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ADVANCEDENGINEERINGDESIGN

DesignforReliability

Book: AdvancedEngineeringDesign,edition2015
Website:www.engineeringabc.com
SolutionsManual:LastupdateSept2,2015

Dr.ir.AntonvanBeek
DelftUniversityofTechnology
MechanicalEngineering

Recentupdates:

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

ProblemsChapter1

Problem1.1:L10servicelife

Consideraquantityof10componentsthatallfailwithinayearofservice.CalculatetheL10servicelife
with90%reliabilityand10%failureprobabilityassuminganormalfailuredistribution.
Months

10

11

12

Failures

Problem1.2:Tolerancefield

Thediameterofabatchofshaftsisnormallydistributed
with99.7%oftheshaftswithinthetolerancefield20h9,it
isbetween20mm+0/52m.

Calculatethesizeofthetolerancefieldwith95%
probability.

Problem1.3:Drivingtorqueinterferencefit

Aninterferencefitisrealizedwith20H7/r6hole/shafttolerances.The
dimensionsofthecomponentsareassumedtobenormallydistributed.
Thestandarddeviationiscalculatedfromtheassumptionthatthe
toleranceintervalisa3interval.Linearelasticdeformationistobe
consideredwhichimpliesthetorquethatcanbetransmittedis
proportionaltothediametricalinterference.

Thetorquethatcanbetransmitted,basedonthemeanvalueofthediametricalinterference,isT50[Nm].
Itisthetorquewith50%failureprobability.Thetorquethatcanbetransmittedwith1%failure
probabilityisdenotedasT1.

Thevariationofperformance,relativetothemean,isameasureofreliability.Thecoefficientofvariation
isdefinedasCV=deviation/mean.CalculateCV=(T50T1)/T50.

Problem1.4:Drivingtorquetaperedshafthubs

ThetorqueTthatcanbetransmittedbyataperedshafthubconnection
isproportionaltotheclampingforce,i.e.theboltpreloadFi.Thepreload
FiisproportionaltoMA/whereMAisthetighteningtorquethe
coefficientoffrictioninthescrewassembly.Thecoefficientoffriction
ismanagedbyusingaproperthreadlubricantandvariesbetween0.12
and0.16.CalculatethecoefficientofvariationCV=(T50Tmin)/T50where
Tministheleasttorquethatcanbetransmittedbytheshafthub
connection.

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Problem1.5:Interferencefitwithhollowshaft

Agearistobepressfittedoverahollowshaftof20mmdiameter.
Considertheinterference=0.150.05mm.Thestrainisthatmuchthat
thehollowshaftwilldeformplastically.

Thetensilestressintheplasticregimevariesmuchlesswiththestrain
thanintheelasticregime.
Thetensilestressintheplasticregimeofthesteelshaftisapproximated
bylinearinterpolationbetween(g=0.005)=350MPaand(g=0.01)=
450MPa.CalculatethecoefficientofvariationCV=(T50Tmin)/T50where
Tministhedrivingtorquethatcanbeguaranteedforallconnections.

Problem1.6:Chaindimensioning
Theillustrationbelowshowsasimple
drawingofapartmadebymilling.
Calculatethesymmetricaltolerance
intervalofAwith99%probability,
assumingalltolerancesarenormally
distributedwithinthe3intervaland
independent.

Problem1.7:Numberofmeasurementsneededtoobtainareliableestimation

Whenthemeasurementofthecoefficientoffrictionisrepeatedonewillfindalargevariation.Consider
themeasuredvalues0.11,0.12,0.13,0.14and0.15.

a)Calculatethe95%intervaloverwhichthecoefficientoffrictionmaylie.

b)Whatnumberofmeasurementsareneededtoestimatethemeanwith95%reliabilitywithin0.01
accuracy?

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Problem1.8:Estimationofserviceinterval
Fromaseriesofexperimentsitis
foundthatthecomponentlifeis=
150103kmand=20103km.A
componentreliabilityof90%is
specifiedwithL10,of99%withL1.
CalculatethevalueL10andL1andthe
ratioa1=L1/L10.

Problem1.9:ConversionofMTBFtoReliability
a)

EstimatetheMTBFforN=10devicesthatare
testedforTtest=500hoursandduringthetestr=2
failuresoccur.

b)

Estimatetheprobabilitythatanyoneparticular
devicewillbeoperationalatthetimeequaltothe
MTBF?

c)

Estimatetheprobabilitythatthecomponentwill
workfor50%oftheMTBF

d)

EstimatethepercentageoftheMTBFwhere
R(t)=0.95.

Problem1.10:FaultTreeAnalysis
Considerthefaulttreewiththecomponentreliabilitygiveninthetablebelowandcalculatethefailure
probabilityF(t)ofthesystemforaservicelifet.

R(t)

0.9

0.85

0.9

0.7

0.95

0.8

0.99

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Problem1.11:Bearingreliability,deepgrooveballbearing
CalculatetheoperatingreliabilityR(t=1000hr)ofadeepgrooveball
bearing.ThecalculatedL10lifeexpectancyoftheballbearingisL10=
500A106rev.Therotationalspeedis4000rpm.
Hint:ThelifeexpectancyoftheballbearingsisrelatedtotheL10basic
ratinglifeaccording(eq.1.18,page19).

Problem1.12:ReliabilityfactorforFatiguestrength

Apowersupplyiscooledby3fans.Thecorrectfunctioningofatleast
oneofthethreefansisrequiredtomaintainsufficientcooling.The
operatingreliabilityofthesystemneedstobe99%foraservicelifeof
10.000hr,Rs(10.000hr)=0.99.Therotationalspeedis4000rpm.
a)EstimatetherequiredoperatingreliabilityRjoftheindividualfans.
b)CalculatetherequiredL10hoftheindividualbearings.
c)CalculateC/P

Problem1.13:ReliabilityfactorforFatiguestrength

Datapublishedoftheendurancestrengtharealwaysmeanvalues.In
Norton(2000)isreportedthatthestandarddeviationoftheendurance
strengthofsteelsseldomexceeds8%oftheirmean.Estimateacorrection
factorfortheendurancestrengthifa99%probabilityisrequired.

Problem1.14:Componentreliability

Calculatethecomponentreliabilityofadriveshaft
(motorshaft)loadedintheHighCycleFatigue(HCF)
regimewithLn=2A105loadcycles.
ConsiderthecalculatedfatiguelifeofL50=3A105
loadcyclesandastandarddeviationof=0.2.

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Problem1.15:Stressconcentrationfactor

"Achainisonlyasstrongasitsweakestlink,regardlessofthestrengthofthestrongerlinks".Doyou
agreeandwhatdoyouthinkaboutthereliabilityifthefailuremodeisfatigue?

Problem1.16:Systemreliability
CalculatethefailureprobabilityF(100hr)oftwo
criticalcomponentsofasystemconnectedinseries.
Fromproductcataloguesitisfoundthatthereliability
ofonecomponentisspecifiedwith=150hrand=
30.5hr,theothercomponentisspecifiedwith=120
hrand=10.2hr.
Hint:firststepistocalculateR(t)ofbothcomponents.

Problem1.17:Systemreliability
Aheavydutymotorizedframefeaturesaquaddrive
systemusingtwohighpowerDCmotorsandfourdrive
belts.Allfourbeltsarerequiredtomaintainoptimal
control.Fromfieldtestingitisfoundthattheservicelife
ofthebeltsunderheavydutyoperatingconditionsis
normallydistributedwithamean=200hranda
standarddeviationof=0.2. Calculatetheoperating
reliabilityofthesetof4beltsforaservicelifeof150hr.

Problem1.18:Systemreliability

ThereisaruleofthumbthatsaysthatthebearingloadPrelated
tothedynamicloadratingofthebearingCis:
LightloadedbearingsP#0.06C
Normalloadedbearings0.06C<P#0.12C
HeavilyloadedbearingsP>0.12C
Consideramotordriveequippedwithtwoballbearings.Oneof
thebearingsisloadedwithP=0.1C,whereCisthedynamicload
ratingofbearingtype16004,C=7.28kN.Themotorrotateswith
n=1400rpmduring8hoursaday,5daysaweekitis1920
hr/year.Calculatethelifeexpectancy[years]ofthisbearingwith1%failureprobability.
Hint:FirstcalculatedL10andL10h.ThelifeexpectancyLnaofballbearingsisrelatedtotheL10basicrating
lifeaccordingLna=a1L10(eq.1.18page19).

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Problem1.19:Systemreliability

Consideramotordriveequippedwithtwoballbearings.Thelife
expectancyofthebearingsiscalculatedasL10h=12,000hrand
L10h=16,000hourrespectively.Calculatethesystem(motor)
reliabilityforaservicelifeof10,000hour.

a)ThelifeexpectancyLnaoftheballbearingsisrelatedtotheL10
basicratinglifeaccordingLna=a1L10(eq.1.18page19)wherea1
isthereliabilityfactorderivedfromastatisticalWeibull
distribution.
b)Itisassumedthatthefailuredistributionf(t)ofthebearingsis
bestfittedbyaWeibullFailureDistributionfunctionwithshapefactor=1.5(Eq.1.5page12).

Problem1.20:Systemreliability
Theoperatingreliabilityofaproductionlineneedstobe
estimated.Theproductionlineconsistsof6identicalpick
andplaceunitswithsimilaroperatingconditions.
Themostcriticalcomponentsoftheindividualpickandplace
unitsareidentifiedusinganFMEAprocedure.Theoperating
reliabilityofthesecomponentsareestablishedandfinally
presentedinafaulttree.

Calculatedvalueoftheoperating
reliabilityoftheproductionlineR(t).
Whichofthecomponentswouldyou
selecttoimproveitsoperating
reliabilityby5percentinorderto
improvethesystemreliability?

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Problem1.21:Systemreliability
Amonitoringunitisappliedtoregisterasafunctionoftime
unexpectedmachinestandstillwhichiscausedbyaspecific
componentinthepickandplaceunits.Theservicelifet(hr)
ofthiscomponentisderivedfromthemonitoreddataand
listedinthetablebelow.
Servicelifet(hr)ofthecriticalcomponent
590 420 520 480 490 510 450

480

Calculatetherequiredmaintenanceintervalinorderto
replacethiscomponentinallpickandplaceunitsintime.
Thereliabilityoftheindividualpickandplaceunitsshouldbe
atleastR(t)=0.99.Whatist?

Problem1.22:Precisionandaccuracy

Repeatability(precision)istheerrorbetweenanumberof
successiveattemptstomovethemachinetothesame
position.Repeatabilitycanberepresentedbytheinterval
whichcontainsN%ofthemeasuredpositions.

Accuracyisthedifferencebetweentheintendedposition
andthemeanofthemeasuredpositions.The
rootmeansquaredeviation(RMSD)orrootmeansquare
error(RMSE)isafrequentlyusedmeasureforaccuracy.The
accuracycanbeimprovedbyadjustingtheoffset.The
precisionremainsthesame.

Resolutionisthesmallestpossiblemovementofasystemwhenactuated.Alsoknownasthestepsize.
Theresolutionofaninstrumentisthesmallestincrementthatthegagedisplays.

Consideranintendedpositionofxtarget=40mmandarangeofmeasuredxdata:
40.12,40.07,39.9839.9540.02mm.Calculatetheachievedaccuracyandtherepeatabilitywithinthe
95%confidenceinterval.Whatistheresolutionofthecalipershownabove?

10

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Problem1.23:Precisionandaccuracyofasteppermotor

ConsideralinearmotionsystemthatconsistsofaNEMA17sizehybrid
steppingmotorconnectedtoatrapezoidaldrivespindle.
TheNEMA17sizehybridsteppingmotorprovidesa1.8stepangle
(200steps/revolution)suitableforaholdingtorqueof3.2kgcm
(0.134Nm).Standardsteppermotorshaveanaccuracyof5%.The
errordoesnogaccumulatestepbystep.
Therotationofthesteppermotoristransferredinlinearmotionusing
adrivespindlewithatrapezoidalthreadTr12xP3.Thetravellengthof
thelinearmotionsystemiss=0.1m.Deformationsinthedrive
spindleareneglected.
a)
b)
c)

Calculatetheresolutionforlinearmotion.
Calculatetherepeatabilityintervalforlinearmotion.
Calculatethemaximumoffsetofthelinearmotionsystemexpressedasapercentageofthe
travellength,affectedbytheaccuracyofthesteppermotor.Themaximumoffsetisthe
maximumvalueofthedifferencebetweentheintendedpositionandtheachievedposition.

Problem1.24:Hysteresiserrorfromfrictioninthedrivespindle

Inthefigurebelowalinearmotionaxisofamillingmachineisshownactuatedbyaservomotor.The
systemaccuracysuffersfromtheWindupoftheleadscrew.TheWindupofdriveshaftsisdefined
asthetorsionangle.Itisassumedthatthedisplacementofthecarriageissetbytherotationangleofa
steppermotor.Thedrivetorqueispresentinonedirectionofmotion.

ScrewlengthL=1m
TrapezoidalthreadTr12xP3
Pitchdiameterd2=10.5mm
ShearmodulusG=80GPa
DrivetorqueTdyn=26Nm
DrivetorqueTstat=1.2Tdyn
v=0.1m/s

a)

Calculatethehysteresiserrorresultingfromthefrictioninthedrivespindle.

b)

Calculatethefluctuationandfrequencyofthestickslipmovementassumingthatthedriving
torqueis20%higherbystaticfriction,beforethemotionstarts.Thecarriageisdrivenwithv=0.1
m/s(Hint:Figure1.26page30).

c)

Calculatethedisplacementofthecarriagebyfrictionalheatinginthenutspindleinterface.One
ofthebearingsinthemotordriveisthelocatingbearingofthedrivespindle.Consideramean
valueoftemperatureincreaseoverthespindleof10EC.Thethermalexpansioncoefficientis
=12106/K.

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

11

Problem1.25:Hysteresiserrorfromfrictioninthedovetailslide

Inthefigurebelowalinearmotionaxisofamillingmachineisshownactuatedbyaservomotor.The
systemaccuracysuffersfromthefrictioninthedovetailslideofthecarriageandtheresulting
hysteresiserror.Itisassumedthatthedisplacementofthecarriageissetbytherotationangleofa
steppermotor.Thefrictionispresentinbothdirectionsofmotion.

ScrewlengthL=1m
TrapezoidalthreadTr12xP3
Pitchdiameterd2=10.5mm
EmodulusE=210GPa
Coefficientoffriction=0.15
NormalloadF=2000N

a)
b)

Calculatethehysteresiserrorresultingfromthefrictioninthedovetailslide.
Calculatethefluctuationandfrequencyofthestickslipmovementthatoccursifthecoefficient
offrictionvariesbetweens=0.25andd=0.1andtheslidingvelocityv=0.1m/s(Hint:Figure1.26
page30).

Problem1.26:Hysteresiserrorfromfrictioninafrictionjoint

Manyworklampsusefrictionjoints,soyoucaneasily
directthelightwhereyouwantit.Consideralamparm
withtwolegsofunequallengthinthepositionas
illustrated.Thefrictionjointsshouldmaintainafixed
clampingforaloaduptoF=10Nandwillslipwhenthe
lamparmisloadedwithahigherload.Calculatethe
hysteresisofthismechanism(virtualplay,bidirectional).
Consider:ArmlengthsL1=0.3mandL2=0.3m.Thearms
aremadeofhollowsteelpipes,E=210GPa,D=10mm
andd=8mm.

Problem1.27:Hysteresiserrorinarobotarm

Considerasimplifiedmodelofarobotarmthatis
actuatedbyasteppermotorusing200steps/rotation.
ThebeamlengthLmeasuredfromtheshaftcentreof
thesteppermotortothepointofcontactbetweenthe
pencilandthepaperisL=0.2m.Thebeamismadeof
steelwithE=210GPa.Thebeamhasadiameterof
d=5mmandisconsideredtobeloadedinpure
bending.Thefrictionforcebetweenthepencilandthe
paperisFf=2N.

12

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

a)

Calculatethevirtualplayasaresultoftheelasticityoftherobotarm.Hint:thevirtualplayis
definedasthedeflectionresultingfromabidirectionalmotion.
Calculatetheresolution[mm]ofthemovementasaresultofthesteppermotor.Hint:The
resolutionisthesmallestincrementalstepsize.
CalculatethefluctuationXofthestickslipmovementthatoccurs,whenthefrictionforcevaries
betweenFs=5NandFd=2andtheslidingvelocityv=0.1m/s(Hint:Figure1.26page130)

b)
c)

Problem1.28:Virtualplayerrorinarobotarm

Considertherobotarmdescribedinpreviousproblem.Therobotarmisactuatedinsuchawaythatthe
pencilshoulddisplaceLdn=5mm.Itisconsideredthatthetoptopvalueofthemovementisx=4
mm.

a)Iftheerrorbetweenactuationandobtaineddisplacementisexplainedbyvirtualplay.Howmuch
wouldthevirtualplaybe?
Problem1.29:Virtualplayindrivespindleassembly

Inthefigurebelowaleadscrewwithantibacklashsplitnutisshown.Theassemblyconsistsofa303
stainlesssteelacmeleadscrewmatedwithaselflubricatingpolyacetal(POMwith15%PTFE)nut.The
springpreloadeliminatesbacklashandcompensatesforwear.
Springpreloadedsystemscangenerallytransfertheactuationforceonlyinonedirection.For
bidirectionalactuationthespringpreloadmustexceedtheactuatingforce.Thelargepreloadthatis
requiredcausesextrafriction,wearandincreasesthehysteresiserrorofthemotionsystem.
Consideramotionsystemwherethedisplacementissetbytherotationangleofasteppermotor.The
systemaccuracysuffersfromthewindupoftheleadscrew.Thewindupisdefinedasthetorsionangle.
Itisaskedtocalculatethehysteresiserrorforabidirectionalmotionasaresultofthespringpreload.
ScrewlengthL=1m
TrapezoidalthreadTr12xP3
Pitchdiameterd2=10.5mm
ShearmodulusG=80GPa
Coefficientoffriction=0.15
InternalspringpreloadFi=500N
a)Calculatethefrictiontorqueofthecombinedsplitnut.
b)CalculatethehysteresiserrorforabidirectionalmotionwithzeropayloadandafrictionaltorqueofT=
1Nm.

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

13

Problem1.30:Stickslipmotion

Amassofm=0.5kgispulledalongasurfaceusingaspringbalance.Thespringbalanceismovedwitha
constantvelocityofv=0.1m/s.Themotionexhibitsaclearstickslipbehaviour.Thereadingofthespring
balancevariesbetween8Nand14N.Thestiffnessofthespringk=1N/mm.
a)Calculatetheratiobetweenthestaticand
dynamiccoefficientoffriction.
b)Calculatethefluctuationofstickslip
motion.
c)Calculatethefrequencyofmotion.
d)Calculatethenaturalfrequencyofthemassspringsystem.
Problem1.31:Stickslipmotion

Oneoftheoptionsinamorphologicalmatrixtofulfiltheactuatorfunctioninalinearmotiondrive
systemisapneumaticcylinder.Thefrictionbetweenthepistonsealsandthecylindertypicallyresultsin
africtionasmodelledinFigure1.26page30.

Thesealfrictionishighestinthestatic
positionofthepistonandfallsdowntoa
verylowlevelbyelastohydrodynamic
lubricationwhenthepistonmoves.

ConsiderastartingpositionwithanairpressureequaltoaspringforceF0=500N(zerofriction).The
springstiffnessk=10N/mm.Nexttheairpressureisincreaseduntilthepistonstartstomove.Thepiston
startstomovewhentheairpressurehasincreasedby10%.Whenthepistonstartstomovethefriction
fallsdowntoapproximatezerolevel.Thepistonwillmakeastepforward.Thisprocessisrepeated.
Calculatethesmallestpossiblestepsizeinastepbystepmovementofthepiston.
Problem1.32:TrueorUntrue?

