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13th Century-Securing

Sanctuary
Criminals avoid
punishment
Claim refuge in church
For 40 days
England (1946)
Torture as punishment
16th Century
England- transportation of
criminals
Russia and European
Countries
- Followed this system
1835- abandoned
Galleys
Long, narrow, single- decked
ships
Propelled by sails
Rowed by criminals
Transportation for criminals in
16th century
17th to 18th Century
Death Penalty as punishment
The

Age of Enlightenment
18th century
Century of change
Recognize human dignity
Movement of reformation
Reforms in the correctional
Change old positive
philosophy of punishment
More human with
innovational programs

THE PIONEERS
1. WILLIAM PENN (16141716)
First leader
Prescribed
imprisonment as
correctional treatment
Abolition of torture and
death penalty
2. CHARLES MONTESQUIEU
(1689- 1755)
French historian and
philosopher
Law as an expression of
justice
Harsh punishment
would weaken morality
3. VOLTAIRE ( FRANCOIS
MARIE AROUET 16941778)
Fear of shame was a
deterrent to crime
Fought legality
sanctioned practice of
torture
4. CESARE BECCARIA (17381794)
An Essay on Crimes
and Punishment
Basis for great reforms
in Criminal Law
Starting point for
Classical School of
Criminal Law and
Criminology

Advocate of Doctrine of
Freewill
Father of Classical
Criminology
Humanistic goal of Law

5. Jeremy Bentham (17481832)


Greatest leader in
REFORM OF ENGLISH
CRIMINAL LAW
Proponent of Hedonism
Theory
Panopticon Prison/
Inspection House
Consists large circular
building containing
multi- cells around the
periphery but it was
never built
6. John Howard (1726- 1790)
Great Prison
Reformer
Father of Prison
Reform
Sheriff of Bedsfordshire
in 1773
Devoted his life and
fortune to prison
reform
1. Single cells for sleeping
2. Segregation of women
3. Segregation of youth
4. Provision of sanitary facilities
5. Abolition of the fee system
by which jailers obtained
money from prisoner

7. Benjamin Rush
Voiced 2 concerns:
Punishment should not be
public events
Reformation of offenders
could be achieved from
punishment through penance

Reformatory Movement
Featured indeterminate
sentencing
Parole
Classification by degree of
individual reform
Rehabilitative programs
Separate treatment for
juveniles
Founded by NPA (National
Prison Association)
DECLARATION OF
PRINCIPLES
- The view that the
crime was a moral
disease
- Belief that criminals
were victims of
social disorder
ENOCH COBB WINES
- Organized NPA
- Now known as
American
Correctional
Association
AMERICAN CORRECTIONAL
ASSOCIATION

Largest corrections
association in the
world
1870 founded as
National Prison
Association
Org. of prison
professionals had
prison reform
orientation

1. ALEXANDER MACANOCHIE
- Father of Modern
Penology
- SuperintendentPenal Colony at
Norfolk Islands in
Australia
- Introduced Mark
System
Blueprint of
Modern Day
Parole
Progressive
human system
Number of marks
based on proper
department,
labor and study
Entitle him of
ticket for leave/
conditional
release
Same as parole
2. Manuel Montesimos
Director of Prisons in
Valencia

Divided prisoners into


companies
Appointed prisoners as
petty officers in charge
Allowed GCTA

3. Domets of France
Agricultural colony for
delinquent boys
Housefathers are in
charge of these boys
Re- education
After discharge- boys
have their guardian for
supervision
4. Sir Evelyn Ruggles Brise
Director of English
Prison Reform
Borstal Institution for
Young Offenders
- considered as: BEST
REFORM INSTITUTION
FOR YOUNG
OFFENDERS TODAY
5. Walter Crofton
Director of Irish Prison
Reform 1854
Introduced Irish
Sysytem- modified
Macanochies Mark
System
6. Zebulon Brockway
1st Superintendent
Elmira Reformatory in
New York
Introduced training
school type

Education for prisoners


Solitary confinement
for night
Congregate workshop

Parole and
indeterminate sentence
were used