

2 . a. sure

b. soup

c. cough
r
-c. sugar

d. sight,
v '
d. machine

b. bury

c. nut

4. *-a. measure

b. decision

c. permission d. pleasure

5.

b. chose

3.

a. but
a. lose

si s

- c. close

d. young
d. dose

17

6 . a. position

b. oasis

7.

b. zone

c. desert
I/
c. phone

8. . , a. give

b. five

c. hive

d. dive

9.

b. stomach

c. match

d. catch

b. ready

c. puppy

.d . occupy

a. stone
a. switch

10. a. study

d. resort
-,d. none

S O U N D D IS C R IM IN A T IO N 14

Spellings of Sounds /ai/


The English vowel /ai/normally appears in the follow ing
spelling forms:
1. EI
Ex:

either, neither, height

2. Letter I in words of monosyllable ending with I +


CONSONANT + E
Ex:

bite, site, kite, dine, side, tide, like, mine

But:

live, give III

3. IE when it is the final vowel of words of monosyllable:


Ex:

die, lie, pie, tie

4. UI in the words having UI + CONSONANT + E:


Ex:

guide, quite, inquire, require

But: quiet /kw aiat/


5. Letter Y in words of monosyllable or in a stressed syllable of a
word:
Ex: cry, fly, shy, sly (lau ca), type, deny, rely, cycle, dynam o
/dainamau/
But:

hym n /him/, typical, pyramid /plramld/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. lazy

b. lapel

c. label

d. labourer

2. a. while

b. which

c. who

d. white

18

3.

a. come

b. roll

c. comb

d. grow

4.

a. blood

b. prove

c. rude

d. souvenir

5.

a. hour

b. honest

c. heir

d. hospital

6. a. guilty

b. busy

c. bury

d. build

7.

b. sew

c. blue

d. flew

8 . a. many

b. guess

c. pleasant

d. leading

9.

b. heard

c. heart

d. word

b. bought

c. board

d. normal

a. suit
a. thirst

10. a. choose

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 15
Spellings of Sounds k#l
The English vowel h i / normally appears in the following
spelling forms:
1. EA
Ex:

tear (n), clear, rear, spear, fear, beard, weary

2. EE when it stands before the final R of a word:


Ex:

beer, cheer, deer, steer, career, engineer, overseer


/auvasla/ (giam thi)

3. Special case:
Ex:

peer /pi/, idea /aidi a7, Ian /ran/, heird /wia/, weird /wiad/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. watch

b. want

c. bank

d, what

2. a. low

b. bow

c. know

d. slow

b. passion

c. tissue

d. vessel

c. tasty

d. wastage

b. knew

c. sew

d. few

b. t8ttib

c. comb

d. dome

a. says

b. bays

c. days

d. rays

8. a. none

b. t6mb

c. tongue

d. onion

3.

a. issue

4.

a. hasty

5.

a. dew

6 . a. home
7.

<b. nasty

19

9 . a. companion

b. comparison c. com pany

d. compartment

10. a. loose

b. lose

d. dose

c. cease

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 17
Spellings of Sounds /ea/
The English vowel /ea/ normally appears in the follow ing
spelling forms:
1. Letter A in words o f monosyllable or in a stressed syllable of a
word when A stands before RE:
Ex:

bare, care, dare, rare, area /earia/, parent /pearantJ

2. AI when it stands before R:


Ex:

air, fair, hair, chair, stair, dairy /dearl/, fairy

3. EA:
Ex:

bear, pear, tear (v), wear, swear

4. EI:
Ex:

heir, their

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. disease

b. display

c. increase

d. discount

2. a. examine

b. famine

c. determine

d. miner

3.

a. descend

b. decent

c. delicious

d. percentage

4.

a. knowledge

b. flower

c. shower

d. coward

5.

a. thrill

b. third

c. enthusiasm d. thus

6. a. practice

b. device

c. service

d. office

7.

b. command

c. common

d. com m unity

c. leaver

d. cream v

c. faint

d. paint

c. flow

d. flour

a. complete

8. a. release
9.

pleasure

a. explanation b. main

10. a. power

20

D.

b. tower

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 18
Spellings of Sounds /ua/
The English vowel /ua/ normally appears in the following
spelling forms:
1. 0 0 in words o f monosyllable ending in R:
Ex:

moor, poor

But:

door, floor

2. OU:
Ex:

tour, tourist, gourd /guad/

3. Letter U is pronounced as /jua/ in the words having U + R +


VOW EL:
Ex:

cure, lure /ljua /, pure, during, endure, furious, bureau


/bjuarua/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1/ a. teacher

b. deaf

c. reach

d. team

2 . a. call

b. curtain

c. contain

d. cell

3.

a. your

b. four

c. poured

d. hour

4.

a. poor

b. mood

c. shoot

d. hood

5.

a. sun

b. sure

c. success

d. sort

b. fur

c. search

d. prefer

b. laughter

c. taught

d. caught

b. wash

c. wall

d. walk

b. decision

c. pleasure

d. perm ission

b. fair

c. there

d. wear

6 . a. beard
7.

a. daughter

8 . a. warm
9.

a. measure

10. a. M e

21

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 19
Spellings of Sounds /au/
The

English

diphthong

/au/

normally

appears

in

the

following spelling :
1. 0 is pronounced as /au/:
a1 When it is at the end of a word:
Ex:

no, go, echo, mosquito, tomato, archipelago (quan dao)

But:

to do /du:/, toe /tau/

b /in w ords o f m on osy lla b le ending w ith tw o c o n so n a n ts or


C O N S O N A N T + E and in the stressed sy lla b le s o f w ords
having more than one syllable:
Ex:

comb, cold, code, mode, mole, sofa, lotus, lotion, solar,


mobile, moment, soldier

But:

bomb, fond, soft, long, strong

2. OA in words o f monosyllable ending with one or som etim es two


consonants:
Ex:

coal, coat, foam, goat, loan, road, soap, roast, toast, coast.

But:

broad/brD:d/

3. OU:
Ex:

dough, soul, shoulder, poultry

4. OW:
Ex:

bow, low, row, sow, know, show, slow, narrow, window,


tomorrow

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. come

b. comfort

c. some

d. comb

2. a. w ear

b. ear

c. hear

d. n ear

3.

a. call

b. cup

c. coat

d. ceiling

4.

a. garland

b. garlic

c. garage

d. garden

5.

a. owl

b. cow

c. arrow

d. powder

22

6 . a. brother

b. think

c. the

d. they

7.

b. prefer

c. grocer

d. louder

8 . a. leaf

b. deaf

c. of

d. wife

9.

b. luggage

c. m anage

d. dam age

b. eve

c.

d. weight

a. thunder
a. teenage

10. a. height

mind

S O U N D D IS C R IM IN A T IO N 20

Spellings of Sounds laul


The

English

diphthong

/au/normally

appears

in

the

follow ing spellings :


1. OU:
Ex:

bound, cloud, doubt, foul, found, ground, loud, plough,


mouth, south, around, sound, mountain

2 . OU ->/au9/ as in:
Ex:

our, hour, flour, sour

3. OW:
Ex:

vow, brow, plow, power, towel

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. rough

b. sum

c.

utter

d. union

2. a. noon

b. tool

c.

blood

d. spoon

3.

a. chemist

b. chicken

c.

church

d. century

4.

a. thought

b. tough

c.

taught

d. bought

5.

a. pleasure

b. heat

c.

meat

d. feed

6. a. chalk

b. champagne c.

machine

d. ship

7.

b. hide

c.

tide

d. fly

8. a. put

b. could

c.

push

d. moon

9.

b. town

c.

power

d. slow

b. naked

c.

asked

d. liked

a. kmt
a. how

10. a. talked

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 21
Pronunciation of The Endings - S
The Endings - S (in plural nouns, singular verbs of the third
persons in simple present tense and possessive case)
1. If the word ends in Is z / 3 t / dj/, the ending a is pronounced
/iz/:
To wash -> he washes
Orange ->two oranges
Charles >Charlesj| book
/iz/
2. If the word ends in a voiceless consonant except /s /
ending s is pronounced Is/:

tJ7, the

Map ->tw o maps


To work -h e works
3. If the word ends in a voiced sound (consonant, vowel, or
diphthong except /z 3 d3/', the ending s is pronounced /z/:
Bag ->tw o bags
To sm ile-* he smiles
Car ->two cars

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. airports

b. windows

c. rooms

d. pens

2. a. dinners

b. cups

c. cars

d. dictionaries

3.

a. bridges

b. doors

c. buses

d. classes

4.

a. recorders

b. desks

c. flats

d. caps

5.

a. gates

b. helps

c. kisses

d. maps

6 . a. says

b. plays

c. days

d. raise

7.

b. during

c. pure

d. cure

8 . a. than

b. theatre

c. theory

d. thorough

9.

b. released

c. rained

d. follow ed

b. come

c. love

d. home

a. pull
a. im agined

10. a. some

24

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 22
Pronunciation of the Endings - ed
The Endings - ED (regular verbs in the past)
1. If the verb ends in Id/ or Itl, the ending ED is pronounced /id/
To post he posted
To need -h e needed
2. If the verb ends in a voiced sound except IdJ, the ending ED is
pronounced Id/:
To listen -h e listened
To study -h e studied
3. If the verb ends in a voiceless consonant except It/, the ending
ED is pronounced Itl:
To like ->he liked
To stop ->he stopped

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. finished

b. learned

c. lived

d. changed

2 . a. enjoyed

b. moved

c. shined

d. laughed

3.

a. liked

b. hanged

c. helped

d. watched

4.

a. hated

b. watched

c. washed

d. kissed

5.

a. hated

b. watched

c. washed

d. kissed

b. show

c. brown

d. towel

b. ceiling

c. recover

d. economy

b. sew

c. few

d. nephew

b. there

c. things

d. thought

b. brown

c. cow

d. know

6. a. down
7.

a. country

8 . a. new
9.

a. think

10. a. how

25

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 23
Pronunciation of Letter A, E, I (Y), O, U
*The letters a, e, i (y), o, u have different pronunciations in
deferent types o f syllables.
*For example, the letter a is pronounced /ae/ in a close syllable (am
tiet dong), /el/ in an open syllable (am tiet md), lo\l in an r
syllable (am tiet co r) and /ea/ in an re syllable (am tiet co re)
A -/ae/: fat (a close syllable ends in a consonant)
/el/: fate (an open syllable ends in a silent e)
/a:/: far (an r syllable ends in r)
/ea/: fare (a re syllable ends in re)
* The following table shows the pronunciations of the above five
vowel letters.
1. The

2. The

3. The r

4. The

close

syllable

re

syllable

open
syllable

/ae/fat

/ei/ fate

la:l far

/ea/ fare

/e/ met

ly.l mete

/ 3:/ merge

/la/ mere

i(y)

111 fin (vay


ca)

lai/ fine

/ 3 / fir

/ala/ fire

lol not

/au/ note

Id/ nor

/Da/ snore

/ a/ cut

/ju:/ cute

13:1 cur con

/j us/ cure

xinh xan

cho hu

spelling

syllable

* More illustrative examples:


A ->

/$/: cat mad, dad, fan, can, ban, van, stand


/el/: cake, date, mate, fate, take, make, bake
/a:/: car, star, bar, far, start, cart, chart
/ea/: care, stare, bare, fare, dare, hare, mare

E -*

/e/: less, bed, bend, send, den, men, ten


/i:/: mete, complete, meter, compete
ly.l: merge, er, inert, refer, infer, defer
/is/: here, mere, interfere, adhere, severe

26

I->

/i/: it, this, did, kid, bid, bit, sit, with, in, ink
laiJ: fine, line, dine, combine, sine, arrive, hive
/ 3 : l : fir, stir, mirt, skirt, dirt, first, shirt
/ala/: fire, tire, tired, acquire, require, admire
lol: not, dog, fog, cod, nod, toss, moss, boss
/au/: note, code, mode, ode, denote, remote, rode
Id: nor, or, for, resort, sort, torture, escort
/ 3a/: more, score, before, restore, store, fore, sore, bore, shore

O ->

U ->

/a/: cut, nut, hut, but, must, dust, bust, just


/ju:/: cute, mute, refuse, confuse, fuse, muse, accuse
h:/: cur, occur, recur, murmur, incur, hurt, burst
/jua/: cure, curer, endure, pure, lure, allure

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the following words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. about

b. amount

c. should

d. ground

2. a. saddle

b. case

c. chase

d. basem ent

3.

a. drummer

b. future

c. number

d. umbrella

4.

a. flame

b. fame

c. came

d. manner

5.

a. darkness

b. warmth

c. market

d. remark

b. pullover

c. under

d. funny

b. floor

c. hook

d. cooker

b. bright

c. fight

d. sight

b. rose

c. cover

d. chosen

b. village

c. mange

d. stage

6 . a. hunt
7.

a. book

8. a. figure
9.

a. over

10. a. baggage

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 24

Spellings of Sounds /p b t d/

A. Spellings o f Sound /p i & /b/: The English consonants /p/


and /b / norm ally appears in the following spelling forms:
1. P (regular):
Ex:
But:

pip, shop, top, happen, open, keep, hope, sharpness


door, floor
27

2. B (regualar):
Ex:

bold, rubber, rob, submit /'sabmit/

3. B is silent when final, after M or before T:


Ex:

lamb, debt, doubt, subtle /sAtl1

B. Spellings o f Sound Itl & IdJ: The English consonants Itl


and IdJ norm ally appears in the following spelling forms:
1. T (regular):
Ex:

taught, each, ten, time, take

2. E D - Itl in past verbs ending in a voiceless consonant except T


Ex: wrapped Itl, walked, passed
3. Th->/t/ in exceptional words:
Ex:

Tham es /temz/, Thomas /tomas/

4. D (regular):
Ex:

did, do, done, dare

5. ED >/d/ in past verbs ending in a vowel or a voiced consonant


except D:
Ex:

stayed, raised, rubbed

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. book

b. put

c. brook

d. booth

2. a. orchestra

b. chasm

c. chemical

d. orchard

3.

a. prescription b. preliminary c. presumption d. preparation

4.

a. nourish

b. flourish

c. tournam ent d. courage

5.

a. pudding

b. puncture

c. put

d. cushion

b. teeth

c. though

d. there

b. excite

c. timber

d. dive

b. draught

c. naughty

d. plaudit

b. congestion

c. suggestion

d. question

b. copy

c. dolphin

d. colonel

6. a. breathe
7.

a. describe

8. a. slaughter
9.

a. devotion

10. a. copper

28

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 25
Spellings of Sounds /kg/
A. Spellings of Sound /k/: The English

consonants /k/

norm ally appears in the following spelling forms:


1. K or CH (regular)
Ex:

king, back

2 . K is silent when initial and before N:


Ex:

knee, knock, know, knight, knowledge, kneel

3. C except before E, I or Y:
Ex:

cart, come, cut act, music

But:

city, lace, icy Is/

4. CH in some words
Ex:

character /kaerikta/, stomach /stAmak/, chemist /kemist/,


Christmas /krismss/

5. QU in a few words:
Ex: conquer /konks/, liquor / liks/, lacquer, plaque, quay /ki:/
B. Spellings o f Sound /g/: The English consonants /g/
norm ally appears in the following spelling forms:
1. G (regular):
Ex:

go, leg, agree

2. G is silent in the group GN


Ex: reign /rein/, foreign, sign
3. G (common)
Ex:

get, give

4. X ->/gz/ before a stressed vowel except in words beginning with


EXC
Ex:

exact, examine

But:

except /iksept/, exercise /eksasaiz/

29

Cumulative practice
Which o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. disguise

b. bruise

c. cruise

d. suit

2 . a. honorable

b. honesty

c. historic

d. heir

3.

p creature

b. cleaner

c. creamy

d. cleanse

4.

a. police
- ascent

b. seize

c. machine

d. veil

b. parachute

c. mission

d. vicious

b. scenic

c. epidemic

d. level

b. lose

c. both

d. goes

b. but

c. busy

d. bunch

b. cheap

c. chemist

d. child

b. stain

c. laid

d. hair

5.

6. a. penalty
7.

a. those

8. a. bus
9.

a. chair

10. a. wait

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 26

Spellings of Sounds /f and v/

A. Spellings o f Sound /f/: The English consonants


norm ally appears in the following spelling form s:

1. F (regular)
Ex:

fine, off

2. PH (regular):
Ex:

philosophy /filo'safi/, phonology, telephone

3. GH in a few words:
Ex:

laugh /la:f7, draught /dra:ft/, cough /kD:f7, rough /rAf/,


Enough /inAfy

4. Special case: lieutenant /leftenant/


Ex:

character /kaerikta/, stomach /stAmsk/, chem ist /k emist/,


Christmas /krismas/

B. Spellings

o f Sound /v/: The English

consonants

norm ally appears in the follow ing spelling form s:


1. V (regular):
Ex:

30

vivid, voice, very

/v/

2. F (single word):
Ex: o f lovl weak form /av/
3. PH (single word)
Ex:

nephew /nevju:/, also /nefju:/, Stephen /sti:vn/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. grammar

b. damage

c. mammal

d. drama

2 . a. both

b. tenth

c. myth

d. with

3.

a. gate

b. gem

c. gaze

d. gaudy

4.

a. thus

b. thumb

c. sympathy

d. then

5.

a. lavs

b. says

c. stays

d. plays

6 . a. scholarship b. chaos

c. cherish

d. chorus

7.

b. minor

c. rival

d. trivial

8 . a. message

b. privilege

c. college

d. collage

9.

b. rehearse

c. hearsay

d. endearment

b. typical

c. cynicism

d. hypocrite

a. sign
a. beard

10. a. dynam ic

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 27

Spellings of Sounds IQ &hi

A. Spelling o f /0/ & /ft/: The English

consonants /0/ &

/a/normally appears in the following spelling forms:


1. TH (initially): think
(medially): method
(finally): south

2. TH is pronounced IB/ before the plural ending - S


As in:

month /mAn0/ (singular)


months /mAn0s/ (plural)

3. TH is pronounced II before the plural ending -S


As in:

mounth /mau0/ (singular)


mouths /mav&z/ (plural)

31

B. Spelling o f /h/: The English consonants /h / norm ally


appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. H (regular):
Ex:

heat, hot

2. WH (in single words)


Ex:

who, whom, whose, whole /haul/, whoop (ho ga)

3. H is silent:
a/ before a strongly stressed vowel:
Ex:

hour /aua/, heir /ea/, honour /ona/, honest /o nist/

b/ in weakly stressed syllables:


Ex: Birmingham /b 3:minam/, vehement /viamant/, vehicle /vi:kl/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. yoghurt

b. university

c. yes

d. jeans

2. a. think

b. they

c. these

d. there

3.

a. thin

b. those

c. thirst

d. three

4.

a. put

b. cut

c. pull

d. push

5.

a. tool

b. wool

c. pool

d. fool

6. a. nature

b. change

c. gravity

d. basic

7.

b. vision

c. cylinder

d. muscle

b. promise

c. service

d. expertise

b. biscuit

c. guilty

d. building

b. crescent

c. ancient

d. m achine

a. discipline

8. a. office
9.

a. suitable

10. a. patient

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 28

Spellings of Sounds //3 I

A. Spelling of / / / : The English consonants


appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. SH (regular)
Ex:

32

ship, w a s h / w d / /

///n o r m a lly

2. SI, Cl, SCI, TI etc when a weakly stressed syllable follows:


Ex:

Asia /ei/a/, social /sau /l/, conscious /k on/as/, patience


/pei/n s/, Russia /rA/a/

3. S (exceptionally, before a strongly stressed vowel)


Ex:

sure /Ju9/ or / / d:/, sugar //u ga/

4. CH in words recently borrowed from French:


Ex:

chassis //ae si/, m oustache/m asta://

B. Spelling o f III: The English consonants IjJ normally


appears in the following spelling forms:
1. SURE when weakly stressed
Ex:

leisure Ae 39/, treasure

2. SI in weakly stressed - SION


Ex:

confusion /k9nfju:3n/, religion, collision

3. GE in words recently borrowed from French


Ex:

cam ouflage /k=emugla:3/, rouge lrw.il

4. Special case:
Ex:

seizure /si: 39/, transition /tension/ or /traesi/n /, usual /ju: 3I/


or/ju: 3U9l/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. enough

b. cough

c. though

d. rough

2. a. few

b. sew

c. blew

d. new

3.

a. chooses

b. houses

c. rises

d. horses

4.

a. suit

b. seven

c. sugar

d. sun

5.

a. accurate

b. accept

c. accident

d. success

b. motor

c. total

d. proper

b. cassette

c. fashion

d. passion

b. doubt

c. bought

d. scout

b. purchase

c. surface

d. palace

b. recent

c. descent

d. realise

6. a. slogan
7.

a. sugar

8 . a. allow
9.

a. replace

10. a. absent

33

SOUND DISCRIMINATION 29
Spellings of Sounds Is zJ
A. Spelling o f /z/: The English consonants / zJ norm ally
appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. S (usual spelling)
Ex:

sit, sound, sun

2. C before E, I, Y:
Ex:

cellar, place, civil /sivl/, cycle

3. The letter S is silent in these words:


Ex:

aisle /ail/, isle /ail/, island /a iland/, corps /k y.l

B. Spelling o f Iz.: The English consonants IzJ normally


appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. Z (regular)
Ex:

zebra /zibra/, zoo, zigzag, zezo

2. S (common, never initially):


Ex:

deserve, praise

3. S in the inflected forms o f nouns and verbs, after a diphthong, a


vowel or voiced consonant other than /z/ or /$/ or Id 3/:
Ex:

plays, dogs

4. SS (in single words):


Ex:

Dessert/diz3:t/, dissolve/dizolv/, possess/pazes/, scissor/sa:zaz1

5. Special case:
Ex: Mrs /misiz/, houses /hau ziz/ plural of house /hao s/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. butter

b. put

c. sugar

d. push

2. a. great

b. bread

c. break

d. steak

3.

a. weight

b. height

c. eight

d. vein

4.

a. too

b. food

c. soon

d. good

5.

a. would

b. about

c. round

d. out

34

6.

a. enough

b. cough

c. though

d. rough

7.

a. few

b. sew

c. knew

df new

8.

a. chooses

b. houses

c. rises

d. horses

9.

a. suit

b. seven

c. sugar

d. sun

b. accept

c. accident

d. success

10. a. accurate

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 30
Spellings of Sounds Its d 5/
A. Spelling o f /tJ7: The English consonants /t / / normally
appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. CH and TCH:
Ex:

church, match

2. T in weakly stressed - TURE


Ex:

nature, picture, future, culture

3. TI in - STION:
Ex:

qu estion /k w es t/n /

B. Spelling o f /d j/: The English consonants IdjJ normally


appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. J (regular)
Ex:

jum p, joke, Jack

2. G (usual) before E, I and Y:


Ex:

gender, age, giant, gymnastic /dsimnaestik/

3. DG (E):
Ex:

ridge, judgem ent /dsAdsmant/

4. Special words:
Ex: soldier /sa'uldsa/, procedure /prasi^dj/, Greenwich /gnnidj/, gaol
/djeil/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. hard

b. father

c. rather

d. sacrifice

35

2. a. dosage
3. a. question

b. voyage

c. massage

b. protection

c. aviation

d. carriage
d. exception

4.

a. assume

b. sure

c. size

d. soup

5.

a. chin

b. charity

c. chip

d. character

b. though

c. thank

d. think

b. myth

c. both

d. tenth

b. garage

c. garden

d. garland

b. therefore

c. theatre

d. than

b. rabbit

c. rabies

d. rank

6. a. thick
a. with

7.