Readtherelatedchapterofthecoursebookbeforeansweringthetrue/untruestatements.These
statementsareusefultoverifywhetheryouunderstandthetheorydiscussedinthischapter.
1.

Qualityishowwellaproductconformstorequirementsatonepointoftime,themomentof
qualitycontrol(page40).

2.

Thequalityofalinearaxiscanbeexpressedintheprecisionandtheaccuracy(page40).

3.

Ahighqualitylinearaxiscanhaveapoorreliabilityandalinearaxiswithahighreliabilitycan
haveapoorquality(page40).

4.

ReliabilityR(t)istheextenttowhichaproductcontinuestoconformtorequirements.Reliability
R(t)equalsqualityovertime(page40).

5.

Iftheclampingforceofaninterferencefitusingpolymercomponentsmightfailbycreep
(requirementtotransmitatorque),thencreepisthefailuremode(page40).

6.

Iftheclampingforceofaninterferencefitusingpolymercomponentsmightfailbycreep,then
thelossofclampingforceisthefailuremechanism(page40).

14

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

7.

Thekeyfunctionsofarollingbearingaretoenablefreemovementintheintendeddegreeof
freedomandinfinitestiffnessintheothers.Possiblefailuremodesofrollingbearingsare
jammingorshaftrunoutbyvibrations(page40).

8.

Surfacefatigueisapossiblefailuremodeofarollingbearing(page40).

9.

Thefailuremodeofabearingcausedbysurfacefatiguemightbethenoise/levelofvibrations
thatincreasesbysurfacefatigue.

10.

Thefailuremechanismthatcausedafailuremodecanberollingcontactfatigue,wearetc.(page
40).

11.

Possiblefailuremechanismsofrollingbearingsaresurfacefatigueandelasticindentationofthe
ballsintheraceways.Bothfailuremechanismsincreasethenoiselevelbyvibrations(page40).

12.

Runoutandvibrationsinrotatingbearingscreateanoffsetoftheshaftcenter.TheRMSEofthe
offsetisdefinedastherunningaccuracy(page22).

13.

Therootcausesoffailurescanintheoryinmostcasesbetracedbacktosomekindofahuman
error,e.g.designfailure,operationalfailure,maintenanceinducedfailure,specificationfailure
etc.(page40).

14.

Ifanunexpectedhighloadcausesacomponenttofailthantheunexpectedhighloadisthe
failuremode(page40).

15.

Accuracyofalinearaxisisthedifferencebetweentheintendedpositionofaspecificpointof
interestandthemeasuredposition.TheaccuracycanbeexpressedintheRMSEofanumberof
attempts(page22).

16.

Precision(Repeatability)istheerrorbetweenanumberofsuccessiveattemptstomovethe
machinetothesameposition.Theprecisioncanbecalculatedasthesymmetricintervalwhich
contains95%oftheattempts(page22).

17.

Resolutionisthesmallestpossiblemovementofasystemwhenactuated.Alsoknownasthestep
size(page22).

18.

Bidirectionalrepeatabilitymeasuresthecombinedprecisionandaccuracy(page22).

19.

Backlashisdefinedasthevirtualplaythatamechanicalstructureexhibitwhenactuatedby
reversedloading(page22).

20.

Iftheaccuracyofalinearaxisdegradesbywear,thenlossofaccuracyisthefailuremodeand
wearisthefailuremechanism.Thecauseoffailurecanbeanimpropermaterialselection.

Problem1.33:TrueorUntrue?

1.

Reliabilityisdefinedastheprobabilitythatasystemdeliverstherequiredperformanceduringa
certaintimeinterval(page11)

2.

ThefailureprobabilityF(t)foraservicelifetequaltothemeanvalueofthefailuredistribution
isF(t=)=50%(page13).

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

15

3.

Systemreliabilitydecreaseswiththenumberofcomponentsconnectedinparallel(page16).

4.

FaultTreeanalysis(FTA)isusuallyconductedbeforeaFailureModeandEffectAnalysis(FMEA)in
ordertoidentifythepossiblefailuremodesofasystem(page20).

5.

FMEAgivesgoodinsightinsystemreliability,theprobabilitythatthesystemperformswell
duringacertaintimeinterval(page20).

6.

Proactivemaintenanceisperformedwiththegoaltoobtainagoodbalancebetween
maintenancecostsandoperationallosses(page20)

7.

Thefailureprobabilityoftwobearingsinamotordriveiscalculatedbymultiplyingthefailure
probabilityoftheindividualbearings(page19).

8.

Thereliabilityoftwobearingsinamotordriveiscalculatedbymultiplyingthereliabilityofthe
individualbearings(page19).

9.

Thesystemreliabilitywillincreasebyredundancy,itisbyconnectingcomponentsinparallel
(page16).

10.

Thefailureprobabilityofapowertransmission,usinganinterferencefit,thatneedstotransmit
atleastaspecifiedpower,isrepresentedbyatwosidedconfidenceinterval(page15).

16

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Answers

1.1)

1.2)
Themeanvalueofthediameteroftheshafts=19.74mm.The99.7%intervalisa3intervalwhich
resultsin=52m/6.The95%symmetricalinterval,with2.5%oneitherside,isbetweenzand+z
withz=1.96.Thisresultsinatoleranceintervalof2z=34m.
1.3)
20H7:Dmax=20mm+21m,Dmin=20mm+0m,Dmean=20mm+10.5m,D=21/6m
20r6:dmax=20mm+41m,dmin=20mm+28m,dmean=20mm+34.5m,d=(4128)/6m
Interferencemean50=34.5m10.5m=24m,InterferenceSD
Theminimumvalueofwith1%failureprobability

Coefficientofvariation,probabilistic:

thus,Tmin=0.6Tmean

Theworstcasescenarioisobtainedwiththemaximumborediameterandtheminimumshaftdiameter.
Theminimumvalueof(Deterministic):

and

1.4)
Themeanvalueofthecoefficientoffriction50=0.14.TheobtainedpreloadF,withgiventightening
torqueM,isminimalwhenthefrictioninfastenerwillhavethehighestvalue.
Torqueratio(worstcase):

whereTisthetorquethecanbetransmittedbytheclampingactionbetweentheshafthubinterface.
Comparedtotheinterferencefitwhichisdiscussedinpreviousproblem,amuchsmallervariationinthe
torqueisobtained,andthusamorereliableconnectionisachieved.Bycontrollingthefriction,the
reliabilityofthetaperedshafthubconnectioncanbeimprovedfurther.Besidesspeciallubricantsinthe
threadedarea,washersareoccasionallyusedasameansofminimisingfrictionalscatterfromtheheat
facefrictionduringtightening.
1.5)
Asmallvariationinthetorquetransmissionisfound,despitethelargetolerancefieldonthediameterof
thecomponents.
Torqueratio(worstcase):

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

17

1.6)

Aruleofthumbsaysthatwithchaindimensioningtheprobabilisticvaluecanbeestimatedbythesquare
rootofthetolerances.Thiswouldresultin:A=o(0.22+0.12+0.22)=0.3
1.7)
Themeanvalueisthesameasthemedianinthiscase,=0.13.

The95%intervaloftheCOFoffrictionbecomes
Thestandarddeviationofthesamplemeanis

The95%reliabilityintervalofthesamplemeanis
Thenumberofexperimentsneededtohavea95%reliabilityoftheestimationofthemeanwithin0.01
accuracyis:

1.8)
Considersinglesidetruncationoftheprobabilitydensityfunction

Notethatwitha20%longerservicethefailureprobabilitywillincreaseto10%.

18

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

1.9)
TheMeanTimeBetweenFailureMTBF=T/r=TtestAn/r=10A500/2=2500hr/failure
ThefailurerateistheinverseoftheMTBF,=1/MTBF=1/2500=0.04%/hr
ThereliabilityR(t)=exp(t)according(eq.1.4page12),R(MTBF)=exp(1)=0.37=37%
Theprobabilitythatthecomponentwillworkfor50%oftheMTBFisR(t)=exp(0.5)=0.61
R(t)=0.95isobtainedwithln(0.95)=0.0513MTBF,only5%oftheMTBF.
1.10) F(t)=1AABACA[1(1D)(1E)][1(1F)(1G)]=0.32
1.11)

1.12)

1.13)
Standarddeviation=0.08
Ln=z,99%reliability,n=1,z=2.33
L50=,50%reliability
Creliab=Ln/L50,L1/L50=(zA)/=0.814

ReliabilityfactorsCreliabfor=0.08
R(t)

50%

90%

99%

99.9%

Creliab

1.000

0.897

0.814

0.753

1.14)

1.15)
Achainwith100components(links)connectedinseriesandcomponentreliability0.99resultsina
systemreliabilityof0.99100=0.366.If,oneofthecomponentshascomponentreliability0.95(the
weakestlinkinthechain),thesystemreliabilitybecomes0.9999@0.95=0.351.TheconclusionisthatA
chainisonlyasstrongasitsweakestlinkisvalidinadeterministicapproach,anditisthecriteriumfor
failurebyoverload.Inthecaseofaprobabilisticapproachwhichisnecessaryforreliabilityanalysisifthe
failuremodeisfatigue,thereliabilityofallcomponentsmatter.
1.16)

1.17)

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

1.18)

TheballbearingloadedwithP=0.1Cwillhavealifeexpectancywith1%failureprobabilityof1.3year.
1.19)
a)

b)

Weibullsreliabilityfunctionis(eq.1.5page12)

Considerbearing1:Substitutionof=1.5,R=0.9andt=L10h=16000hrresultsin=71724hr
Thereliabilityofbearing1forthelifeoft=10000hrcannowbesolved

Repeatingthemethodabovefortheotherbearingresultinthesystemreliability:

1.20)
A=0.95,B=0.9,C=0.8,D=0.7
RCD=1(1C)(1D)=0.94
Runit=AB(1(1C)(1D))=0.804
Rsystem=Runit6=0.27
ThereliabilityofthecomponentsAandBdominatethesystemreliability.
1.21)

1.22)
N=5,=40.028mm,=0.068mm,RMSE=0.067mm
a)Accuracy:0.067
b)Precisionwith95%confidenceinterval:1.96=0.134mm
c)Resolutionofthecaliperis0.01mm
95%confidenceintervalofaccuracy:
numberofexperimentsneededtodeterminetheaccuracywithina95%confidenceintervalof0.05

19

20

1.23)
a)

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

Resolutionsteppermotor360/200=1.8E,resolutionforlinearmotionPh/200=0.015mm

b)

Repeatabilityintervalofthesteppermotor5%360/200=0.09E=0.18E.Forlinearmotion
0.05Ph/200=0.75m=1.5m.

c)

Themaximumoffsetis0.05Ph/200=0.75m.Themaximumoffsetasapercentageofthetravel
is0.75m/s=7.5104%.Notethattherelativeoffsetislargeforsmalldisplacements.

1.24)
a)
b)
AmplitudeofmotionisX/2=0.026mm
Thesameresultcanbefoundbyconsideringthevelocityinthescrewnutinterface:

c)

1.25)
a)
b)

1.26)

1.27)

Virtualplay:

b)

Resolution:
Notethattheresolutionisnotinfluencedbythevirtualplay.Explainedinotherwords:The
incrementalstepsizeisnotinfluencebytheloadinducederroriftheloadisheldconstant.
Stickslipfluctuationofmovement:

c)

1.28)

1.29)

Virtualplayis2mm.Thehysteresiserroristhedifferenceinmotionthatamechanicalstructure
exhibitbythereversaloftraveldirection.

Designforlifetimeperformanceandreliability

a)

21

ThetighteningtorqueMGofonehalfofthesplitnutiscalculatedusing

Theplussignreferstotightening,thetorquerequiredtounscrewtheotherhalfofthesplitnuis
calculatedbyusingtheminussign.Thetotaltorqueofthetwohalvesofthesplitnutis

Notethatthescrewisswitchedfromselflockingtonotselflockingwhenn=.Witharelative
smallcoefficientoffrictionthepreloadonthesecondhalfofthesplitnuthelpstoreducethe
torque.SubstitutionofthenumericaldatagivesMG=0.822Nm
b)

1.30)
a)
b)
c,d)

1.31)

Figure1.26page30:

22

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

ProblemsChapter3

Problem3.1:Fatigueofabicyclefrontfork

Amanufacturerofmountainbikecomponentsdevelopedalightweightmagnesiumalloyfrontfork.
Unfortunately,theforkcrackedduringfieldtestingundernormalloadingconditionsafteronlyafew
roughrides.

Thedesignengineerwasaskedtochecktheforkdesignfor
stressconcentrations.Hemadeasolidmodelofthefork,
performed3Dstressanalysisinwhichthecriticalloadingfrom
brakingandhorizontal/verticalloadingofthefrontwheelwas
setasinput,optimizedthemodel'ssurfacemeshbycreatinga
finermesharoundthesmallholeslocatedatthebrake
connectionsandmadethestressconcentrationsvisible.The
stressanalysisproofedthatthecrackingexperiencedinthe
initialprototypetestingwasduetothepartdesign,notthe
materialpropertiesofmagnesium.
Thefirstrunshowedareasofhighstressbeyondthecritical
failurepoint.Thestressraisersweresmoothenedinsomeextra
iterations,makingmodificationstotheshapeofthedesignand
wallthickness.Themodifieddesignwasmanufacturedand
testedsuccessfully.
Toevaluatethepermissiblestressesindesignstageitis
importanttoknowinwhatfatigueregimetheforkwilloperate
duringitslife.WoulditbeintheLCForinHCFregime?

Problem3.2:Infinitelifedesigncardanjointsplineshaftloadedintorsion

Considerthecylindricalpartofadriveshaftcyclically
loadedintorsion.Theultimatetensilestressofthe
shaftisRm=500MPa.Theshaftoperatesinthe
infiniteliferegimewheree=0.5Rm(Table3.1page
80)ande=0.7e(eq.3.4page80)and=0.58e(von
Misess).TheyieldstressoftheshaftisRp0.2=0.6Rm
(nonalloyqualitysteelQuenchedandTempered,
page448).

CalculateDdyn/DstatwhereDdynistheshaftdiameter
requiredwhendynamicallyloadedandDstatwhen
staticallyloaded.
a)Stressconcentrationsareleftoutofconsideration.
b)ThestressconcentrationintheshoulderfilletisKt=1.7

Chapter3

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

23

Problem3.3:Infinitelifedesigndriveshaftwithtransverseholeloadedintorsion

ConsideradriveshaftwithtransverseholecyclicallyloadedintorsionwithT=10Nm.Theultimate
tensilestressoftheshaftisRm=500MPa,theyieldstressoftheshaftisRp0.2=0.6Rm.Thediameterofthe
transverseholeintheshaftisrelatedtothediameteroftheshaftaccordingd/D=0.2.Calculatethe
diameteroftheshaftwhen:

a)staticallyloaded.Hint:

b)cyclicallyloadedintheinfiniteliferegimewheree=0.5Rm(Table3.1page80),e=0.7eand
e=0.58e.ThestressconcentrationfactorcanbecalculatedwiththecurvefitfunctionKt=1.58990.6355
log(d/D).
Problem3.4:Infinitelifedesigndriveshaftunderrotarybending

AsteppedshaftissubjectedtorotarybendingM=4Nm.TheultimatetensilestressoftheshaftisRm=
500MPa,theyieldstressoftheshaftisRp0.2=0.6Rm.Calculatethe
diameteroftheshaftwhen:

a)staticallyloaded.

b)cyclicallyloadedintheinfiniteliferegimewheree=0.5Rm
(Table3.1page80),e=0.7eandKt=2.5.

Problem3.5:Infinitelifedesigndriveshaftunderrotarybending

Consideragroovedshaftinrotarybending.Thediameteroftheshaftd=d1=20mm,thediameterof
thegroovedk=19mm.ThestressconcentrationfactorKt=5.

a)CalculateM1/M2where
M1istheendurancestrengthforrotarybendingofa12mm
diametershaftwithoutgrooveand
M2istheendurancestrengthforrotarybendingofagroovedshaft
ofd=20mm,dk=19mmandKt=5.

b)Calculatehowmuchweightcanbesavedwhenthisshaftisreplacedbyanungroovedshaftofsmaller
diameterd2withthesameendurancestrength.Calculatethepercentage[%]ofweightsaving(m1
m2)/m1wherem1isthemassofthegroovedshaftandm2isthemassoftheungroovedshaft.

Problem3.6:Infinitelifedesigndriveshaftunderrotarybending

Consideragroovedshaftinrotarybending.Thediameteroftheshaftd=d1=20mm,thediameterof
thegroovedk=19mm.ThestressconcentrationfactorKt=6.
Whenstressreleasegroovesareappliednexttothesharpgroove
thenKt=2.Thegroovedepthofthestressreleasegroovesis50%
largerthanthedepthofthesharpgroove,dg=18.5mm.

Howmuchwillthebendingmomentthatcanbesustainedfor
infinitelifeincrease,whenapplyingstressreleasegrooves.
CalculateM2/M1whereM1isthebendingmomentwithoutstress
releasegroovesandM2isthebendingmomentwhenstressreleasegroovesareapplied.

24

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

Problem3.7:Cyclicallyloadedboltedstructure

ConsideracyclicallyloadedboltedstructureusingM108.8bolts.The
jointstiffnesskm=3kb(Figure3.30page91).Allboltsaretightenedbya
preloadbetween0.6F0.2<Fi<0.8F0.2.Calculate:

a)theratiobetweentheyieldstrengthF0.2andthefatiguestrengthPb=
2Faofthebolt.

b)themaximumexternalloadPthatislimitedbytheboltsyieldstrength.

c)themaximumexternalloadPthatislimitedbytheclampingforce
(Fm$0).

d)thepreloadFi(F0.2)thatwillresultinthemaximumloadcapacity.Inthiscaseboththeyieldstrength
andclampingforceneedstobeconsidered.

e)themaximumexternalloadPthatislimitedbytheendurancestrengthofthebolts.

f)Givesomereasonsforwhythepreloadisdefinedwithinarange.Listsomemoreinfluencefactorsthat
mayaffectthereliabilityoftheloadcapability.
Problem3.8:Springmodelofascrewjoint

DeriveanequationforPb/Pexpressedinkbandkm,
wherePbistheloadfluctuationinthethreaded
sectionbetweenthenuts,Pistheloadfluctuation
appliedtothescrewjointandkm,kbisthestiffness
oftheclampedmaterialandtheboltrespectively.

Problem3.9:Onthedesignofcyclicallyloadedscrewjoints

a)CalculatethemaximumloadfluctuationPofthebolted
structureasshown,wherePisthemaximumloadfluctuationof
eachscrewjoint.ConsiderM248.8boltswithapretensionof
0.6Rp0.2andajointstiffnessfactorCm=1/4.Theboltstressmust
remainintheendurancestrengthregime.
b)Inwhatwaywouldyouredesignthestructureinorderto
obtainanimprovedfatiguestrength?

Chapter3

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

Problem3.10:Onthedesignofcyclicallyloadedscrewjoints

CalculatethemaximumloadfluctuationPofeach
screwjointshowninthefigure.ConsiderM248.8
boltswithapretensionof0.8Rp0.2andajoint
stiffnessfactorCm=1/6.
Theboltstressmustremainintheendurance
strengthregime,shouldnotyieldandtheclamping
shouldnotbelost.

Problem3.11:Improvedfatiguestrengthofascrewjoint

Calculatethefactortowhichthe
fatiguestrengthPofthescrew
jointwillincreasebyplacinga
ringbelowthenut,wherePis
themaximumloadfluctuationin
theendurancestrengthregime
oftheboltstress.
Considerlm1=2dandlm2=3d.

