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APPENDIX

Laws and Regulations on Fertilizer and Agricultural Lime


The South Carolina Fertilizer Law (46-25 of 1976 Code of Laws) provides for the registration, correct
labeling, inspection and analysis of fertilizers sold or offered for sale in South Carolina. The South
Carolina Agricultural Liming Materials Act (Jan. 1, 1976) provides for the classification and labeling in
terms of fineness, calcium carbonate equivalent (neutralizing value), and calcium and magnesium
contents. Farmers should select agricultural liming materials on the basis of calcium carbonate
equivalent, fineness and price. Dolomitic limestone should be selected when magnesium is needed.
Refer to the website maintained by the Fertilizer Inspection Program at Clemson University
http://fscs.clemson.edu/ins.htm for more specific information.
Agricultural limestone is used to neutralize soil acidity (raise soil pH) and to supply calcium and
magnesium. The buffer pH and soil pH indicate the amount of lime needed to raise the pH to the desired
range. A soil test is the only good measure to determine if lime is needed and if so, what source should be
used.

Conversion Factors for Various Chemical Compounds Associated with Liming


CaCO3
CaCO3
CaO
CaO
Ca
Ca
CaCO3
CaCO3
Ca(OH)2

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

0.56
0.40
0.71
1.78
1.40
2.50
0.84
0.74
1.35

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

CaO
Ca
Ca
CaCO3
CaO
CaCO3
MgCO3
Ca(OH)2
CaCO3

MgCO3
MgCO3
MgO
MgO
Mg
Mg
MgCO3

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

0.48
0.29
0.60
2.09
1.66
3.48
1.19

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

MgO
Mg
Mg
MgCO3
MgO
MgCO3
CaCO3

For example, 100 pounds of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) has the same acid neutralizing power as 56
pounds of CaO (calcium oxide): 100 X 0.56 = 56.

Conversion Factors Related to Phosphorus and Potassium


Professional societies and scientific publications have adopted a uniform policy of expressing phosphorus
and potassium on the elemental basis. Phosphorus is expressed as P instead of as P2O5, the oxide, and
potassium is expressed as K instead of as K2O, its oxide form. The Clemson Soil Laboratory reports
available phosphorus and potassium on this elemental basis, as do most soil-testing laboratories.
Phosphorus and potassium in fertilizer is expressed on the oxide basis, as concentrations of P2O5, and
K2O. For example, a formulation of 5-10-15 on a fertilizer bag would indicate that the material is 5
percent N (nitrogen), 10 percent P2O5 and 15 percent K2O. The following conversion factors should be
used to convert from one unit to another.
P2O5
K2O

X
X

0.44
0.83

=
=

P
K

P
K

X
X

Examples: 60 lb K2O X 0.83 = 49.8 lb K and 44 lb P X 2.28 = 100 lb P2O5

72

2.29
1.205

=
=

P2O5
K2O

Calculations for CEC, Exchangeable Acidity and % Base Saturation of a Soil


1. Total CEC is calculated using the following formulas:
H. meq/100 gm of soil = 8 * (8.00 measured buffer pH)
K, meq/100 gm of soil = lb/acre of extracted K 782
Mg, meq/100 gm of soil = lb/acre of extracted Mg 240
Ca, meq/100 gm of soil = lb/acre of extracted Ca 400
Na, meq/100 gm of soil = lb/acre of extracted Na 460
Total CEC of the soil = Sum of the results for above 5 cations (meq/100 gm soil).
Note: Extractable Na (lb/acre) is not printed on the Soil Analysis Report
Example:
SOIL ANALYSIS REPORT
Lab No.
1116

Sample
No.
45

Soil
Code
3

Soil pH
6.0

CEC
Acidity
(Meq/100 Gm Soil)
4.90
2.40

Buffer
pH
7.70

Ca
37.3

Cation

Calculation

H
K
Ca
Mg
*Na

=
=
=
=
=

Soil Test Results (lb/A)


K
Ca
Mg
180
732
98
HM+
H

% Base Saturation
K
4.7

Mg
8.4

Na
0.6

Total
51.0

Exchangeable, meq/100 gm of soil

8 * (8.00 7.70)
180 782
732 400
98 240
14 460

Total CEC

P
92
H

=
=
=
=
=

2.40 (Exchangeable Acidity)


0.23
1.83
0.41
0.03

4.90

*Amount of extractable Na is not given on the report; however it is measured and used in the calculations
as shown above, which would be 14 pounds per acre in this example.
2. Percent Base Saturation is determined by dividing the sum of K, Ca, Mg and Na (basic cations) by the
Total CEC and multiplying by 100. For the above example, % Base Saturation can be calculated as
follows:
Cation
K
Ca
Mg
Na
Total bases