8. a. garlic
a. though

9.

10. a. rack

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 31
Spellings of Sounds 11m/
A. Spelling o f /I/: The English consonants f\J normally
appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. L (regular):
Ex:

live, feel, lake, like, lane

2. Clear L only occurs before vowels and before Ijl


Ex:

leave, late, long, million /m itajn/

3. Dark L is only used before all other consonants and finally:


Ex:

meal, filled, people

B. Spelling o f /m/: The English consonants /m / normally


appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. M (regular):
Ex:

may, aim, make, my

2. Syllabic M (M mang am tiet, tao thanh mot am tiet khi doc ma


khong can nguyen am):
Ex:

rheum atism /ru:matizm/, enthusiasm /ln9ju:zl$zm /

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. bury

36

b. friendly

c. pretty

d. pleasant

2 . a. chorus

b. cherish

c. chaos

d. scholarship

3.

a. creature

b. decent

c. league

d. menace

4.

a. measure

b. dreadful

c. treasure

d. breathe

5.

a. danger

b. angel

c. anger

d. magie

6 . a. complain

b. bargain

c. ascertain

d. ascertain

7.

b. sugar

c. scholarship d. conscious

8 . a. dynamic

b. hypocrite

c. cynicism

d. typical

9.

b. penalty

c. poetic

d. convenient

b. collage

c. college

d. message

a. brochure
a. heroine

10. a. privilege

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 32
Spellings of Sounds In q/
A. Spelling o f In/: The English consonants InJ normally
appears in the following spelling forms:
1. N (regular):
Ex:

now, run

2. Syllabic N:
Ex:

eaten, certain, hidden, listen, reason, even, nation

3. Dark L is only used before all other consonants and finally:


Ex:

meal, filled, people

B. Spelling o f /r)/: The English consonants It)/ normally


appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. NG (regular):
Ex:
sing, sting, thing, wing
2. N before K or G:
Ex:
sink, singer /slrjk slqgs/
3. Special case:
Ex:

tongue /tAr)/, handkerchief /hasrjkat Jlf7

Cumulative practice
Which of the follow ing words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. lazy

b. lapel

c. label

d. labourer
37

2 . a. while

b. which

c. who

d. white

3.

a. come

b. roll

c. comb

d. grow

4.

a. blood

b. prove

c. rude

d. souvenir

5.

a. hour

b. honest

c. heir

d. hospital

6 . a. dealt

b. dreamt

c. heal

d. iealous

a. foul

b. brooch

c. soul

d. foal

8. a. colonel

b. journal

c. infernal

d. mournful

b. laughter

c. naughtv

d. slaughter

b. union

c. usage

d. university

7.
9.

a. taught

10. a. umbrella

S O U N D D I S C R I M I N A T I O N 33

Spellings of Sounds Irl

A. Spelling o f sound Irl: The English


normally appears in the spelling R only:
Ex:

consonants

Irl

red, bread, very, rich, ran, berry, marriage

B. Spelling o f sound /j/: The English consonants /j/ normally


appears in the follow ing spelling forms:
1. Y :
Ex:

yes, yard, young, your, you

2. I, E before /a/:
Ex:

opinion /opinjsn/, hideous /hidjss/

3. I is not pronounced /j/ before a vowel other than /a/:


Ex:

pronunciation/pranAnsiei/n /

C. Spelling o f sound /w /: The English consonants /w/


normally appears in the following spelling form s:
1. W :
Ex:

well, swim

2. U in QU (usual)
Ex:

quick, quite, quiet, quack

3. W is silent in the group WR, TW, SW:


Ex:

write /raitJ, two /tu:/, answer /a:nsa/, sword /su d J

4. U in GU when unstressed:
Ex:
38

language AaeVjgwidj/

5. Special case:
Ex:

one /wAn/, once /wAns/, choir /kwaia/, suite /swi:t/

Cumulative practice
W hich o f the following words is pronounced differently
from the others?
1. a. wild

b. driven

c. ahve

d. sign

2. a. sword

b. word

c. bird

d. heard

3.

a. penalty

b. scenic

c. epidemic

d. level

4.

a. practiced

b. raised

c. rained

d. followed

5.

a. head

b. heat

c. seat

d. need

6 . a. food

b. look

c. took

d. good

7.

b. sight

c. sing

d. same

8 . a. nourish

b. flourish

c. courageous d. southern

9.

b. sacred

c. needed

d. walked

b. houses

c. rises

d. horses

a. sure
a. naked

10. a. chooses

B. STRESSED SYLLABLE (TRONG AM)


W O R D STRESS 1

stress of 2-syllable Words


Two-syllable words which do not begin with prefixes take the
stress on the second syllables because the first syllables contain
short vowels Id/ or 111
EX:
canal

manure

mature

cigar

cadet

patrol

divine

marine

police

finance

39

Practice 1
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

sugar

b.

typical

c.

complain

d.

topic

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

them

b.

above

c.

idiom

d.

ideal

3. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

parade

b.

com passion

c.

resemble

d.

beautiful

4. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

breather

b.

orchestra

c.

pursuit

d.

recruit

5. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

feather

b.

mature

c.

leather

d.

chorus

W ORD STRESS 2
stress of 2-syllable W ords
Two-syllable words which begin with such prefixes as: A - AB ABS - AD - AC - CO - COL - CON - COR - BE - ETC, take the
stress on the second syllables.
EX:

40

aboard

degrade

object (v)

abstain

eject

outgrow

address

embark

pred i ct

because

forbid

withdra w

collect

immense

unstressed

Practice 2
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

ceremony

b.

comprose

c.

calculate

d.

caravan

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

complete

b.

company

c.

comment

d.

comical

3. W hich word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

comedy

b.

comfortable

c.

command

d.

company

4. W hich word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

com m entary

b.

legal

c.

model

d.

alert

5. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

voluntary

b.

necessary

c.

com pulsory

d.

stationary

W ORD STRESS 3
stress of 2-syllable Words
Two-syllable words take the stress on the first syllables when
these first syllables are not prefixes.
EX:
abbey

candy

German

active

carrot

handsome

always

carry

kitchen

answer

cautions

labour

baker

druggist

optics

Practice 3
1. Which word is not stressed on the first syllable?
a.

practice

b.

question

c.

ago

d.

orange
41

2. Which word is not stressed on the first syllable?


a.

title

b.

destiny

c.

thorough

d.

advice

3. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

journal

b.

infernal

c.

internal

d.

fraternal

4. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

hearsay

b.

endear

c.

rehearse

d.

poetic

5. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

brochure

b.

conscious

c.

dynamic

d.

hypocrite

W O R D STRESS 4

stress of 2-syllable W ords


Two-syllable words which begin with such prefixes as SUR-SUSTRAN - TRANS - UN - WITH - take the stress on the second
syllables.
EX:
surpass

transfer

unseen

surround

transform

untaught

survive

transform

within

suspend

unborn

without

transcribe

unsaid

withstand

Practice 4
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?

42

a.

famous

b.

curious

c.

suspicious

d.

numerous

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

transfer

b.

cushion

c.

stumble

d.

trifle

3. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

nature

b.

surround

c.

gravity

d.

muscle

4. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

withstand

b.

suspend

c.

service

d.

transcribe

5. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

without

b.

transport

c.

transfer

d.

office

W ORD STRESS 5
stress of 2-syllable Words
Two-syllable words which begin with such prefixes as CO - COL CON - COR - DE - DIS - E - EF - EX - EM - EN - IM - IN FOR - F O R E - take the stress on the second syllables.
EX:
correct

emerge

impure

conform

emb6d

insane

disarm

enlist

imprint

deform

forecast

forget

expect

forgive

foresee

Practice 5
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

tribute

b.

distress

c.

magistrate

d.

envelope

2. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

divine

b.

align

c.

device

d.

destiny
43

3. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

mission

o.

scenic

c.

ascent

d.

vicious

4. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

foresee

b.

seizure

c.

pleasure

d.

later

5. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

disguise

b.

creature

c.

embed

d.

forget

W O R D STRESS 6

stress of 2-syllable W ords


Two-syllable words which begin with such prefixes as OB - OP OUT - PRE - PRO - RE - SUB - SUP - take the stress on the
second syllables.
EX:
obscure

outface

reform

oppose

prefi x

reclose

oppress

prepare

submit

outbid (v)

protect

subject (v)

outbrave (v)

rejoin

suppose

Practice 6
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

cyclinder

b.

recycle

c.

bicycle

d.

mystery

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?

44

a.

register

b.

regular

c.

request

d.

reference

3. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

naughty

b.

laughter

c.

slaughter

d.

pronounced

4. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

obscure

b.

trial

c.

reform

d.

suppose

5. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

wastage

b.

prepare

c.

oppose

d.

protect

W ORD STRESS 7

stress of 2-syllable Words


Two-syllable words (chiefly nouns or adjectives) which begin with
prefixes take the stress on the prefixes because these prefixes
contain i + consonant, o + consonant, or strong and long vowels /D :
a : 3 : $i: el au au/
EX:
conflict (n)

conduct

pr6duct

absence

concrete

project

aspect

6ssay

upland

colleague

Practice 7
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

surgeon

b.

surprise

c.

surplus

d.

surface

2. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

promise

b.

perform

c.

advice

d.

rewrite

45

3. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

protest

b.

conclude

c.

product

d.

conduct

4. Which word is not stressed on the first syllable?


a.

ancient

b.

submit

c.

physics

d.

progress

5. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

record (v)

b.

angel

c.

rival

d.

minor

W ORD STRESS 8
stress of 2-syllable W ords
Three-syllable words which begin ith such prefixes as A - AB ABS - A D - A - A C - A G - A R - B E - C O - COL - COM - CON COR - DE - DIS - E - EF - EX take the stress on the second
syllables.
EX:
abnormal

beginning

defensive

abstainer

behaviour

expensive

additive

collector

discourage

achievement

connective

Practice 8
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

defensive

b.

cyclinder

c.

calculate

d.

caravan

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?

46

a.

envelope

b.

magistrate

c.

behaviour

d.

bicycle

3. W hich word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

connective

b.

collector

c.

achievement

d.

mystery

4. W hich word is not stressed on the third syllable?


a.

permanent

b.

personal

c.

understood

d.

different

5. W hich word is stressed on the third syllable?


a.

underlined

b.

syllable

c.

personal

d.

different

W ORD STRESS 9
stress of 2-syllable Words
Three-syllable words which begin with such prefixes as EM - EN
- IM - IN - FOR - FORE - IM - IN - IL - IR - OB - OP - OUT PRE - PRO - take the stress on the second syllables:
EX:
em power

objective

protector

im porter

oppressive

imamoral

forgetful

outspoken

forgiveness

forgivable

outstanding

engagement

im m odest

projecter

immobile

Practice 9
1. W hich word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

relevant

b.

Canada

c.

resident

d.

protector

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

jew eler

b.

oppressive

c.

carelessness

d.

satisfy

3. W hich word is stresssed on the second syllable?


a.

beverage

b.

dynamite

c.

forgivable

d.

average
47

4. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

embracing

b.

forgetful

c.

immodest

d.

cabinet

5. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

analyse

b.

objective

c.

outspoken

d.

outstanding

W O R D S T R E S S 10

stress of 3-syllable W ords


Words of three syllable which do not begin with prefixes take the
stress on the first syllables.
EX:
altitude

beverage

fatherhood

amplify

cabinet

governm ent

analyse

comedy

Italy

anecdote

dynamite

library

average

Elephant

tem perature

Practice 10
1. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?
a.

scholarship

b.

convicted

c.

contrasted

d.

permitted

2. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

develop

b.

distressful

c.

com fortable

d.

variety

3. Which word is not stressed on the first syllable?


a.

sovereign

b.

hostages

c.

magistrate

d.

determine

4. Which word is not stressed on the first syllable?

48

a.

liable

b.

revival

c.

pudding

d.

puncture

5 Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

auspicious

b.

distressful

c.

envelope

d.

returning

W O R D S T R E S S 11

stress of 3-syllable Words


Some 3 -syllable words which do not begin with prefixes take the
stress on the second syllables because the first syllables re short
vowels /s/ or III.
EX:
cathedral

December

flamingo

paternal

policeman

potato

maternal

tobacco

equator

November

Practice 11
1. W hich word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

equator

b.

reference

c.

regular

d.

register

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

absentee

b.

puschasing

c.

realize

d.

policeman

3. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

actual

b.

surprising

c.

actively

d.

recently

4. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

tobacco

b.

maternal

c.

m agazine

d.

paternal

5. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

tologgan

b.

December

c.

cathedral

d.

policemen

49

W ORD STRESS 12
stress of 3-syllable W ords
Three - syllable words which begin with such prefixes as RE-SUB
- SUR - SUS - TRANS - UN - take the stress on the second
syllables:
EX:
remarry

surrounding

transmftir

renaissance

survival

uncertain

repayment

surpassing

undoubted

supporter

transcriber

Practice 12
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

anecdote

b.

transm itter

c.

comedy

d.

elephant

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

fatherhood

b.

government

c.

Italy

d.

repayment

3. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

library

b.

temperature

c.

uncertain

d.

amplify

4. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

altitude

b.

surpassing

c.

transcriber

d.

transm itter

5. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?

50

a.

survival

b.

longitude

c.

renaissance

d.

repayment

W ORD STRESS 13

stress of 3-syllable Words


Some 3-syllable words (chiefly nouns and adjectives ) which begin
with prefixes take the stress on these prefixes because these
prefixes contain e, o + consonant or strong and long vowels / D I a:
3 : cfii; ei au eu/
EX:
adjective

evidence

obstacle

eappetite

envelope

president

consonant

excellent

protetant

continent

exercise

underplot (n)

difficult

interval

underm ost (adj)

Practice 13
1. W hich word is stressed on the first syllable?
a.

evidence

b.

empower

c.

im porter

d.

forgetful

2. W hich word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

forgivable

b.

immodest

c.

objective

d.

obsacle

3. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

oppressive

b.

consonant

c.

outspoken

d.

projector

4. W hich word is not stressed on the first syllable?


a.

appetite

b.

continent

c.

engagem ent

d.

evidence

5. W hich word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

discourage

b.

excellent

c.

interval

d.

protestant

51

W ORD STRESS 14

stress of 4-syllable Words


Words of 4 syllables or more which have prefixes and suffixes
before and after the roots take the stress on the roots.
EX:
corespondence

exceptional

inapproachable

consi'derabble

independent

unthinkingly

elocutionist

unquestionablj

disrespectful

unwomanly

international

insupportable

Practice 14
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

com fortable

b.

remarkable

c.

profitable

d.

sensible

2. Which word is stressed on the third syllable?


a.

exemplify

b.

extraordinary

c.

elaborate

d.

syllabication

3. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

governmental

b.

instrum ental

c.

possibility

d.

administrative

4. Which word is stressed on the third syllable?


a.

international

b.

expressionism

c.

believable

d.

unhappily

5. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?

52

a.

gentleman

b.

totally

c.

unmanly

d.

carelessness

WORD STRESS 15
stress of W ords Having Special E n d in rs
Words having such endings as - ITY - ICAL - IC - ION - IOUS EOUS take the stress on the syllables before these endings.
EX:
librarian

calculation

deliberation

Canadian

proposition

idionatk

similitude

scientific

modernzation

tyrannical
noto rious
erro eous
abi lity
electrical

Practice 15
1. Which word is stressed on the fourth syllable?
a.

tyrannical

b.

methodically

c.

characteristic

d.

scientifically

2. Which word is stressed on the third syllable?


a.

astrologer

b.

superstitious

c.

astronom y

d.

psychology

3. Which word is stressed on the third syllable?


a.

arithm etical

b.

endearment

c.

privilege

d.

convenient

4. Which word is not stressed on the second syllable?


a.

heroine

b.

penalty

c.

poetic

d.

messages

5. Which word is stressed on the third syllable?


a.

im patiently

b.

ostentatiously

c.

seriously

d.

enthusiastically

53

W ORD STRESS 16
stress of W ords Having Special Endings
Words having such endings as _ETY-LOGY-GRAPH Y-M ETRY NOMY also take the stress on the syllables before these endings.
EX:
variety

astronomy

society

geogrphy

atrology

geometry

Two - syllable verbs ending in - ATE-IZE - ISE - FY - LY take


the stress on the second syllables.
EX: locate, rotate, dictate, baptize, surprise, defy, reply, apply,
rely.
Verbs of 3 syllables or more, ending in- ATE - IZE - ISE - FY take the stress on the third syllables from the end.
EX: educate, demonstrate,
modify, beautify, qualify.

illuminate,

modernze,

Practice 16
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

energy

b.

dignity

c. variety
d. poverty
2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
af intimate

b.

celebrate

c.

d.

advocate

articulate

3. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

coordinate

b.

degenerate

c.

deliberate

d.

speculate

4. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

estimate

b.

precipitate

c.

alternate

d.

delicate

5. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?

54

a.

moderate

b.

associate

c.

originate

d.

appropriate

advertise,

W O R D S T R E S S 17

stress of W ords Having Special Endings


Words having such ending as - L\L - UAL - IAN - IAR - ULAR UOUS - I ENT - IENCE - IENCY - IUM - ID - IT - ISH also
take the stress on the syllables before these endings.
EX: mechanical, colonial, continual, habitual, grammarian,
mathematician, familiar, signular, popular, continuous, abiguous,
patient, patience, efficiency, aquarium, acid, candid, rapid, limit,
expli cit, implicit, selfish, finish, punish, furnish.

Practice 17
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

particular

b.

analyse

c.

trifle

d.

butcher

2. W hich word is stressed on the fourth syllable?


a.

illuminate

b.

accusation

c.

satisfactory

d.

conspiratorial

3. Which word is stressed on the third syllable?


a.

procedure

b.

banana

c.

prejudicial

d.

museum

4. W hich word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

elaborate

b.

approximate

c.

illuminate

d.

concentrate

5. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

explicitly

b.

abbey

c.

ambiguity

d.

transformatioi

55

WORD STRESS 18
stress of Words Having Special Endings
Words having such endings as - ADE - EE EER - ESE - 0 0 0 0 N - ETTE - ESQUE - IQUE - AIN take the stress on these
endings.
EX: degrade, persuade, agree, guarantee, volumteer, pioneer,
Chinese, Japanese, shampoo, kangaroo, afternoon, cartoon,
kitchenette, cigarette, picturesque, unique, antique, maintain,
remain.

Practice 19
1. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?
a.

person

b.

permanent

c.

personal

d.

persuade

2. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

separate

b.

moderate

c.

affectionate

d.

educate

3. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

understand

b.

kitchenette

c.

picturesque

d.

deliberately

4. Which word is not stressed on the third syllable?


a.

ascertain

b.

difficult

c.

scholarship

d.

typical

5 Which word is stressed on the second syllable?

56

a.

physics s

b.

antique

c.

classic

d.

music

WORD STRESS 19
stress of Exceptional Words
Notice that rules 15, 16, 17, 18 may have exceptional cases:
Rule 16: hospitalize, (not: hospitalize), characterize
charactecnze), regularize (not: regularize), industrialize

(not:
(not:

industrialize)
Rule 15, 16, 17: politics (not: politics), choleric (not: cholecric),
arithmetic (not: arithmetic), deficit (not: deficit), impoverish (not:
impoverish), invalid (n): thUdng binh (invalid: adj: khong con gia
tri, bieu lUc)
Rule 18: marmalade, (not: marmalade), teaspoon (not: teaspoon),
committee (not: commitee), cuckoo (not: cuckoo), centigrade (not:
centigrade)

Practice 19
1. Find the words which can be stressed in only one way
a.

convict

b.

conduct

c.

conclude

d.

content

2. Find the word which can be stressed in only one way.


a.

advice

b.

desert

c.

survey

d.

refuse

3. Find the word which can be stressed in only one way.


a.

insult

b.

convert

c.

perform

d.

perfect

4. Which word is stressed on the second syllable?


a.

referee

b.

committee

c.

refugee

d.

employee

5. Which word is stressed on the first syllable?


a.

invalid (adj)

b.

impure

c.

export (v)

d.

invalid (n)

57

W ORD STRESS 20

Stress of Words Pairs


Many 2-syllable word pairs may be nouns, adjectives or verbs. If
they are nouns or adjectives, they take the stress on the first
syllables. If they are verbs, the stress is put on the second
syllables.
EX:
Verbs

Nouns or Adjs
/
present (n+adj)

present (verb)

contrast (n)

contrast (v)

export (n)

export (v)

increase (n)

increase (v)

accent (n)

accent (v)

Practice 20
1. Find the word which can be stressed in only one way.
a.

contrast

b.

c.

convict

d.

contain
conduct

2. Find the word which can be stressed in only one way.


a.

provide

b.

c.

permit

d.

present
perfect

3. Find the word which can be stressed in only one way.


a.

extract

b.

c.

export

d.

express
escort

4. Find the word which can be stressed in only one way.


a.

request

b.

c.

refund

d.

record
refill

5. Find the word which can be stressed in only one way.

58

a.

profit

b.

project

c.

protest

d.

progress

Part it

VOCABULARY (TtfVlffcG)
A . M U L T IP L E C H O IC E
Choose the word to best complete the sentence.