Problem3.12:Improvedfatiguestrengthofascrewjoint

Calculatethefactortowhichthefatigue
strengthPofthescrewjointwillincrease
ordecreasebyreplacingametricM128.8
screwbyametricM1010.9screw.The
thicknessoftheclampedmembersLm=2d
whered=12mmarekeptthesame.
Theendurancestrengthofsteelgrade
10.9fastenerscanbecalculatedwith

wherethefactor70/60isderivedfrom
Figure3.28page90ontheleft.

25

26

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

Problem3.13:Improvedfatiguestrengthmountingofabearinghousing

Considertwopossibleconfigurationsforthe
mountingofabearinghousing.Both
configurationsarerealisedwithM12bolts
sufficientlypreloaded.Theclampinglengthof
theconfigurations1and2areLm.1=0.8dand
Lm.2=2d.

CalculateP2/P1,whereP1andP2arethe
maximumloadfluctuationsonthebearingsof
configuration1and2respectively

Problem3.14:Improvedfatiguestrengthmountingofabearinghousing

Considertwopossibleconfigurationsfor
themountingofabearinghousing.The
clampinglengthoftheconfigurations1
and2areLm.1=dandLm.2=2.5d.

CalculateP2/P1,whereP1andP2arethe
maximumloadfluctuationsonthe
bearingsofconfiguration1and2
respectively

Problem3.15:Improvedfatiguestrengthpistonrodconnection

Considertwopossibleconfigurationsforahydraulicpistonrodconnection.
Configuration1)M248.8,clampedoverLm=d,preloadedwith0.8F0.2
Configuration2)M128.8,clampedoverLm=3d,preloadedwith0.8F0.2

Calculatetheratioofthe
fatiguestrengthP2/P1.P1and
P2arethepistonforcesof
configuration1and2
respectively,thatcanbe
sustainedforinfinitelife.The
smallletterpisthehydraulic
pressure.

Problem3.16:Fatiguefailureprobabilityofascrewjoint

Considerapneumaticcylinderthatconsistsofanaluminiumbushing
withtwoendcapsclampedby4steelboltstuds.

Boltstuds:db=6mm,Esteel=210GPa
Bushing:Dcyl=80mm,wallthicknesss=4mm,Ealum=70GPa

a)CalculatethejointstiffnessfactorCm.

b)Thebushingisreplacedbyonewitha2mmwallthickness.What
consequenceswillthisdeviationinjointstiffnesshaveforthefatigue
strengthoftheboltedconnection.

Chapter3

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

27

Problem3.17:Improvedfatiguestrengthusingstretchbolts

Stretchboltsareusedbycarmanufacturersforseveralreasons;to
accommodateLCFthermalexpansion(thermomechanicalfatigue
TMF),towithstandHCFloadandfinallytheycanbeprestressed
accurately.

a)Calculatethestressconcentrationfactorinthethreadedsectionof
thebolt.ConsiderametricM128.8boltandanendurancestrengthof
thesteelwhenloadedinaxialtensionofe=0.5Rm.Thefatigue
strengthofthethreadedparta=50MPaisderivedfromFigure3.28page90.
b)Calculatetheminimaldiameteroftheshank,ifthesamefatigueloadPb[N]isaskedfortheshankand
thethreadedsection.ThestressconcentrationinthefilletonbothendsoftheshankisKt=1.8.The
strengthreductionfactorsintheshankareCsurfCreliab=0.8.
Problem3.18:Infinitelifedesigncylinderheadstuds

Cylinderheadstudboltsclampthecylinderheadto
theblock.Tomaintainatightleakfreeseal,the
boltsmustbetightenedinthepropersequenceto
specifications.

Oneofthemethodstotorqueheadboldsiscalled
torquetoyield(TTY).Itmeansthattheequivalent
stressisincreaseduntilitreachestheyieldstrength
duringtightening.Aruleofthumbsaysthatthe
torsionalstressincreasestheequivalentstressby
approximately20%andisreleasedasaresultof
relaxationaftertightening.

CalculatethemaximumloadfluctuationPbandP
thatcanbetakenbyeachstud.ConsiderM10
threadedstuds,At=58mm2,steelgrade12.9andCm=1/8,aninitialtensionalstressof0.8F0.2anda
minimumclampingforcethatisneededtoensureleakfreesealingof0.2F0.2.

Problem3.19:ThermoMechanicalFatigue(TMF)ofcylinderheadstuds

Theoverallclampforcegeneratedbythecylinderheadbolts/studs
anditsuniformdistributionacrosstheentiresealingsystemisamajor
issue.Variousareasaretobesealed(gas,waterandoilseal)and
compressionforcesandthermalexpansionmustbeaccommodated
whilekeepinganoptimumclampingforceoverthegasket.

Eachtimethemotortemperatureincreasesfromcoldstartto
operatingtemperaturethealuminiumcylinderheadexpands.Because
thecylinderheadstudsaremadeofsteelandthermallyexpandtoa
lesserdegree,theboltstressvarieseachtemperaturecycle.Calculate
towhatextenttheboltstresswillincreasebythermalexpansionof
thehead.Consider10mmdiameterboltstudsandaclampinglength
of150mm.

28

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

Problem3.20:ThermoMechanicalFatigue(TMF)ofsolderjoints

Forenvironmentalreasonstinleadsolders,for
exampleSn37Pb,arereplacedbyleadfreesolders.
Leadfreesolders,thatarenowbeingusedaretin
silvercopperalloys.InthesocalledBallGridArray
(BGA)packagesinSMTthesesolderjointsappearto
sufferfromThermoMechanicalFatigue.

Thedifferencesinthethermalexpansionratesofthe
componentsandtheprintedcircuitboardscausesthe
solderjointstoundergocyclicelastic/plastic
deformations.Theplasticdeformationscanhardenthe
solderandfinallycausesoldercracksandjointfailure
(cohesivebondingfailure).

Deriveanequationfortheshearforceactingonthesolderjoint,relatedtothethermomechanical
propertiesofthecomponents.
Problem3.21:Infinitelifedesigncompressionspring

Calculatethemaxamplitudeofacompressionspringforinfinite
life.Considerawirediameterd=10mm,numberofwindsn=8,
radiusofthewindsr=50mm,ashearmodulusofG=80GPa,Rm=
2220820logdwhered[mm]andRm[MPa],afatiguestrengthfor
107stresscyclesofe/Rm=0.15.Approximateequationsforspring
stiffnessofcoilspringsarelistedinTable14.2.26page450.

Problem3.22:Safelifedesignofaweldedchassis

TwohotrolledsteelsectionsofS235
(Rp0.2=235MPa)areconnectedby
welding.Thefatiguestrengthofthe
weldedzoneischaracterisedK=30
MPa(SNdiagramshownbelow).
Calculatethenumberofstresscycles
thatcanbesustainedwithstressesas
highastheyieldstrengthofthe
structuralsteelitself.

Ni (

K m 7
) 10
i

Chapter3

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

29

Problem3.23:Safelifedesignofbuttweldconnectionsinpipeflanges

Socketweldpipeflanges(Fig.1)actuallyslipoverthepipe.Thesepipe
flangesaretypicallymachinedwithaninsidediameterslightlylarger
thantheoutsidediameterofthepipe.Socketpipeflanges,are
securedtothepipewithafilletweldaroundthetopoftheflange.
Weldneckflanges(Fig.2)attachto
thepipebyweldingthepipetothe
neckofthepipeflangewithubutt
weld.Theneckallowsforthe
transferofstressfromtheweldneckpipeflangestothepipeitself.
Weldneckpipeflangesareoftenusedforhighpressureapplications.
Theinsidediameterofaweldneckpipeflangeismachinedtomatch
theinsidediameterofthepipe.
Calculatetheratioofthefatiguelifeoftheweldconnectionina
socketweldpipeflangewithrespecttotheweldneckpipeflange,Ns/Nn.TheSocketweldflangeis
typicallyadetailcategorywithK=30MPa,theweldneckflangewithK=45MPa(SNdiagramshown
inpreviousproblem).Considerafatigueloadinducingastressioverthecrosssectionofthepipeof50
MPa.
Problem3.24:Safelifedesignofbuttweldconnections

SteelgradesknownasS235,S275andS355arenonalloystructuralsteels.ThesteelgradesoftheJR,JO,
J2andK2categoriesareingeneralsuitableforallweldingtechniques.TheyieldstrengthofS235for
exampleis235MPa.Thestrengthofstaticallyloadedfullpenetratedbuttweldsdonotneedtobe
calculatedseparately,sincethestrengthoftheweldmaterialisatleastasstrongasthatofthestructural
steel.

Thefatiguestrengthofdifferentweldsareclassifiedbyadetailcategorynumber(Eurocode3).Thedetail
categorynumberindicatesthereferencefatiguestrengthCforN=2106loadcycles.Thecategory
number160,whichindicatesafatiguestrengthC=160MPaisthehighest.Nodetailcanreachabetter
fatiguestrength.Itisthefatiguestrengthforunnotchedsectionsandplates.Afullpenetrationbuttweld
betweentwoplatesreducesthefatiguestrengthtoC=80MPa.Finishingthebuttweldbygrinding
improvesthefatiguestrengthtoC=112MPa.

30

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

ThefatiguelifeexpressedinthenumberofstresscyclesNRcanbecalculatedfromtheactualstressinthe
weldRandthefatiguestrengthCaccordingto

NR (

m 3, R D
D m
) 5 106

R
m 5, D R L

2
5 1/5
D ( )1/3 C L (
) D
5
100

a)CalculatethefatiguelifeNRoftwostripsconnectedbyatransversebuttwelddetailcategory80,when
cyclicallyloadedintension.ConsiderafullyreversedstressofR=100MPa.

b)Towhatextentwillthefatiguelifebeimprovedwhentheweldisgroundflat.
Problem3.25:Safelifedesignofabuttweld

ConsidertheweldedcoverofapressurevesselshownintheFigurebelowandthetwopossiblefailure
modesofthefilletweld.
CalculatethenumberoftimesN
(103cycles)thatthepressure
mayrisefromzeropressureup
toapressureof10MPa.
Considerawallthicknessoft=5
mm,adiameterofD=0.3m.

Problem3.26:SafelifedesignofbuttweldconnectionsusingtheMinersrule

Sincepartsareseldomstressedrepeatedlyatonlyonestresslevel,thecumulativedamageeffectof
operationsatvariouslevelsofstressneedtobeconsideredtoestimatethefatiguelife.
CalculatethefatiguelifeL(hr)ofafullpenetratedbuttweldconnectionofDetailcategory80,located
betweenthecylinderbushingandtheendcapofahydrauliccylinder.

Theactualstressesintheweldaremeasured
duringonehourofservice.Thestress
spectrumissimplifiedintothevalueswhich
arelistedinthetablebelow.

i[MPa]

240

120

60

35

20

ni[]

10

20

40

400

1000

Chapter3

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

Problem3.27:Safelifedesignofafilletweldloadedinaxialtension

a)Afilletweldofapipeflangeconnectionisloadedinaxial
tension.CalculatethemaximumloadF.
ConsiderapipediameterDpipe=100mmpipewithawall
thicknesst=5mmanda=3mm.Thepermissibleequivalent
stressiseq=235MPa.
b)Afilletweldofapipeflangeconnectionisloadedcyclically
inaxialtension.Calculatethepermissibleequivalentstress
forafatiguelifeof1104loadcycles.Considerarootfailure
ofapartialpenetrationfilletweldofacircularstructural
hollowsectiontoanendplatewithdetailcategory40.
Problem3.28:Safelifedesignoffilletweldconnections

Acranepicksandplacealoadfromposition
AtopositionBandback.

a)CalculatethestaticloadF/(aL)thatthe
filletweldscansustain.Listhelengthofthe
weldoverwhichtheloadisuniformly
distributedandaisthecrosssectionatthe
throat.Theyieldstrengthoftheweld
materialis235MPa.

b)Thestressspectrumintheweldedzoneof
theliftingplatesissimplifiedton1=N/2times
andn2=N/2times/3whereNisthe
fatiguelifeexpressedinloadcycles.Consider
astress=90MPaandafilletweldroot
failurewithDetailcategory40".Calculate
thefatiguelifeN.
Problem3.29:Safelifedesignofafilletweldsubjectedtobending

Considertheliftplateloadedinbending.Derivean
equationforthemaximumbendingstressinthefillet
weld.Theliftplateisweldedwithadoublefilletweld
withacrosssectionofthethroata.Thethicknessof
theliftplateist.
a)Calculatethemaximumvalueoftheequivalent
stressintheliftplate
b)Calculatethemaximumvalueoftheequivalent
stressinthethroatofthefilletweld.

31

32

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

Problem3.30:Eurocode3,EN199319:2003

Twopipesareconnectedbyafullpenetrationbuttweldwhichis
classifiedaccordingEurocode3EN199319byDetailcategory
71.Theconnectioniscyclicallyloadedinbending.
CalculatetheratiobetweenthebendingmomentMthatcanbe
sustainedforNR=106loadcyclesandthebendingmomentthat
canbesustainedforinfinitelife.

Problem3.31:Eurocode3,prEN199319:2003

Aliftinglugisweldedonasteelgirder.Theunnotched
girderisclassifiedaccordingEurocode3byDetail
category160.Byweldingthelugonthesteelsurfaceof
thegirder,thefatiguestrengthofthegirderhasreduced
toaDetailcategory80.
CalculatetheratiobetweenthebendingmomentM,that
canbesustainedforNR=106loadcycles,ofanotched
girderMnandofanunnotchedgirderMu.

Problem3.32:Eurocode3,prEN199319:2003

Ifaliftinglugweldeddirectlyonasteelgirderwilldeteriorate
thefatiguestrengthofthegirderclassifiedbydetalcategory80.
Toovercomethisproblemthedesignerhassuggestedtowelda
coverplateonthegirderatwhichtheliftinglugiswelded.
Whatdoyouthink,isthisagoodsuggestion?
Hint:Coverplatesweldedonbeamsandplategirdersare
classifiedaccordingEurocode3byDetailcategory50and
smaller,dependentonthethicknessofthecoverplate.
Problem3.33:Safelifedesignbuttweldloadedinbending

Abuttweldbetweentheendofagirderandarigidendplateiscyclicallyloadedbythebendingmoment
Myy.ThebendingmomentisrelatedtothenormalstressMyy=WywhereWyisthesectionmodulus.
Thebuttweldisclassifiedaccording
Eurocode3byDetailcategory45.The
requiredservicelifewith95%probability
is10years.In10yearsapproximately105
loadcyclesshouldbeaccommodated.
CalculatethepermissiblestressR.

Chapter3

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

33

Problem3.34:Safelifedesignfilletweldloadedinbending

Afilletweldbetweentheendofagirderandarigidendplateiscyclicallyloadedbythebendingmoment
Myy.Thebendingmomentresultsinatension/compressionloadintheweldedzone.
ThefilletweldisclassifiedaccordingEurocode3byDetailcategory40.Thecrosssectionofthethroat
sizesab,wherea=6mmandb=100mm.Theheightofthegirderh=100mm.
Therequiredservicelifewith95%
probabilityis10years.In10years
approximately105loadcyclesshouldbe
accommodated.
a)Calculatethepermissiblestresseqin
thethroatofthefilletweld(eq=R/2).
b)Calculatethepermissiblebending
momentMyy.

Problem3.35:TrueorUntrue?

Readtherelatedchapterofthecoursebookbeforeansweringthetrue/untruestatements.These
statementsareusefultoexaminewhetheryouunderstandthetheorydiscussedintherelatedchapter.
1.

2.

ThestressconcentrationfactorKfcanbecalculatedusingFEM(page73).
Finiteelementmodelling(FEM)willunderestimatestressconcentrationswhenapplyingacourse
grid.

3.

Smoothcylindricaldriveshaftswithoutanystressconcentrationwillnotfailbyfatigue(page79).

4.

5.

ItisalwayssafetousethegeometricalstressconcentrationfactorKtratherthanthefatigue
stressconcentrationfactorKfwhileKt$Kf(page73).
Fatiguefailuremightresultfromcyclicloadingonly,ifthereissometensionineachstresscycle
(page73).

6.

Theintroductionofresidualcompressivestressestoimprovethefatiguestrengthcanalsobe
usefulatshaftfilletsandgrooves,forexamplebyimpressingahardenedrolleragainstashaftas
itisturnedinalathe(page89).

7.

8.

Forsteelshaftsunderrotarybendingtheratioofendurancestrengthetothe0.2%yield
strengthRp0.2istakene/Rp0.2.1/3,inafirstapproximation.(page80,onethirdofRm)
TheSNcurveintheSNdiagramofEurocode3referstothefatiguestrengthwith95%reliability/
5%failureprobability.(True).

9.

TheSmithDiagramalsocalledGoodmanDiagramprovidesinformationaboutthefatigue
strengthinthelowcyclefatigueregime(page81).

10.

Fatiguefailuretypicallyoccursatstressesbelowtheyieldstrength(page79)

11.

12.

Forsteelshaftsunderrotarybendingtheratioofendurancestrengthetoultimatetensile
strengthRmistakene/Rm.1/3,inafirstapproximation(page80).
Whenacrackisformeditcreatesstresseslargerthanthosefromtheoriginalnotch(page73).

34

13.

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

Fatiguefractureddriveshaftsintorsiontypicallyshowafracturefaceunder45degreeswiththe
crosssection(page74).

14.

TheSmithdiagramprovidesinformationabouttheinfluenceofthemeanstressonthe
endurancestrength(81).

15.

TheWhlerdiagramalsocalledSNdiagramprovidesinformationaboutthefatiguestrengthin
boththeLCFastheHCFregime(page79).

16.

Fromthemethodsavailabletoacceleratetestingisincreasingtheamplitudeoftheloadcycles
themostwidelyused(page83).

17.

Thefatiguestrengthofascrewjointcanbeimprovedbymakingthescrewmoreelasticwith
respecttotheclampedmaterial(page92,95).

18.

Theweakestcrosssectionofadynamicallyloadedfastenerisatthefilletunderthebolthead
(page89).

Chapter3

35

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

Answers

3.1)Mountainbikesexhibitaloadspectrumthatisquitvariableduetobraking,potholesandlandings
fromjumping.Therelativesmallnumberofhighstresscycles,ofthemagnitudeuptolocalyielding,
typicallyintheLCFregimegenerallydominatethelifespan.Inacceleratedtesting,thelowerstresses
typicallyintheHCFregimearegenerallyleftoutofconsideration.

3.2)Thetorqueandshearstressarerelatedaccording(eq.3.8page84andTable14.2.3page438)

3.3)a)Staticallyloaded

b)Dynamicallyloaded

3.4)a)Staticallyloaded

b)Dynamicallyloaded

3.5)a)

b)

weightsaving69%

3.6)
3.7)

a)Thestressincreaseintheboltislimitedtotheyieldstrengthofthebolt.

b)Thestressincreaseintheboltislimitedtotheyieldstrengthofthebolt.

36

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

c)ThestressincreaseintheboltislimitedbytheminimumvalueoftheclampingforceFm.Ifthe
boltstressisincreasedfurthertheclampedmembersbecomeseparated.

d)ThemaximumloadcapacityisobtainedwithPb+Pm=F0.2.WithPb:Pm=kb:kmthisresultsin

e)Whencyclicallyloaded,thefluctuationofboltstressthatcanbesustainedmightbelimitedby
theendurancestrengthofthebolt.TheendurancestrengthoftheM108.8boltisa=52.5MPa
(Figure3.28page90).Thisresultsin

f)Variationonthepreloadismainlycausedbyvariationonthecoefficientoffrictionduring
tightening.Otherimportantinfluencefactorsaretheaccuracyofthetighteningmethodand
stressrelaxationaftertightening.
3.8)

Thephysicalmodelofthescrewjointcanbeexpressedastwospringsconnectedinparallel.