Exchange Bases
(meq/100 gm soil)
0.23
1.83
0.41
0.03
2.50

% Saturation
100 x 0.23/4.90 = 4.7
100 x 1.83/4.90 = 37.3
100 x 0.41/4.90 = 8.4
100 x 0.03/4.90 = 0.6
% Base saturation = 51.0 (total of K, Ca, Mg, and Na)

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Micronutrient Sources
Material

Micronutrient Content

Boron (B)
Borax fine granular
Fertilizer borate
Fertilizer borate (concentrate)
Solubor

%B
11.3
14.3
22.2
20.5

Manganese (Mn)
Manganese sulfate
Manganese oxide
Tecmangam
Manganese chelate
Manganese frits

% Mn
20-25
26-65
20
6-10
3-6

Zinc (Zn)
Zinc sulfate
Zinc oxide
Zinc chelate
Zinc frits

% Zn
35
70-80
10
4-7

Iron (Fe)
Iron sulfate
Iron chelate
Iron frits

% Fe
20
6-12
14

Copper (Cu)
Copper sulfate
Copper oxide
Copper sulfate (tri-basic)

% Cu
25
50-75
54

Molybdenum (Mo)
Sodium molybdate
Molybdic oxide

% Mo
30-41
47

Liming Materials
Materials
CaO

Name
Calcium oxide or burned quick lime

Neutralizing Value
179

Ca(OH)2

Calcium hydroxide, slake lime,


hydrated lime or builders lime

CaMg(CO3)2

Dolomitic lime

85-109

CaCO3

Calcitic lime

85-100

CaO + Impurities*

Basic slag (depending on source)

25-70

*May contain magnesium, manganese, iron and phosphorus

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135

Analysis of Some Materials that Supply Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfur

Material
Magnesium Sulfate
(Epsom salts)
Calcium Sulfate (Gypsum)
Sulfate of PotashMagnesia
Superphosphate (Normal)
Superphosphate
(Concentrated)
Ammonium Sulfate
Potassium Sulfate
Elemental Sulfur
Ammonium Phosphate
Ammonium Phosphate
(Sulfate)
Manganese Sulfate
Ammonium thiosulfate
Calcium Nitrate
Nitrogen Solution (25-S)
Nitrogen Solution (28-S)

Average Percent
K2O
Ca

P2O5

Mg
9.7

S
13

11.2

17
22.7

22.3
18-22
18-20
30-50

20.4
16.0

21

21-23
17-18
50-99
2.2
15.4

48-51
11
16

12-14
1.4

48
20

14-17
26

12
15.5
25
28

20
3.5
3.5

Conversion of Pounds Per Acre to Smaller Areas


Lime or Fertilizer
lb per acre
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
1,900

Pounds per 100 sq ft

Pounds per 1000 sq ft

1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0

10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

1 acre = 43,560 square feet


1 pint = approximately one pound of fertilizer

75

Pounds per 100 ft of Row


3-foot width
3.0
4.5
6.0
7.5
9.5
10.5
12.0
13.5
15.0

CROP CODE INDEX, NUMERICAL

Code

Crop

Code

Crop

000

No recommendations given; for


diagnostic purposes and pine trees
Cotton
Soybeans
Annual Legume on summer grass pasture
Annual Legume on winter grass pasture
Annual Legumes (arrowleaf, yuchi,
crimson, etc.)
Peanut
Lespedeza, Common
Lespedeza, Sericea
Kiwi
Pumpkins
Shrubs*
Perennial Flowers*
Annual flowers*
Roses*
Trees, Ornamental and Shade*
Soybeans with sorghum for silage
Corn, grain
Corn (in rotation before peanuts or soybeans
Corn - Irrigated
Corn for Silage
Grain Sorghum for Silage
Grain Sorghum for Grain
Sweet Sorghum
Sugarcane
Sunflowers
Small Grain, for grain
Small Grain (in rotation before peanuts
or soybeans)
Fescue, Cool Season Perennial Pasture
Orchardgrass, Cool-Season Perennial Pasture
Bahiagrass Pasture
Bermudagrass Pasture
Bermudagrass, Establishing
Bahiagrass for Hay
Bermuda for Hay (and coastal bermuda)
Grass-Clover Pasture (cool season perennial
grass)
Temporary Annual Grazing, Winter
Temporary Annual Grazing, Summer
Athletic Fields
Golf Fairway
Bentgrass Golf Green
Bermudagrass Golf Green/Tee