Exercise 1
1. My favourite.....................is reading.
a.

occupation

b.

occupied

c.

occupy

d.

occupying

2. That m ans work w as....................


s)

disappointing

b.

disappoint

c.

disappointed

d.

disappointment

3. Mr Green is a .....................man.
s

tolerant

bj

tolerable

c.

tolerance

d.

tolerated

4. The result of the experiment was....................


a.

satisfy

b.

satisfactory

c.

satisfied

d.

satisfaction

5. She was still.....................interested in out door activities.


a\

keen

b.

keenly

c.

keenness

d.

keener

6. The factory has given.................... to many workers.


a.

employ

b.

employment

59

c.

employees

d.

employers

7. English is used by pilots to ask for landing.....................in Cairo.


a.

instruct

0.

instructing

c.

instruction

d.

instructions

8. He.....................his wife by three years.


a.

overlived

b.

outgrew

c.

outpaced

d.

outlived

9. In 2020 English will become the.....................world language.


a.

national

b.

international

c.

official

d.

commercial

10. Ten pounds for a good dictionary seem s.....................enough.


a.

reasoned

b.

reason

c.

reasoning

&

reasonable

11. What is your.....................?


a,

nationality

b.

nation

c.

national

d.

nationally

12. Most of my friends are.................... students.


a.

foreigner

b.

foreign

c.

foreigns

d.

foreigners

13. The.....................of a passport is essential for foreign travel.


a.

possess

b.

possessor

c.

possession

d.

possessive

14. To her great.....................it rained on the day of the picnic.


a.

disappoint

b.

disappointed

c,

disappointing

d,.

disappointm ent

15. There is.....................to overcome problems.


a.

destruction

b.

transition

c.

determination

d.

attraction

16. We w i l l .....................that difficulty when we get to it.


a.

overdose

b.

overact

c.

overcome

d.

overdose

17. That man died of a heroin.....................


a.

overweigh

b.

surplus

c.

overtime

d.

overdose

60

18. To prepare for the job, you should have a.................... of English.
a.

prospect

b.

guidance

c.

sanguine

knowledge

19. Children should be.................... for employment.


a.

well-prepared

b.

ill-prepared

c.

good preparation

d.

employers

20 Colum bus.................... American more than 450 year :ago


a.

has discovered

c.

had discovered

b,

discovered
was discovering

Exercise 2
1. I keep my reference books near my desk for....................
a.

convenience

b.

convenient

c.

convention

d.

conveniently

2. The labour Party was in .................... from 1964 to 1970.


a.

govern

b.

government

c.

governing

d.

governor

3. W hat is the.....................of England?


a.

populate

b.

populace

polulation

d.

popularity

investigator

,d)

investigation

4. The matter is under....................


a.

investigate

c.

invitation

5. She has an.....................smile.


a.

invite

b.

invited

c.

invitation

d.

inviting

6....................... films are made for schools.


a.

Educate

b.

Educated

c.

Education

d.

Educational

7. His business.....................him.
a.

absorbent

b.

absorbs

c.

absorptive

d.

absorption

61

8. Although she is.....................in one ear, she is happy.


a.

deafen

b.

deaf

c.

deafens

d.

deafening

9. They didnt allow us to enter the.................... zone.


a.

militarism

b.

militaristic

c.

military

d.

militarily

10. She has a .....................for blue.


a.

prefer

b.

preferential

c.

preference

d.

preferable

11. If youre going abroad, have you had your..................... yet?


a.

inject

b.

injecting

c.

injected

d.

injections

12. Last year this hospital.................... over forty eases of malaria.


a.

treat

b.

treating

c.

treatm ent

d.

treated

13. The bank receives money to keep it.....................


a.

safe

b.

unsafe

c.

safely

d.

surely

14. There is only place in England where it is.....................to drive


on the right.
a.

rule

b.

legal

c.

law

d.

illegal

15. My father used to be a.....................


a.

lawyer

b.

lawful

c.

law

d.

illegal

16. Daisy sang.....................at the party.


a.

bad

b.

badly

c.

more badly

d.

most badly

17. Farmers fertilize their land to make it.....................


a.

produce

b.

products

c.

productive

d.

production

18. M ary doesnt l o o k .....................today.

62

a.

health

b.

healthlessness

c.

healthily

d.

healthy

19. AIDS and cancer are very dangerous....................


a.

diseases

b.

diseased

c.

injuries

d.

illness

20. Thanks to cosm etic..................... birthmarks become less


conspicuous.
a.

surgery

b.

surgeons

c.

technology

d.

surgical

Exercise 3
1. You must make a....................
a.

decide

b.

decision

c.

decisive

d.

decisively

2. A car is.....................without petrol.


a.

used

b.

useless

c.

uselessness

d.

useful

3. Read the.....................on the box before your make the cake.


a.

instruct

b.

instructions

c.

instructing

d.

instructed

4. This light comes on .....................at five oclock.


a.

automation

b.

automatic

c.

automate

d.

automatically

5. Oil is of great.....................to industry.


a.

im portation

b.

important

c.

importantly

d.

importance

6. The house w as.....................to find.


a.

possibility

b.

impossibly

c.

impossibility

d.

imposible

7. This is a com plicated problem and cant find the................


a.

solution

b.

exploration

c.

calculation

d.

information

8. The police provide.....................for the people in a country.


a.

protection

b.

provisions

c.

protest

d.

prevention

63

9. Education was his president of a


a.

succeed

b.

successful

c.

succeeding

d.

success

10. Mr Brown is the president of a ........


a.

manufacturer

b.

manufacture

c.

manufactured

d.

m anufacturing

11. He began b y .......... ......... us where the island was.


a.

show

b.

showing

c.

shown

d.

showed

12. The paintings were in an excellent state of.....................


a.

preserve

b.

preservation

c.

preservative

d.

preserves

13. Now we are in the age of space.......


a.

explore

b.

exploration

c.

explorer

d.

exploratory

14. Clean air provides us with a ........... .........supply of oxygen


a.

healthy

b.

healthily

c.

health

d.

healthiness

15. Smoking is............. .......to your health.


a.

harm

b.

harmful

c.

harmless

d.

unharmed

16. You should avoid .................. a lot of sweets.


a.

eat

b.

to eat

c.

eating

d.

for eating

17.......................is better than cure.


a.

Prevent

b.

Preventing

c.

Prevented

d.

Prevention

18. For....................., I usually do all my shopping in the same


a.

convenient

b.

a convenience

c.

conveniently

d.

convenience

19. It rained.................

64

a.

continuously

b.

continous

c.

continue

a.

continuation

20. There are.....

.difference between Britain and Japan,

a.

culture

b.

cultural

c.

cultured

d.

cultivated

Exercise 4
1. My brother has no.................... in football.
a.

interesting

b.

interest

c.

interested

d.

interestingly

2. All of us think that she has a ...

........voice.

a.

beauty

b.

beautiful

c.

beautifully

d.

beautiulness

3. The two countries want to live in .....


a.

peaceful

b.

peacefully

c.

peace

d.

peacefulness

4. Everyone knows that women are

.............to men.

a.

equal

b.

equally

c.

equality

d.

equalize

5. We call a boy learning at school a ,


a.

schoolboy

b.

boy of school

c.

schools boy

d.

boy at school

6. Hamlet is a .....................play.
a.

success

b.

successful

c.

succeed

d.

successfully

7. The!.....................area of the city is not very attractive.


a.

industrial

b.

industry

c.

industrialze

d.

industrialism

8. W hats t h e .....................of Vietnam?


a.

population

b.

popular

c.

populate

d.

populous

9. My brother can play a lot of.......

...instruments.

a.

musically

b.

musician

c.

music

d.

musical

65

10. He manages to cut the cake into s i x .....................pieces.


a.

equality

b.

equal

c.

equalize

d.

equally

11.......................people are not always happy.


a.

Wealth

b.

W ealthily

c.

W ealthy

d.

W ealthiest

12. My car is quite.....................


a.

economic

b.

economics

c.

economical

d.

economy

13. More and more young people want a university.....................


a.

education

b.

educated

c.

educator

d.

educate

14. My sister is a very warm and.................... person.


a.

care

b.

careful

c.

carefulness

d.

careless

15. Halong is one of the most famous tourist...................in Vietnam.


a.

attractions

b.

attract

c.

attracted

d.

attracting

16. The man who designs a house is the.....................


a.

south

b.

southern

c.

southwards

d.

southbound

17. The man who designs a house in the.....................


a.

engineer

b.

painter

c.

architect

d.

manger

18. W hats the right.....................to say this word in English?


a.

way

b.

method

c.

manner

d.

approach

19. She is a dancer, so you should buy a pair of..................... shoes


as a present for he birthday.
a.

dancing

b.

dance

c.

dances

d.

dancers

20. My parents cant .....................seeing me at home all day.

66

a.

stop

b.

stand

c.

start

d.

hate

Exercise 5
1. T h e.....................for the party was not very good.
a.

prepared

b.

preparing

c.

preparation

d.

preparer

2. The grass carpets of MyDinh stadium are convenient as they


are
a.

moving

b.

movement

c.

moved

d.

movable

3. I have.....................the bookshelf to the balcony.


a.

been pushed

b.

pushing

c.

pushed

d.

push

4. The room has been well,,,


a.

decorative

b.

decorated

c.

decoration

d.

decorating

5. She was given a .................

scarf on her birthday.

a.

flowered

b.

flowering

c.

flowery

d.

flower

6. She ....................the dishes after every meal.


a.

washes

b.

wash

c.

washing

d.

is washed

7. .....................and the Beast is a famous cartoon film of Walt


Disney.
a.

Beautiful

b.

Beautifully

c.

Beautician

d.

Beauty

8. Her friends were impressed by her excellent.....................on her


birthday.
a.

performer

b.

performing

c.

performance

d.

perform

9. I like to go.....................in the summer.


a.
swim
b.
swimming
c.

swam

d.

swimmer

10. Everyone must have a ..............licence when using a motorbike.


a.

driver

b.

drive

c.

driving

d.

driven
67

11. We hung coloured lights around the room for.....................


a.

decorating

b.

decorative

c.

decoration

d.

decorate

12. The students noticed the.................... of the desk.


a.

moving

b.

movement

c.

moved

d.

movingly

13. The girl felt.....................after she took the pills; she no longer
vomited.
a.

unwell

b.

better

c.

the best

d.

best

14. The ship came to kingdom on a.....................day.


a.

stormed

b.

storm

c.

stormy

d.

storming

15. You have made a good...................


a.

choosy

b.

choosiness

c.

choosing

d.

choice

16. The professor checks.................... every day.


a.

attendance

b.

attendence

c.

attendants

d.

attending

17. I dont like.....................problems.


a.

m ethodology

b.

m ethodological

c.

method

d.

m ethodogically

18. Flu is a m inor.................... but it can get serious if not cured


immediately,
a.

sickly

b.

sickliness

c.

sick

d.

sichness

19. I want to become a .................... story writer.


a.

detective

b.

detect

c.

dectection

d.

detected

20. I think being a policeman is.........

68

a.

interested

b.

interest

c.

interestingly

d.

interesting

Exercise 6
1. She drives....................
a.

dangerously

b.

dangerous

c.

danger

d.

very dangerous

2. We w ere.................... by the sound of a plane flying over our


heads.
a.

deafened

b.

deafening

c.

deafen

d.

deaf

3. She has shown great.................... to succeed.


a.

determined

b.

determination

c.

determine

d.

determining

4. Eat.....................bread and more fruit.


a.

many less

b.

much less

c.

much fever

d.

many fewer

5. Dogs are very.....................pets.


a.

faith

b.

faithfulness

c.

faithful

d.

faithfully

6. Do you have a .....................costume in your country?


a.

nation

b.

nationally

c.

national

d.

nationality

7. The Gallery has a large.................... of modern paintings.


a.

collect

b.

collecting

c.

collected

d.

collection

8. When the teacher gave my homework back to me, it was full


o f.....................
a.

correct

b.

correcting

c.

correctly

d.

corrections

9. She is.....................to win the match.


a.

determined

b.

determine

c.

determination

d.

determinative

10. There are n ew .....................in science almost very day.


a.

develops

b.

developments

c.

developing

d.

developed

69

11. What is the.....................in price between these tow bikes?


a.

difference

b.

different

c.

differ

d.

differently

12. I have.....................understanding French.


a.

difficulty

b.

easy

c.

difficult

d.

easily

13. Many countries have passed laws restricting hunting


to.................... wild-life.
a.

protest

b.

provide

c.

proceed

d.

protect

14. Farmers can help............

the soil by adding fertilizers.

a.

enlarge

b.

revive

c.

proceed

d.

enrich

15. She is always very.......... ......... to her mother and her mother
happy.
a.

help

b.

helping

c.

helpful

d.

helpless

16. Sarahs party was a ........ ........... Only four people came.
a.

disappoint

b.

disappointm ent

c.

disappointed

d.

diasppointing

17. I.....................the problem with my parents yesterday.


a.

discussed

b.

discussion

c.

discuss

d.

discussing

18. She answered the questions with


a.

easily

b.

easy

c.

easing

d.

ease

19. She went to London and found

...............as a taxi-driver

a.

employ

b.

employed

c.

employment

d.

employee

20. Her work is n ot................

70

a.

satisfy

b.

satisfactory

c.

satisfied

d.

satisfaction

Exercise 7
1. Even children who are.................... keen on a particular
occupation know little about it.
a.

supposed

b.

supposedly

c.

suppose

d.

supposingly

2. The manager sacked five......


a.

employers

b.

employments

c.

employees

d.

employs

3. I was still.................... interested in outdoor activities.


a.

keen

b.

keenness

c.

keenly

d.

keennessless

4. H is.....................are brilliant.
a.

prospects

b.

prospectors

c.

prospected

d.

prospective

5. His parents have a great.................... for his future.


a.

expect

b.

expecting

c.

expectation

d.

expectant

6. I dont find him at all....................


a.

attract

b.

attracted

c.

attractive

d.

attraction

7. She is perfectly.....................in her demands.


a

reason

b.

reasonably

c.

reasonable

d.

reasoned

8. M ore...................... can he be depended on?


a.

im portantly

b.

important

c.

importance

d.

import

9. We had no.....................in finding the house.


a.

difficulty

b.

difficult

c.

difference

d.

indifference

10. Im .....................to succeed.


a.

determined

b.

determination

c.

determine

d.

determinely

71

11. He i s .....................to win in the end.


a.

determination

b.

determined

c.

determinating

d.

determine

12. She is interested in...


a.

conserve

b.

conserving

c.

conservation

d.

conserved
.......of peace.

13. The aim of the policy is the


a.

preserve

b.

preserving

c.

preservation

d.

preserved

14. There will be picnic if nothing


a.

prevention

b.

prevent

c.

prevented

d.

prevents

15. The child is.................

well.

a.

develop

b.

developed

c.

development

d.

developing

16. This land requires


a.

fertilize

b.

fertilized

c.

fertility

d.

fertilizer

17. She becam e................ ...to do something about it


a.

concerned

b.

decided

c.

determined

d.

interested

18. He could do nothing, he was


a.

helped

b.

helping

c.

helpful

a.

helpless

19. The building...............

he lives is very old.

a.

which

b.

when

c.

in which

d.

then

20. Fil give you my address...........

72

.you come.

a.

where

b.

when

c.

which

d.

then

Exercise 8
1. They are very.....................in their approach.
a.

scientific

b.

scientist

c.

science

d.

scientifically

2. My uncle is a heart............
a.

surgeon

b.

surgical

c.

surgery

d.

surgically

3. The surgeons are working with greater..................


a.

intensification

b.

intensity

c.

intensive

d.

intense

4. The laser can kill................

cells.

a.

disease

b.

diseased

c.

ill

d.

illness

5. A new .....................for cancer is used in this hospiti


a.

treat

b.

treatable

c.

treatm ent

d.

treating

6. My brother is a ................... student.


a.

medicine

b.

medicament

c.

medical

d.

medic

7. Mr. Brown is the best.................... in this hospital.


a.

physics

b.

physical

c.

physicist

d.

physician

8. He had an .....................on his eye.


a.

operate

b.

operable

c.

operation

d.

operation
into the car.

9. The police found the man.,


a.
c.

climbing
climbed

b.

climb

d.

to climb

b.

to water

10. We will have the flowers.


a.

watered

d.
watering
water
c.
11. The nurse injected the patients arm ....................
a.

by

b.

into

c.

with

d.

from
73

12. Is your sister.................... of the dark?


a.

tired

b.

interested

c:

afraid

d.

safe

13. My brother is working in this.


a.

establish

b.

establishment

c.

establishing

d.

established

14. Many is not old enough to be,


a.

depend

b.

independent

c.

dependent

d.

dependence
.............gesture.

15. He put his arm round her in a,


a.

protect

b.

protecting

c.

protection

d.

protective

16. Preserving natural resources is of great.....................


a.

importance

b.

importer

c.

important

d.

importation

17. We a void.....................our environment.


a.

polluting

b.

polluted

c.

pollution

d.

pollute

18. He said Good morning" in a most .....................way.


a.

friend

b.

friendliness

c.

friendly

d.

friendship

19. This coffee is too.................... to drink.


a.

heat

b.

heated

c.

hot

d.

heating

20. I really dont think he has the

............ to do this

a.

able

b.

unable

c.

ability

d.

ably

Exercise 9
1. T h e.....................of natural resources will prevent a lot of waste.
a.

safeguard

b.

safeguarding

c.

protect

d.

protecting

74

2. B ad.....................caused the land to be flooded.


a.

drain

b.

drainage

c.

drained

d.

draining

3. R ead.....................the mind.
a.

enrich

b.

rich

c.

enriched

d.

enriches

4. Farmers can protect their land by crop....................


a.

rotato

b.

rotary

c.

rotating

d.

rotation

5. There are several.................... canals in my town.


a.

irrigate

b.

wateri g

c.

irrigated

d.

irrigation

6. It is difficult to give a speech without....................


a.

solution

b.

training

c.

preparation

d.

education

7. Newsweek is a popular....................
a.

public

b.

publication

c.

produce

d.

production

8. Did you bring all the sports.................... for our picnic?


a.

eOiUipment

b.

supplies

c.

tools

d.

products

9. She always keeps her husband....................


a.

happily

b.

happiness

c.

happy

d.

the happiness

10. He wrote a thick overcoat as a................against the bitter cold.


a.

protection

b.

protect

c.

protector

d.

protective

11. He argued for a .................... of the search.


a.

continuation

b.

continue

c.

continual

d.

continous

12. The fight against.................... of our environment is very


important.
a.

pollute

b.

polluting

c.

polluted

d.

pollution
75

13. The.................... of the radios could not find a market for them.
a.

produce

b.

production

c.

producers

d.

products

14. My uncle has a..................... collection of paintings.


a

value

b.

valuable

c.

valuate

d.

valuation

15. The government is responsible for the.....................of medical


services.
a.

provision

b.

provide

c.

providing

d.

provisional

16. The river is.................... to bathe in.


a.

dangerous

b.

danger

c.

of danger

d.

dangerously

17. Farmer can.....................the soil with mature.


a.

be rich

b.

enrich

c.

be enrichment

d.

to enrich

18. That was a.....................amusing film.


a.

high

b.

height

c.

highly

d.

highlight

19. My parents want me to become a.....................


a.

science

b.

scientifically

c.

scientific

d.

scientist

20. They did everything for our....................


a.

com fortable

b.

uncom fortable

c.

com fortably

d.

comfort

Exercise 10
1. It soon becam e.....................that no one was going to come to her
party.
a.

clear

b.

clearly

c.

cleared

d.

clearing

2. She became a teacher.....................after graduating from


university.
a.

im m ediatedly

b.

im m ediated

c.

im m ediately

d.

immediate

76

3. You look so.................... W hats the matter?


a.

sadden

b.

sadder

c.

sadly

d.

sad

4. Harry looked at m e.................... before he turned and walked


away.
a.

sad

b.

suddenly

c.

sadly

d.

sadder

5. As the speaker of the TV programe Wheel of of Fortune, Long


Vu appears.................... on TV.
a.

regular

b.

regularly

c.

regularity

d.

regulately

6. She dint appear.................... at the bad news.


a.

surprising

b.

surprisingly

c.

surprised

d.

surprisedly

7. This kind o f flowers grows

in areas where tl

much sunlight.
a.

beautifying

c.

beautilly

ft ,
d.

beautifully
beautiful

8. After waiting for half an hour, I started to grow ............


a.

patient

patiently

impatient
( 'c9. The weather has turned..........

d.

impatiently

coldly and windily

b.

coldly and windy

a.

d.
cold and windy
'Ce>: cold and windily
10. He turned.....................to the man behind him.
a.

angrily

b.

angerly

c.

anger

d.

angry

11. The.....................of the computer has changed the way


exchanged and process information.
b.
invent
a.^ invention
c.

inventive

d.

inventor

12. In the past we used to have oil lamps, but now we all
..............lights.
a.

electrical

b.

electricity

c.

electric

d.

electrician
77

13. Drugs are o ft e n .................... on animals before they are used on


humans.
a.

experim ent

b.

experiments

c.

experim enting

d.

experim ented

14. Many strange diseases have.................... in the last few decades.


a.

development

b.

developed

<

developing

d.

developmental

15. T~aac Newton is not only a physicist but also a .....................


a.

mathematics

b.

mathematical

c.

mathematician

d.

m athem atically

16. Our body can get energy from food thanks to the process
of....................
a.

digestion

b.

digestive

c.

digestively

d.

degest

17. Even though he didnt have m uch...................... he still became a


great scientist.
a.

school

b.

schooling

c.

scholar

d.

schooled

18. Scientists havent found the.....................for AIDS.


a.

curable

b.

curability

c.

cure

d.

curing

19. The three species.................... from a single ancestor.


a.

evolution

b.

evolutionary

c.

evolved

d.

evolving

20. I have a special interest in .....................problems.


a.

biological

b.

biologist

c.

biology

d.

biologically

Exercise 11
1. I cant see m uch.....................between him and his father.
a.

likeness

b.

like

c.

liling

d.

likely

78

2. Preserving natural resources is of great....................


a.

importance

b.

important

c.

imperfect

d.

imperfection

3. Smoking is now recognized as a serious.................... to health.


a.

danger

b.

dangerous

c.

unfit

d.

unfitness

4. Miss White was..'.................. interested in social activities.


a.

keen

b.

keenness

c.

keenly

d.

keen on

5........................ he had nothing new to show us.


a.