3.9)

Thecriticalsectionofthescrewjointisthepartbelowthe
lowernut,nottheprestressedsection.Thefatiguestrengthof
thecriticalsectionis:

AverysmalljointstiffnessfactorCmcanbeobtainedwhen
usingboltstudsanchoredatarelativelargedepth(Figureb).
3.10) Thefatiguestrengthofthescrewjointis:

Chapter3

37

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

3.11) TheloadfluctuationPbthatcanbetakenbytheboltisthesameforbothconfigurations,since
thesteelgradeanddiameteroftheboltsarethesame.Theloadfluctuationthatcanbetakenby
thejointP=Pb/CmwhereCmisthejointstiffnessfactor,itisthepartitionoftheloadPthatis
takenbythebolt.ThefactortowhichthefatiguestrengthofthejointwillincreaseisP2/P1=
Cm1/Cm2.

Substitutionoflm/d=2in(3.12)page92givesCm1=0.232.Substitutionoflm/d=3givesCm2=0.178.
ThefatiguestrengthofthescrewjointwillincreasebyafactorP2/P1=Cm1/Cm2=0.232/0.178=1.3.
Inotherwords,theexternalloadthatcanbetakenbythescrewjointhasincreasedby30%.

3.12) Thestaticstrengthofthebolthasdecreasedbyafactor

Thefatiguestrengthofthebolthasdecreasedbyafactor
whereaiscalculatedfrom(Figure3.18rightpage90).Thecorrectionforthehighersteelgrade
is70/60(Figure3.90leftpage90).ThetensilestressareaislistedinTable14.2.11page443.
Thejointstiffnessfactorhasdecreasedbyafactor
Thestaticstrengthofthescrewjointwillincreasebyafactor0.97/0.90=1.08(8%).
Thefatiguestrengthofthescrewjointwilldecreasebyafactor0.84/0.90=0.95(5%).

3.13) Bothmountingsusesthesamescrews:

3.14) Bothmountingsusesthesamescrews:
3.15) Thecriticalsectionofthescrewjointinconfiguration1isthethreadedpartoutsidetheclamped
area,nottheprestressedsection.ThefatiguestrengthofthecriticalareaoftheM24is:

ThejointstiffnessfactorandthemaximumloadoftheM12screwjointinconfiguration2is:

3.16)

ThesmallerthejointstiffnessfactorCm,thesmallerthepartofexternalloadingthatistakenby
thebolts.Ifthejointstiffnessfactorislargerthanexpected,itisthecasewithasmallwall
thicknessofthebushing,thefatiguestrengthoftheboltedconnectionwillbesmallerthan
expectedandtheboltsmayfailbyfatigueprematurely.

38

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

3.17) ThestressconcentrationfactorisKf=e/a=6.4.

ThefatiguestrengthofametricM128.8boltiscalculatedformFigure3.28page90,a=50MPa.
MultipliedbythetensilestressareaAt=84.26mm2givesFa=4.2kNandPb=2Fa=8.4kN
Theendurancestrengthofthesteelinaxialtensionise=0.5Rm=400MPa.Therequired
diameteroftheshankbecomes:(/4)d2CsurfCreliabe/Kt=Fa,d>5.5mm.

3.18) Themaximumloadfluctuationthatcanbetakenbyeachstudcanbelimitedby:
1)yieldingoftheboltstudswhenexceedingtheelasticlimit

Theloadfluctuationthatcanbetakenbyeachboltstud
Pb=0.2AtRp0.2=0.2F0.2=12.5kN(Figure3.30page91),P=Pb/Cm=100kN

2)aminimumclampingforcethatisneededtoensureleakfreesealingand
When20%oftheyieldstrengthoftheboltstudsisneededasminimumclampingforcethen60%
ofthepreloadremainsforPm,i.e.Pm=0.6F0.2
Pb=CmP,Pm=(1Cm)P,thenPb=(Cm/(1Cm))Pm=5.4kN,P=Pb/Cm=43kN
3)theendurancestrengthoftheboltstuds.

TheendurancestrengthoftheboltstudsisPb=2aAt=6.1kN,P=Pb/Cm=49kN.

Conclusion:Theclampingforceofthescrewjointismostcritical,Pb=5.4kN,P=Pb/Cm=43kN.
Boltstudsarealwaysmountedusingasolidlubricant(page258)forseveralreasons.Firstofalltoensure
aconstantandlowfrictionwhichisprofitabletoaccuratelyapplythepreloadbytighteningandtolimit
torsionstressesduringtightening.Secondly,thesolidlubricantpreventsfrettingcorrosionwhichensures
thattheboltedjointcanbeunscrewed,and,notlessimportantthatthisavoidsfatiguecorrosion.
Especiallyhighstrengthsteelalloysareverysusceptibletostresscorrosion.

3.19)

Substitutionofd=10mm,L=150mm,Est=210GPa,st=12106/K,
dT=150K,Eal=70GPa,al=23106/Kresultsinkb=1.1105N/m,km/kb
=33,Cm=0.029,dF=17.6N,d=0.224MPa.
Theboltisrelativelyelastic.Thethermalexpansionofthecylinderheadishardlylimitedbythe
bolts.TheasymptoticsolutionforCm=0wouldresultinfreeexpansionoftheheadbydL=LaldT
andanincreaseofstressintheboltsofd=EstdL/L=0.231MPa.
Withtheboltsrelativelyelasticcomparedtotheclampedmaterialaverysmallpartofthe
compressionforceistakenbytheboltskeepinganoptimumuniformandconstantclamping
forceoverthegasket.

Chapter3

39

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

3.20)

Thismodelisusefultoanalysethescopeofcorrectiveactions.
3.21)

3.22) SubstitutionofHCF=30MPa,i=235MPa,m=3in

3.23) ThefatiguelifeexpressedinthenumberofstresscyclesNiiscalculatedwith(3.13)page96.
Ns/Nn=(30/45)3=0.296.Theexponentm=3forbothflangessincei>K.Notethatthefatigue
lifeofthesockedflangeisonly30%ofthefatiguelifeoftheneckflange.
3.24) SubstitutionofC=80MPa,R=100MPaandm=3inthecurvefitequationoftheSNcurve
resultsinD=59MPaandafatiguelifeofNR=1.02millionloadcycles.

WhengroundflatthenC=112MPaandthefatiguelifeisimprovedbyafactor(112/80)3=
2.74.

3.25) Thetangentialstressistwiceaslargeastheaxialstress.Thetangentialstressiscalculatedwith
R=pD/(2t)=300MPa.SubstitutionofC=125MPaandm=3inthecurvefitequationof
theSNcurveresultsinD=92MPaandafatiguelifeofNR=145103loadcycles.

3.26) FirststepistocalculateDandLinordertofindoutwhethertheinitialstressesareintheLCF
regimewherem=3,intheHCFregimewherem=5orbelowthecutofflimit.Stressesbelowthe
cutoflimitareleftoutofconsideration.
Detail80:

NextstepistocalculatethedamagefractionDforonehourofservice.Niisthenumberofload
cyclesithatcouldbeaccumulateduntilfraction.
i[MPa]

240

120

60

35

20

ni[]

10

20

40

400

1000

Ni[]

40

Chapter3FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

ThecumulativedamageDduringonehourofserviceis:
Note:IfinonehourD=0.1,then10%oftheservicelifehaspassedandtheservicelifewouldbe
L=1/D=10hours.
3.27) a)

b)

Conclusion:ThestaticstrengthwithRp0.2=235MPaappearsapproximatelythesameasthe
fatiguestrengthRforNR=1104loadcycles.

3.28)
a)
TheloadisdistributedoverthelengthL:

b)

3.29) Themaximumequivalentstressintheliftplate:

Themaximumequivalentstressinthefilletweld:

Thefactor2inthedenominatorreferstothedoublefilletweld.Theo2inthenumeratorisfrom
eqinthecrosssectionofthethroatofthefilletweld.

Chapter3

FatiguefailurePredictionandprevention

3.30)

ThestressesthatarepermittedinasafelifedesignforNR=106loadcyclesare3.1timeshigher
thanthestressespermittedinaninfinitelifedesign.

3.31) ThetensilestressRisproportionaltothebendingmomentM.

3.32) Detailcategory160:Unnotchedbeam
Detailcategory80:Transverseattachmentliketheliftinglugweldedonasteelgirder.
Detailcategory50:Coverplatesinbeamsandplategirders
Conclusion,thecoverplatemakesthesituationworse.
3.33)

3.34)

41

42

Chapter4LoadratingRollingcontactfatigue

ProblemsChapter4
Problem4.1:Effectivecontactradiuscamrollersystem

a)CalculatetheeffectivecontactradiusR
ofthelinearcamrollerguidesshownin
thefigure.Consideraradiusofthesupport
ofr1=5mmandacurvedcamwithr2=1.1r1.
b)CalculatethestaticloadratingC0ofthe
pointcontactillustratedbyconfigurationI
accordingISO76:1987(page105).The
camandsupportaremadeofballbearing
steel100Cr6,E=213GPa,=0.29,pmax=4.2
GPa,radiusr1=5mm.

Problem4.2:Knifeedgejewelbearing

Jewelbearingsareknownfrommechanicalwatches.Today,jewelbearingsareusedwidelyinsensitive
measurementequipmentandaircraftinstruments.Themostcommontypesofinstrumentjewelbearings
area)theVbearing,b)theringbearingandc)theknifeedgebearing.

CalculatetheeffectivecontactradiusRexpressedinthepivotradiusRpandbearingradiusRbof
a)thepivotbearing
b)theknifeedgebearing

Problem4.3:Maximumcontactpressure

Calculatetheratiobetweentheloadcapacityofasteelballandaceramic
ballrunningonasteelplanesurface.

Steelball:100Cr6,E=213GPa,=0.29
Ceramicball:Si3N4,E=300GPa,=0.28
Steelplanesurface:100Cr6,E=213GPa,=0.29

Hint:Themaximumcontactpressureintheceramicballsteelcontactis
limitedbythemaximumcontactpressureofsteel,i.e.pm.c.Rp0.2

Chapter4

LoadratingRollingcontactfatigue

43

Problem4.4:Calculationofthestaticsafetyfactortoensuresmoothvibrationfreemotion.

AcontactloadaslargeasthebasicstaticloadratingC0producesapermanentdeformationoftherolling
elementandraceway,whichisapproximately1/10,000oftherollingelementdiameter.Forsmooth
vibrationfreemotiontherequiredbasicstaticloadratingC0,canbedeterminedfromC0$s0P0wheres0
isthestaticsafetyfactor.Calculates0,whenP0isthemaximumloadatwhichthecontactdeformation
remainsfullyelastic.

a)Calculates0forinitialpointcontacts(eq.4.9page105).
b)Calculates0forinitiallinecontacts(eq.4.26page110).

Problem4.5:Contactstiffness

Manytoolingmachinesareequippedwithcastironslidesurfacesbecauseofthesuperiorbearing
stiffnessandshockresistance.Rollingguideshaveadvantageoverslidesurfaceswhenlowfrictionis
required.

Theaxialstiffnessofrollingguides(eq.4.5and4.6page103)canbeincreasedbypreload.Calculatethe
stiffnessratioSofasteelballwithdiameter5mmrunningonasteelflat(E=230GPa),whenloadedby
100Npreloadand10Npayloadandwhenloadedby10Npayloadonly.Payloadistheloadthatis
supported.
Problem4.6:Fatiguelifeofcamrollersupports

Thedynamicloadratingofcommercialcamrollersystemsisbasedonasurfacehardnessofthe
racewaysbetween58to64HRC.Ifthehardnessislowerthanthisrange,thebasicdynamicloadratingC
needstobemultipliedbytherespectivehardnessfactor(fH).CalculatethefactorofwhichtheL10fatigue
lifewilldecreasewhenthehardnessofthesupportisHRC=50andfH=0.6.

Problem4.7:Materialselectionofgears

Calculatetheratioofthemaximumdrivingtorquethatcanbetransmittedbyasetofspurgears(line
contact)madeof16MnCr5withHlim=1400MPacomparedtoasetmadeof34CrMo4QTwithHlim=700
MPa(Hint:considereq.4.26page110,eq4.73page137andTable4.6page134).

Problem4.8:Brinellhardnesstest

a)

IntheBrinellHardnesstest,theindentationmadebya10mmballshouldliebetween0.24Dand
0.6D.Theloadcanbechosenintherangeof1,2.5,5,10,15and30kN.Examinetheminimum
andmaximumhardnessthatcanbemeasuredforeachload.

b)

CalculatetheloadFcwherebydeformationcanstilljustbeconsideredto
bepurelyelastic.Dothecalculationforasteelballaswellasahard
metalltungstencarbideball.ForthesteelballtakeE=213GPa,=0.29
andforthetungstencarbideballE=640GPaand=0.26.Assumethat
thematerialintheexperimenthasahardnessof600HBWandthatpc=
H/3.Explaintheresultofthecalculation.

c)

UsethedetailsinthepreviousquestiontocalculateF/Fcfor600HBW,F=
30kNforboththesteelballandthehardmetalball.Whatcanyouconcludeabouttheaccuracy
ofthemeasurements?

44

Chapter4LoadratingRollingcontactfatigue

Problem4.9:Loadcarryingcapacityofarollerguide

Theloadcapacityofaguidingsystemneedstobecalculated.Theouterringsofthetrackrollersare
madeofballbearingsteel(Rp0.2=1.85GPa,E=206GPa,=0.3).Therailsaremadeofcarbonsteel(Rp0.2=
1080MPa,sameEand).Thediameteroftherollersandtherailsarethesame,D=16mm.

a)

Calculatetheloadcapacityoftheguidingsystem
whenthedeformationintheHertziancontacts
needstoremainfullyelastic.

b)

Duringarunninginphasesarunningtrackiscreated
ontherailsurfacebyplasticdeformation.Calculate
theloadPthatcreatesalmostfullyplastic
deformationduringrunningin(pm=H,H/Rp0.2=3).

c)

Calculatethetrackwidth(flatteningoftherail)thatremainsaftertherunninginphase.

Problem4.10:Highspeedhybridballbearing

Ceramicballsareappliedinballbearingstoenablehigherrotationalspeed.Thelowerdensityofthe
ceramicballs(siliconnitride)declinethecentrifugalforce.

a)

FindoutbywhatpercentagethecentrifugalforceF=m2Rdeclines
whenusingceramicballs.Bywhatpercentagecantherotationspeed
beincreased?Thedensityofsteelis7800kg/m3,whilethedensityof
siliconnitrideis3200kg/m3.

b)

BecausetheEmodulusofsiliconnitrideisapproximately1.5timethat
ofsteel,anequalloadwillleadtohighercontactpressure.The
advantageofasmallercentrifugalforceishencelimited.Howbigis
thiseffect?ForballbearingsteelE=213GPa,=0.29,forsilicon
nitrideE=315GPa,=0.26.

c)

Bywhatpercentagecantherotationspeedbeincreasedwhenboth
effectsarecombined?

d)

Whatothereffectswillbeadvantageouswithrespecttothehigherrotationspeedbyusing
ceramicballs?

Problem4.11:ConeonringCVT/Hertzianlinecontactsubjectedtorollingwithtraction

Considerthelinecontactofaconeonringcvtsubjectedtorollingwith
traction,bothcomponentsaremadeofcarburisedsteelinaccordancewith
DIN17210,withE=200GPa,=0.3,Rp0,2=835MPa.Considerthecontraform
contactbetweentheringandcone:R1=R2=30mm,L=10mm.Whatisthe
maximumnormalload

a)
b)

forpurerollingunderwhichnoplasticdeformationoccurs?
forrollingwhenthetractionforceamountsto30%ofthenormalforce
andnoplasticdeformationisallowedtooccur?

Thenormalloadcalculatedaboveisbasedonthesocalledstaticloadrating,
itisthemaximumloadthatcanbetransmittedwithoutinitiatingplastic
deformation.Forsurfacedurabilityreasons,thesocalleddynamicload
rating,thefatiguestrengthandlubricationconditionsneedtobeconsidered(Case4.10page140).

Chapter4

LoadratingRollingcontactfatigue

45

Problem4.12:Surfacedurabilityofagearset

ThecalculationofthesurfacedurabilityisbasedontheHertziancontactpressurepmax
whichmaynotexceedtheallowablestressnumberH.limofgearmaterials(Table4.6page
134).

a)

b)

Thecontactpressureofacarburisedandhardenedspurgearsetneedstobe
verified.ThepinionisdrivenbyatorqueofT1=750Nm.Fromtheinformationon
thedrawinginaccordancewithNEN2366followsthatz1=15,z2=71,m=7mm,
=20Eandb=44mm.Calculatepmax.
Whatwouldbethefactorofsafetyforthedrivingtorquewhenselectingasteel
withHlimis1.2timesthecalculatedvalueofpmax.

Problem4.13:Contactfriction

ThefrictionforcebetweentwosurfacesinslidingmotioncanbewrittenasFf=Awhereisthe
interfacialshearstress.Theshearstressisassumedtobeaconstantandwillbediscussedinthenext
chapter.ThecontactareaAofaHertzianpointcontactisafunctionofF(eq.4.10page105).Derivean
equationforFf(F)=CFB.WhatisBandwhatisC?

Problem4.14:TrueorUntrue?

1.

TheHertzianformulaearederivedonthebasisof1)linearelasticdeformation,2)thestresses
belowthesurfacearenotaffectedbyfinitedimensionsofthecontactingbodiesand3)the
contactingsurfacesareassumedtobefrictionless(page102).

2.

3.

4.

ThemaximumHertziancontactload(elasticdeformation)ofaceramicballrunningonasteelflat
ishigherthanthatofasteelballrunningonasteelflat,whentheballandflatareofthesame
steelgrade(page105,whereFcisproportionaltopm.c3/E2).
ThemaximumHertziancontactloadofapointcontactisproportionaltotheyieldstrengthofthe
weakestbodytothepowerthreeF~Rp0.23(page105).
TheHertzianformulaecanbeappliedforstationaryconcentratedcontactsaswellforrolling
contacts.

5.

Innormallyloadedconcentratedcontactsthecontactpressureresultsinnormalstresseswhich
arethegreatestatthesurface(page104).

6.

Firstinelasticyieldinginnormallyloadedconcentratedcontactstakesplacejustbelowthe
surface.Thisiswheretheshearstressesaremaximum(page104).

7.

Innormallyloadedconcentratedcontactsthecontactpressureatthesurfaceleadstoshear
stresseswhicharethegreatestatthesurface(page104).

8.

Thestaticloadratingofdeepgrooveballbearingsisdefinedbythecontactloadatwhicha
contactpressureoccursof4.2GPa.Thiscontactpressureisthemaximumcontactpressureat
whichthedeformationisstillelastic(page105).

9.

Thedynamicloadratingofdeepgrooveballbearingsisdefinedastheloadatwhichamaximum
contactpressurewilloccurof4.2GPa(page115,128).

10.

IndeepgrooveballbearingsthedynamicloadratingCissmallerthanthestaticloadratingC0
(page129).

46

Chapter4LoadratingRollingcontactfatigue

11.

Doublingtheloadonadeepgrooveballbearingwilldecreasethefatiguelifebyafactor23=8
(page18).

12.

Doublingtheloadonarollerbearing,whichtransmittheloadvialinecontacts,willdecreasethe
fatiguelifebyafactor210/3(page18).

13.

Theslipbetweenthesidesurfacesofacylinderrollerwithitstrackistypicallyanexampleof
Heathcoteslip(page116).

14.