044
045
046
047
048

Cool-Season Grass Maintenance*


Roadside Turf Establishment
Roadside Turf Maintenance
Turf Establishment*
Zoysiagrass and Other Warm Season
Turf Grass Maintenance*
Greenhouse Crops, Inorganic Soils
Alfalfa
Asparagus, Establishing
Cantaloupes
Cucumbers
Lettuce
Lima Beans
Okra
Snapbeans
Squash
Watermelons
Beets
Broccoli
Cabbage
Carrots
Collards
Eggplant
Asparagus, Maintenance
Onions, Green (Soil Code 1 or 2)
Onions
Pepper
Pole Beans
Spinach
Greens
Blackeyed Peas
Southern Peas
Strawberries
Sweet Corn
Sweet Potatoes
Tomatoes (Piedmont)
Tomatoes (Coastal Plains)
Cauliflower
Apples
Pears
Blueberries
Grapes (Bunch or Muscadine)
Nectarines
Peaches
Plums
Pecans

001
004
005
006
007
008
010
011
013
014
015
016
017
017
018
019
020
021
022
023
024
025
026
027
028
029
030
031
032
033
034
035
036
036
037
038
039
040
041
042
043

049
050
051
052
053
054
055
056
057
058
059
060
061
062
063
064
065
066
067
068
069
070
071
072
073
073
074
075
076
077
078
079
080
081
082
084
085
086
087
088

* Indicates recommendations are for small areas rather than on an acre basis
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Code

Crop

089
090

Home Orchards*
Home Garden* -includes inorganic
fertilization
Home Garden* -includes organic fertilization
Christmas Trees
Carpetgrass*
Centipedegrass*
Irish Potatoes
Azaleas*
Camellias*
Rhododendron*
Tobacco, Low Profile
Tobacco Bed
Tobacco
Grasses for Wildlife
Legumes for Wildlife
Grass/Legume Mixture for Wildlife
Canola

091
092
093
094
095
096
096
096
097
098
099
101
102
103
104

Code

Crop

105
106
107
108
108
109
109
109
110
111
112

St. Augustinegrass
Carpetgrass
Centipedegrass
Annual Flowers
Roses
Azaleas
Camellias
Rhododendron
Perennial Flowers
Bentgrass Golf Green*
Cool-Season Turf Grass
Maintenance
Turf Establishment
Zoysiagrass and Other WarmSeason Turf Grass Maintenance
Shrubs
Bermudagrass Golf Green or Tee*
St. Augustinegrass*

113
114
117
118
119

* Indicates recommendations are for small areas rather than on an acre basis

77

CROP CODE INDEX, ALPHABETICAL


Crop

Code

Page

Alfalfa ................................................................................. 50............... 29


Annual Flowers ................................................................. 108............... 50
Annual Flowers* ................................................................. 17............... 59
Annual Legume on Summer Grass Pasture .......................... 5............... 29
Annual Legume on Winter Grass Pasture............................. 6............... 30
Annual Legumes (arrowleaf, yuchi, crimson, etc.) ............... 7............... 29
Apples ................................................................................. 80............... 47
Asparagus, Establishing ...................................................... 51............... 40
Asparagus, Maintenance ..................................................... 66............... 40
Athletic Fields ..................................................................... 40............... 51
Azaleas .............................................................................. 109............... 50
Azaleas* .............................................................................. 96............... 60
Bahiagrass for Hay.............................................................. 36............... 31
Bahiagrass Pasture .............................................................. 33............... 30
Beets.................................................................................... 60............... 42
Bentgrass Golf Green.......................................................... 42............... 52
Bentgrass Golf Green*...................................................... 111............... 64
Bermuda for Hay (and coastal bermuda) ............................ 36............... 30
Bermudagrass.................................................................... 114............... 54
Bermudagrass*.................................................................... 48............... 69
Bermudagrass Golf Green or Tee*.................................... 118............... 65
Bermudagrass Golf Green/Tee............................................ 43............... 52
Bermudagrass Pasture ......................................................... 34............... 30
Bermudagrass, Establishing ................................................ 35............... 30
Blackeyed Peas.................................................................... 73............... 44
Blueberries .......................................................................... 82............... 47
Broccoli ............................................................................... 61............... 42
Cabbage............................................................................... 62............... 42
Camellias........................................................................... 109............... 50
Camellias*........................................................................... 96............... 60
Canola ............................................................................... 104............... 31
Cantaloupes ......................................................................... 52............... 41
Carpetgrass........................................................................ 106............... 52
Carpetgrass (Soil Groups 1 and 2)* .................................... 93............... 66
Carpetgrass (Soil Groups 3 and 4)* .................................... 93............... 67
Carrots ................................................................................. 63............... 42
Cauliflower.......................................................................... 79............... 42
Centipedegrass .................................................................. 107............... 52
Centipedegrass (Soil Groups 1 and 2)*............................... 94............... 66
Centipedegrass (Soil Groups 3 and 4)*............................... 94............... 67
Christmas Trees................................................................... 92............... 51
Collards ............................................................................... 64............... 43
Cool-Season Turf Grass Maintenance............................... 112............... 53
Cool-Season Turf Grass Maintenance*............................... 44............... 68
Corn, Grain.......................................................................... 20............... 32
Corn in Rotation Before Peanuts or Soybeans.................... 21............... 32
Corn, Irrigated ..................................................................... 22............... 33
Corn for Silage .................................................................... 23............... 33
Cotton.................................................................................... 1............... 34
* Indicates recommendations are for small areas rather than on an acre basis
78