Disappointm ent

b.

Disappointingly

c.

Disappointed

d.

Disappointing

6. Her sons.....................disappointed her.


a.

fearflul

b.

fearlessness

c.

fearless

d.

fearfulness

7. Our village has a new ................. ...system.


a.

irrigate

b.

irrigated

c.

irrigations

d.

irrigation

8. Is it impossible to ask someone, ................... questions?


a.

person

b.

habit

c.

personal

d.

habitual

9. Flying from trapeze to trapeze holds no.....................for her.


a.

fearsome

b.

fearless

c.

fearful

d.

fears

10. W ould you mind getting..........


a.

information

b.

informating

c.

inform

d.

informatics

11. An im portant part of................._is the prevention of waste?


a.

conservation

b.

conserve

c.

conservative

d.

conservatively

12. Farmers should.................... their crops every year.


a.

rotate

b.

rotating

c.

rotation

d.

rotor

79

13. That is a river.................... by chemicals.


a.

contaminate

b.

pollute

c.

contam inated

d.

pollution

14. They are very.................... in their approach.


a.

sciences

b.

scientists

c.

scientific

d.

scientifically

15.......................paper helps save a lot of wood-pulp.


a.

Recycle

b.

Recycling

c.

Recycled

d.

Reusing

16. The country is very., ................. so traveling by road is difficult.


a.

mountain

b.

m ountainous

c.

mountains

d.

m aountainously

17. A .....................driver is a danger to the public.


a.

careful

b.

careless

c.

carefully

d.

carelessly

18. Mrs. Baker had a ..... ..............experience last night. A strange


man was in her house when she got home.
a.

fright

b.

frightened

c.

frighten

d.

frightening

19. There are sections in restaurants......................for nonsmokers.


a.

resolved

b.

requested

c.

reserved

d.

required

20. We are expecting

............. next week.

a.

guest

b.

com pany

c.

friend

d.

com panion

Exercise 12
1. I have to live on unemployment benefit because I am.
a.

out of duty

b.

off work

c.

out o f work

d.

out of job

2. There w erent any

80

a.

situations

b.

spacies

c.

vacancies

d.

locations

3. She was filling in t h e .................... form.


a.

application

b.

applicant

c.

apply

d.

appliance

4. People who are out of work are.................


a.

unemployed

b.

unemployment

c.

employed

d.

employee

5....................... are written to make people laugh.


a.

Tragedies

b.

Novels

c.

Funny stories

d.

Fictions

6. The old man has saved a lot of money for his.....................


a.

retire

b.

retiring

c.

retirem ent

d.

retired

7. We had a .....................discussion about football.


a.

bore

b.

boring

c.

bored

d.

boredom

8. She gave a long.....................about unemployment in Vietnam.


a.

lecturer

b.

lecturing

c.

lectured

d.

lecture

9. M oney doesnt always bring....................


a.

happy

b.

happily

c.

happies

d.

happiness

10. H is.................... makes his parents happy.


a.

success

b.

successful

c.

succeed

d.

succeeded

11. She has been talking to som ebody.................... the telephone for
two hours.
a.

at

b.

on

c.

in

d.

by

12. I usually get up late and.................... breakfast at 7.30 a.m


a.

eat

b.

have

c.

take

d.

get

13. It w as.....................to listen to the story which the guide told.


a.

exciting

b.

excited

c.

excite

d.

excitement
81

14. He smokes a lot. He is a.................... smoker.


a.

heavy

b.

hard

c.

much

d.

big

15. It w as.................... to see my old friends after a long time.


a.

surprised

b.

surprise

c.

surprisingly

surprising

16. He fell off his bike, and hes been in bad.....................for several
days now.
a.

circumstance

b.

condition

c.

situation

d.

development

17. Mary and her younger sister have many.....................


a.

different

b.

difference

c.

differ

d.

differences

l*2 During the trip to Japan, w e.................... a lot of pictures.


a.

took

b.

did

c.

made

d.

got

19. The.....................of Hanoi is bout 5 million.


a.
populated
b.
population
c.
popular
d.
populate
20. Because the weather is very hot, she is not feelin g..................
today.
a.

well

b.

good

c.

strong

d.

healthy

Exercise 13
1.......................your teeth with fluoride toothpaste after every meal
is important.
a.

Brush

b.

Brushed

c.

Brushing

d.

Being brushed

2. Farmers should fertilize their land to make it.....................


a.
c.

produce
productive

b.
d.

products
production

3. It is easier to.....................disease than to cure it.


a.

prevention

b.

preventative

c.

preventing

d.

prevent

82

4. The secretary ordered paper, pens and other.................... for the


office.
a.

supply

b.

supplying

c.

supplied

d.

supplies

5. The farm er.................... his garden once a moth.


a.

fertilizer

b.

fertile

c.

fertilization

d.

fertilizes

6. Are your children being.................... by lead in the atmosphere?


a.

poison

b.

poisoning

c.

poisonous

d.

poisoned

7. We dont find her.................... at all.


a.

attract

b.

attraction

c.

attracted

d.

attractive

8. The pupils are n ot.................... good at English.


a.

expect

b.

expectantly

c.

expecting

d.

expectation

9. My uncles is a .....................man.
a.

tolerate

b.

tolerant

c.

tolerance

d.

tolerable

10. Farmers happy because they have a new .................... system.


a.

irrigate

b.

irrigated

c.

irrigation

d.

irrigating

11. She was horrified by all the.................... on the beach.


a.

pollute

b.

polluted

c.

pollution

d.

polluting

12. Energy.....................is a problem throughout the world


a.

conservation

b.

conserve

c.

conservative

d.

conservatively

13. The scientists talked about the....................


a.

erosion

b.

erode

c.

eroded

d.

erosive

14. He died of b lood.....................last year.


a.

poisoning

b.

poisons

c.

poisoned

d.

poisonous
83

15. T h e.................... of crops is important to farmers.


a.

rotation

b.

rotary

c.

rotate

d.

rotatory

16. We must arrange a.................... time and place for the meefting.
a.

convenient

b.

convenience

c.

conveniently

d.

undecided

17. It is the.....................in Britain to drive on the left.


a.

practice

b.

practical

c.

practice

d.

practically

18. Last week he.....................his plan in some detail


a.

explanation

b.

explanatory

c.

explained

d.

explaining

19. They enjoyed looking at the Duchesss.....................


a.

carry

b.

carriage

c.

carrying

d.

carried

20. Its m y.....................to lock the door.


a.

responsible

b.

responsibility

c.

responsibly

d.

responsiveness

Exercise 14
1. I believe that our new manager has the..................... to work well
in this business environment.
a.

flexible

b.

inflexible

c.

flexibly

d.

flexibility

2. Radio is a good.....................for practicing listening to English.


a.

media

b.

medal

c.

medium

d.

medicine

3. Many people love the.....................of life in the countryside.


a.

simplicity

c.

simply

b.

simplify

d.

simple

4. This is a good place for fashion designers to show their latest

84

a.

creative

b.

creation

c.

creature

d.

create

5. Damage to the building w as.....................


a.

consider

b.

considering

c.

considerable

d.

considerably

6. Articles on bird flu can easily be found on these medical


a.

periods

b.

periodics

c.

periodicals

d.

periodically

7. O ne.....................way to improve your English is to practice it


daily.
a.

effective

b.

effect

c.

effectively

d.

effectional

8. This meeting gathers all leaders of industry and.................... in


the country.
a.

commerce

b.

commercial

c.

com mercialization

d.

commercially

9. After he left school, he went into.................... with his brother. t


a.

busy

b.

business

c.

busily

d.

businessman

10. Varieties o f English such as Indian English and Singapore


English have.....................aspects of pronunciation.
a.

distinctly

b.

distinctive

c.
busily
d.
businessman
11. It is.....................to hear the competition results.
a.

surprise

b.

surprising

c.

surprised

d.

surprisingly

12. She is.....................in being a nurse.


a.

tired

b.

afraid

c.

bored

d.

interested

13. In England if you want to get a job, youll have to look through
Situation .....................column.
a.

Vacancy

b.

Vacant

c.

Vacation

d.

Vocation

14.......................is a very serious problem in many countries.


a.

Employ

b.

Employed

c.

Unemployed

d.

Unemployment
85

15. She didnt work hard e n o u g h ,.................... she lost her job.
a.

so

b.

but

c.

and

d.

yet

16. She is.....................of walking alone in the dark.


a.

terror

b.

terrified

c.

terrifying

d.

terrifyingly

17. Why was his lecture so.................... ?


a.

boring

b.

bored

c.

bore

d.

boredom

18. I always get.....................when I wear new clothes.


a.

excite

b.

excitement

c.

exciting

d.

excited

19. They couldnt understand his.....................


a.

refuse

b.

refusing

c.

refusal

d.

to refuse

20. Their holidays was so.................... that they did not want to go
back to work.
a.

enjoy

b.

enjoying

c.

enjoyable

d.

enjoym ent

Exercise 15
1. If we could find out the.................... for cancer, thousands of
people would be saved every year.
a.

remedy

b.

prevention

c.

disease

d.

cause

2. Physical.....................can cause overweight.


a.

activity

b.

inactivity

c.

exercise

d.

expression

3. A doctor who studies and treats mental illnesses is called a


a.

physicist

b.

doctor

c.

psychiatrist

d.

surgeon

86

4. I am .....................to him because he has helped me a lot.


a.

helpful

b.

pleasing

c.
worried
d.
thankful
5. Eating too much junk food is.................... to people because it
can cause obesity.
a.
harmful
b.
helpful
c.
pleasing
d.
ordinary
6. We can make good advances in the.................... of diseases.
a.
cause
b.
prevention
c.
harm
d.
survival
7. N o.....................has been found for cancer.
a.
prevention
b.
survival
c.
exercise
a.
8. Cancer is a .....................disease.
a.
killing
b.
c.
dead
d.

cure
death
kill

9. The doctor.....................him to give up smoking, but he didnt quit


a.

applied

b.

persuaded

c.

prevented

d.

pleased

10. She is a bit overweight, so the doctor advises her to go on


a .....................
a.

treatm ent

b.

prevention

c.

diet

d.

cure

11. If you didnt .....................rid of smoking, your health would be


affected.
a.

go

b.

get

c.

make

d.

take

12. In recent years we have.................... good advances in finding a


cure for pneumonia.
a.

got

b.

done

c.

made

d.

brought

13. If we built more hospital, we could.................... better care of


people.
a.

get

b.

do

c.

take

d.

give
87

14. Medicine has little help to.................... to those who can't give
up their bad habits.
a.

apply

b.

persuade

c.

cure

d.

offer

15. The scientists have.................... out the cause of the new disease
a.

got

b.

made

c.

found

d.

killed

16. Prevention is better than even the most expensive methods of


a.

treatm ent

b.

remedy

c.

medicine

d.

preparation

17. If smokers stopped smoking, their health would b e ....................


a.

prevented

b.

improved

c.

harmed

d.

reduced

18. Heart disease, cancer, and pneum onia.....................more deaths


than other diseases.
a.

bring

b.

make

c.

cause

d.

kill

19. Wh e rf the disease becomes serious, people with hear disease


may need a.....................
a.

treatment

b.

surgery

c.

cure

d.

remedy

20. The doctors wise decision helped.....................the patients life.


a.

keep

b.

cure

c.

cause

d.

save

Exercise 16
1. Making a decision now is great.....................
a.

im portant

b.

im portantly

c.

import

d.

im portance

2. It is very.....................of him to cheat in the exam.


a.

honest

b.

dishonest

c.

honesty

d.

dishonesty

88

3. These m en.................... survived the crash.


a.

miraculous

b.

miracle

c.

miraculously

miracles

4. Jack London was an Am erican....................


a.

writer

b.

writing

c.

written

d.

wrote

5. The doctor.....................him that there was nothing seriously


wrong with his health.
a.

reassurance

b.

reassured

c.

reassuring

d.

reassuringly

6. I dont think I am .................... of doing it.


a.

capability

b.

capabilities

c.

capable

d.

capacity

7. The film give u s.....................insight into life in Brazil. Its worth


seeing!
a.

valuable

b.

unvaluable

c.

value

d.

evaluate

8. We were very amazed at the.................... of the Great Barrier


Reef.
a.

beautiful

b.

beautifully

c.

beautify

d.

beauty

9. He was so.....................that he had an accident.


a.

caring

b.

careless

c.

careful

d.

carefully

10. The child was ill due to vitamin........... .........


a.

deficient

b.

deficiency

c.

deficiently

d,

deficit

11. Staying here is.....................I am feeling sick!


a.

discomfort

b.

uncomfortable

c.

com forting

d.

comfortably

12. It is unreasonable to consider any language as the


of nay particular nation.
a.

possess

b.

possession

c.

possessive

d.

possess
89

13. Proper.....................for career choices should be given to children


both at home and school.
a.

guided

b.

guidance

c.

guide

d.

guider

14. The dog made no effort to communicate its.....................to the


man.
a.

apprehension

b.

apprehensive

c.

apprehend

d.

apprehended

15. Farmers can enrich the soil by using.....................


a.

fertile

b.

fertility

c.

apprehend

d.

apprehended

16. For cancer treatm ent,.................... cells must be killed.


a.

disease

b.

diseased

c.

diseases

d.

a disease

17. My brother has been a brain.................... for ten years.


a.

surgery

b.

surgeons

c.

surgeon

d.

surgical

18. Children should b e .................... to realize their full potential.


a.

discouraged

b.

encourage

c.

encouraged

d.

courage

19. This isolated area i s .................... only by the helicopter.


a.

inaccessible

b.

access

c.

accessing

d.

accessible

20. Although we live far away from each other, we always


rem ain.....................friends.
4

a.

intimacy

b.

intimate

c.

intimidate

d.

intim ately

Exercise 17
1. This sort behavior will not b e .....................

90

a.

tolerate

b.

tolerated

c.

tolerance

d.

tolerant

2.

T h e.....................of carbon

dioxide

into

the

atmosphere

responsible for environmental pollution in this area.


a.

emission

b.

emitted

c.

emissaries

d.

emit

3. The hotel is famous for its.................... arranged rooms.


a.

attractive

b.

attracted

c.

attractively

d.

attraction

4. I w asnt .....................on going to the party last night.


a.

keenness

b.

keenly

c.

keen

d.

keenest

5. Life her is very.....................


a.

peaceful

b.

peace

c.

peacefully

d.

peacefulness

6. You can.....................your knowledge by reading newspaper.


a.

richly

b.

enrichment

c.

rich

d.

enrich

7. My son has given a great deal of.................... to his future job.


a.

thoughtless

b.

thoughtful

c.

thought

d.

think

8. The most important thing is to keep yourself....................


a.

occupation

b.

occupied

c.

thought

d.

think

9. Hundreds o f.....................have been involved in the research.


a.

scientists

b.

science

c.

scientific

d.

scientifically

10. The animals huddles together for....................


a.

warmth

b.

warmly

c.

warmed

d.

warm

11. The m ore.......................... an even is, the better it will be


remembered.
a.

signify

b.

significance

c.

significantly

d.

significant

12. The authorities are discu. s;ng the w orry in g ....................issues


in the area.
a.

environmentalists

b.

environmental

c.

environment

d.

environm entally

13. Be patient. D ont .................... to learn a foreign language in a


week.
a.

expect

b.

expectation

c.

expectant

d.

expected

14. The custom was said to be a matter of.....................


a.

convenient

b.

convenience

c.

conveniently

d.

convene

15. Cheer up! You look.................... !


a.

disappoint

b.

disappointing

c.

disappointment

d.

disappointed

16. Women usually dont shake hands when b e in g .....................each


other.
a.

introduced

b.

naturally

c.

introducing

d.

introducer

17. Carbon dioxide occurs in the air in .....................form.


a.

nature

b.

naturally

c.

natural

d.

naturalness

18. The.....................o f these swamps will destroy the mosquitoes


breeding place.
a.

recycled

b.

cecycling

c.

recyclable

d.

recycle

19. T h e.....................of these swamps will destroy the m osquitoes


breeding place.
a.

drain

b.

drained

c.

drainage

d.

drainedly

20. Most major


automobiles.

92

cities

are large.....................

of industry

concentration

b.

concentrated

c.

concentrations

d.

concentrating

and

Exercise 18
1. I think their injuries need medical....................
a.

treatment

b.

treated

c.

treatable

d.

untreated

2. Nowadays people may no longer suffer from lifetime physical


a.

abnormal

b.

normal

c.

normally

d.

abnormalities

3. They have been working very hard in.................... for the


upcoming exams.
a.

prepared

b.

preparation

c.

preparatory

d.

prepares

4. I dont know what I am going to do after leaving school,


a.

uncertain

b.

certainty

c.

certain

d.

certainly

5.......................for

government

posts

are

always

thoroughly

investigated before admitted.


a.

Apply

b.

Applications

c.

Applied

d.

Applicable

6. Nowadays, chemicals are.................... into some fruits to reduce


decay.
a.

injection

b.

injecting

c.

inject

d.

injected

7. D ont believe him. He is always.................... friendly.


a.

superficiality

b.

superficial

c.

superficially

d.

facial

8. I have.....................touch with my father for a long time.


a.

loss

b.

lost

c.

loose

d.

lossen

9. M any students in my class expressed a strong.....................


a.

preferring

b.

preference

c.

preferable

d.

preferential

93

10. Not being able to pass his examination proved a n .....................


to his career.
a.

ease

b.

obstacle

c.

exchange

d.

opportunity

11. We are very.....................about our chances of success.


a.

afraid

b.

keen

c.

familiar

d.

sanguine

12. She viewed th e.....................of unemployment after leaving


school and felt very worried.
a.

prospect

b.

chance

c.

need

d.

benefit

13. He is very.....................He is always willing to help every body.


a.

mean

b.

poor

c.

generous

d.

selfish

14. High school students should b e.....................for employment


before leaving school.
a.

well-made

b.

well-spoken

c.

well-done

d.

well-prepared

15. The.....................o f the moon for the earth causes the tides.
a.

attract

b.

attracted

c.

attractive

d.

attraction

16. Your bad result made m e.....................


a.

disappoint

b.

disappointm ent

c.

disappointed

d.

disappointing

17. It has been proved.....................that the unem ploym ent rates


are increasing.
a.

statistic

b.

statistics

c.

statistical

d.

statistically

18. She has made an.....................for the job as a nursery teacher


because she likes children.

94

a.

apply

b.

applicant

c.

application

d.

applicated

19. Daisy has been out of work for 3 months. She stays at home
and does the housework....................
a.

disappoint

b.

disappointed

c.

disappointedly

d.

disappointing

20. When he was young, he was very keen.................... playing


sports to keep him self fit.
a.

at

b.

on

c.

in

d.

of

Exercise 19
1. T o.....................to obey orders is a serious offence in the army.
a.

disagree

b.

deny

c.

ignore

d.

refuse

2. Could you lend me some money? Im very.....................of cash at


the moment.
a.

down

b.

scarce

c.

short

d.

empty

3. The president.....................his intention to retire before the next


election.
a.

announced

b.

told

c.

informed

d.

promised

4. W hen there are small children around, it is better to put


breakable ornam ents out of....................
a.

reach

b.

hand

c.

hold

d.

place

5. The gunm an.....................the pilot of the place to change


direction.
a.

demanded

c.

controlled

b.

made

d.

forced

6. After his long absence from school he found it difficult to


up with the rest of his class.
a.

catch

b.

take

c.

made

d.

work

95

7. Im going t o .....................my dress dry-cleaned.


a.

have

b.

make

c.

send

d.

take

8. He was clearly nervous; he was sitting right on th e.....................


of his chair.
a.

outside

b.

tip

c.

border

d.

edge

9. He went to b ed ......................very ill.


a.

felt

b.

feeling

c.

feels

d.

having felt

10. You cant have this football b a c k .....................you promise not


to kick it at my cat again, the old lady said firmly.
a.

until

b.

when

c.

while

d.

though

11. He.....................me to take a lawyer to court with me.


a.

advised

b.

suggested

c.

threatened

d.

insisted

12. She isnt.....................well with the new manager.


a.

getting on

b.

going on

c.

keeping on

d.

taking on

13. I had to give ea full.....................of camera when I reported it


stolen.
a.

account

b.

detail

c.

information

d.

description

14. The President made a wonderful.....................


a.

message

b.

talk

c.

lecture

d.

speech

15. She came in quietly.....................not to wake the baby.


a.

as if

b.

so as

c.

such as

d.

if so

16. He often.....................about his expensive car.

96

a.

praises

b.

shows

c.

boasts

d.

prides

17. W ould you b e .....................to hold the door open?


a.

too kind

b.

kind enough

c.

as kind

d.

so kind

18. You may borrow as many books as you live, provided you show
them t o .....................is at the desk.
a.

whoever

b.

who

c.

whom

d.

which

19. You must be careful when you wash this.................... silk blouse
a.

weak

b.

sensitive

c.

delicate

d.

feeble

20. Mr and Mrs Hudson are always.................... with each other


about money.
a.

annoying

b.

arguing

c.

discussing

d.

shouting

Exercise 20
1. Could y o u .....................me the way to the nearest post-office?
a.

describe

b.

show

c.

point

d.

direct

2. Children love visiting the.................... because they can see many


animals there.
a.

park

b.

museum

c.

theatre

d.

zoo

3. In the.....................at Giang Vo, many kind of goods are displayed


and sold.
a.

gallery

b.

theatre

c.

exhibition

a.

market

4. Hamlet is one of the best.................... by Shakespeare.


a.

performances

b.

plays

c.

concerts

d.

books

5. M y m o th e r.....................a very beautiful cake for me on my 16th


birthday.
a.

did

b.

formed

c.

made

d.