Reynoldssliptypicallyoccursinarollingcontactundertraction(page116).

15.

Intheballracewaycontactofangularcontactballbearingsacombinationofrollingandspinning
takesplace(page119).

16.

Inrollingbearingstheballsandracewaysbecomeseparatedduringservicebyelasto
hydrodynamiclubrication,dependentonload,speedandsurfaceroughness.Itmeansthatthere
isnomechanicalcontactbetweentheballsandtheringsduringsurface(page122).

17.

Elastohydrodynamiclubricationistobeavoidedintractiondrivesinordertopreventmacroslip
(page138).

18.

Rollingbearingsinmotion,loadeduptothestaticloadratingshowinitialplasticdeformation
whichislimitedtotherunninginperiod(page102).

19.

Brinellhardnessismeasuredasthedepthofanindentationofahardmetalballunderprescribed
load(page106).

20.

Plasticdeformationinconcentratedcontactsofrollingmechanismsmayvanishduringrunningin
byworkhardeningofthesteelandanincreaseofcontactconformitybyinelasticyielding(page
102).

21.

Thesurfacedurability(fatiguestrength)ingeartransmissionsisbasedontheHertzianformulae
forconcentratedcontacts(page133).

22.

Therollingresistanceinasteelballringcontactispredominantlydefinedbythetime
dependentelasticrecovery,calledhysteresisloss(page118).

23.

Ceramicballsappliedindeepgrooveballbearingsrunningathighspeedarefavourableover
steelballsbecauseofthemuchlowercentrifugalforces(page129).

24.

Relativehighloadedballbearingsrunningatlowvelocityareboundaryormixedlubricated
(page122).

25.

"Normal"loadedballbearingsareloadedintherange0.06C<P<=0.12C,whereCisthedynamic
loadrating(page19).

26.

ThestaticloadratingC0ofballbearings,representsthemaximumloadatwhichthedeformation
intheHertziancontactsremainfullyelastic(page105).

27.

Properlydesignedandcorrectlymountedballbearingswillfinallyfailbysubsurfaceinitiated
fatigueingeneral(113).

28.

Thesurfacedurabilityofgearsislimitedbysurfaceinitiatedfatigue(113).

29.

Surfaceinitiatedcracksnormallyprogressparalleltothesurface(page113).

30.

Subsurfaceinitiatedcracksnormallyprogresstransverselytothesurface(page113).

Chapter4

LoadratingRollingcontactfatigue

47

Answers

4.1)
a)

Theeffectivecontactradiusiscalculatedusingeq.4.3page103
I)
II)
Theminussignisexplainedbytheconcavesurfaceasexplainedonpage103.

b)

Ifthecamrollerdiameterisequaltothediameteroftherailguide,thentheradiusofthe
Hertziancontactrx=ry=r.Substitutionofpm=pmax/1.5,pmax=4.2GPa,R=2.5mmandE=233
GPaineq.4.10page105resultsinthestaticloadratingofthepointcontactofC0=708N.The
contactpressureof4.2GPacorrespondstoaplasticindentationof1/10,000oftheroller
diameter.

Iftherollingcontactshouldremainfullyelasticthentheloadcapacityislimitedbypm.c=Rp0.2=
1850MPaandresultsinFc=204N,afactor3.5less.ThiscanbewrittenasC0=s0Fcwheres0=3.5.

4.2)
a)

Forthepointcontact

a)

Forthepointcontact

4.3)

Theloadcapacityiscalculatedusingeq.4.10page105.Thecriticalvalueofthemaximumcontact
pressureislimitedbythesteelsurfaceforbothmaterialcombinations.Theparameterthat
mattersinthisequationistheeffectiveEmodulus(eq.4.2page103):

4.4)
a)

b)

Forpointcontactsandellipticcontacts:C0isbasedonthemaximumcontactpressurepmax=4.2
GPa(accordingISO76:1987page105).Themeancontactpressureispm=pmax/1.5.Firstinelastic
yieldingtakesplacewhenpm=Rp0.2.ForballbearingsteelRp0.2=1.85GPa.Themaximumcontact
loadisproportionaltopm.c3(eq.4.10page105).

Whenrunninginthesametracktheplasticdeformationwillvanishinafewloadcycles.
Forlinecontacts:C0isbasedonpmax=4GPa(accordingISO76:1987page105).Themean
contactpressurepm=(/4)pmax:Firstinelasticyieldingtakesplacewhenpm=(0.5/0.387)Rp0.2.The
maximumcontactloadisproportionaltopm2(eq.4.26page110).

RollingelementswithlinecontactsandloadeduptoC0willfailbyratcheting(page115).

48

4.5)

Chapter4LoadratingRollingcontactfatigue

Thecontactstiffnessisrelatedtoindentation(eq.4.6page103),withthecontactradius(eq.4.5
page103)andwiththeload(eq.4.1page103):

ThiscanbewrittenasS(F):

4.6)

4.7)

Thecontactstiffnesshasincreasedbyafactor2.224.Thefatiguelifehoweverwilldecrease
dramaticallywiththisheavypreload,startingandrunningfrictionwillalsobehigherandasa
consequencethebearingtemperaturewillbehigher.Toeliminaterunningnoiseinballbearings
anaxialpreloadisadvisedof0.01C(ameancontactpressureof1GPa).
WithasurfacehardnessofHRC50thedynamicloadratingwilldecreasefromCto0.6C.The
fatiguelifewilldecreasewith
(eq.1.14page18).
Fromeq.4.73page137itfollowsthatthemaximumcontactloadisrelatedtoHlim2.Thisresults
forthemaximumdrivingtorque:

NotethattheHertzequationforlinecontacts(eq.4.26page110)wouldgivethesameresult.
4.8)
a)

Substitutionofthenumericaldataineq.4.14page106givesHBWin107MPa(30HB.300MPa)

b)

2.5

10

15

30kN

d=0.6D

16

32

48

95HBW

d=0.24D

22

54

109

218

327

653HBW

Substitutionofthenumericaldatain(eq.4.10page105)gives:

steelsteel
steeldiamond

E!=233GPa
E!=347GPa

Fc=258N
Fc=116N

F/Fc=116
F/Fc=260

Thehardmetalballflattenslessandconsequentlyhasasmallercontactsurfaceasafunctionof
theload.

c)

4.9)
a)

b)

c)

WithasteelballitappearsthatF/Fc<200,indicatingthatthedeformationisnotfullyplastic
(Figure4.4page105).Becauseoftheflatteningofthesteelballstheseareunsuitableto
determinethehardnessofhardobjects(>450HBW).

TheHertzianloadislimitedbytheyieldstrengthoftherailguides.TheHertziancontactwillbea
circularpointcontactwithradiusrsincetherollerdiameterandthediameteroftherailguideare
thesame.Substitutionofpm.c=Rp0.2=1080MPaandR=4mmin(eq.4.10page105)resultsinFc
=110N.ThemaximumvalueofthepayloadbecomesP=2Fcsin30=Fc
ItisshowninFigure4.4page105thattherelationpm~F1/3accordingHertzholdsreasonably
gooduptopm=H.Substitutionofpm=Hin(eq.4.10page105)resultsinFH=33Fc.
ThecontactareaA=FH/H=0.915mm2.Withbyapproximationacircularcontactthecontact
width2r=1.08mm.

Chapter4

4.10)
a)

LoadratingRollingcontactfatigue

49

Theweightofasiliconnitrideballis60%lessthanthatofasteelball,resultinginacentrifugal
forcethatis60%lower.Therotationspeedcouldconsequentlybeincreasedbyafactorof2/1
=(1/0.6)1/2=1.3or30%.

b)

ForsteelsteelE!1=230GPa,forsteelsiliconnitrideitfollowsthatE!2=272GPa.Themaximum
contactpressureisconstrainedbythelesshardsteelring.Fortheloadratioofbothmaterial
combinations,itfollowsfrom(eq.4.19page109)that:Fceramic/Fsteel=(E!1/E!2)2=0.7.Thismeans
themaximumloadforthesteelsiliconnitridecontactis30%less.

c)

A60%lowercentrifugalforceanda30%lowerloadratingthereforemeanstheadvantageofthe
lowerdensitywillbehalved.Therotationalspeedcanconsequentlybeincreasednotby30%for
ceramicballsbutonlyby15%.

d)

4.11)
a)

b)

4.12)
a)

Ceramicballscreateasmallercontactsurfaceandhencealowerresistancetorollingwithless
heatdevelopmentasaresult.Thispositivelyaffectthemaximumrotationalspeedforhybridball
bearings,whichwouldintotalliebetween15%and30%higherthanforsteelballbearings.

Themaximumcontactloadofalinecontactinpurerollingisgivenbyeq.4.24page110.
Substitutionofpm=pm.c=(0.5/0.387)Rp0.2,R!=15mmandE!=220GPagivesFc=8.1kN.
ForrollingwithtractionandFtan/F=>1/9themaximumshearstressoccursatthesurface.From
Table4.2page114itfollowswithFtan/F=0.3thatmax/pm=0.51.Substitutionineq4.25page
110givespm.c=0.5/0.51Rp0.2andfromeq.4.10page109thatFc=4.7kN.Thismeansthe
maximumnormalforcehasdecreasedby42%.ThedrivetorquethatcanbeappliedisM=
0.3@Fc@R=41.9Nm.

Considereq.4.68page135.Firstly,factorsZH,ZEandZaredetermined.From(eq.4.70page
136)itfollowsthatZE=1.9@105Pa1/2andZH=2.495.ToestablishZ(4.79),thenecessarygear
dimensionsmustbedeterminedfirst(eq.4.66page135).Forthecontactratio,itfollowsthat
=1.646andforthecontactratiofactorZ=0.886.ThetangentialforcefollowsfromT=Ftd1/2,
thisisFt=14.3kN.Substitutionofthenumericaldatain(eq.4.68page135)givespmax=0.8GPa.
FromTable4.6page134itfollowsforcarburisedandhardenedsteelthatpmax=1.3...1.5GPa.It
meansthatthefatiguestrengthofthetoothflanksmaybesufficient.Theimpactofimperfect
alignment,peakloadsfromthedriveandotherpossibleeffectsstillhavetobeincorporatedinto
thecalculation.

b)

TherelationbetweenthelimitingcontactstressHlimandthemaximumtangentialforceis
presentedin(eq.4.73page137),i.e.Hlim~Ft1/2.BecauseTmax~Ft,itfollowsHlim~Tmax1/2.With
Hlim=1.2Apmaxafactorofsafetyforthedrivingtorquewouldbe1.22=1.44.

4.13)

Fromeq.4.10page105itfollows

ThecontactareaAandFf=AincreaseslessthanproportionalwithF.
ThecoefficientoffrictionisaconstantwhenFfincreasesproportionalwithF.
ForthesphericalcontactthecoefficientoffrictiondecreaseswithF.

50

Chapter5Frictionphenomenainmechanicalsystems

ProblemsChapter5
Problem5.1:Measurementofbearingfriction

Thefrictioninaslidingbearingismeasuredusingaringelement
hangingoverashaft.Thebearingismountedintheboreofthe
ring.InpointAattheoutersurfaceoftheringthebearingload
isappliedusingamasshangingontheflexiblecord.
IftheshaftisdrivenclockwisethenpointAwilltakeaposition
leftfromthecenterlineasillustrated.
a)

Deriveanequationtocalculatethecoefficientoffriction
asafunctionofn,theringdiameterDandtheshaft
diameterd.

b)

Calculatethecoefficientoffrictionwhenn=3.75deg
andR=3r.

Problem5.2:Frictionalheatingofadiskbrake

Inordertosaveweight,pearliticcastirondiskbrakescouldbereplacedbyaluminiumdisks.Aluminium
isalsoabetterheatconductorthancastiron.Withsurfacetreatment,thealuminiumcanbemadevery
resistanttowear.Apossibledisadvantageisthatthemaximumallowabletemperatureofaluminiumis
lowerthanthatofcastiron.Examinetheperformanceofanaluminiumbrakediskbyansweringthe
followingquestions.

a)

IfthecarcomestoastopfromadrivingspeedofVt=100km/hwithaconstantdeceleration,the
brakingdistanceappearstobeS=100m(standardforcars).Whatisthedecelerationbeforethe
stopandhowlongwillittaketostop?

b)

Themassofthecarism=1000kg.Whatistherequiredfrictioncoefficientbetweenthetires
andtheroadsurfacetopreventslip?

c)

Approximately80%ofthebrakingenergyisabsorbedbythefrontwheels.Bothfrontwheelsare
equippedwithasinglebrakediskandabrakepadoneachsideofthedisk.Thewheeldiameter
is0.6m.Thedistancebetweenthecentreofthebrakepadandthewheelcentreis0.1m.The
frictioncoefficientbetweenthebrakediskandthebrakepadis=0.4.Howgreatisthe
pressureforceonthebrakepads?

Chapter5

Frictionphenomenainmechanicalsystems

51

d)

Whattemperaturedoesthebrakediskreachwhenallfrictionenergyisabsorbedbythebrake
disk?Considerboththecastironandaluminiumbrakedisks.Thebrakediskhasadiameterof
300mmandathicknessof12mm.Forcastiron=7300kg/m3,c=0.50kJ/(kgK),k=60W/(m
K),Tmelt=1450K,whileforaluminium=2700kg/m3,c=0.88kJ/(kgK),k=237W/(mK),Tmelt=
932K.

Note:Sincebrakingonlyoccursforshortperiods,littleheatwillbedissipatedthroughconvection.The
brakediskabsorbsmuchmoreheatthanthepads,firstlybecausethecontactsurfaceofthebrakediskis
muchbigger(nonstationarycontact)andalsobecauseitisabetterconductorforheatthanthepads.
Forafirstapproximation,itisjustifiabletoassumethatallheatgoesintothedisk.

Problem5.3:TirewidthFormula1racingcar

Thefirstclassicallawoffrictionstates:Thesizeofthecontactsurfacedoesnotinfluencethefriction.
Why,then,aretiresfortheFormula1racingcarssowide?

AccordingtotheFIATechnicalCommission,theorganisationthatdecidesonthetechnicalrulesfor
Formula1,thefronttiresshouldnotbewiderthan355mm(i.e.14inches)andthereartiresnowider
than380mm(15inch).
Problem5.4:AccelerationofFormula1racingcar1

AmodernFormula1racingcarmanagesapproximately1.5km/liter(or1:1.5).TocompletetheGrand
Prixdistance,itwouldneedapproximately180litersoffuel.Sincethetimegainfromalowermass
exceedsthedisadvantageofarefuellingstop,thetankcontentsaremuchsmaller.Theweightofacar,
includingafulltankandthedriver,isapproximately600kg.AFormula1caracceleratessixtotentimes
asquicklyasanormalcar.Accelerationof0100km/hin2seconds,0160km/hin3.5secondsand0
250km/hinlessthan6secondsistypical.ThetopspeedofanF1racerisaround370km/h.Accelerating
from0160km/handbrakingtoacompletehalttakesapproximately6.5seconds.Thismeansthecar
speedsupandslowsdownatthesamerate.Whatistherequiredfrictioncoefficientbetweenthetire
andtheroadsurfacetomakethisaccelerationpossible?

1TestMethodforFrictionCoefficientMeasurementsbetweentireandpavementusingavariableslip
techniqueASTME185997andE184496

52

Chapter5Frictionphenomenainmechanicalsystems

Problem5.5:Trueoruntrue?

Coulomb'sfrictionlawandit'sexceptions
1.

Coulomb'sfrictionlawiftheloadisdoubledthefrictionisdoubledcanbeexplainedbythe
elasticdeformationinthemicrocontacts,i.e.intherealcontactarea(page150).

2.

Inpolymermetalcontactstherealcontactareaincreasesmorethanproportionalwiththeload
whichexplainsthelargerfrictioncoefficientathigherload(page150).

3.

Coulombsfrictionlaw,thatsaysthatthefrictioninadryslidingcontactisindependentofthe
sizeofthevisiblearea,donotapplytopolymers(page150).

4.

Therealcontactareaisformedbythemicrocontactsbetweenroughnesspeaksofthesurfaces.
Frictionindryslidingorboundarylubricatedcontactsisexclusivelyaresultofploughingand
adhesionforcesinthesemicrocontacts(page150).

5.

IftheBrinellhardnessisHB300,thenthemaximumcontactpressureis3000MPa(300kgf/mm2)
(page107).

6.

Thefrictionindryslidingpolymermetalcontactsisindependentontheslidingvelocity(page
158).

7.

Thecoefficientoffrictioninpolymermetalcontactsdecreaseswiththecontactpressure(page
150).

8.

Thefrictionforceinpolymermetalcontactsdecreaseswiththecontactpressure(page150).

9.

Frictionbetweenhydrodynamicallylubricatedsmoothsurfacesincreaseswiththesurface
velocity(page158).

Howtomanagefrictionbyploughing
1.

Thefrictionforcebyploughingbetweenmaterialsofdifferenthardnessdependsontheradiusof
theasperities(roughnesspeaks)ofthehardersurface(page151).

2.

Thefrictionforcebyploughingcanbedecreasedbysuperfinishingtechniquesinwhichthe
radiusoftheasperitiesisenlarged(makingtheasperitiesblunt)(page151).

3.

Superfinishingtechniquesonlysmoothenstheroughnessoftheprecedingcuttingprocess(page
147).

4.

Thefrictionisminimalforinfinitesmoothsurfaces(page158).

5.

Theploughingcomponentoffrictioninsteelsteelcontactscanbedecreasedbyselecting
materialsofthesamehighhardness(page151).

6.

Whentwobodiesofdifferenthardnessareincontact,thefrictionbyploughingisdominatedby
theroughnessofthelesshardersurface(page152).

7.

Inpolymermetalcontactsthefrictionremainsminimalwhenthepolymersurfacehasa
roughnessofaroundRa=0.2m(page156,158).

Chapter5

Frictionphenomenainmechanicalsystems

53

Howtomanagefrictionbyadhesion
1.

Tominimizethetendencytoadhesivewear,metallurgicalcompatible(soluble)materialsareto
beselected(page154).

2.

Alloyedsteelisgenerallybeneficialinpreventingadhesivewear,becauseitreducessurface
energyandatthesametimeincreaseshardness(small/H)(page156).

3.

Oneofthemeasurestoeliminatestickslipinpolymersteelcontactsisbymakingthesteel
surfacessmoother(superfinishing)(page152,159).

4.

Thecoefficientoffrictionisalwayssmallerthan<=1,theasymptoticvalueofthecoefficientof
friction(page159).

5.

Thefrictioninzincplatedfastenersislimitedbythelowshearstrengthofthezinc(page155)

6.

Theadhesioncomponentoffrictioncanbedecreasedbyapplyingathinsoftcoating(small/H)
(page155).

7.

Thecoefficientoffrictionbetweentwoextremelysmoothsurfacesisdominatedbymolecular
attractionbetweentheatomsofbothsurfaces(page152).

8.

Thepredominantcausethattwosurfacesmaystickisadhesion(page152).

9.

Stainlesssteelfastenersaresensitivetoadhesivefrictionbytheverythinoxidelayeronstainless
steelthatiseasilyrubbedof(oxidelayerthickness<10nm)(page155).

10.

Thecoefficientoffrictionbetweenmetalsoperatinginvacuumenvironmentismuchhigherthan
intheregularatmosphere,whichcanbeexplainedbytheprotectiveoxidelayerthatcannotbe
regeneratedinvacuum(page155).

11.

Polymersteelcontactsdonotneedtobelubricated,butlubricationcanhelptoreducefriction
andwear.

Surfacecharacterization
1.

TheRasurfaceroughnesssometimescalledtheArithmeticalmeanorCentreLineAverageis
independentofthelengthscaleofthesurfaceprofile.Forexample,asurfaceprofiledescribedby
sin(x)andsin(2x)respectivelywouldresultinthesameRavalue(page145).