Crop

Code

Page

Cucumbers........................................................................... 53............. 41
Eggplant .............................................................................. 65............. 42
Fescue, Cool Season Perennial Pasture............................... 31............. 34
Golf Fairway ....................................................................... 41............. 51
Grain Sorghum for Grain .................................................... 25............. 35
Grain Sorghum for Silage ................................................... 24............. 37
Grapes (Bunch or Muscadine) ............................................ 84............. 48
Grasses for Wildlife .......................................................... 103............. 55
Grass-Clover Pasture (cool season perennial grass) ........... 37............. 35
Grass/Legume Mixture for Wildlife.................................. 101............. 54
Greens ................................................................................. 72............. 42
Home Garden* - organic fertilization ................................. 91............. 61
Home Garden* - inorganic fertilization .............................. 90............. 61
Home Orchards* ................................................................. 89............. 62
Irish Potatoes....................................................................... 95............. 44
Kiwi Fruit ............................................................................ 13............. 55
Legumes for Wildlife ........................................................ 102............. 56
Lespedeza, Common ........................................................... 10............. 35
Lespedeza, Sericea .............................................................. 11............. 35
Lettuce................................................................................. 54............. 41
Lima Beans.......................................................................... 55............. 41
Nectarines............................................................................ 85............. 48
Okra..................................................................................... 56............. 41
Onions ................................................................................. 68............. 43
Onions, Green (Soil Code 1 or 2)........................................ 67............. 44
Orchardgrass, Cool-Season Perennial Pasture .................... 32............. 34
Peaches................................................................................ 86............. 48
Peanuts .................................................................................. 8............. 36
Pears .................................................................................... 81............. 47
Pecans.................................................................................. 88............. 49
Peppers ................................................................................ 69............. 43
Perennial Flowers.............................................................. 110............. 50
Perennial Flowers*.............................................................. 16............. 60
Plums................................................................................... 87............. 48
Pole Beans........................................................................... 70............. 49
Pumpkins............................................................................. 14............. 48
Rhododendron ................................................................... 109............. 50
Rhododendron* ................................................................... 96............. 60
Roadside Turf Establishment .............................................. 45............. 54
Roadside Turf Maintenance ................................................ 46............. 53
Roses ................................................................................. 108............. 50
Roses* ................................................................................. 17............. 59
Shrubs................................................................................ 117............. 50
Shrubs*................................................................................ 15............. 60
Small Grain (in rotation before peanuts or soybeans)......... 30............. 37
Small Grain ......................................................................... 29............. 36
Snapbeans............................................................................ 57............. 41
Southern Peas ...................................................................... 73............. 43
Soybeans ............................................................................... 4............. 38
Soybeans with Sorghum for Silage ..................................... 19............. 38
Spinach................................................................................ 71............. 42
Squash ................................................................................. 58............. 41
* Indicates recommendations are for small areas rather than on an acre basis
79

Crop

Code

Page

St. Augustinegrass (Soil Groups 1 and 2) ......................... 105............52


St. Augustinegrass (Soil Groups 3 and 4) ......................... 105............53
St. Augustinegrass (Soil Groups 1 and 2)* ....................... 119............66
St. Augustinegrass (Soil Groups 3 and 4)* ....................... 119............67
Strawberries......................................................................... 74............49
Sugarcane ............................................................................ 27............35
Sunflowers........................................................................... 28............35
Sweet Corn .......................................................................... 75............45
Sweet Potatoes .................................................................... 76............45
Sweet Sorghum ................................................................... 26............35
Temporary Annual Grazing, Winter or Summer ................ 39............38
Tobacco ............................................................................... 99............39
Tobacco Bed........................................................................ 98............39
Tomatoes (Coastal Plains)................................................... 78............46
Tomatoes (Piedmont) .......................................................... 77............46
Trees, Ornamental and Shade*............................................ 18............63
Turf Establishment ............................................................ 113............53
Turf Establishment* ............................................................ 47............70
Watermelons ....................................................................... 59............41
Zoysiagrass........................................................................ 114............54
Zoysiagrass*........................................................................ 48............70

* Indicates recommendations are for small areas rather than on an acre basis

80