cooked
97

6. Peter had a b ad.....................yesterday and his knees still hurt


now.
a.

fall

b.

fell

c.

falling

d.

fallen

7. I sat in the.....................compartment because I cannot put up


with the smoke o f cigarettes.
a.

smoker

b.

non-smoking

c.

smoking

d.

not smoking

8. He has stayed in the hospital for several weeks. His health is


still not in a good.....................now.
a.

condition

b.

status

c.

mood

d.

feeling

9. I bought a lot of.................... for my friends when I was on holiday


a.

experiences

b.

memories

c.

souvenirs

d.

photographs

10. Halong Bay is one o f the most fam ous.....................in Vietnam


a.

beauty spots

b.

seasides

c.

cities

d.

stays

11. It is difficult to give a speech without.....................


a.

preparation

b.

prepare

c.

preparatory

d.

prepared

12. Im looking for ward to.....................your letter.


a.

receiving

b.

received

c.

receipt

d.

receiver

13. He spent a lot of m oney.....................the house.


a.

modernizing

b.

modernize

c.

to modernize

d.

modernized

14. My cousin as worked for a .....................circus.


a.

travel

b.

traveler

c.

traveling

d.

traveler

15. Mr. Foresters forefathers were the.....................of the American.

98

a.

found

b.

founders

c.

foundation

d.

founded

The teacher said that running in the corridor w as....................


a.

dangerous

b.

dangerless

c.

danger

d.

dangerously

We can have another.................... about this problem.


a.

discussion

b.

discussing

c.

discuss

d.

discussed

!. I studied there is m y....................


a.

childlike

b.

childhood

c.

childless

d.

childbirth

). He doesnt like making friends with anybody. He is a


.....................stranger.
a.

friendless

b.

friendship

c.

friendly

d.

freindliness

). Chocolate, butter and yaourt among the.....................from milk.


ir a.
c.

produce

b.

products

production

d.

productive

xercise 21
I dont .....................locking the door.
a.

rem em ber

b.

forget

c.

rem ind

d.

accept

A .....................is being offered for information leading to the


arrest o f the bank robber.
a.

reward

b.

prize

c.

notice

d.

repayment

The traveled to Spain by the m ost.....................route.


a.

easy

b.

direct

c.
straight
d.
unique
. Its time w e.....................away with our old-fashioned prisons.
a.
c.

did
have done

b.
d.

do
shall do

. The President made a wonderful.....................


a.

m essage

b.

talk

c.

lecture

d.

speech
99

6. There was n o.....................in waiting longer than half an hour n


we left.
a.

good

b.

point

c.

worth

d.

use

7. M any countries.....................to complete in the 1992 Olympics.


a.

denied

b.

protested

c.

refuse

d.

rejected

8. The population o f the town can be divided into three main


a.

lists

b.

gangs

c.

groups

d.

tribes

9. Most sports.....................team-work.
a.

imply

b.

involve

c.

apply

d.

infer

10. My passport....'................ . so I will have to get a new-one.


a.

elapsed

b.

expired

c.

ended

d.

term inated

11. The usual reason for exemption from tax odes n ot................... icj
this case.
a.

apply

b.

impose

c.

regard

d.

concern

12. The W orld Bank has criticized Britain for not giving enough
financial.....................to developing countries.
a.

allowance

b.

aid

c.

loan

d.

provision

13. The government made serous attempts to raise th e..................


of living.
a.

standard

b.

cost

c.

level

d.

mode

14. His m others illness had placed him under a considerable,


a. tension

b.

strain

c.

d.

worry

100

stress

5. There is a lot o f Friendly.................... between the supporters ol


the two teams.
a.

contest

b.

rivalry

c.

contention

d.

defiance

6. He did not share his secrets with many people but


he.....................in her.
a.

confessed

b.

concealed

c.

consented

d.

confided

7. My throat infection left me very.................... and made talking


difficult.
a.

hoarse

b.

dumb

c.

inarticulate

d.

speechless

8. One way o f cutting down waste is to.................... such things as


glass and paper.
a.

repeat

b.

renew

c.

recycle

d.

redirect

.9. After a quick.....................at the patient the doctor rang for an


ambulance.
a.

glance

b.

stare

c.

gaze

d.

glimpse

20. That m inisters .....................of party politics.


a.

disgust

b.

objection

c.

dislike

d.

opposition

Exercise 22
1. W ould you like a single room or.................... room?
a.

two

b.

second

c.

couple

d.

double

2. A pharm acist ca n .....................a new drug.


a.

com pare

b.

commit

c.

com pound

d.

commune

3. If you work with people, you need judgm ent and.....................


a.

attack

b.

contact

c.

tact

d.

attract
101

........ ior dam age causei

4. The m anufacturers disclaim all


by misuse.
a.

possibility

b.

responsibility

c.

ability

d.

implicitly

5. Herbs have m edicinal...........


a.

properties

b.

exam inations

c.

possession

d.

businesses

6. Union is.....................
a.

length

b.

width

c.

depth

d.

strength

7. This pharmacist is.................

with the storage of dangerous

drugs. He keeps them safe.


a.

treated

b.

dispensed

c.

compounded

d.

entrusted

8.......................sure that you will take good care of these pets.


a.

Do

b.

Make

c.

Feel

d.

Show

9. By the way, can I................... ,a suggestion?


a.

make

b.

tell

c.

do

d.

talk

10. I.................... mathematics w'ell I was at high school.


a.

did

b.

made

c.

felt

d.

lost

11. These children look..............


a.

health

b.

healthy

c.

healthful

d.

healthily

12.......................in an exact discipline.


a.

Science

b.

Scientific

c.

Scientific

d.

Scientifically

13. The population in Vietnam has

................ to 80million.

a.

inflated

b.

increased

c.

inquired

d.

injured

102

14. These brave soldiers are always ready to.................... their


country from the enemy.
a.

cancel

b.

delay

c.

protest

d.

protect

15. W hen a m ans .................... stops beating, he dies.


a.

heart

b.

head

c.

eye

d.

bone

16. Happy Birthday is the m ost.................... song.


a.

useful

b.

unexpected

c.

popular

d.

unknown

17. When one begins to jog, he should start.....................and build


up gradually.
a.

fast

c.

hard

b.

slowly
easily

18. We do exercise to keep the.

.... lit.

a.

body

mind

c.

strength

brain

19. He usually drives at the....

.of 70 miles per hour,

a.

level

beach

c.

speech

speed

20. Can you please give me a ..

.... of paper,

a.

tube

bar

c.

sheet

pair

Exercise 23
1. W hen he was a boy he felt great.................... for his uncle.
a.

marvel

b.

wonder

c.

admiration

d.

pleasure

2. The fans.....................when their team scored a goal.


a.

shouted

b.

laughed

c.

cheered

d.

called

3. We m ust.......... our pounds for dollars before going to New York.


a.

change

b.

convert

c.

turn

d.

exchange
103

4. I w ill.....................you this book if you promise to return it next


to

week.
a.

offer

b.

lend

c.

borrow

d.

allow

5. Tin will only melt under.................... heat.


a.

high

b.

intense

c.

severe

d.

serious

6. How can I sleep when you.................... so much noise?


a.

made

b.

have made

c.

are making

d.

were making

7. We hadnt quite reached the gate.....................Jane fell.


a.

when

b.

that

c.

which

d.

than

8. You promised her a letter, you ought to.....................days ago.


a.
t

c.

awrite

b.

be writing

d.

be written

have written

9.,,T^e*bicycle he lent me badly needed.....................


a.

to clean

b.

clean

c.

cleaning

d.

to be cleaning

10. I think Sally is quite....................... her sister.


a.

as pretty

b.

as pretty than

c.

as pretty as

d.

prettier

11. The reporter......................to get his story in before the


deadline.
a.

reached

b.

managed

c.

arrived

d.

controlled

12. Joe promised us he would finish by the........................day.


a.

previous

b.

prescription

c.

tomorrow

d.

following

13. After a meal in a restaurant, you ask the waiter for th e........
a.

bill

b.

prescription

c.

receipt

d.

recipe

104

14. In may way she................... me of someone I knew at school.


a.

remembers

b.

reminds

c.

recalls

d.

resembles

15. Its time h e....................... a wife.


a.

seeks

b.

find

c.

found

d.

discovered

16. Oh, no! My wallet has been,


a.

robbed

b.

picked

c.

stolen

d.

theft

17. We watched the at.................... the tree.


a.

climbed

b.

climb

c.

head climbed

d.

was climbing

18. Well, we did have a terrible row but were....................... it up


now.
a.

turned

b.

cleaned

c.

sorted

d.

made

19. I do not believe that this preposterous scheme is.......................


of our serious consideration.
a.

worthless

b.

worth

c.

worthwhile

d.

worthy
...........of both yourself and

20. This document requires the....


your spouse.
a.

witness

b.

signature

c.

identity

d.

authority

Exercise 24
1. From the hotel their is a good...
a.

vision

b.

view

c.

sight

d.

picture

2. Im sorry, I havent got...............

.change. W hy dont you try

the bank?
a.

some

b.

lots

c.

any

d.

all

105

3. If it....................... fine, I shall go out.


a.

was

b.

is

c.

were

d.

will be

4. We have......................of time to catch the train so theres no


need to rush.
a.

very much

b.

enough

c.

great deal

d.

plenty

5. I cant m ake....................... whats happening.


a.

away

b.

out

c.

do

d.

over

6. Hes left his book at home; hes always so......................


a.

forgetting

b.

forgotten

c.

forgettable

d.

forgetful

7. Driving a car with faulty brakes is........................quite a risk.


a.

putting

b.

setting

c.

taking

d.

being

8. Dinner will be ready soon. Can you please........................the


table?
a.

lay

b.

settle

c.

talking

d.

being

9. A sm all....................... of students was waiting outside the class


to see the teacher.
a.

gang

b.

crowd

c.

team

d.

group

10. Jenny and her sister are so......................they could alm ost bet
wins.
a.

likeness

b.

alike

c.

same

d.

the same

11. He went to Australia hoping to find a teaching........................


without too much difficulty.
a.

wTork

b.

occupation

c.

em ployment

d.

post

106

12. W ell play tennis and....................... well have lunch.


a.

then

b.

immediately

c.

straight away

d.

so

13. I hope hes....................... to buy some bread; there hardly any


left.
a.

reminded

b.

proposed

c.

suggested

d.

remembered

14. That accused m an....................... to give the police any more


information.
a.

objected

b.

denied

c.

refuse

d.

disliked

15. Take the num ber 7 bus and get....................... at Forest Road.
a.

up

b.

down

c.

outside

d.

off

16. There is n o........................in going to school if youre not willing


to learn.
a.

reason

b.

aim

c.

point

d.

purpose

17. She com plained....................... when she heard that she had to
work on Sunday.
a.

severely

b.

bitterly

c.

extrem ely

d.

terribly

18. For along time after the accident, he suffered from constant
in his back.
a.

hurt

b.

ache

c.

pain

d.

injury

19. The policem an......................me the way.


a.

told

b.

said

explained

d.

directed

20. It was a very beautiful cloth......................from silk.


a.

composed

b.

worn

c.

woven

d.

threaded

107

Exercise 25
1. Shall w e......................all this awful wallpaper and paint the room
instead?
a.

rip

b.

scratch

c.

strip

d.

tear

2. I feel........................of his being able to buy a new car.


a.

jealous

b.

greedy

c.

mean

a.

angry

3. He said the government would do its best to........................the


problem of unemployment.
a.

decide

b.

answer

c.

solve

d.

relax

4. The rocket went into......................round the moon.


a.

track

b.

orbit

c.

path

d.

circle

5. The officer said he had a good......................to arrest the beggar.


a.

mind

b.

head

c.

heart

d.

spirit

6. She said she liked dancing but was not in the........................for it


just then.
a.

mood

b.

frame

c.

opinion

d.

manner

7. You can not see the doctor......................you have made an


appointment with him.
a.

even

b.

unless

c.

however

d.

without

8. You should......................to your uncle for being rude to him.


a.

forgive

b.

apologise

c.

excuse

d.

regret

9. She has bee working so hard she feels quite......................


a.

wasted

b.

empty

c.

exhausted

d.

dull

108

10. I wish it would......................raining.


a

end

b.

close

c.

stop

d.

rest

1 1

*.

orge took....................... of the fine weather to do days work in

his garden.
a.

chance

b.

interest

c.

advantage

d.

charge

12.

She cleans her room once a week, and the jo b ......................her

two hours.
a.

spends

b.

takes

c.

passes

d.

continues

13. Y ouve had a nasty fall, but I dont think youve.....................


any bones.
a.

broken

b.

burst

c.

loosen

d.

split

14. In my m others ......................it is essential to eat a big breakfast.


a.

opinion

b.

idea

c.

confidence

d.

principle

15. He poured the tea from his cup into his......................and then
drank it.
a.

dish

b.

pan

c.

saucer

d.

plate

16. He decided to sell his farm and......................a fresh start in


business.
a.

open

b.

make

c.

take

d.

lead

17. Shes not really poor; she ju st......................to be poor.


a.

invents

b.

acts

c.

pretends

d.

imagines

18. Betty is quite......................of cooking a meal for twelve people.


a.

clever

b.

expert

c.

efficient

d.

capable

10!

19. He was last seen

in public on the

of his daughters

wedding.
a.

event

c.

change

b.

occasion

d.

affair

20. If youve got time for a cup of tea, Il l ......................one for you.
a.

make

b.

mix

c.

boil

d.

give

, B. W O R D F O R M S
Fill each gap with the correct form o f the word in brackets.

Exercise 1
1. It is.....................that you missed the meeting, (fortune)
2. Her rudeness was m ost.....................(regret)
3. I dont want any.....................from you. (interfere)
4. He died a .....................death, (glory)
5. It i s .....................even to think of the horrors o f nuclear war.
(fright)
6. The disappearance of the aircraft rem ains.....................(explain)
7. Shes quite.....................: She plays the flute and the piano.
(music)
8. He w as.....................when he did the test badly, (hope)
9. We started our tip on a beautiful.....................morning, (sun)
10. I enjoyed the book very much because it was so.....................
(read)

Exercise 2
1. Alisons .....................made it hard for her to speak in public.
(shy)
2. My car is much too.....................to take on a long journey, (re ly )

110

3. He was too....................

to tell his teacher about the stupid

mistake, (shame)
4. To his great loss his wife died in.................... when he was only
24 years old. (ch ild )
5. I.....................this morning, and was late for school, (sleep)
6. A holiday in Am erican can be.................... cheap, (surprise)
7. He said good morning in a m ost.................... way. (friend)
8. My teacher.....................me to take this examination, (courage)
9. Recently nutritious foods have increased in .....................
(popular)
10. The old lady his all her.................... under the floor (save)

Exercise 3
1. This knife is very blunt. It needs.................... (sharp)
2. I would like to book a .................... to HongKong. (fly)
3. Im afraid this iron you sold me is.................... (fault)
4. We have had a lot o f.................... from customers today.
(complain)
5. Please make your.....................at the counter over there, (pay)
6. Unless som ething is done about unemployment, t h e .....................
for the future is not good, (look)
7. He was given a light sentence because of his.................. (young)
8. I am tired o f your.....................behaviour. When are you going to
grow up? (c h ild )
9. You could hardly think she has tw o.................... girls. She just
looks so young, (teen)
10. She divorced him because of his.....................to the children.
(kind)

Exercise 4
1. The evening w as.....................spent playing and talking, (e n jo y )
2. The keys were locked inside the c a r ,....................., a side window
was open (luck)

111

3. He was turned down for the job because he was not.....................


(q u a lify )
4. In parts of the country the.................... situation is terrible. As
many as 20% o f the working population is without a job.
(employ)
5. The world o f computer is extrem ely.................... (complete)
6. The government is expected to take.....................against the
level o f unemployment, (act)
7. He was very.....................of the work he had done, (pride)
8. There has been a .....................of 10% in the amount of money
available for buying new books, (reduce)
9. He is interested in the.................... of old buildings, (preserve)
10. The manager handed in his.................... after being accused of
dishonesty, (resign)

Exercise 5
1. The old fishing village is very.................... (picture)
2.......................is a very serious problem in many countries
(employ)
3. The.....................area of the city is not very attractive, (in d u stry )
4. The alpine.....................is very dramatic, (land )
5. M any.....................families have to live in hostels, (home)
6. Have you got m any.....................?
7. I had to check the wages in.................. to my norm al work, (add)
8. During his.....................the family lived in Cornwall, (c h ild )
9. It is usually forbidden to destroy.....................buildings, (h istory)
10. The old couple have saved a lot of money for their.....................
(retire)

Exercise 6
1. It was a com plete.....................due to poor planning, (fall)
2. It was very.....................of you to slam the door in his face.
(friend)

112

3. He cycled.................... and had an accident, (ca re)


4. Could you.....................the picture over the sofa? (stra ig h t)
5. Its hard to buy meat on the island but fish is....................
(p le n ty )
6. Ive only been to Bristol.................... before, and that was many
years ago. (on e)
7. My ear is much too.................... to take on a long journey, (rely)
8. In...................... Id like to thank the people who have helped me
while I have been working here, (c o n c lu d e )
9. She was sentenced to fort years.................... for manslaughter
(p r is o n )
10. There was a.....................silence when he mentioned his
ex-wifes name, (die)

Exercise 7
1. Every woman nowadays seems to want to lose....................
(w e ig h t)
2. It has become alm ost a.................... topic of conversation, (day)
3. Otherwise sensible women spend hours in argument bout what
to eat. (en d )
4. Newspaper articles are eagerly read
.....................carefully listened to. (avail)

and radio

and

TV

5. There is so much information.................... it is no wander people


get confused, (d is cu s s)
6. W omen who are sliming can never enjoy a meal without being
afraid of.....................their diet, (org a n iz e )
7. And when they have lost a few pounds are they really
any.....................? (h a p p y )
8. Is it really a fact of life that slim woman are the only really
....... ............. ones? (a ttra ct)
9. No, in some parts o f the world a husband would b e .................... to
be seen with a thin wife, (sh am e)
IQ Nevertheless, if a woman really has a slimming problem, there
is only one.....................to make: Eat Less (d e c id e )

113

Exercise 8
1.The weather was terrible, sow we had a very..................... holiday.
(p lea se)
2. Roy was dismissed after being told by his., that he must leave in
a m onths time, (e m p lo y )
3. Why was his lecture so.................... ? Perhaps he consulted his
papers so often, (b o re )
4. She always listens.....................to what she is old. (a tte n tio n )
5. He regularly w rites.....................for our newspaper, (p o e t)
6. He w as................ ....of the consequences in advance, (information)
7. She bites her nails all the time. It is a sign of....................
(n e rv o u s )
8. This coffee is too.....................drink (heat)
9.1 really dont think he has the.....................to do this job. (able)
IQThe professor explained his ideas with great..................... (clear)

Exercise 9
1. He was too..................... to tell his teacher about the stupic
mistake, (sh am e)
2. The police are interested in the sudden.....................
valuable painting, (a p p e a r)

of th(

3.1 believe you because I know you are.....................(tru th )


4.1 feel so.....................Im going to bed. (sleep )
5. The cost of.................... must be paid by the buyer, (c a r r y )
6. Theyre going to announce th e.....................of the Prince, (arrive'
7. They caught him by the wrist and led him away; he wen
w ithout.....................(resist)
8. His health was seriously
constant.....................(sleep )

affected

and

he

suffered

fror

9. She made no.....................to our conversation of the night before


(refer)
IQ She

was the

(a d m issio n )

114

only visitor.....................

into the

sick

roon

ixercise 10
.The explanation of the accident is very.................... (co n fu s e )
One o f th e.................... of English is that it is becom ing simpler
and simpler, (stro n g )
A right amount of calcium added to our food will help
to.....................our weak bones, (sold )
. In ancient Greece, the owl was a symbol of.................... (w ise)
. Laser beams can kill cancer cells while leaving the surroundings
ones.....................(h a rm )
5. Freedom o f.....................is one of the fundamental rights, (speak )
7. W hat old people fear most is.................... (lo n e ly )
1. He is a tall, brad and.................... (m u scle)
3. I cant work in here - its far too.................... (n oise)
IQ How are you? She asked.................... (sm ile)

Exercisc 11
1.1 am sorry about m y..................... . but I hate being kept waiting.
(p a tie n t)
2. Im looking for a .....................gift for an old lady (su it)
3. It was quite.....................to order so much food, (n e ce s sa ry )
4. The judge told him it was.................... to drink and drive, and
banned him for a year, (re s p o n s ib le )
5. This

poem

shows

the

wonderful.....................

of the

poet.