2.

NoneoftheroughnessvaluesRa,Rt,RMSaredependentonroughnessspacing.Ifthesurfaceis
stretchedthesameroughnessvalueremains(page145).

54

Chapter5Frictionphenomenainmechanicalsystems

Answers

5.1)

Sumofthemoments:
Normalloadinthecontactpoint:
Coefficientoffriction:

with

gives

Rearranging:
Approximatesolution:
b)

Withn=3.75degthentheexactsolutiongives=0.2andtheapproximatesolutiongives=0.196,
itis1.95%underestimated.
Inthismeasurementmethodtheeffectoftheloadonthecoefficientoffrictioncanbeillustrated
clearly,sincenisrelatedtothecoefficientoffrictiononly.

5.2)
a)
b)
c)
d)
castiron:
aluminium:

Thealuminiumbrakediskprovestobewarmerafterbrakingoncethanthecastironbrakedisk.
Furthermorethemaximumallowabletemperatureofthealuminiumismuchlower.Itmeans
thattheheatconductionofthebrakediskmustbefullyexploitedforittomakealuminiuma
suitablematerialforthepurpose.

Fromfurtherresearchwiththermalnetworkanalysisandpracticalexperimentsitappearsthat
wheelbearingsgetsubstantiallywarmerduetothegoodheatconductivityofaluminium,which
makesthemcriticalcomponents.ThecarbonfibrebrakedisksusedinFormula1canbeloaded
upto1000degreesCelsius.
5.3)

Theclassicalfrictionlawsapplytomaterialsthatundergomainlyplasticdeformationinthe
asperitysummits.Polymersdisplayalowerfrictioncoefficientatahighnominalcontact
pressure.Ahighfrictionforcecanconsequentlyonlybeachievedwithalargesurfacearea.
Otheradvantagesofawidesurfacearethatthewearisdistributedoveralargerarea,heat
developmentperunitofsurfaceislowerandtheresultisalargerheatradiatingsurface.

Inmachineconstruction,wherelowfrictionismostlyconsidereddesirable,highsurfacepressure
aredesirable.Forinstance,halvingthediameterofashaftcandoublethesurfacepressure.If
thefrictionforcewasinproportiontop2/3,thefrictioncoefficientwouldbereducedto63%ofthe
originalvalue.Thefrictiontorquewouldconsequentlybereducedto31.5%ofitsoriginalvalue!

Chapter5

5.4)

Frictionphenomenainmechanicalsystems

55

ToarriveatV=100km/hint=2seconds,anaccelerationisneededofa=V/t=14m/s2.Tothisenda
tractionforceofFf=maisneeded.Thenecessarytractioncoefficientfollowsfrom
=Ff/F=ma/mg.1.4.ThedistancerequiredtoreachthespeedisthenonlyS=at2=28m.
Whenacceleratingandbraking,thecoureurexperienceanaccelerationofapproximately1.4g.
Whenturningacorneratspeed,driverscanonlyundergoupto4gforafewsecondsbeforethey
becomeunconscious.Accelerationsarelimitedbyaprescribedmaximumtirewidthwithfour
circumferentialgrooves.Wetweathertiresalsohaveaxialgroovestodissipatewatersideways.

5.5)

Coulomb'sfrictionlawandit'sexceptions
1.

Coulomb'sfrictionlawiftheloadisdoubledthefrictionisdoubledcanbeexplainedbythe
elasticplasticdeformationinthemicrocontacts,i.e.intherealcontactarea(U).

2.

Inpolymermetalcontactstherealcontactareaincreasesmorelessthanproportionalwiththe
loadwhichexplainsthelargersmallerfrictioncoefficientathigherload(U).

3.

Coulombsfrictionlaw,thatsaysthatthefrictioninadryslidingcontactisindependentofthe
sizeofthevisiblearea,donotapplytopolymers(T).

4.

Therealcontactareaisformedbythemicrocontactsbetweenroughnesspeaksofthesurfaces.
Frictionindryslidingorboundarylubricatedcontactsisexclusivelyaresultofploughingand
adhesionforcesinthesemicrocontacts(T).

5.

IftheBrinellhardnessisHB300,thenthemaximumcontactpressureis3000MPa(300
kgf/mm2)(T).

6.

Thefrictionindryslidingpolymermetalcontactsisindependentincreaseswiththesliding
velocity(U)

7.

Thecoefficientoffrictioninpolymermetalcontactsdecreaseswiththecontactpressure(T).

8.

Thefrictionforceinpolymermetalcontactsdecreasesincreaseswiththecontactpressure(U).

9.

Frictionbetweenhydrodynamicallylubricatedsmoothsurfacesincreaseswiththesurface
velocity(T).

56

Chapter6Wearmechanismsofmachineelements

ProblemsChapter6
Problem6.1:Servicelifeofaleadscrew

Consideraleadscrewassemblythatoperateswithacontactpressureinthethreadedareaofp=5MPa.
Thepitchdiameterd2=10.5mm.Thestrokeoverwhichthenutisdisplacedis20timesthenutheight.
Thenumberofloadedturnsduringservicelifeisn=100103rev.
Thespecificwearrateofthebronze
nutandthespindleareknut=kspindle=
101015m2/N.Calculatetheincreaseof
backlashh[mm]inthescrewnut
interfaceofatrapezoidalleadscrew

a)causedbywearofthebronzenut.

b)causedbywearofthespindle.

Problem6.2:Investigationtohardwearingmaterialsforkneereplacements

Inordertoassessthewearperformanceofdifferentmaterialsoftotalkneereplacements(TKR),ablock
onringtestrigwillbeused.Theringisactuatedinreciprocatingmotion.

a)Calculatetherequiredtestdurationinhours.

Theringismadeofsteel,theblockfromultrahighweightmolecularpolyethylene(UHMWPE).The
densityofUHMWPEis=945kg/m3.Aspecificwearratek=101015m2/NofthePEblockisexpected.A
minimumwearofthepolymerblockof0.1gramistobeobtainedtoestablishthewearrate.Thecontact
surfaceA=100mm2,thesurfacepressureisp=2MPa,thetotalslidingdistanceinonecycleissi=30mm
andn=2cyclespersecondaremade.
b)Whattemperaturewilltheringgetwhenthefrictionalheatingistobetransferredbyconvectiononly.

Thecoefficientoffriction=0.12,theheatconvectioncoefficientoftherotatingdiscinfreeairhc=80
W/m2KandtheeffectiveheatconvectionsurfaceareaoftheringA=7103m2.

Chapter6

Wearmechanismsofmachineelements

57

Problem6.3:Servicelifeofalinearaxisusingplainbearings

Alinearguidestravelsmoothnessandtolerancevariationsarekeyconcernsformachinedesigners.But,
themostimportantdesignfactorishowwelltheguideresistsdeflection.Linearsupportrailsin
combinationwithopendesignbearingsarebestsuitedtosustainheavyloadsandtoprovidehigh
stiffness.

Linearplainbearingsarethebetterchoice
comparedtolinearballbearingswhenthebearing
arrangementissubjectedtoheavyshockloads,
vibrationsorhighaccelerationsintheunloaded
statehowever,increasedfrictionmustbeexpected.
Calculateoverwhatslidingdistances[km]the
bearingwillweardownoverh=0.1mm.Considera
meanvalueofthecontactpressureofp=3MPa
andthespecificwearrateofk=1015m2/N.
Considergoodconformitybetweentheplain
bearingandthelinearsupport.
Problem6.4:Servicelifeplainbearings
Considertheconfigurationswith
plainbearingsandgravity
loadingasillustrated.The
diameteroftheshaftdandthe
totalbearinglengthisLinall
configurations.Calculatethe
wearvolumewhenashaft
displacementofisallowed.

a)

Inconfigurationa)the
wearoftheshaftis
minimal,thewearofthe
bearingpredominates.

b)

Inconfigurationb)the
wearoftheshaftis
minimal,thewearofthebearingpredominates.

c)

Inconfigurationc)theshaftispredominantlysubjectedtowear,thewearofthebearingis
minimal.

d)

Inconfigurationd)theshaftispredominantlysubjectedtowear,thewearofthebearingis
minimal.

e)

Ifthewearrateofthebearinginconfiga)iskandinconfigbitis5k.Whichofthesebearingswill
lastlonger,thebearingsinconfigaorinconfigb?

f)

Giveareasonableexplanationforrelativelargekthatmightbeexpectedinconfigb)withrespect
toconfiga.

58

Chapter6Wearmechanismsofmachineelements

Problem6.5:Servicelifeplainbearings
Consideracoolingfanwithverticalshaftpositionandequipped
withslidebearings.Therotorisnotperfectlybalancedwhich
resultsinarotatingradialbearingloadofF=1N.Theshaft
diameterisd=3mm.ThebearinglengthL=d.Thespecific
wearratek=1015N/m2.
a)Calculatetheincreaseofradialbearingplaybywearafterone
yearoperationat1400rpm(365days,24hoursaday).
b)Calculatethepowerlossinthebearing.Consideracoefficient
offrictionof=0.1

Problem6.6:Servicelifediskbrake
a)

Calculatetheservicelifeofdiskbrakepads,expressed
innumbersofbraketimes.Thecontactareaofthe
brakepadisapproachedbyarounddiskwitha
diameterofd=60mmlocatedatcentredistance
r=100mm,thethicknessofthebrakeliningis
t=10mm,thespecificwearratek=501015m2/N(class
5),thenormalforceF=6000N,thewheeldiameter
D=0.6mandthebrakedistanceS=100m.

b)

c)

Howmuchthinnerwillthebrakediskworndown
duringtheservicelifeofthebrakepadsifthespecific
wearrateofthebrakediskequalsthatofthebrake
lining?Hint:Whatishdiskifhpad=t=10mm.
Whatistheperfectratioofkpad/kdiskthatmakesthat
thepadanddiskarewornafterthesamesliding
distanceifhpad/hdisk=5?

Problem6.7:Servicelifeplainbearings

Considerthenominallinecontactformedbyabeamin
contactwitharotatingshaft.Ascarwidthof2b=4mmis
createdafter5000revolutionsoftheshaft,thediameter
oftheshaftis20mm,thecontactlengthL=8mmand
thecontactloadis25N.
a)

Tocalculatethespecificwearratek[1015N/m2]a
formulaeforthewearvolumeV(b,L,r)istobe
derivedasafunctionofthewearscargeometry.

b)

Calculatethespecificwearratek[1015N/m2].

Chapter6

Wearmechanismsofmachineelements

59

Problem6.8:Trueoruntrue?
Wearmechanisms
1.

Abrasivewearandadhesiveweararethetwofundamentalwearmechanismsinslidingcontacts.
Corrosivewear,FalseBrinellingandFrettingweararespecificformsofabrasiveandoradhesive
wear.

2.

Corrosivewearisaformofabrasivewearoradhesivewear,wherethewearrateisaccelerated
byanoxidativeenvironment.

3.

Inrollingcontactssurfacefatigue(subsurfaceinitiated)isgenerallythepredominantwear
mechanism.

4.

Thewearrateindryslidingsteelyellowmetalcontactsisdominatedbyadhesivewearalso
calledgallingwear.

5.

Wearparticlesfromahardsteelsurfacecanbemuchharderthanthesurfacehardnessfrom
whichtheyoriginate.

6.

Inapolymersteelcontactunderslidingthewearrateofthepolymerwillalwaysexceedthewear
rateofthemuchhardersteel.

7.

Threebodyabrasivewearreferstoerosion,whichisthepredominantwearmechanismin
sandslurrypumps.

8.

FalseBrinellingisaresultofplasticdeformationinconcentratedcontactscreatingshallow
indents.

9.

Frettingweartypicallyoccursbyreciprocatingmotionsuchasinapistonlinercontact.

10.

Adhesivewearoccurswhenstrongadhesivebondingbetweeninteractingasperitiescauses
microwelding.

11.

Junctionsbetweenasperitiescreatedbyadhesivewearmayshearoffwherebymaterialtransfers
fromonesurfacetotheotherand/orweardebrisarecreatedwhenrupturedoutofthesurface.

12.

Whentwoslidingbodiesstickbyseveregallingoveralargeareaandthebodiesdonotget
separatedontheirown,thewearprocessiscalledseizure.

13.

Scuffingisatypeofadhesivewearthattypicallyoccursindrysliding.

14.

Scuffing,coldweldingandgallingareallrelatedtoadhesivewear.

15.

Scuffingisatypeofadhesivewearthattypicallyoccurswhenthelubricantfilmcollapses.

16.

ScuffingcanbepreventedwhenusinglubricantswithextremepressureEPadditives.

17.

Extremethreadgallingonstainlessfastenersleadstoseizurealsocalledcoldwelding,theactual
freezingtogetherofthethreads.

18.

Theflashtemperatureisdefinedasthecontacttemperatureinthemicrocontactsformed
betweeninteractingasperities.

60

Chapter6Wearmechanismsofmachineelements

19.

Alloyedsteelisgenerallybeneficialinpreventingadhesivewear,becauseitreducessurface
energyandatthesametimeincreaseshardness(small/H).

20.

Inapolymertosteelcontactthesteelsurfacemightbesubjectedto(mild)threebodyabrasive
wearbyoxidesandotherparticlesofthesteelselfthatembedinthepolymersurface.

21.

Thepredominantwearmechanismsthatruinsthesurfacesofastainlesssteelairbearingpad
thatcrashesatahardchromedtrackisabrasivewear.

22.

Thewearmechanismindryslidingsteelsteelcontactsoperatinginvacuumisadhesivewear,
alsocalledgallingwear.

Finishingtechniques
1.

Lappingisbasedonthreebodyabrasion.

2.

Whenlappingahardenedsteelsurfaceusingapearliticcastirondiscanddiamondpowderina
mixtureofpetrolandoil,therelativesoftcastirondiscdoesn'tsufferfromwearwhilethehard
steelsurfacebecomesfinishedtoahighpolish.

3.

Asteelpartcanbemadelesssensitivetothreebodyabrasionbymakingitfromalowergrade
steel.

4.

Accumulationofworkpiecematerialonthecuttingedgeofatoolcanbecharacterizedbygalling,
asevereformofadhesion.

5.

Themaindifferencebetweensurfacegrindingandsuperfinishingtechniqueslikepolishing,
lappingandhoningisthatsuperfinishingislimitedtothesmootheningofroughnesssummits.

6.

LappingandPolishingaretypicallysuperfinishingtechniquesintendedtosmooththesurface
roughness.

7.

Burnishingisasuperfinishingtechniquebasedonthreebodyabrasion.

8.

Burnishingistheplasticdeformationofasurface.Burnishingsmearsthetextureofarough
surfaceandmakesitshinier.

Wearrateestimation
1.

Materialsthatshowrelativelylowfrictionhavehighwearresistance.

2.

PTFEbearingsarefavourableovermanyotherpolymersbecauseoftheverylowfrictionandhigh
wearresistance.

3.

Materialsareclassifiedashardwearingmaterialswhenk#1015Pa1.

4.

ThespecificwearratekinArchard'sequationisaconstant,whichisindependentoftheloadand
velocity.

5.

Thedimensionofthespecificwearratekis[m3/Nm=m2/N=1/Pa].

Chapter6

Wearmechanismsofmachineelements

61

6.

ThewearfactorKisdefinedasthequotientofthespecificwearreadandthematerialshardness.
ThewearfactorKisdimensionless[].

7.

Thewearrateofmetalsthataresubjectedtoabrasivewearisinalargerangeofoperating
conditionsbyapproximationinverselyproportionaltotheirhardness.

8.

Metalswithgoodmetallurgicalcompatibilityarelesssensitivetoadhesivewear.

9.

Carburizingoflowcarbonsteelscreatesabeneficialnonmetallicsurfacecharacterthatmakes
thesteellesssensitivetoadhesivewear(small/Hratio)

10.

The"stationarycontact"isdefinedasthecontactsurfacethatisstationarywiththeloadvector.

11.

Astationarycontactwillresultinlesswearcomparedtoanonstationarycontact.

Howtomanageabrasive/adhesivewear
12.

Oneoftheguidelinestocounterbothadhesivewearandabrasivewearistoselectmaterialswith
highhardnessandarelativehardnessofatleast80%.

13.

Adhesivewearcaneffectivelybereducedbycarburizingoneofthesurfacesandnitridingthe
other.

14.

Twopolymersinrelativeslidingarenotsensitivetoadhesivewear.

15.

Electropolishingpriortokolsterizingofstainlesssteelfastenershelpstopreventgalling/seizure,
infinitesmoothisoptimal.

16.

Severalmetalsshowathresholdloadatwhichtheoxidelayerinnolongercapabletoseparate
thesurfaces.Atthispointthewearmechanismchangesfromabrasivetoadhesivewear.

62

Chapter6Wearmechanismsofmachineelements

Answers

6.1)
a)

Slidingdistance

b)

Slidingdistance

6.2)
a)

SubstitutionofF=pAandV=m/inArchardsequation(eq.6.1page191)givess=53km,and
t=245hours=10.2days.

b)

EquatingthefrictionalheatingtotheheattransferbyconvectiongivesQ=Ffv=hcAdT,whereFf
=Fandv=nsi.ThisresultsinQ=1.44WandatemperatureincreaseofdT=2.6EC.Themass
temperatureismuchlowerthanthatofthehumanbodyandconsequentlythetestfrequency
canbeincreased.

6.3)
6.4)

Configa)andd):

,configb)andc),

a)

thewearvolumeinconfiga)andd)istimessmallertheninconfigb)andc),forthesameshaft
displacement.

b)

Inconfiga)andd)asmoothconformcontactiscreatedwhileinconfigb)andc)theconformity
degradesbywear.Asmoothconformcontactispreferablebecauseofthelowercontact
pressurewiththesameloadandiflubricated,alubricantfilmcanbecreatedmoreeasily.

6.5)

6.6)
a)

stops.

b)
alternativemethod:

c)

BrakingisoneofthebiggeststrengthsofaFormulaOnecar.ThebrakedisksofFormula1carsaremade
ofacompositematerialreinforcedwithcarbonfibre.Thecoefficientoffrictionbetweenthepadsand
thediscscanbeasmuchas0.6whenthebrakesareuptotemperature.Steelbrakedisksareheavier
andwouldexhibitahigherwearrateatthesehightemperatures.

Chapter6

Wearmechanismsofmachineelements

63

ThetemperatureofanF1brakediskvariesbetween400and1000EC.Youcanoftenseethebrakediscs
glowingduringarace.Iftheracingdriverhitsthebrakesfullonbeforethebrakediskshavereacheda
temperatureofapproximately400degrees,thediskscouldexplodeunderthethermalstressescreated.
Thesestressesaretheresultoflargetemperaturegradientsleadingtoexpansionwhichcauseslarge
stressgradients.

AstheheatcreatedinthemodernFormulaOnebrakediskissohigh,thereisaconstantdemandtofind
moreandmorecooling.In2001,Ferrariconceivedanoriginalwayofdealingwiththeheatproblemin
brakes.Thebrakeduct,conductingtheslipstreamwindalongthebrakedisks,isequippedwithakindof
turbo.Thisisarotormountedonthewheelshaft,providingadditionalsuctiontogetevenmoreairinto
thebrakeduct.Thankstotherotor,thebrakeductcanbemadesmaller,benefitingtheaerodynamics.
TheotherF1teamshavenowcopiedtheidea.