(se n sitiv e )
6. It was a .....................episode in the countrys history, (sh am e)
7. They celebrate their.....................on 4th July, (d e p e n d )
8. The gas from the chemical factory was extrem ely.....................
(h a rm )
9. The restaurant is now under new .....................(m a n a g e)
IQ The governm ent has planned to increase the rate of.....................
among young people, (e m p lo y )

115

Exercise 12
1. He has been constant in h is.................... to scientific studies.
(d e v o te )
2...................... to the school is by examination only, (a d m it)
3. He was turned down for the job because he is...................
(q u a lity )
4. It w as.....................o f Tom to accuse Bill of having told him a lie.
(ju s tice )
5. I understand.....................what you are saying, (p e r fe c t)
6. Janes.....................as director came as no surprise, (a p p oin t)
7. A holiday in America can be.................... cheap, (s u rp ris e )
8. T h e..................... of the Hollywood actor, Jim m y Halton, was
announced last night, (die)
9. My colleagues

are very pleasant, but the

m anager is a

little.....................(frie n d )
IQ These shoes look quite smart but theyre terribly.......(com fort)

Exercise 13
1. They were sent to an.....................run by nuns, (o r p h a n )
2. They man spoke with a .....................accent, (sou th )
3. Yesterday afternoon, there was a bank...................... in the city.
(rob )
4. There are......................with the old testament, (sim ila r)
5. He missed the.....................of his train by a minute, (d e p a rt)
6. The..................... was won in the last minute of the game.
(ch a m p io n )
7. Theyve ..................... my name on this from: the first letter is L
not R. (spell)
8. After I had got to know him better, I..................... him intensely.
(like)
9. It was very.....................of you to break that coffee cup. (ca re)
10.Thank you for your postcard. It was very..................... of you to
lend it. (th in k )

116

Exercise 14
[1. I like him because hes a very.................... person, (rely)
2. D ont be so.................... ; weve only been wait:'_ig for a few
minutes, (patient)
3. 7.30 a.m on a Saturday is a rather.................... time for an
appointment, (convenient)
4. Please dont be so.................... I cant do all the work by myself.
(reason)
5. There are always mistakes because the firm is so....................
(efficient)
6. Sorry about the mistake, I .................... the instructions you
gave me. (understand)
7........................ is an extremely popular hobby, (photograph)
8. There were 50.....................in the talent contest, (compete)
9. Young children are often very.................... They have so much
energy they cant sit still for a moment, (live)
IQ She was shocked to find out she had been.....................(adopt) ,

Exercise 15
1. Since..................... has been so poor the class is being closed.
(attend)
2. M agnets w ill.....................most metals, (attractive)
3. H is .....................has not improved much, (behave)
4. She is extrem ely.....................about the history of art. (k n ow )
5. The plane had to make a crash.................... in a field, (lan d )
6. There is some new .....................in the laboratory, (e q u ip )
7. Put the ice-cream in the.................... please, (fre e z e )
8. I had.....................in starting my car this morning, (d iffic u lt)
9. M ost British hom es have a ..................... of four television
channels, (c h o o s e )
10 She doesnt want to get fat, so she goes to the .....................
center every evening, (fit)

117

Exercise 16
1. We must take.....................before things get worse, (a ct)
2. She smiles so........... ........., doesnt she? (a ttra ct)
3. I had to.....................my speech as we had started late, (short)
4. The police are looking for a dangerous.....................(crime)
5. The train made a late.................... (d ep a rt)
6. Are they.....................pearls or are they real? (im ita te)
7. He owes his..................... largely to his sense of humour.
(p o p u la r)
8. She has an.....................command of the language, (im press)
9. As she is so..................... with her present job she has decided
to leave, (s a tis fa ctio n )
IQ What a very.....................old man he is. (learn )

Exercise 17
1. Theres some new ................ in the laboratory, (e q u ip )
2. Could you repeat that...............? (ex p la in )
3. He had a strange................ on his face (e x p re s s)
4. Put the ice-cream in the..............., please, (fre e z e )
5. Is there any m o r e .............about the accident?, (in fo rm )
6. You must read the................. to this book (in tr o d u c e )
7. I have a n ............... to a party tonight, (in v ite)
8. Are you going to the................. tomorrow? (m eet)
9. That................. is by Picassco? (p a in t)
IQ ................. .. is my favourite hobby? (p h o t o g r a p h )

Exercise 13
1. W hat time do you.....................start work? (use)
2. While walking in the mountains in North W ales, we came
across a .....................quarry, (use)
3. How

are

you

getting on with your.....................

Russian? (c o r r e s p o n d )

118

course in

4. There are ice on the pavement which made it very difficult to


walk as it was so.................... (slip)
5. The ..................... staff consists of

experienced jour-nalists.

(ed it)
6. He wanted a divorce because his wife had been....................
(fa ith )
7. I didnt
Know who it was - with a mask on, she was
com pletely..................... (r e c o g n iz e )
8. They have been allowed to train as doctors at a ....................
school, (m e d ic in e )
9. W omen began to gain.................... with make doctors in the 20th
century, (e q u a l)
IQ The Cotswolds is an area of great..................... in England.
(b e a u tifu l)

Exercise 19
1. He is a notorious.................... who robbed a bank yesterday.
(crim e )
2. It is forbidden to hunt for that kind of bird. It has been listed
as one o f the.....................specics. (d a n g er)
3. The weather was terrible, so we had a very.....................holiday.
(p lease)
4. The.....................of the new gust caused trouble to me. (a rriv e)
5........................ to the school is by examination only, (ad m it)

6. Although the police suspected him of the crime, since they


had no definite..................... that he was involved, they could
not arrest him. (p r o v e )
7. I spent m y..................... in the country, (ch ild )
8. After hours o f going from one hotel to another, w e.....................
found one which wras not fully booked, (even t)
9. The trouble with Mr Brown is that hes so..................... Once
minute he goes mad when you come late; the next he says
nothing. You never know where you are! (co n s is t)
IQ You cant wear those trousers, Sally. Theyre far too tight. You
look.....................in them, (r id ic u le )
119

Exercise 20
1. The manager handed in his.................... after being accused of
dishonesty, (re sig n )
2. The thief replaced the diamond with a .....................
(worth)

stone.

3........................ about the com panys future means that few people
wanted t invest money in it. (certain)
4. Simon admitted that his cruel joke was.....................(intend)
5. The refugees fo u n d .................... over the border, (safe)
6. All the courses..................... in January will finish in June.
(b e g in )
7. A letter should always end with the..................... of the writer.
(sign)
8. It is really quite..................... that we should have been at the
same college without having met before, (ordinary)
9. There

is

great.................... between

Hari

and

his

twin

brother, (sim ila r)


IQ With a good.....................of the criminal from witnesses, the
police were able to find him easily, (describe)

Exercise 21
1. The kings.....................organized a revolution, (oppose)
2. Their.....................has lasted a lifetime, (friend)
3. In many countries the.....................get the dole, (employ)
4. She left school with good.....................(q u a lifly )
5. D ont believe a word Tom says. Hes terrible..................... (lie)
6. This matter is very..................... Dont discuss it outside this
office (confidence)
7. Each member o f the group w orked..................... to achieve a
com mon aim, (sefe)
8. You

can

never be

sure

what he is

going

to

do.

Hes

babies

and

so.................... (p r e d ic t)
9. Shes very.....................and loves
toddlers, (m o th e r)

120

looking

after

IQ She received a lot of................... from her mother, (e n c o u r a g e )

Exercise 2 2
1. She bites her nails all the time. It is a sign of....................
(n e r v o u s )
2. This coffee is too.................... to drink, (heat)
3. I really dont think he has the.................... to do this job. (able)
4. The professor explained his ideas with great...............(clea r)
5.........................many houses have to be demolished to make ways
for the roads, (fo r tu n e )
6. So people are being.................... in the suburbs and have to
com mute to work, (h o u se )
7. This leads to more pressure being put on the....................
public transport system, (a d eq u a te)
8. But traveling by pubic transport is v e r y ..................... as there
are long delays, (a ttra ct)
9. T he..................... of the trains and the buses causes frustration
and annoyance, (fre q u e n t)
IQ The situation is so.................... in some cities now that it is
difficult to see any solution, (ch a os)

Exercise 23
1. Traveling in big cites is becoming m ore..................... everyday.
(tr o u b le )
2. Less

public

transport

is

now

available

because

of

the.....................o f staff, (sh ort)


3. Therefore the roads becom e.................... with private cars as
people drive to work. (Jam )
4. Because o f the volume of traffic local councils are forced to
give.....................for more roads t be constructed, (p e rm it)
5. Our journey took nearly five hours. It was m uch.....................
than Id thought, (far)
6. Jerem y has just got.................... to a girl hes known since he
was a boy. (e n g a g e )

121

7. Oscar had eaten so much that he had to..................... his belt.


(loose)
8. The dictionaries are with the other.................... books, (refer)
9. More and more young people want a university....................
(educate)
,
IQ Ke rescued a child from drowning and was given a medal for
h is .....................(brave)

Exercise 24
1. It is usually forbidden to destroy.....................building (h istory)
2. The old fishing village is very.....................(p ic tu r e )
3. I dont care what you say. I still think its very.....................not
to want to get married and have children, (n a tu re )
4. Artists are.....................people, (cre a te )
5. He examined the parcel....................., as he had no idea what it
could be (suspect)
6. There has been a..................... of 10% in the am ount o f money
available for buying new books, (reduce)
7. He is a very.....................carpenter, (sill)
8. H e..................... to hit me if I didnt hand over my money.
(threat)
9. Do you know what the.....................of the river, (d e e p )
IQ ....................., Im in favour of the plan, but there are still one or
two points that Im not entirely happy with, (base)

Exercise 25
1. A letter should always end with th e.....................of the writer.
(sign)
2. I would like to book a .....................to Paris, (fly)
3. The rule is not.....................in this case, (apply)
4. The price of the book
packing, (p ost)

is $10, including.....................

5. How are you getting on with your.....................


French? (c o r r e s p o n d )
122

and

course in

6. You are talking com plete.................... (sense)


7. He seemed to be quite.................... about the future, (h o p e fu l)
8. The ending of the detective novel seems highly....................
(p r o b a b le )
9. The berries are.....................Dont eat them, (p o is o n )
IQ He was very.....................of the work he had done, (p rid e )

Exercise 26
1. I look forward to .................... you. (see)
2. Ms Hong Nhung is a fam ous.................... (sing)
3........................ I came to the station just in time, (fo rtu n a te )
4. To tell the....................., I dislike that man. (tru e)
5. Theres n o.....................how he will react, (k n ow )
6. Dont you think it would be.................. to see a doctor? (sen se)

7. Stop

complaining!

There

are

many

children

much

less

than yourself, (fo rtu n e )


8. Ive know n..................... all my life. There have been times
when I couldnt even afford a loaf of bread, (h ard )
9. He became a .....................at the age of twenty-five, (m illion )
IQ Shes got very.....................parents, (w ealth )

Exercise 27
1. Its..................... to know that when we retire, we will receive a
very good pension, (co m fo rt)
2. I did a very stupid thing, but.................. nobody saw me. (lu ck )
3. Having our passports stolen was a r a t h e r ..................... start to
the holiday, (fo r tu n e )
4. Im .....................to have such good friends, (lu ck )
5. Id love to see you next week, but.................... it wont be
possible, (fo r tu n e )
6. She must be one of the .................... people I know. Thats the
fourth time her flat has been burgled this month, (lu ck y )

7. Even in a supposedly rich country like Britain, there are still


thousands o f people living in .................... (p o o r)
123

8. He is not above averge.................... (intelligent)


9. She is highly.....................womar

(education)

IQ B e..................... we cant afford to have children just yet.


(practice)

Exercise 28
1. Dont try to do things too quickly. Set yourself....................
targets, (real)
2. Our tomatoes are..................... nicely; theyll be ready to eat in
about a week, (ripe)
3. Look at this picture of Bill and his father-you can see
.....................clearly, cant you? (like)
4. Playing

for

the

national

team

for

the

first

time

was

an.....................experience for him. (forget)


5. T h is is not a good essay, said the lecture. I find your
argum ents..................... (convince)
6. It's a lovely old house, I agree, but can we afford to.....................
it? (modern)
7. In winter its important for farmer to provide food and.............
for their animals, (warm)
8. Pele..................... Ronaldo to take part in 2002 World Cup.
(courage)
9.........................is one of the qualities required of a social worker.
(flexible)
IQ Novelists are among the m ost.....................people in the w'orld.
(imagine)

Exercise 29
1.........................have been investigating seleniums role in the body
since 1957. (research)
2. Nicotine is responsible for the..................... effects of smoking.
(behave)
3. If you still feel ill after taking this treatment, you should see
a.....................(sp e cia l)
124

4. After her illness she started worrying that she w as....................


(weigh)
5. M any modern refrigerators never need to b e.................... (frost)
6. One day he would have to accept the.................... of one of his
heroes in public life, (resign)
7. After having drunk a
hom e.....................(stea d y)

lot

of

wine,

he

came

back

8........................ he failed the final exam (luck)


9. It is very.....................for you to go alone on the road at night.
(d a n g e r)
IQ Although he clearly knows that his business is.................... . he
still does that, (legal)

Exercise 30
1. The cost o f.....................to the show is reasonable, (admit)
2. My teacher is very.............about the history of V ietn am ?(know )
3. There's too m uch.....................in this world, (greedy)
4. She thinks that with a little.................... she can persuade her
husband to change his mind, (flatter)
5. He feels a great deal of.................... for the awful way he
behaved, (ashamed)
6. Its .....................to be laughed at in pubic, (humiliate)
7. Mr. Smith is a..................... person. If he says
something, you know that he will do. (depend)
8........................

will

do

there are black holes in space, (theory)

9. The results o f the first experiments are very....................


(promise)
.10 The sun and the moon are often................. in poetry, (person)

Exercise 31
1. She always listens.................... to what she is told, (attention)
2. In his family, he is a .................... child, (trouble)
3. There has been a ....................
(notice)

improvement in her writing.

125

4. The price of the house includes many existing..................... and


fittings, (fix)
5. It w as.....................o f me to mislead you like that, (fo r g iv e )
6. During his speech, he kept on .................... his tie. (straight)
7. The water in this area is.....................and should not be drunk.
(p u re)
8. A successful business needs good.....................(organize)
9. Alisons .....................made it hard for her to speak in public.
(shy)
IQ He drives very.....................so he som etimes has accidents.
(care)

Exercise 32
1. My friend is a keen am ateur.....................(nature)
2. Cattle and chickens are.....................animals (domestic)
3. The whales have not only suffered untold cruelty but now face
total.....................(exterminate)
4. Craigs old jacket was so.....................that he had to buy a new
one. (wear)
5. The ring was not valuable; in fact it was alm ost.....................
(worth)
6. He is very.....................in everything he does, (system)

7. Fruit.....................as it ripens (sweet)


8. M y brother lives in a .....................area, (knowledge)
9- >he is extrem ely.....................about art. (knowledge)
10 They were brought up to behave in a ..................... way in
public, (civilization)

Exercise 33
1. The audience burst into..................... at the end of the play.
(applaud)
2. How much does.....................of this club cost? (member)
3. What a very..................... old man he is! (learn)
4. The new film is.....................good, (exception)
126

5. He was too.................... to tell his teacher about the stupid


mistake, (sh am e)
6. Theres a ................... of styles for you to choose from, (v a rio u s)
7. He was very.....................when his cat was run over, (set)
8. He com pletely went o pieces after t h e ..............of his marriage.

(b rea k )
9. There was a heavy.................... yesterday afternoon which
completely ruined the church Garden Party, (p o u r)
10 Although the splitting o f the atom was one of the greatest
scientific..................... of this century, there are many people
who wish it had never happened, (break )

Exercise 34
1. You can always rely on Barbara, She is very ....................
(d e p e n d )
2. I think its very.....................of him to expect us to work over
time every night this week, (rea son )
3. W hat

lovely

painting!

Your

daughter

must

be

very...................... Mrs. Green, (art)


4. English is a ..................... easy language for Swedes to learn.
(c o m p a re )
5. Librarians spend a lot of tim e.................... books, (cla ss)
6. She made

no.....................to our conversation of the night

before, (re fe r)
7. She is one of the greatest.................... to appear in this theatre.
(p e r fo r m )
8. I w rote..................... letters of application, but got no reply.
(en d )
9. Burning coal is a n ..................... way of heating a house. Gas is
much cheaper, (e c o n o m y )
IQ There are very few ..................... places left on earth. M an as
nearly everywhere, (e x p lo re )

127

Exercise 35
1 She was shocked to find out she had been..................... (a d o p t)
2. They were sent to an.................... run by nuns, (o r p h a n )
3. My aunt is an.....................officer, (m ig ra te)
4. Yesterday afternoon, there was a b a n k ..................... in the city.
(rob )
5. There a r e .....................with the old testament, (sim ila r)
6. He missed the.....................of his train by a minute, (d e p a rt)
7. The ..................... was won in the last minute of the game.
(ch a m p io n )
8. It was com plete.....................due to poor planning, (fail)
9. Their.....................has lasted a lifetime, (frie n d )
IQ Could you.....................the picture over the sofa? (stra ig h t)

Exercise 36
1. That rule is not.....................in this case, (a p p ly )
2. I dont think Tom s getting too much sleep lately. His eyes are
terribly.....................(b lo o d )
3. English is a .......................... easy language for Swedes to learn.
(c o m p a r e )
4. Now, dont tell anyone else what Ive just told you. Remember,
its.....................(c o n fid e )
5. The recent hurricane caused.....................damage, (w id e )
6. The weather will be bright w ith................. showers, (o c c a s io n )
7. Most birds.....................in the winter, (m ig r a to r y )
8. He draws cartoons for a.....................magazine, (h u m o u r )
9. Do you have a .....................costume in your country? (n a tio n )
IQ W hat is th e.....................of the run way at this airport? (lon g)

Exercise 37
1. His behaviour alw ays.....................met at parties, (e m b a rra ss )
2. The new film is.....................good, (e x c e p tio n )
3. She felt a sense of.....................when her friend went to live
abroad, (lose)
128

4. You need a lot of.................... to be a teacher, (patient)


5. Im afraid you
(qualification)

arent

suitably.................... for

the

job.

6. Industrial robots work with far greater......................than most


men. (precise)
7. The Arm y tried unsuccessfully to.................... the Government.
(throw)
8. There was a heavy.................... yesterday afternoon
com pletely ruined the church Garden Party, (pour)

which

9. Although the splitting of the atom was one of the greatest


scientific.....................of this century, there are many people
who wish it had never happened, (break)
IQ The new .....................has certainly made things a lot easier in
the town centre since it has taken away all te through-traffic,
(pass)

Exercise 38
1. Thank you for your postcard, it was very.................... of you to
send it. (think)
2. After having drunk a
hom e.....................(steady)

lot

of

wine,

he

came

back

3........................ he failed the final exam, (luck)


4. It is very..................... for you to go alone on the road at night.
(danger)
5. Although he clearly knows that his business is..................... he
still does that, (legal)
6. The house is large but it is terribly..................... to live in.
(comfort)
7. This dictionary is so big but it is v e r y .....................(inform)
8. Its a nice

shop

and

the assistants

are

all police

and

very.....................(h elp )
9......................... is a time that is supposed to be free of worries.
(child)
IQ After several.....................attempts we have finally done it.
(succeed)
129

Exercise 39
1. Are you going to Germany on business or for....................?
(please)
2. Im bored. I need som e.................... in my life? (e x c ite )
3. Money does not always bring.................... (h a p p y )
4. That was a very.....................things to say. (h u rt)
5. It was a very.....................experience and it took a long time to
get over it. (u p set)
6. Thats one o f the m ost.....................stories Ive ever heard.
(d e p re ss)
7. Theres enough.....................in the world without people making
films about it. (sad)
8. Has the doctor given you anything for your.................... ?
(d e p re ss)
9. It was with a certain amount of..................... that he left.
(re lu cta n t)
IQ The food was rather..................... (d is a p p o in t)

Exercise 40
1. Travelling in big cities becom ing m ore..................... everyday.
(tro u b le )
2. Less public
transport is
the.....................o f staff, (short)

now

available

because

of

3. There for the roads becom e.....................with private cars as


people drive to work, (jam)
4. Because of the volume of traffic local councils are forced to
give.....................for more roads to be constructed, (p e rm it)
5........................ many houses have to be dem olished to make ways
for the roads, (fo rtu n e )
6. So people are being..................... in the suburbs and have to
commute to work, (h o u se )
7. This

leads

to

more

pressure

being

put

on

the

.....................public transport system, (a d e q u a te )


8. But traveling by public transport is very..................... as there
are long delays, (a ttra ct)
130

9. T h e.....................o f the trains and the buses causes frustration


and annoyance, (fre q u e n t)
IQ She is one o f the greatest.................... to appear ir. this theatre.
(p e r fo r m )

Exercise 41
1. Three firms are in ................. for the same contract, (co m p le te )
2. The USA is a land of.................... (im m ig ra te)
3. Going around the world in a hot fantastic.....................(a ch ie v e )

air balloon was a

4. Facing dangers and difficulties together is supposed to give


the

m embers

of

an

expedition

an

amazing

feeling

of.....................(co m p a n y )
5. To sail single-handed across the ocean takes both skill
and.....................(d e te rm in e )
6. They becam e..................... short of water so Jan had to make
her way down the steep path to the river with a bucket,
(d a n g er)
7. Modern farm animals and crops are result of centuries
of.....................breeding, (select)
8. My friend is a keen am ateur.................... (n a tu re)
9. Cattle and chickens are.................... animals, (d o m e s tic)
IQ The whales have got only suffered untold cruelty but now
face, total.....................(e x te rm in a te )

Exercise 42
1. The factorys.....................has increased considerably in the past
few years, (p u t)
2. I was late

for work this morning because

my car had

a.....................o n the motorway, (b rea k )


3. Im afraid youll have to see Mr. Pound. All matters concerning
finance are h is.....................(re sp o n d )
4. But how could you do it? Really, Ophelia. I feel quite
.....................of you! (asham e)

131

5. There was a lot of.................... this morning as work began on


the new supermarket, (a ctiv e)
6. It is.....................to take credit for other peoples ideas, (moral)
7. As the child's head went under the water for the third time, I
stood and w atched.................... to help. I couldnt swim.
(p o w e r )
8. Id love to come to your party but........................ I have to go
somewhere else (fo rtu n e )
9. Thousands of people turned up for the Pop Festival where the
big.....................was Bod Dylan, (a ttra ct)
IQ There was a sudden.................... of clapping and cheering as he
rose to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, (b u rst)

Exercise 43
1. He was charges with being an.....................to murder, (access)
2. There was quite a .................... crowd at the match, (re sp e ct)
3........................ is a profession of an accountant, (a c c o u n t )
4. We only need some information from an ..................... source.
(a u th o rity )
5. In the 18th century, weather forecast was not reliable because
forecasters o ft e n .....................the facts they got. (in te r p r e t)
6. Heavy rain and excessive use have.....................the soil, (poor)
7. At first nobody noticed the childs..................... They did not
know where he was then, (a p p ea r)
8. A n ..................... phenomenon always makes us embarrassed.
(ex p la in )
9. Hes looking.....................thinner, (a p p r e c ia te )
IQ He is an expert in technology. We call him a ....................
(te c h n iq u e )

Exercise 44
1. To m y....................., the monkey peeled a banana and offered it
to me. (am aze)
2. He finds history.....................but maths bring, (fa s c in a te )
132

3. It was along, slow film. I nearly died of.................... (b ore)


4. W here is the.................... to his shopping centre? (en ter)
5. It is im portant to keep ourselves healthy so that we can
always be vibrant a n d .................... (en erg y )
6. These birds have a .................... ability to find their way home
again, (n a tu re )
7. Will you accept.....................by cheque? (pay)
8. Switzerland
(m o u n ta in )

and

Austria

are

both.....................

countries

9. Playing tennis is one o f his favourite.................... (act)


IQ He suffered from constant.................... (sleep )

Exercise 45
1. You could see the poor dog.................... daily as the disease
spread through its body, (w ea k )
2. Cholera

is an.....................

and often fatal

disease in hot

countries (in fe c t)
3. All students have tried hard to pass the university....................
exam, (e n te r)
4. We must be careful not to do anything that m ight.....................
the economic recovery, (d a n g er)
5. Most o f the bodies were badly burned, m aking.....................
almost impossible, (id e n tify )
6. I don think you quite understand the..................... of our
financial problems, (se v e re )
7. Smoking for a long time will cause..................... diseases.
(r e s p ir e )
8. Fog is one o f the sailors .................... enemies, (die)
9. An increase in average temperature by only a few degrees
could cause environm ental problem s.....................(w o r ld )
IQ We do not..................... between our workers on the basic of
their background o f ethnic origin, (d iffe re n t)

133

Exercise 46
L People say that breast-feeding is better than bottle-feediuj
because its m ore.................... (n a tu re)
2. Australian is one o f the worlds m ain..................... o f wool
(p r o d u c e )
3. Many species of plants and animals
of7threatened w ith.................... (e x tin ct)
4

are

in

danger

The idea o f parachuting out of a plane makes m e....................