InF1themaximumdimensionsofthebrakedisksarelaiddowninregulations.Duringqualification,
relativelythinandhencelightbrakedisksareusedbecausethecarsonlyneedtocomplete12laps.For
theraceitselfthethickestpossiblediscsarefittedonthecar.Itmeanstheincurredheatcanbebetter
distributedoverthebrakediskmaterial.Duringtheraceasensorcontinuouslymeasuresthethickness
ofthebrakedisks.Themeasurementswillhelpthedrivertoknowwhenhehastogoeasyonthebrakes
tomakeitacrossthefinishingline.Asetofdisksandpadscostsasmuchasacompactcar.Forevery
GrandPrixraceeachteamreckonsonusingtwentysetsofbrakedisksandpadspercar.
6.7)
a)Thewearvolumeisdescribedby:
Substitutionof:
Resultsinthewearvolume:

b)SubstitutionofthescargeometrygivesV=4.3mm3,s=dn=314m,k=V/(Fs)=5501015m2/N

64

Chapter7Materialselection:asystematicapproach

ProblemsChapter7
Problem7.1:Designconsiderationsplasticplainbearings

a)

Adesignerisfacedwiththechoicebetweenaplainbearingwithsmallshaftdiameter(smallD)in
combinationwithalongbushing(largeL)oralargershaftdiameter(largeD)incombinationwith
ashortbushing(smallL),sothattheprojectedcontactareaLDisthesameforbothbearings.
Whichconsiderationswilldeterminethechoice?Considerthemajortemperaturelimitations.

b)

InordertoobtainalargerPVvalue,thedesignerselectedathinplastic
bushing,increasingtheheatdissipationtotheenvironmentviathe
bushing.Inexperiments,theLPVvalueturnedouttobesmallerthan
anticipated.Explainthisresult.

c)

Explainwhyaplasticbearingloadedwithhighpandlowvexhibitalarger
LPVvaluethanoneloadedwithlowpandhighv.

Problem7.2:Preselectionofmaterialsinhightemperatureapplications
Considerthemajortemperaturelimitationsinsliding
contactsof
metals
plasticsandresins
ceramicsandceramiccoatings

Problem7.3:Materialselectionmetalplainbearings

Oneguidelineformaterialselectionofboundarylubricatedmetallicbearingsisa35highhardnessratio
betweenthetwomatingsurfaces.Explainthispreferreddifferenceinhardness.

Problem7.4:Materialselectionforconcentratedcontacts(Hertz)

a)

b)

c)

Listatleast5failuremechanismsthatcanbedistinguishedwhen
designingHertziancontacts?
ExplainwhytheloadcapacityofHertziancontactsformed
betweenengineeringceramicsandsteelislessthanbetweena
steeltosteelcontact.
Whatmaterialselectionparameterisimportanttoselecta
materialcombinationwiththehigheststaticloadrating.

Problem7.5:Materialselectionforinfinitelifedesign

a)

Explainwhyaluminiumpartsareneverdesignedwithstressesbelowtheendurancestrength,
theyarealwaysapproachedwithsafelifedesignconcepts.

Chapter7

Materialselection:asystematicapproach

65

Problem7.6:Deepdrawing

Thetoollifeofadrawingdiestronglydependsonthelubricantused,theblankmaterialandthesurface
coatingontheformingdie.

Duringpressingoperations,thepunchandformingdie
arecontinuouslyincontactwithnewmaterial(open
system).Apinondisktribometercanthereforenot
beusedinitsstandardformforthisapplication,since
thisimpliesthatthepinalwaysrunsinthesametrack
onthediskratherthancomeintocontactwithnew
material.

ASTMG13296containsthedescriptionofastandard
testmethodforpinabrasiontesting.Inthisstandard
variousconfigurationsaregivenwherebythepin
makesaspecificmovementoverthecountersurface
soastocontinuouslymakeafreshtrack.Theconfigurationofchoiceisonewithasphericalpinmoving
overasteelplate,drawingparalleltracks1mmapart.Thepinhasaradiusof5mm.Theaverage
contactstressliesintheregionofthehardnessoftheplatematerial(steelplate:64HBWor640MPa,
aluminiumplate:36HBWor360MPa).

a)

CalculatethetrackwidthinthesteelplatewithaloadofF=150N.

b)

ThedrawingtoolssteelpinisprovidedwithaCVDTiCcoating.Howcanitbedeterminedduring
theexperimentwhetherthecoatingiswornaway?

c)

ThepinisprovidedwithaCVDTiCcoatingof8mthickness.Whatistheexpectedlifeofthe
coatingwhenk=0.1@1015m2/N?Expresstheexpectedlifeinmeterstracklengthandinthe
experimentdurationwhentheslidingvelocityis0.01m/s.

d)

Ifthefrictionsuddenlyincreases,withoutthecoatinghavingwornout,whatcouldhavecaused
it?

Problem7.7:TiretemperatureFormula1racingcar
Aracingtireperformsoptimallyatanoperationtemperatureof100EC110EC.Duringracing,thetire
temperatureismeasuredconstantlyandthedatapassedontothedriver.IftheF1carisgettingready
fortherace,thetirestemperatureisraisedwithtireheaters.Asortofelectricblanketisusedtopre
heatthetiresto80EC.Whyisthetiretemperaturesoimportantandwhatwouldhappenifthe
temperaturewouldbecometoohigh?

Problem7.8:Trueoruntrue?
1.

Typicalabrasioneffectsarecharacterisedbyirregularfrictionwithlargepeaksandmaterial
transferfromonesurfacetotheother.

2.

Poisson'sratioistheratiooflateraltoaxialstiffnessofananisotropicmaterial,forrubbersv
=0.5,forpolymersv=0.3to0.45.

3.

Indryslidingmetaltometalcombinationsthecoefficientoffrictionismaximalformaterialswith
highshearstrength.

66

4.

Chapter7Materialselection:asystematicapproach

Lubricationofmetaltometalcontactsinrelativemotionisgenerallyessentialtopreventsevere
adhesivewearthatruinsthesurfacequalityandtopreventveryhighfriction.

5.

Steelshaftsrunningincombinationwithsinterbronzebearingsimpregnatedwithsolidlubricants
donotneedanyfurtherlubricationuntilthesolidlubricantiswornaway.

6.

Inordertominimizethetendencytoadhesivewearmaterialsareselectedwhichare
metallurgicalincompatible.

7.

AgoodmaterialselectionfactorfortheHertzianloadcapacityofaconcentratedcircularcontact
is(Rp0.2/E')2.

8.

Inordertominimizethetendencytoadhesivewear,materialsareselectedwhichare
metallurgicalcompatible.

9.

BearingswithleadBabbittlayeraretypicallyappliedinhydrodynamicallylubricatedbearings.

10.

Leadedbronzebearingsarethemostpopularchoiceinmachineengineeringbecauseofthegood
slideabilitywhenboundarylubricated,highstiffnessandgoodmachineability.

11.

Thermosetswithselectedfillerbecomemoreandmorepopularinoffshoreapplicationsbecause
ofthehighloadcapacityandgooddryslidingpropertieswithnoconcernofwaterthatmayenter
thebearingsystem.

12.

Sinteredmetalsimpregnatedwithoilrunningagainststeelarewidelyappliedinconsumer
productsbecausetheyarelubricatedforlife.

13.

Oneofthepossibilitiestoimprovethelifedurationofthesurfaceofarollingguideisbyapplying
athinhardcoating.

14.

Thermoplasticsinshortplasticshaveadvantagesovermetalsintermsofvibrationdamping,low
weight,inexpensiveandtheabilitytorunwithoutlubrication.

15.

Concernsaboutplasticbearingsarethelowstiffness,poorheatconductivity,largethermal
expansionandlargemachiningtolerances.

16.

ExamplesofsemicrystallinethermoplasticsarePOM,PA,PEUHMW.

17.

Semicrystallinematerialscanbeuseduptosometensofdegreesbelowtheglasstransition
temperature.

18.

ExamplesofamorphouspolymersarePVC,ABS,PMMA,PC.

19.

SimplemodelstocharacterizeviscoelasticityaretheKelvinmodelandtheMaxwellmodel.

20.

ViscoelasticityismodelledbyacombinationofHookeanspringsandNewtoniandashpots,in
whichthespringrepresentselasticityandthedashpotthedamping.

21.

Thermoplasticsinslidingmotionagainststeeldonotneedtobelubricatedhowever,lubrication
maysignificantlyreducefriction.

22.

Highperformanceplasticsshowhighwearresistanceandlowfriction.

23.

InmanyselflubricatingplasticsPTFEisusedasafillertoachievelowfrictionandgoodwear
resistance.ThesurfaceroughnessofthecountersurfaceisimportanttoformaneffectivePTFE
transferfilm.

24.

Thefatiguestrengthofacomponentcyclicallyloadedinbendingcanbeimprovedsignificantlyby
carburizing.

25.

Thermosetshavemuchhighermeltingtemperaturethanthermoplastics.

Chapter7

26.

Materialselection:asystematicapproach

67

Ceramicballsappliedindeepgrooveballbearingsrunningathighspeedarefavourableover
steelballsbecauseofthemuchlowercentrifugalforces.

27.

SiliconNitrideballsincontactwithsteelarefavourableoversteelballsbecauseofthehigher
Hertzianloadcapacity.

28.

ThinmodernhardcoatingssuchasPVDandCVDcoatingsaresensitivetodelaminationwhen
appliedincyclicallyloadedconcentratedcontacts.

29.

AgoodmaterialselectionfactorfortheHertzianloadcapacityofaconcentratedlinecontactis
(Rp0.2)2/E'.

30.

Inmanyselflubricatingplastics,PTFEisusedasafillertoachievelowfrictionandgoodwear
resistance.Lubricationisnotneededbutifapplieditwillfurtherimprovethewearresistance.U

31.

AgoodmaterialselectionfactorfortheHertzianloadfromahighspeedrotatingballinaball
bearingis(Rp0.2)3/(E')2/?where?isthedensity.

32.

Agoodmaterialselectionfactorforaslidebearinginordertoachieveahighloadcapacitywhich
islimitedbythermalfailureisKdT/?whereKistheheatconductioncoefficient,dTthe
maximumcontacttemperatureand?thecoefficientoffriction.

33.

SelflubricatingplasticsarethermoplasticsdispersedwithsolidlubricantssuchasPTFE,MoS2and
graphite.

34.

Whenlubricatedwithfluids,unfilledplasticsshowhigherwearresistancethantherelatively
expensiveselflubricatingplastics.

35.

Theloadcapacityofplasticplasticcombinationsislimitedbythepoorheatconduction.

36.

ThesurfacedurabilityofspurgearsiscalculatedusingHertztheory.

37.

Amorphousplasticsgenerallyexhibithigherstrength,rigidityandwearresistancethatsemi
crystallineplasticsandshowingeneralgoodchemicalresistancetooilsandgrease.

38.

Highperformanceplastics,engineeringplasticsandgeneralpurposeplasticsareclassifiedonthe
basisoftheirstiffness.

68

Chapter7Materialselection:asystematicapproach

Answers

7.1)
a)

TheloadcapacityofplainbearingssubjectedtoslidingislimitedbythePVvalue.
Thefailuremode(functionloss)canbedescribedas1)lossofshaftposition,2)suddenlyincrease
offrictionand3)jamming*.Thecauseofthefailuresistemperaturerelated,themaximum
temperaturethatcanbeaccommodated.
Causeofthefailure:FrictionalheatingcanbeexpressedasQ=Fv(Watt),orperunitofarea
Q/A=pv.Thetemperaturethatmayexistdependsonfrictionalheatingandheatdissipationto
theenvironment.Failureoccurswhenthetemperatureofthebearingmaterialsbecomestohigh.
Failuremodes:Engineeringplasticsmayfailbymelting,orwhenthepolymerbecomestooweak.
*Jammingmayoccurwhentheoperationalclearancebecomestosmallbythermalexpansion
duringoperation.ThePVvalueisnotalimitforthisphenomenon(Problem5.13).

b)

Thecontactpatchcreatedbyplasticdeformationbecomessmallerwithathinwallthicknessof
thebearingbushing,resultinginalargerrealcontactpressureandincreasedfrictionalheating
perunitofsurfacearea.

c)

Thebearingrunningatlowvelocityandhighcontactpressurewillshowalargerpvvaluebecause
thecoefficientoffrictioninplasticbearingsisdecreasedathighercontactpressure.
Furthermore,withahighloadatlowvelocity,thecontactpatchcreatedbyelasticdeflectionof
thepolymerbushingbytheshaftloadislarger.

7.2)

Althoughmetalsingeneralcansustainhightemperaturesandhaveagoodheatconduction,itis
thelubricantthatisneededinmetalmetalcontactsinslidingmotionthatmayfail.Lubricating
oilscanbeappliedupto150EC,howevertheoxidationstabilityofthelubricatingoilmaylimit
theexposuretimetothistemperature.Dry/solidlubricants,forexampleMoS2based,canbe
usedwithcontacttemperaturesupto400EC,invacuummuchhigher.

Somehighperformancepolymersaresuitableforuseathightemperaturesupto150...300EC,
butstillhaverelativelylowcompressivestrengthathighertemperaturesandpoorheat
conductivity.

Thermoset(resins)bearingsmayfailwhenthedecompositiontemperatureisreached.Itisthe
temperatureatwhichthesubstancechemicallydecomposes.Whenthesurfacegetsburnedthe
wearratewillincreasesignificantlyandtheshaftpositionwillgetlost.
Ceramicsareveryhardandcanwithstandhightemperaturesupto400EC,butarebrittle,cannot
accommodateedgepressures,showhighfrictioncoefficientsincombinationwithsteel(=0.2
0.8)andarealsopoorheatconductors.Ceramicbearingsarefavourableinabrasive
environments,becauseofthesuperiorresistancetothreebodyabrasivewear.
Carbonbasedceramiccoatings(DLC)haveagoodthermalconductivitywhenappliedonahard
steelsubstrate.SinceDLCcoatingsrequireahardsubstrateedgepressurescannotbe
accommodated.TheverylowsurfaceenergymaketheDLCcoatingverysuitabletoperformat
hightemperaturesandinvacuumwherelubricantsarebanned.

Chapter7

7.3)

7.4)
a)

Materialselection:asystematicapproach

69

InTable7.2page208somecommonbearingmaterialsarelisted,rangedbythematerial
hardness.Thehardnessofthecountermaterial,ingeneraltheshaft,shouldbeapproximately3
timesharderthanthehardnessofthebearingmaterial.
PAbrasionofthehardcountermaterialislimitedtopolishingwearratherthanscratching.
PImprovedembedabilityofhardabrasiveparticlesintherelativesofterbearingmaterial.
PEdgepressuresfrommisalignmentorshaftdeflectionsareaveragedoutbyplasticdeformation
oftherelativesoftbearingmaterial.

Staticloadrating(Brinelling),Dynamicloadratingforpurerolling(Fatigue,pitting,flaking,
spalling),Rollingwithtraction(surfaceinitiatedcrack),Frictionalheating(Heathcoteslip,cage
slip,macroslipwhennotpreloaded),Lubricantfailure(EHL,thermal),Wear(Falsebrinelling)etc.

b)

Thelimitingfactorforthestaticloadratingisthemaximumcontactpressure(materialshear
stress)thatcanberesisted.Inaceramictosteelcontactthelimitationissetbythemaximum
contactpressureofthesteel.Thelargerrigidityoftheceramicbodywillcauselessflattening,
resultinginamoreconcentratedhighercontactpressure.

c)

Thematerialselectionparameterforthestaticloadratingofapointandellipticcontactis
Rp0.23/E2(eq4.19page109),foralinecontactRp0.22/E(eq.4.26page110).

7.5)
a)

7.6)
a)

b)

c)

d)
7.6)

Theproblemwithaluminumis,thatitdoesn'thaveatypical'fatiguelimit'.Thisisdifferentfrom
steelwhichhassomedistinctendurancelimit.Aluminiumwillalwaysfailiftestedtoasufficient
numberofcycles.Therefore,thefatiguestrengthofaluminumisusuallyreportedasthestress
levelitcansurviveatalargetotalnumberofcycles,usually5108cycles.

With(eq.4.10page105)itcanbeestablishedthattheloadF/F1>200andthedeformationis
consequentlyplastic.Withthisinformationitfollowsthatthetrackwidthisb=2rfromH=F/r2.
Thetrackwidthturnsouttobeapproximately0.55mm.
Thefrictioninthecontactbetweentheceramiccoatingandthesteelislowerthanwhenthe
steelofthetoolcomesintocontactwiththesteelplate.Throughadhesion,thefrictionandwear
willsuddenlyincreasesharply.Anothermethodsuitableforelectricalinsulatingcoatingsisthe
measurementofelectricalconduction.
InCase3.2page193,anexampleisgivenforthewearvolumeofaballasafunctionofthe
flatteningh.Withh=8mfollowsforthewearvolumeV=1@103mm3.Substitutionin(eq.6.1
page191)givesatracklengthofs=67m.Withaslidingvelocityof0.01m/stheexpectedtool
lifewouldbeapproximately110minutes.
Throughtheadhesivetransferofmaterialthefrictionsuddenlyincreases.
Figure7.7page213showsthatthefrictioncoefficientincreaseswithtemperatureuntila
maximalvalueisreached;abovethatvaluethefrictioncoefficientfallsback.Inordertoachieve
maximumtraction,anoperatingtemperatureisneededwhichensuresamaximumfriction
coefficient.Whenthemaximumfrictioncoefficientisexceeded,fadingoccurswherebythe
frictionstronglydecreasesandahighlevelofmeltingtakesplace.Fadingcanalsooccurinthe
brakes,i.e.brakefade.AFormula1carhasnoantilockbrakingsystem(ABS),whichmeansit
ispossiblethataracingdriverendsuplockingawheelwhenhebrakes.Itextentsthebraking
distanceandthetirewillundergoterriblelocalwear,resultinginaflatspot.

70

Chapter7Materialselection:asystematicapproach

Duringtheformationlap,mostdriverszigzagalongthetracktowarmupthetires.Attheendof
thislap,thedriversparktheircarsatthestartpositionandstarttheraceafewsecondslater.
Tiresthathavereachedtherighttemperaturebecomeverysticky,resultinginaconsiderable
amountofrubberpickupfromothertireswhichinthecourseoftheraceendupimmediately
nexttotheideallineonthetrack.Whoevertakestheidealracinglineexperiencesfewproblems
withthis.Butadriverwhotacticallymakeswayforafastercolleagueregularly,encounters
problemsbecauseofthis.Ittakesafewlapsbeforethepiecesofpickeduprubberhavecleared
againfromthetires.

WetWeathertiresdonotcometotemperatureincoldwater.Tocompensate,theyaremade
fromasoftertirecompoundthandryweathertires.Furthermore,thetiresdifferbecauseofthe
grooveprofilewhichdissipateswatersideways.Qualifiertiresareveryspecialtiresofasuper
softcompoundwithalifedurationofoneortwolaps.Atonetime,thissortoftirewasusedto
achieveasuperqualifyinglaptime.

Duringtherace,pitstopscanbemadeforthefollowingreasons:
Ptochangetires(accordingtoplan,thishappensonceorseveraltimesperrace,ormore
frequentlyinchangeableweather)
Prefuelling(accordingtoplan,oneormoretimesperrace)
Prepairs(alwaysunexpected)oradjustmentstofrontand/orrearwings(alwaysunexpected)
Tochangethetires,asmallarmyofatleastfifteenfittersisneededtoreturnthecartotherace
within4seconds:twofittersforthejacksatfrontandback,oneforthelollipopplusthree
fitterspertire(numberoneundoesthecentralwheelnut,numbertworemovestheoldtireand
numberthreefitsthenewone.Thelollipopman(literally,fromlolly)ensureswithaboardona
stickthatthedriverknowswhathehastododuringthestop(e.g.BRAKEandFIRSTGEAR).