(te rrify )

5. I f ..................... conditions are right, it may be possible to see


this group of stars tonight, (a tm o s p h e re )
6. His main concern is to ensure his won political....................
(su rv iv e )
7. The disease causes thousands of.....................a year, (d ie)
8. These young people have.................... else to go. (w h e re )
9. If the rain gets any.................... w ell have to stop walking.
(bad )
IQ A ..................... white line (=line without spaces) in the middle
o f the road means no overtaking, (c o n tin u e )

Exercise 47
L Unfortunately, the army has proved..................... in protecting
the civilian population, (e ffe ct)
2. Some parts o f the world seem to be experiencing...................
changes (clim a te )
3. Smoking has
(re v e rs e )
4

caused.....................

damage

to

The..................... of a body in the undergrowth


murder enquiry, (d is c o v e r )

his

lungs

started a

5. Your essay contains too m uch...................... and not enough


discussion o f the issues, (d escribe.)
6. T h e..................... of the employees have university degrees.

(m a jor)
7. There are few absolute.................... in life, (c e r ta in

134

8. An application form will be sent to you on ..............(require)


9. Modern cosmology believes the universe came into....................
about fifteen billion years ago. (exist)
IQ The firm has
(represent)

tw o....................

in

every

European

city.

Exercise 48
1. Street-fights are an everyday.................... in this area of the city
(occur)
2. There has been n o.................... in that class-theyve had a
succession o f different teachers, (continue)
3........................ year is the time it takes for the earth to go round
the sun just over 365 days, (sun)
4. The trip to My Son Sanctuary
students.....................(expect)

lived

up

to

all

the

5. We offer you a..................... training in all aspects of the


business, (comprehend)
6. Both their..................... of production costs were hopelessly
inaccurate, (a ssess)
7. The brochure will be ready for....................
(public)
8. A

man

was

being

questioned

ii:

in September.

connection

with

his

girlfriends .....................(appear)
9. Her leg has been....................

for quite a while, and shell

probably need surgery on it. (trouble)


IQ Originally the builders gave me a price of 2000, but now they
say they.....................

and its going to be at least 3000.

(estimate)

Exercise 49
1. His parents were very....................
exam ination, (h a p p y )
2. Senior..................... officials
tomorrow, (g o v e rn )

will

when he failed his final


be

attending

meeting

135

3. The photographs of starving children made


.....................(sh o ck )

many people

4. T he.....................of getting all the answers correct is about one


in ten. (p r o b a b ly )
5. She wanted t work for
newspaper, (in flu e n c e )

a bigger

and

m ore....................

6. Many people are very concerned about the..................... of the


rainforests, (d e s tr o y )
7. I need som e.....................on which washing machine to buy.
(a d v ise )
8. The patient looks..................... enough after two weeks in
hospital, (h ea lth )
9. Her views on .....................have become more liberal over

the

past few years, (p o litic a l)


IQ Literary critics were in total.................... about the value of the
book, (d is a g re e )

Exercise 50
1. I looked in her face for som e....................., but she just stared at
me blankly, (r e s p o n d )
2. Their estimate of the cost of the project was extremely
.....................(a c c u r a te )
3. I have n o..................... of changing my plans just to fit in with
his. (in te n d )
4. The mother was very proud o her childrens good....................
(b e h a v e )
5. Crities said judges
(e sta b lish )

were

on the

side

of th e.....................

6. The girl couldnt have managed at college if she hadn't had an


.....................from my parents, (a llow )
7. Apparently John and Gabriel are..................... for us to use
their garden, (w illin g )
8. She

seems

to

regard

as...................... (in te r fe r e )

136

any

advice

and

help

from

me

9. The President made an unexpected.................... this morning


(announce)
IQ The book on global warning
very.....................(controversy)

published

last

year

was

Exercise 51
1. All the students are.................... to learn foreign languages at
school, (courage)
2. Id like to thank the staff for having shown such....................
(commit)
3. T he.....................value of this new method of analysis has still to
be proven, (predict)
4. Its pretty.....................that theyll turn up now - its nearly ten
oclock, (likely)
5. All the people are shocked by the mans..................... to see his
son (deny)
6. She takes her.......................
(responsible)

as

nurse

very

seriously.

7. In the past 10 years..................... measures have radically


reduced levels o f tooth decay in children, (prevent)
8. Im very sad that he has been.................... for what Ive done
for him. (grateful)
9. One o f the good things about teaching young children is
their.....................(enthuse)
IQ Public.....................about the disease is still a cause for concern
(ignore)

Exercise 52
1. The little boy found it hard to control his.....................(angry)
2. Sm all..................... in the country are hoping that the markets
will improve, (invest)
3. The project was a ..................... effort between the two schools.
(join)
4. There are now over four million people..................... in this
country, (employ)
137

5. Children need lots of....................


teachers, (courage)

from their parents and

6. The governm ents .................... to see that the protection of the


environm ent must be our first priority today is a great
tragedy, (refuse)
7. Y ouve got to try to keep.................... as you grow older, (act)
8. Its an extrem ely.....................cure for a headache, (effect)
9. This years harvest was one of the m ost..................... since the
record crop of 1985 (succeed)
IQ It isnt ..................... to expect people to work for

little

money, (real)

Exercise 53
1. We need to make the club..................... to a wider range of
people (attract)
2. The company has
(finance)

gone through

som e.....................

difficult

3. Wiliam W ilberforce campaigned fro the..................... of slavery.


(abolish)
4. Children w ith..................... parents often do better at school
than those without, (support)
5. It w as..................... for me to sleep because of the noise.
(possible)
6. The government are pressing for a m ore..................... social
policy, (progress)
7. A n ..................... is a person who has a special knowledge of
economics, (economy)
8. Daisy made a speedy.................. from the operation, (recover)
9. The old people often lead a life of great.....................(simple)
IQ The num ber of.................... in the com pany has trebled over
the past decade, (employ)

138

Exercise 54
1. He wants to work for a.................... when he leaves school.
(n ew s)
2. Perhaps its time for them to try a new course of....................
(treat)
3. Make sure you are given a ............... for everything you buy.
(re ce iv e )
4. There are a lot
(m e d ic in e )

of.................... books

in

the

city

library.

5. A ..................... is a person who is trained to prepare medicines


and who works in a hospital or shop, (p h a rm a cy )
6. The project has attracted considerable criticism from the
.....................community, (scie n ce )
7. Two million people in the country live in abject......................
(p o o r)
8. W ere hearing reports of the.................... rape and torture of
prisoners (sy stem )
9. Scientists have been.................... into possible cures for AIDS.
(r e s e a r ch )
IQ Our latest..................... is a magazine for health enthusiasts.
(p u b lish )

Exercise 55
1. Plant.....................

is most noticeable in

spring and early

summer, (g ro w )
2. The

president

had

a....................

reception

in

Ohio

this

morning, (h o s tility )
3. These

bacteria

are....................

unless

viewed

with

microscope, (v is ib le )
4. W hen preparing meals, you need to think about .....................
and taste as well as nutritional value, (vary)
5. The ..................... of last nights meal were still seen on the
table, (rem a in )
139

6. The..................... o f New Yorks skyscrapers is so impressive.


(high)
7. Their attempt to climb the mountain ended in .....................
(fail)
8. It was a long and..................... battle and many men were
killed, (blood)
9. Hes been a trade union.....................for many years, (act)
IQ Malnutrition in the region is.....................affecting up to 78% of
children under five years old. (spread)

Exercise 56
1. There has been a considerable..................... in traffic accidents
for the last two months in our country, (r e d u c e )
2. By the 1990s, m ost.....................in that city had a TV. (house)
3. T he.....................was traced to an oil pipe in the cellar, (leak)
4. The Japanese.....................more than half of their waste paper.
(cycle)
5. Sulphur dioxide is one of several.....................that are released
into the atmosphere by cola-fired power stations, (pollute)
6......................... chemistry is the scientific study of chemical
substances which do not contain carbon, (organic)
7. W eve go to be a bit m ore.....................in the way that we carry
out this task, (system)
8. Tom s father has an.....................background, (industry)
9. The forecast said that theres a ..................... of snow tonight.
(possible)
IQ President Ho Chi Minh is a great..................... leader of the
Vietnam ese people and a great man of culture of the world,
(revolution)

Exercise 57
1. My com puter makes a ................. low buzzing noise, (continue)
2. A ll..................... , no matter how small, will be much appreciate
(contribute)
140

3. Unemployment will be a.................... issue at the next election.


4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

(d o m in a te )
A decision was finally made after some heated....................
(a rg u e )
Terrorists have claim ed.................... for yesterdays bomb
attack, (r e s p o n s ib le )
Environment protection has been a problem of....................
concern (g lo b e )
In..................... to his house^in London, he has villa in Paris.
(add)
He is self-em ployed as he find working lor other people
too.....................(re s trict)
The magazine offers tips on cutting your house....................
costs (m a in ta in )

IQ I bought this com puter on my uncles ................(re c o m m e n d )

Exercise 58
1. With recent scientific progress, .................... into new areas of
research is possible, (e x p a n d )
2. Children are allowed much more.................... these days, (free)
3. A balanced diet is essential for healthy.....................(g ro w )
4. In 19th century Britain, industries became concentrated in
particular.....................(local)
5. Doubts about the governments policies are being expressed
even by people who have been.................... of the government
in the past (s u p p o r t)
6. I am pleased to announce the....................

of the History

Department by three new teachers, (large)


7. The two countries have had.................... claims against each
other, (te r r ito r y )
8. We need to consider this very serious issue in its.....................
(tota l)
9. Her actions

were

quite....................

in the circumstances.

(ju stify )
IQ The judge didnt believe his.................... that he had stolen the
money in order to give it to charity, (e x p la in )

141

Exercise 59
1. Bees.....................the flowers by bringing pollen, (fe rtile )
2. She was depressed and felt totally.................... about the future.
(h o p e )
3

is the study of how, in all living things, the


characteristics and qualities of parents are given to their
children by their genes, (gen e)

to our advertisement have been disappointing.


(re s p o n d )

5. The armys.....................to intervene in politics rem ains strong.


(p o te n tia l)
6. Its not likely to happen but I wouldnt rule out the....................
(p o s s ib le )
7. The im provem ent in sales figures had a ..................... influence
on the com pany as a whole, (b e n e fit)
8. He put too m uch..................... on the door handle and it
snapped, (p ress)
9. A number o f patients have been..................... treated with the
new drug, (s u c c e e d )
IQ Scientists are hoping for a .....................in the search for a cure
for cancer, (b re a k )

Exercise 60
Its a marvelous idea for children to do some cooking at an early
age. Generally (1) (s p e a k )...................... most children

cant wait

to help in the kitchen and love getting involved in the (2)


(p r e p a r e ).....................o f

their

meals.

They

should

be

(3)

(c o u r a g e )..................... to do so, and care should be taken to (4)


(s u r e ).....................the experience. It is im portant to show them
how to do things (5) (c o r r e c t ) .....................but they shouldnt be
criticized too much. Although the finished result may not be quite
to your (6) (lik e )....................., the young cook will undoubtedly find
it quite the (7 )(ta sty )..............food he or she has ever eaten.
Kitchens can, of curse, be (8) (d a n g e r ).....................places and so
the absolute (9) (im p o r ta n t)...................... of keeping an eye on
142

children
at all times cannot be emphasized too (10)
(h e a v y ).....................Sharp knives, for example, should be avoided
until children are old enough to handle them safely.

Exercise 61
Before the invention of instruments to measure weather
conditions, people relied on their own (1) (o b s e r v e ).....................the
wind and sky as well as the(2) (b e h a v e ).....................of birds and
animals in connection with different types of weather. Many
rhymes that have an (3) (a s s o c ia te ).................... with the weather
have becom e popular over the centuries. In the weather become
popular over the centuries. In the short term, a (4)
(sa y ).....................like red sky in the morning, sailors warning,
often proves to be (5) (s u r p r is e ).................... accurate. However, it
is very (6 )(lik e ly ).....................that next years summer can be
predicted from this years winter. Such predications cant be
considered (7 )(u se).....................in precise weather forecasting. (8)
(p r o v e ).....................o f this can be found in past records.
Nowadays, all aspects of the weather such as hours of (9)
(su n )....................
and
rainfall
are
observed
on
a
(10)(d ay).....................basis
by
meteorological
stations
with
specialized equipment.

Exercise 62
I saw a film last week that was not very interesting. It was a
comedy but it was not very (1) (a m u se )..................... But perhaps
the real problem was not that the film was bad but that I was (2)
(d e p r e s s )..................... The weather was very (3) (d e p re ss )
.....................that day too. To add to my problems, I was (4)
(d is a p p o in t )..................... because I had just had some very (5)
(s u r p r is e )..................... news. I had been hoping to get a very (6)
(in te r e s t)..................... job that someone else got instead. In fact, I
was very (7) (s h o c k ).....................I didnt get it because I was (8)
(c o n v in c e )..................... that I had all the right qualifications.
However, (9) (d is a p p o in t )..................... things like this happen all
the time, dont they? So why was I (10) (s u r p r is e ).....................
143

Exercise 63
The developm ent of the road maps of Britain that exist today
started over 200 years ago. The Army was concerned about the (1)
(p o s s ib le ).....................of enemy invasion, but its plans for (2)
(defend).....................were hindered by the lack of maps at the
time. Those that did exist were (3) (accurate).....................and
lacked detail.
Work to produce (4) (rely).....................maps was carried out by
an organization called Ordnance Survey. They were remarkably
(5) (succeed).....................Using fairly simple instruments, they
produced (6) (surprise).....................accurate results and set the
high standard for which British maps have a (7) (repute)
Map-makers today use totally different methods. Todays (8)
(m o t o r )..................... have a vast (9) (c h o o s e )..................... of road
atlases produced by a wide range of publishers. They (10)
(v a r io u s ).....................enormously in style, colour and content but
they all derive from the maps produced by Ordnance Survey.

Exercise 64
These day it is impossible to open a newspaper without reading
about the damage we are doing to the environment. The earth is
being (1) (th r e a t)..................... and the future looks bad. W hat can
each of us do?
We cannot clean up our (2) (p o llu t io n )..................... rivers and
seas overnight. Nor can we stop the (3) (a p p e a r ).....................of
plants and animals. But we can stop adding to the problem while
(4) ( s c ie n c e ).....................search for answer, and laws are passed in
natures (5) (d e fe n d ).....................
It may not be easy to change your lifestyle (6) (co m p le te )
...................... but some steps are easy to take: cut down the amount
o f (7) (d r iv e ).....................you do, or use as little plastic as possible.
It is also easy to save energy, which also reduces (8)
(h o u s e ).....................bills.

We

must

all

make

personal

(9)

(d e c id e )..................... to works for the future of our planet if we


want to (10) (s u r e )....................a better world for our grandchildren.
144

Exercise 65
In the past, any mother would be proud if her children were
round
and
slightly
fat.
Those
days
are
gone.
(1)
(r e s e a r c h ).....................
have
now
reached
the
(2)
(c o n c lu d e )..................... that too much fat and sugar in childrens
diets are a major factor in the (3) ^ develop).................... of heart
diseases and other (4) (ill).................... when they are older.
However (5) (g r o w )..................... children need to eat a wide range
of
foods,
and
their
general
health
could
be
(6) ,
(d a n g e r).....................by cutting out particular ones. Psychologists
say that (7) (s o lv e ).....................is not to change eating habits too
fast, but to do it (8) (c a r e ).................... , so that children do not lose
muscle in addition to fat. Parents should present food a little (9)
(d iffe r e n c e )....................., spread butter thinly and avoid putting
sugar
on
the
table.
Children
should
also
be
(10)
(c o u r a g e ).....................to take part in sports: this way they will, be
using the calories that they have eaten.

Exercise 66
The Cotswolds is an area of great beauty in England. It has a
number o f (1) (d e lig h t).................... villages and small towns with
lovely old buildings that have remained (2) (ch a n g e )
.................... since the area was a major (3) (c o m m e r c e )
.................... centre several centuries ago. The countryside in the
area is (4) (c h a r m ).....................end most of the buildings there are
made from an (5) (a tt r a c t).................... type of light stone that is
particular to the Cotswolds.
In the summer, the Cotswolds can get rather (6) (c r o w d )
.................... but it is always possible to find pretty places that do
not have the (7) (fa m o u s ).................... of the more well-known
villages and towns. There is no (8) (s h o t).....................of pleasant
hotels and (9) (t r a d it io n ) .................... inns for visitors to stay in
and

the

Cotswolds

area

is an

excellent place

for

an

(10)

(e n jo y )................. ...weekend.

145

Exercise 67
The site o f the town of Winchester was a natural place for a (1)
's e t t le ;................ . at the point where a river cut through the chalk
of the (2) (s o u th ).................... hillsides. A simple camp at St
Catherines Hill was the (3 )(ea rly )..................... known use of the
site. This was followed by an Iron Age hillfort, but this was left
^inh abit).....................by 100 BC. It was he Rom ans who finaflr
established the town and (5) (r o u n d )..................... it with t
defensive wall for the protection of their people and trade.
W ith the (6) (b u ild ).....................of its first cathedral in the
seventh century, the town became an im portant (7)(centre
.....................

Later

King

Alfred,

who

had

(8)(religion

.....................pushed back the invading Danes, m oved his palace to


Winchester. The town then experienced rapid (9) (develop'
...................... and its (10) (c e n t r e ).....................role in English
history- was underlined in 1066 when the conquering Normans,
like Alfred, made W inchester their capital.
E x e r cis e 68
There is one particular feeling which I find difficult to express
When I am (1) (a n g e r ).....................about som ething, I say nothing.
Once, for example, after I had bought a very (2) (expense)
.....................jacket, I met a friend in cafe who said that the jacket
didnt fit me very (3) ( g o o d ;..................... I was very (4)(annoy
.....................but I said nothing. I didnt feel like continuing our (5)
(c o n v e r s e )..................... My friend noticed my (6) (silent)
..................... and asked me what was wrong. I couldnt tell him the
(7) (tr u e )..................... I began to feel rather (8) (em barrass
.....................

and

left

without

giving

him

an

(9)

(explain*

..................... Later I felt rather (10) (s h a m e )..................... of my


behaviour.
E x e r cis e 69
Linda de Yere hardy, who died last week, was not at all a
conventional wom an of her generation. In the 19205 she was (1)

146

(d e te r m in e )..................... to learn to fly, and became the first


woman to become a fully (2) (q u a lity ).................... pilot. Her solo
(3) (fly )..................... from London to Delhi was one of the greatest
(4) (a c h ie v e )................... . o f the early days of aviation. Her (5)
(m a rr y ).....................to Angus Hardy took place after the end of the
Second world War. With his (6 )(e n co u ra g e ).....................she wrote
a number o f (7) (d e t e c t ).................... stories in the 1950s that
achieved great (8) (p o p u la r ).................... In 1962, her husbands
tragic (9) (d ie ).....................in a car crash ended her literary career,
and she spent the rest of their life on an (10) (is o la te ).....................
is land off the coast of Scotland.

Exercise 70
Architects responsible for the construction of many skyscrapers
believe that a tall building must always have a certain minimum
(1) (w id e ).....................but that there is no limit to its absolute (2)
(h ig h )..................... This means that the skyscrapers of the future
are likely to be even taller.
Engineers agree with this, but there is (3) (a g re e ).....................
over the best shape for very tall, slim buildings. The effects of the
best shape for very tall, slim building. The effects of wind (4)
(p re ss).....................mean that cylindrical designs have enjoyed
some (5) (p o p u la r ).....................in recent years, and these are quite
pleasing to the eye. (6) (fo r tu n a te ).................... however, the ideal
shape is an ugly square with heavily rounded corners. Would
these buildings o f the future offer more than a (7) (w o n d e r )
.....................view? Some believe tall towers could contain all the (8)
(r e q u ir e )..................... for modern living. The (9) (in h a b it)
.....................o f these vertical villages would travel up and down
between their home and work zones and would (10) (ra re)
.....................need t journey to ground level.

Exercise 71
The question w hat makes a manger (1) (s u c c e s s )............... ,....?
often comes up. First o f all, a manager needs the right kind of (2)
( p r o fe s s io n )..................... support. In other words, a good manger
147

requires the (3)(assist).................... of a good secretary. A good


secretary needs
to have he right of (4) (secretary)
.....................skills. These include the (5) (able)...................... to use
modern technology, such as computers. There are (6) (addition)
.....................skill that are just as important. M ore and more
managers need secretaries who can speak several foreign
languages (7) (fluent)................... Success or failure in international
(8) (negotiate)..................... can depend on this. This (9) (require)
..................... is often stressed in job advertisements today. Many
(10) (apply).....................are rejected because the candidates lack
such skills.

Exercise 72
Bells have been in existence for along time. They were used by
the (1) (china)..................... about 6,000 years ago and the oldest
bell ever found is around 7,000 years old. Today, we live in a world
of mass (2)(communicate) ..................... and (3) (rely)....................
clocks, so it is easy to forget what an essential part of everyday life
/

bells used to be.


Bells told people of happy events, such as weddings and (4)
(born)..................... or, sometimes had to announce (5) (pleasant)
..................... events such as a (6) (die)..................... or a funeral.
Sometimes bells were used for giving people (7) (w a r n )....................
of an enemys approach or spreading the goods news of victory.
In many places today, bells are perhaps most (8) (common)
.....................

associate

with

announcing

when

(9)

(religion)

.....................services are going to take place. They are also


frequently rung during (10) (celebrate)..................... and continue
to play a part in many peoples lives.

Exercise 73
We all welcom ed the teachers suggestion that we should do
something else after the last exercise. Usually the teacher gives us
very good (1) (a d v is e ).....................and we have faith in all her (2)
(r e c o m m e n d )
.....................

148

.....................

when

she

So

we

were

rather

asked us to make

small

(3 )(su rp rise)
(4 )(ch a n g e)

.....................in the form o f words like suggest, advise, and so on.


In fact, one o f the students seemed to have a very strong (5)
( o b j e c t ) .....................to the idea because there was su~h a clear (6)
(c o n n e c t) ......... :......... between these words and the words we had
just studied, Ill jum p out o f the window if we goon doing this, he
said. The teacher smiled because she knew the student was only
(7) (jo k e )..................... and then asked Are you making a promise
or is that a (8) (th r e a te n ).................... There was a great deal of
(9) (la u g h )..................... as we listened to the students (10)
( a p o lo g iz e ) .....................

Exercise 74
t

Interviews are im perfect method of choosing the best people for


jobs, yet human (1) (b e ).................... like to examine each other in
this way. One o f the many problems of (2) (s e le c t).....................as it
is commonly practiced is that the forms filled in by (3) (a p p ly )
.................... often fail to show people as they really are. This
means that you can follow all the best (4) (a d v is e ).....................
when com pleting your form and still find that you are (5)
(s u c c e s s ).....................at the next stage-the interview. (6) (sim ilar)
.................... . in the rare cases where interviews are automatic, a
candidate with an (7) (a d e q u a te ).................... form may do
surprisingly well.
O f course,

your

form

needs to show

that you

have

(8)

(c o m p id e n t) .....................in your (9) (a b le )..................... to do the


job, but dont try to turn yourself into someone else - a person you
have to pretend to be at the interview. Realism and (10) (h o n e st)
.................... are definitely the best approach.

Exercise 75
When did the first toys come into existence and what led to
their (1) (d e v e lo p ).....................? Did they represent an attempt by
adults to make children happy, or did they arise from the various
playful

(2)

(a c t iv e ).....................

of

children

them selves?

As

everyone knows, the young (3 )(fre q u e n t)..................... copy the (4)


( b e h a v e ) .....................of their elders, and, in their play, they often
149

adopt objects used by adults for entirely different purposes. These


objects (5) (courage)................ the childs (6) (imagine)
.....................and lead t games in which everyday articles often play
unusual and (7) (e x p e c t ).................... roles.
It is rather surprising that for an (8) (e x p la in )..................... of
the origin o f toys, we cannot turn to folk stories. However, no
origin o f toys, we cannot turn to folk stories. However, no
traditional tale (9) (re la te ).................... to the origin of toys exists,
and so our (10) (k n o w )..................... is restricted to archaeological
study and limited evidence from documents.

Exercise 76
Wildlife painting had always been a hobby for M ark Chester,
but when he lost his job, he took the (1) (decide).................... to
turn it into a full-time career. Mark had obtained

his (2)

(profession).....................qualifications

of

in

the

fields

(3)

(photograph).....................and advertising and felt that these


skills would be useful in his new life. He has sold his work before,
and was (4) (reason).................... confident that he could earn
enough to live on.
Mark discovered that he would be able to receive an (5) (allow)
.................... from a government (6) (a g e n t)..................... to help him
set up his business. They also provided him with (7) (use)
.....................information on how to run his affrairs. As (8) (sell)
.....................of is work increased, Mark realized that he could not
paint enough (9) (origin)..................... pictures to keep up wit
demand, so he is now trying to interest a (10) (public)....................
in producing prints o f his work. Meanwhile, M ark has started
making prints o f his own.

Exercise 77
We all know stories about people with exceptional memories
who have the (1) (a b le ).....................to rem em ber hundreds of
numbers after hearing them only once. Now experts are saying
that such feats can be taught.

150

For example, most people can (2) (r e p e titio n ).................... about


ine numbers if they are read out one a second. In one
xperiment, ten hours training (3) p r o d u c t ) .................... only a
mall (4) (im p r o v e ).................... , but the results after practicing
jr a thousand hours were (5) (a m a ze).................... : some people
emembered 80 or even! 00 numbers. Similarly, most adults can
6) (id e n t it y ).................... only about five out of a set of 21 colours
hat are only (7) (s lig h t).................... different. But after 80
raining hours one person could recognize 18 of them. Studies of
'6 major (8) ( c o m p o s e ) .................... show that it took at least ten
'ears of (9) (m u s ic )..................... training before any of them wrote
i major work. Psychologists are therefore raising the
p o s s ib l e ) .....................that genius is the product o f teaching.

(10)

Exercise 78
At a m eeting held in Oxwell last Thursday evening a wide (1)
v a r y )..................... of opinions was expressed on plans to build a
arge supermarket in the town. A (2) (d ir e c t ).................... of the
supermarket group stated that the supermarket would benefit the
[3) (in h a b it).....................of Oxwell as it wouid give people more (4)
[ch o o s e ).....................when shopping and would lead to a (5)
(grow)....... ............. in the umber of jobs available in the town,
which has a high rate of (6) (e m p lo y ).................... Although there
was (7) (a g r e e ).....................on the need for new jobs, some of those
present claimed that the supermarket would lead t a (8)
(lose)..................... o f jobs as small shops, (9) (a b le )..................... to
compete with superm arket prices, would be forced t close. The
final (10) (d e c id e ).....................on whether or not to build the
supermarket will be made next month.

Exercise 79
The most effective way of learning a language is by living in the
country concerned, but parents should think (l)(c a r e )...,................
before they send their children abroad. Although some
(2 )(o r g a n iz e ).....................arrange visits for children as young as
ten, the (3) (m a jo r )..................... of them wont be ready to stay
151

away from home and dea) with (4) (c u lt u r e ).................


differences until they are in their teens. Even then they will need
a basic (5) (k n o w ).................... of the language and some
experience of foreign travel before they go.
Exchange visits are a good way for (6) (te e n ? ).................... to
improved their language skills. It is a good idea for them to
exchange (7) (c o r r e s s p o n d ).....................before the visits. Host
families should not feel any (8) (o b lig e ).....................to provide an
extensive program m ed of (9) (e n t e r ta in )..................... It is more
important to make the guest feel welcome.
Travel can (10) (b r o a d ).....................the mind, and exchange
visits give young people experience of a different way of life as
well as a different language.

Exercise 80
Emma Harte, in Barbara Taylor Bradfors novel, was a poor
lonely girl who became the (1) (w e a lth )..................... owner of an
international chain of stores. Like the woman she writes about,
Ms Bradford is beautiful and (2) (a m b itio n ).....................She left
school at sixteen and became

a (3 )(jo u rn a l).....................After

twenty-three years of this work, she made the (4) (decide)


.....................to start writing novels. She is now one of the most (5)
(h ig h )..................... paid novelists in the world. W as Emma hartes
story based on Ms Bradfords own (6) ( in c r e d ib le )...................
successful

life?

T;m

afraid

not,'

she

said

with

(7)

(a m u se )..................... My life has been quite different form Emma


Hartes. She was (8) (lu c k )..................... t be b o m into a poor
family.

came

from

middle-class

home

and.

Im

(9).(h a p p y ).................... married to a rich Am erican film producer.


The only thing I share with my heroine is her (10) (able)
.....................to work hard.

Exercise 81
Judo is a sport that has achieved great popularity n many pars
of the world. It was (l) (o r ig in ) .................... developed in Japan in
the late 19th century based on ancient methods o f self-defence.
152

There are two (2 )(fig h t).................... Although they use physical


(3 )(v io le n t )
against each other, they are (4)
(r e s p e c t )..................... to their opponent and bow to each other
before and after each contest.
Judo is an (5 )(e x p e n s iv e ).................... sport to take up because
the only equipment you need is the special loose-fitting suit. It is
very suitable for (6 )(y o u n g ).................... if they join a club where
the (7 )(in s tr u c t).....................are properly qualified and pay enough
attention to safety. Although Judo is a physically (8) (d em a n d )
.....................sport which requires a lot of (9) (s t r o n g )..................... .
practice and skill, there are many people who find it (10) (en joy )
.....................as a means of relaxation in their spare time.

Exercise 82
People wishing to spend an interesting couple of hours in Railey
this month should visit the Town Hall where an exhibition of fifty
(1) (p a in t)..................... by the locally born (2) (a rt).....................
John W ragg is being held. The exhibition contains many
extremely (3 )(im p re ss )................... pictures of Australia where
John has live for the past thirty years. However, he still has many
(4).(c o n n e c t ) ..................... with the (5) (s u r r o u n d ).....................area
as several m embers o f his family live in Railey. John hoped to be
present for the official (6) (o p e n ).................... of the exhibition but
(7) (fo r t u n a t e )..................... he has been prevented from traveling
to England because of (8) (ill)....................
The exhibition is open (9) (d a y ).................... until the end of the
month. The price o f (10) (a d m it).................... is 3 for adults and
2 for senior citizens, students and children.

Exercise 83
W hen Rosem ary first saw Carl, she was strongly attracted to
him. He was one o f the (1) (g o o d -lo o k in g )..................... men she
had ever seen. She knew that the felt a strong (2) (a ttra ct)
.....................for her, as well, so it was only natural that they began
seeing each other (3) (r e g u la r )......... ........... The (4) (a n n o u n c e )
.....................of their engagement came a month later. W hen Laura
153

heard the news, she tried very hard to hide her (5) (d is a p p o in t)
.....................Then she realized that it was very (6 )(fo o l).....................
of her to feel that way. She had always lived with the (7)
(k n o w )..................... that Ca^l admired her only because of her (8)
(e ffic ie n t ).....................as his secretary. The (9 )(th in k )......................
that she might be more than that had (10) (s im p le ;....................
never occurred to him.

Exercise 84
Let me make a suggestion to help you deal with difficult
situations. If, for example, you are taking part in a sports (1)
(c o m p e t e )...................... meeting someone im portant, or giving a
(2 )(p e rfo r m )................... in front of a large audience, you will
probably be quite (3) (n e r v e )....................., and worry that you will
not be as (4) (s u c c e e d ).....................as you would like to be.
W hat you need to do is to prepare yourself (5 )(th o ro u g h )
.....................by running through the whole (6) (a c t iv e )......................
over and over again in your mind, (7) (c a r e )..................... going
through every detail.
For example, a famous pianist, (8) (p r is o n ).....................

for

seven years for (9 )(p o litic s )..................... reasons, could still play
magnificently on his release. When asked how he m anaged to play
so well, his (10) (e x p la in ).................... was that he had practiced
every day in his mind.

Exercise 85
The London Underground map is extrem ely well designed.
Simple,

easy

to

understand

and

(1)

(a tt r a c t)..................... , it

performs its primary task of guiding both inhabitants and (2)


(to u r ).....................round the underground system in London very
well. The man behind this great (3 )(a c h ie v e ).....................

was

called Henry Beck, an (4) (e m p lo y )..................... of the London


Underground Drawing Office, who designed the map in 1931. The
design of the map showed great (5 )(o r ig in a l)..................... because
it
154

represented

com plex

network

of

(6 )(c o m m u n ic a te )

..................... clearly. This design was later used by most of the


worlds underground systems.
The map used before 1971 was messy and (7) (clea r)
..................... So Beck decided t sketch out a better one using a
diagram rather than a (8) (tr a d itio n ).................... map. This new
map was an enormous (9) (s u c c e e d ).................... with the public
when, in 1933, it made its first (10) (a p p e a r) ..................... on
underground platforms and at station entrances.

Exercise 86
Nearly all the discoveries that have been made through the
ages can be found in books. The (1) (in v e n t).....................of the
books is one o f hum ankinds greatest (2) (a c h ie v e )...................... the
importance o f which cannot be overestimated.
Books are very adaptable, providing us with both (3)
(e n te rta in ).....................
and
information.
The
(4)
(p r o d u c e )..................... of books began in Ancient Egypt, though
not in a form that is (5) (r e c o g n iz e ).................... to us today. The
books read by the Romans, however, have some (6)
(sim ila r)..................... to the ones we read now. Until the middle of
the 15th century, in Europe, all books were (7) (w r ite ).....................
by hand. They were often beautifully illustrated and always rare
and

(8)

(e x p e n s e ).....................With

(p o ssib le )

.....................

distribution

o f books,

of cheap,
making

printing

large-scale

(10)

came

the

(9)

publication

and

(k n o w ).....................

more

widespread and accessible.

Exercise 87
In the past, any mother would be proud if her children were
%

round and slightly fat. Those days are gone. (1) (re s e a rch )
.................... have now reached the (2) ( c o n c lu d e ).....................that
too much fat and sugar in childrens diets are a major factor in the
(3) (d e v e lo p )..................... of heart diseases and other (4) (ill)
.....................when they are older.
However, (5 )(g r o w )..................... children need to eat a wide

155

range
of
foods
and
their
general
health
could
be
(6 )(d a n g e r).....................by
cutting
out
particular
ones.
Psychologists say that (7) (s o lv e )..................... is not to change
eating habits too fast, but to do it (8 )(ca re )..................... . so that
children do not lose muscle in addition to fat. Parents should
present food a little (9) (d iffe r e n c e )...................... spread butter
thinly and avoid putting sugar on the table. Children should also
be (1C) (c o u r a g e ).....................to take part in sports: this way they
will be using the calories that they have eaten.

Exercise 88
As far as I am concerned, nothing spoils a visit to the opera
more than
members

the

of

(l)(d is g u s t ).....................

the

audience

to

noise

express

made by some

their

(2)

(a p p rove)

..................... o f a production. Here was a time when applause, and


shouts of bravo, were (3) (th in k ).....................to be sufficient. More
(4) (r e c e n t )...................... however, the practice, which I first met in
the United States, o f creaming T o ! or som ething similar, has
spread to (5) (e u r o p e )..................... audiences. Its a stupid sound,
quite (6 )(su it)..................... for the expression of your appreciation
fine (7) (s in g ).....................like the Spaniard, Placido Domingo. Im
not too keen, either, on musicians clapping (8) (s e lf).....................at
the end of a (9) ( p e r f o r m ) .....................They are hardly likely t be
fair in their (10) (ju d g e ) ..................... at that moment. However, I
dont imagine either of these fashions is likely to disappear in the
near future.

Exercise 89
Exercise is one of the best ways of keeping im pression away. It
improves your body and your mind and (1) (a b le )..................... you
to perform better in the work place at home.
Proper (2) (b r e a t h )..................... is essential if you want to get
the

most from

exercise

and

you

should

also

take

into

(3)

(c o n s id e r )

..................... your heart rate. It can be (4) (h arm )

.....................

to

156

do too much, w'hich is why all good

fitness

instructors emphasise
listening to your body.

the

(5)

(im p o r ta n t).....................

of

W hen
you
first
start
you
should
use
good
(6)
(judj*e)...................... because its essay to make the mistake of
using the equipment (7) ( c o r r e c t ).................... or doing too much at
one time. Stat slowly and build u gradually.
Exercise should not be seen as a (8) (d e m a n d ).................... task;
it can be as essay as a quick walk. To increase your fitness
(9 )(stea d y)......................exercise for 20 minutes a day, 4 to 6 times
a week and you will notice a (1 0 )(d iffire n t)..................... in your
body and mind in a few weeks.

Exercise 90
John Shaw will shortly be setting off on a 50,000 km run, which
will make him
the first person to perform
the
(1)
(o r d in a r y )..................... act of running all the way round the world
if he succeeds.
His

timetable

includes

the

(2)

(fr e e z e ).....................Russian

winter and the burning African summer. And he has no back -u p


team for (3 )(a ssist).....................He will be running alone, carrying
all his (4) (e q u ip ).....................on his back.
My

biggest

fear

is

not

the

physical

challenge,

but

(5 )(lon ely )....................., Mr Shaw said. Im as sociable as anyone


and Im very (6) (h o p e ).................... that I will form many (7)
(fr ie n d ).....................on the way.
On a trial 2,000 km run under the blazing (8) (h o t).....................
of the African sun, he came across wild baboons and.

Exercise 91
Following the unexpected closure last year of a number of
factories in and around brad stone, leading to a sharp rise in local
(1) (e m p lo y )...................... it is very good to hear that the (2)
(c o n s t r u c t ).....................o f a new high-technology centre will begin
(3) (s h o r t).....................on the site of one of the old factories.
Network

UK,

the

company

responsible,

made

the

(4)

157
\

(a n n o u n c e ) ..................... yesterday. They said they would soon


start (5 )(a d v e r tis e ).....................for two hundred new staff who are
su ita b ly(6 )(q u a lify)..................... for the new jobs available. The
m anagement said it was also their (7 )(in te n d )..................... to offer
fifty job-training positions for young people who have
(8 )(re ce n t).....................left school. They want to build up a
dynamic, well-trained and (9 )(en th u sia sm )..................... team and
believe that they can contribute to making Bradstone a happy and
(10, v e a lth ).....................town once again.
E x e rcis e 92
Space warriors W rist is only one of the painful conditions hat
can be caused by (1) (c o n s ta n t)..................... playing computer
games. Children also suffer from a strange (2) (ache)
.....................feeling in their upper arms or shoulders. Another
problem that doctors have reported is a (3 )(lo se ).................... of
appetite in some children. The (4 )(e x p la in )..................... for this
seems t be that they dont get enough exercise. This may also
explain the (5 )(te n d )..................... of some children to put on
weight. The high sugar (6 )(c o n ta in ).....................o f the convenience
foods the same children eat is (7 )(p r o b a b le )..................... also cause.
Some people believe that it is the (8 )(r e s p o n s ib le ).....................of
the government to do som ething about this problem. However, it
is difficult for eve the most (9 )(p o w e r )..................... government to
stop people doing what they want to do. Once official recently said:
All we can do is put a (1 0 )(w a rn ).....................on the games, saying
that they an harm your health.
E x e rcis e 93
Some recent research into (1) (c o n v e r s e )..................... between
men and wom en has produced results v/hich will surprise few
women has produced results which will surprise few wom en. Men
are

always

interrupting

wom en

when

they

talk.

One

(2)

( r e s e a r c h ) .....................feels that men regard fem ale talk as a kind


of conversational (3 )(h o u s e ).....................They expect w om en t play
a

supporting

158

role.

So

man

interrupts

in

display

of

(4)(dom inate^
or control. Men also have a much more
(5 )(p le a sa n t...................... )
listening style. W hereas a woman uses
gestures or say: mm , a man will say such things as right or
okay thus settle the stage for an (6 )(in te rru p t)....................
Conversation o f this kind, then, hardly has (7 )(m ea n )....................
communication. Male talk is often (8 )(a rg u e).................... while
women are more tentative, asking more questions and tending to
build up their replies on what the other person had said. The
research would indicate that women are better (9)(listen)
.................... than men. Yet, listening secretly to conversation
between groups o f women, one has the (1 0 )(im p ress).....................of
several simultaneous monologues into which no man would be
able to get a chance to speak.
E x e rc is e 94
Commercial fishing has been carried out since the middle ages.
Before that it was (1) (p o s s ib le ).................... to keep fish for long
period, but the development of (2) (s to r e )..................... methods
such as drying and salting made it possible for (3)(fish)
.................... to go on fishing trips further away.
In fact, although

Europeans were completely (4) (a w a re)

.................... o f A m ericas(5 )(exist)...................... they were already


fishing near its coasts then.
(6)(ability.......................)
to keep

They were, however, still


fish fresh for any (7)(lon g)

.................... of time.
All this changed as a result of the new (8 )(te c h n o lo g y )
.................... advances in refrigeration in the 19th century. Soon the
(9 )(co a st)..................... waters of Africa and the M editerranean
were full o f Northern European fishing boats. In the 20th century,
scientific

(1 0 )(d is c o v e r ).................... made

during

the

Second

World war were used for discovering large groups o f fish.


E x e r cis e 95
Through

tout history,

women have had responsibility for

healing the sick. However, it is only in ( l) (c o m p a r e ) .....................


recent times that they have been allowed to rains as doctors at (2)
159

(m e d ic in e ).....................school in Britain. Yet in thfit short time,


they have made an enormous (3 )(c o n tr ib u te ).....................to
m odem medicine.
The first female doctors were priestesses who gave (4)(advise)
..................... about diseases and (5 )(in ju re )..................... and
prepared medicines. In ancient Rome, women healers were
considered (6) (s k ill).....................and respected.
In Britain, for centuries male doctors were (7 )(su spect)
..................... o f women who practiced medicine (8 )(p ro fe ssio n )
.....................and in 1512 a law was passed making it fQ)(legal)
..................... for them to do so. W omen couldnt study medicine at
universities until the 19th century and they only began to gain
(1 0 )(e q u a l).....................with male doctors in the 20th century.

Exercise 96
Humans have long been fascinate by outer space, and have
wondered if there are intelligent life-forms ( l) (e ls e ) .................... ,
which we might be able to contact (2 )(n a tu re )..................... , weve
all seen space creatures on our TV and cinem a screens, but
aliens like these owe more t the (3 )(c o n v e n ie n t ).....................of
using human (4 )(a ct).....................to play the parts than to any real
form of (5 )(s c ie n c e ).....................investigation.
However, many serious space (6) (r e s e a r c h )..................... are
now beginning to turn their attention to the question of what alien
life might (7) (a c tu a l)..................... look like. One early result is
Arnld the Alien, (8 )(d e sig n )..................... by biologist, Douglas
Dixon. This strange being, (9 )(lik e).....................humans, has its
eyes, ears and limbs in groups of three instead of pairs but,
despite its odd (1 0 )(a p p e a r)....................., its behaviour is not very
different from our own.

160