Mostly,refuellingtakesplaceatthesametimeastirechanges.Suchacombinedpitstoptakesa
fewsecondslongeranddependsontheamountoffueltobereplaced.ThepetrolforaFormula
1cardoesnotdiffermuchfromthatofastandardcar.Theoctanenumberisalittlehigher,i.e.
102insteadof98forasimplesuperpetrol.Currentregulationsforbidtheadditionofoutput
enhancingadditives.However,additivescanbeaddedtooptimisethefuel.Theparticipating
oilcompaniesmustsubmitsamplesofallfueltobeusedduringtheyeartotheFIA.Spotchecks
maybecarriedoutduringaracingweekend.
7.7)

True:345691011121415161819202123242628293132
33343536

Chapter8

Lubricantselectionandlubricationmanagement

71

ProblemsChapter8
Problem8.1:Lubricationregimes
Theslidesurfaceofacamfollowermechanismispartiallysubmergedinanoilbath.Afteroneyears
operation,nowearcanbeobserved.Thefinishinggroovesontheslidesurfacearestillvisible.

a)
b)

Explainthisphenomenon.
Ifthelubricationregimeisnotchanged,couldfailureeventuallyoccur?

Problem8.2:EPadditives
a)
b)
c)

Describetheway/whenEPadditiveswork.
WhattypeofwearcanbepreventedwithEPadditives?
WhatdoesEPstandforandwhyisthisnomenclaturedisputable?

Problem8.3:Cylinderviscometer

Astandardviscositymeter(ASTM)istherotationalcylindricalviscometerasshowninthefigure.The
outercylinderisfixedwhiletheinnercylinderisrotatingataconstantangularspeedofbyapplyinga
torqueT.Deriveanequationtocalculatetheabsoluteviscosity[Pa.s].
Calculatetheviscosityvalue[Pa.s]when=55rev/min,T=5mNm,L=
50mm,Ri=10mmandRo=12mm.
Approach:
TheliquidisaNewtonianfluid.Thevelocityprofilebetweenthecontainer
andtherotatingcylinderislinear.Neglecttheendeffectsandbottom
surfaceofthecylinder.

Problem8.4:Coneonplateviscometer

Theconeonplateviscometeristhemostpopularmethodforgainingviscosityinformationatspecific
shearrates.Factorssuchassmallsamplesizeandeaseofcleaninghavehelpedmaketheconeandplate
approachsopopular.Theoilforwhichtheviscosityneedstobedeterminedis
placedbetweentheconeandtheplate.

72

Chapter8Lubricantselectionandlubricationmanagement

Beforethemeasurementcantakeplace,sometimeisrequiredtobringthecone,whichisatthesame
temperatureastheplane,totherequiredtemperature.Todeterminethedrivingtorqueasafunctionof
theviscosity,thefollowingquestionsneedtobeanswered.

a)
b)
c)

DeriveanequationfortheshearrateMu/Mzatdistancerfromthecentre.
DeriveanequationfortheviscousshearforceFf(r)ofelementdr.
DeriveanequationfortheviscousfrictiontorqueM.

Problem8.5:Speciallubricants

Listafewspecificfunctionalrequirementsoflubricantsfor
a) Gearlubrication
b) Hydraulicoils
c) Cuttingoils.

Problem8.6:Trueoruntrue?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Elastohydrodynamiclubricatedcontactsarenotsubjectedtomechanicalwear/theroughnessof
interactingsurfaces.
Standardrollingbearingsthathavefailedfinallybysurfacefatiguehaverunduringtheirlifeinthe
elastohydrodynamiclubrication(EHL)regime.
Polymermetalcontactsdonotneedtobelubricated,butlubricationcanhelptoreducefriction
andwear.
Dryslidingandboundarylubrication(BL)aresimilar,thelubricantifappliedisnoteffective.
Polymersteelcontactsareverywelllubricatedbysiliconoil.Sincesiliconoildoesntadherevery
welltothemetalsurfaceitislesseffectiveinsteelsteelcontactsthanmineraloils.
Vegetableoilsadhereverystrongtometalsurfaceswhichmakethemsuperiortomineraloilsand
syntheticoils,whenoperatingintheBLregime.
Compoundedoilsconsistofhighviscous(ISOVG460,680or1000)mineraloilswith310%fattyoil
(fromanimalorvegetableoil).
Compoundedoilsaresuperiorinhightemperatureapplicationsbecauseoftheiroxidationstability.
Vegetableoilsarethebestchoicewhencuttingthreadinatapholeforexample.Thisbecauseofthe
environmentalcompatibilityandextremegoodlubricity.
Thecoefficientoffrictioninthehydrodynamiclubrication(HL)regimeistypically0.001,inthe
boundarylubricationregime0.1.
Thecoefficientoffrictioninthemixedlubrication(ML)regimedecreaseswiththevelocityand
increaseswiththeload.
HLlubricationcanbecreatedonlywithrelativehighsurfacevelocity.
Lubricantsdevelopedforboundarylubricationhavesuperiorlubricity(antiwearandantifriction
properties).
Animalorvegetableoilsareperdefinitionclassifiedasbiolubricants.
Syntheticestersaregoodbiolubricants,mineraloilsnot.
Theviscosityindex(VI)ofanautomotivelubricantisnotlessimportantthanthelubricitysince80%
ofthetotalenginelossescomefromviscousshear.
ExtremePressure(EP)additivesareappliedtogeneratesomeextrapressureintheHLregime.
EPadditivescanbeharmful,iftoaggressivetheymaycauseseriouscorrosivewearintheBL
regime.
Oilswithahighviscosityvalueeasilyflowthroughacapillare.
Crystallinepolymershavesuperiorwearresistancecomparedtoamorphouspolymers.

Chapter8

Lubricantselectionandlubricationmanagement

73

Answers
8.1)
a) Asaresultofelastohydrodynamiclubricationthesurfacesdonotmakecontact.
b) Throughtheelasticdeformationthatislikelytooccurinaconcentratedcontact,surfacefatigue
mayeventuallysetin.
8.2)
a) Thefrictionbetweentheasperitysummitscreatesahigh(flash)temperature.Undertheinfluence
ofthehightemperature,theEPadditivesformachemicalprotectiveoxidelayerwithhighshearing
strengthwhichcanpreventpuremetalcontact.
b) Withoutthisprotectivelayer,theasperitysummitsmaybeweldedtogetherandthenbreakapart
againwithcontinuousmovement(scuffing).
c) EPstandsforExtremePressure,whereasthechemicalreactionestablishesitselfthroughthe
ExtremeTemperature(flashtemperature)betweenintermeshingasperitysummits.
8.3)
a)
Thenegativesignisinsertedtoindicatethatudecreasesasrincreases.

Theshearstresscanbewrittenas:

Rearranginggives:
Substitutionofthenumericalvaluegives=0.5Pas.
Ifthegapbetweenthewallandcylinderissmall,thenRoRi=>dRgap,andRi2Ro=>R3whereRisthe
meanradius.
8.4)
a)
Itisfoundthatauniformshearrateisgeneratedacrosstheentiresampleforanygivenrotational
speed.
b)

c)
AdoublingoftheconeradiusRresultsinaspindletorqueincreaseofafactoreight.Thisisofgreat
benefitwhenmeasuringlowviscosityproductswhereaninstrument'sminimummeasurabletorque
islimited.

74

Chapter8Lubricantselectionandlubricationmanagement

8.5)
a) Gearlubricants:extremepressureadditivestopreventscuffing,highpressurecoefficienttoenable
elastohydrodynamiclubrication,antifoaming.
b) Hydraulicoil,corrosionresistance,biodegradable.
c) Cuttingoil:greatlubricity,extremepressure(EP),cooling,corrosion,compatibility.

8.6) True:12356791011131415161820.
Alwaysreadthestatementscarefully.Withonewordchangedthestatementthatwastruecanbecome
untrue.So,dontrecognizeastatementbutunderstandthestatement.

Chapter9

Designofhydrodynamicbearingsandsliders

Chapter9
Problem9.1:Reynoldsequation
WhichassumptionshavebeenmadeinderivingtheReynoldsequation?

Problem9.2:Aquaplaning
Athinwaterfilmdevelopsbetweenacartireandtheroadsurface.Becauseofthewaterfilm,the
tractionforcesbetweenthetireandtheroadsurfacearealmostlost.
a)

Whatistheeffectivesurfacevelocitythatcausesaquaplaning?Assumethatthereisnoslipyet
(V=R).

b)

Severalmeasuresareconsideredtomakecontactwiththeroadsurface.Indicatetowhichextent
theseactionsmakesensebyconsideringtheeffectivesurfacevelocityinthefollowinginstances:
pushingthegaspedal(R=10V),
activebraking(R=0),
puttingthecarintoreversegear(R=10V),
pushingintheclutch(0#R#V).

Problem9.3:Camfollowermechanism
Foranoptimallifetimeperformanceandreliabilityofacamfollowermechanism,EHLisrequired
betweenthecamandtherotatingfollower.Theminimumfilmthicknessinalinecontactcanbe
calculatedusing(eq.4.51page124).
a)

Demonstrateinwhichpositionofthe
camIorIItheEHLwillfailfirstifno
slipoccursandwhentheangular
velocityofthecamisconstant.

b)

seea)butintheeventof100%slip.

c)

Thefilmthicknesshctobecalculated
givesanindicationifEHLmayoccur.
Wheredoestheminimumfilmthickness
forEHLdependson?

75

76

Chapter9Designofhydrodynamicbearingsandsliders

Problem9.4:Grindingofrollers
Alargerotatinggrindingstoneisusedwithplainhydrodynamicjournalbearings.(Rollingbearings
generallydisplayhighfrequencyvibrationswhichcompromisetheaccuracyofmovementandhencethe
surfacequalityofthegrinding).Toimprovethesurfacequality,therotationalvelocityagrindingstoneis
increased.Atthishighrotationalvelocitythegrindingstonestartstovibrateatafrequencyequalling
halftherotationalvelocity.
a)
b)
c)

Whatwillbetheoriginofthisvibration?
Whatmeasurescanbetakentopreventthevibrationwithoutsacrificinganyoftherotational
speed?
Someonesuggestsreplacingthehydrodynamicbearingofthegrindingstonebyahydrostatic
bearing.Isthisagoodadvice?

Problem9.5:Circumferentiallygroovedhydrodynamicbearing

Sometimesbearingsareusedthatcontainacentralcircumferentiallubricantfeedgroove.Examineby
howmuchtheloadcapacityofthistypeofbearingdecreasesasaresultofthegroove.Usethe
dimensionsofthebearinggiveninCase9.3a.Considerthecircumferentiallygroovedbearingastwo
bearingswithL/D=0.5.

Problem9.6:SqueezingDiskbrake

Beforethebrakeshoesofadiskbrakemakecontactwith
thebrakediskssomerainwaterwillhavetobedispersed.
Thetimerequiredtodothisandthefactorsinfluencingthe
timewillbeexaminedhere.
Thegeometryofabrakeshoeisapproximatedbyaround
diskwitharadiusofR=40mm.Theviscosityofwateris
=0.001Pas.Thesqueezeforceamountstoapproximately
6kN.Becauseofinaccuraciesinshapeandroughnessof
theslidesurfaces,mechanicalcontactalreadyexistsath2=3
m.
a)
b)
c)
d)

Explainwhythisproblemcanbeconsideredapure
squeezingfilm.
Calculatethetimedelayasaresultofthesqueezeeffectandtherelativeincreaseinbrakedistance
resultingfromthesqueezeeffect,ifthedrivingspeedis100km/h.
Howcanthistimedelaybereduced?
Tolimitthewearonthebrakeshoesandbrakedisks,manufacturingthebrakediskswithahard
wearingmaterialandfinishthemverysmoothlyissuggested.Whatdoyouthinkofthisproposal?

Chapter9

77

Designofhydrodynamicbearingsandsliders

Problem9.7:Tubeexpansion

Toexpandthediameterofatubeataperedconeisforcedthroughthebore.Theobjectiveistomaintain
athinlubricationfilmbetweenthepipeandthetaperedcone.Consideronlythewedgeeffectand
determinetheparametersthatwillinfluencefilmthicknesshc.

a)Explainwhyaparallelfilmwillbe
created.

b)Deriveanequationfordp/dxand
p(x)
c)Convertfromtheequationforp(x)
anequationforthefilmthicknesshc.
d)Willthecalculatedfilmthickness
actuallyoccur?

Problem9.8:Railwheelcontact

a)

Inthewedgeshapedinlet
regionofarailwheelcontact,
byapproximationh(x)=nx(n
inradians)applies.Deriveon
thebasisofgeometric
considerationsthevalueofn
(considerntobesmall).

b)

Heavyrainfallhascreateda
thinwaterfilm.Thewheel
andtherailremainincontact(blockedfilm).Deriveanequationforthepressuregradientinthe
inletregion,consideringaonedimensionalflowandh(x)=nx.Thereisnoslip.

c)

Whywillthepressureinrealitynotinfinitelyincreasewhenx=0?

d)

Assumethatathinparallelfilmisgenerated.Drawapossibleactualhydrodynamicfilmpressure
distribution(inletandconjunctionarea).

e)

Nowderiveanequationforthepressuregradientintheinletareabyequatingtheflowintheinlet
areawiththeflowintheconjunctionarea.

f)

Calculatethepressurep(x=0).Thefilmthicknessintheinletregionisnowh(x)=h0+nx.

g)

Considerthattheloadcapacityofthefilmisalmostentirelydeterminedbythepressureinthe
conjunctionarea.What,then,istheloadcapacity?

78

Chapter9Designofhydrodynamicbearingsandsliders

Answers
9.1) Laminarflow,Newtonianfluid,predominatedviscousshearforces,isoviscousandconstant
pressureacrossthefilm,noslipcondition,Eulerscoordinatesystem.

9.2)
a) AquaplaningUe=V+R=2V.
b) pushingthethrottlewideopen*Ue*=11V,activebraking*Ue*=V,switchingtoreversegear
*Ue*=9V,holdingdownclutchV<*Ue*<2V.Conclusion:brakingorpushingdowntheclutch,
preferenceforpushingintheclutchtogainspeedagainwhencontactisreestablished.

9.3)Camfollowermechanism
a) PositionI:Bothcontactsurfacesmovealongwiththefilmprofileatequalvelocity(U1=U2=UF=3R),
sothatnolubricantcanbedraggedintotheconvergingwedge:
.

PositionII:Thefilmprofileisstationary:UF=0.Withoutslip,bothcontactsurfacesdragthelubricant
alongasU1=U2=2Rintotheconvergingwedge:

Conclusion:Witharotatingfollower,EHLwillfailfirstinposition1.

b)

PositionI:ThefilmprofileandthecamsurfacemovetotherightwithU1=UF=3R.Letthe
coordinatesystemmovealongagainwiththefilmprofile:

PositionII:Thefilmprofileandthefollowerstandstill

InpositionI,theeffectiveslidingvelocityisgreatest.However,thecontactgeometryinthis
positionislessfavourable.Thefilmthicknesswillnowbeestablishedmoreaccuratelyforboth
positions.

Conclusion:Withthestationaryfollower,EHLwillfailfirstinpositionII,

c)

Therequiredvalueofhccanbederivedfromtheroughnessofbothsurfaces.

9.4)
a) Theeffectofcavitationislimitedbecauseofthesmalleccentricity,resultingintheloadvectorand
thedeflectionvectorbeingalmostperpendiculartoeachother.Thisresultsinunstablebehaviour,
inthiscaseathalftherotationspeed,calledhalfomegawhirl.
b) Bychoosingalargerbearingclearancetheeccentricitywillincrease,whichmeanstheoperational
speedcanbemaintainedatthehigherlevel.
c) Withahydrostaticpressureinthebearingcavitationissuppressed.Ifanyadditionalhydrodynamic
pressurecanbuildup,thesystembecomesunstable.Alargeplainbearingareathatenablesthe
buildupofhydrodynamicpressuremustthereforebeavoided.

Chapter9

Designofhydrodynamicbearingsandsliders

79

9.5)
TheSommerfeldnumberofabearingwith=0.15andL/D=1amountstoS=9.12,withL/D=0.5itwillbe
=5.08(Program8.2).Theloadcapacityofthebearingisproportionalwiththeproductofthe
Sommerfeldnumberandthebearinglength.Thisresultsinthequotient:
F(L/D=0.5)/F(L/D=1)=(5.08/9.12)(0.5/1.0)=0.28,i.e.theloadcapacityofabearingwithL/D=0.5is28%of
abearingwithL/D=1.0.Forthecircumferentialgroovedbearing,itfollowsthattheloadcapacitywill
amountto2@28%=56%ofthebearinghavinganaxialgroove.

9.6) Diskbrake

a)
b)
c)
d)

Withaparallelfilmandinthecaseoftheabsenceofawedgeshapedinletregion,nowedgeeffect
willoccur.
SubstitutionofI=F@tin()andassuming(h2/h1)2<1givest=0.12sec,s=v@t=3.3m.
Thetimedelayduetothesqueezeeffectcanbereducedbyprovidinggroovesintothebrakeshoes.
Asmoothfinishreducesthefilmthicknessh2withtheresultthatthesqueezetimet-1/h22will
stronglyincrease.Halvingthefilmthicknessatwhichcontacttakeplacewillproduceasqueeze
timethatisfourtimesaslarge.

9.7)Tubeexpansion

a)

b)
c)

Throughplasticdeformationthepressureinthefilmequalstheextrusionpressureofthetube.
Withtheuniformpressurep=pe,dp/dx=0thenqx=Uhc/2wherehcistheuniformCouettefilm
thickness.
Theisoviscoussolutionmethodforawedgeshapedinletanduniforminterfaceispresentedin(?).
Inreality,theviscositywillincreaseduetothepressureviscositycoefficient,resultinginathicker
film.

9.8)Railwheelcontact
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

f)

Rn=b,n=b/R.
Inawedgeshapedfilmwithh(x=0)=0thepressuregradientdp/dxbecomesinfinite.
Thecalculationdoesnottakeintoaccountsurfaceroughness,sidewayflowandEHL.
Thissolutionmethodisshownin(?).
SubstitutionofUe=2Randn=b/Rin(?)resultsinpc

80

Chapter10Dynamicsealingsystems

Chapter10
Problem10.1:Windscreenwiper
Hydrodynamiclubricationtakesplacebetweenawindscreenwiperandthewindscreenofacar.Without
hydrodynamiclubrication,whenthewindscreenisdry,thewiperwillmoveinjoltsoverthewindscreen
duetostickslip.Withhydrodynamiclubrication,theverythinlayerofwaterbetweenthewiperandthe
windowwillevaporateshortlyafterthewiperhaspassedoverit.

Theelasticdeformationoftherubberleadstoafilmprofilethatcanbedescribedbyanexponential
function,h(x)=h0exwith=20.000m1.Thefilmcavitatesinx=0.Thepressonforceofthe40cmlong
wiperbladeamountsto6N,thevelocityofthewiperV=1m/s,theviscosityofwateris=0.001Pa.s.
a)

Giveanequationforthepressuregradientwiththeintegrationconstanthc.
(hcisthefilmthicknessinthelocationofdp/dx=0).

b)

Derivefromtheequationofthepressuregradientdp/dxthepressuredistributionp(x).

c)

Solvetherelationshipbetweentheconstantofintegrationhcandh0.

d)

Deriveanequationfortheloadcapacityperunitoflength.

e)

Calculatetheminimalfilmthicknessbetweenthewindscreenwiperandthewindow?

f)

Calculatethethicknessofthewaterlayerthatwillevaporateimmediatelyafterthewiperhas
passed?

g)

Calculatethemaximumvalueofthehydrodynamicpressurepmaxthatwilloccur.

Chapter10

Dynamicsealingsystems

Answers
10.1)Windscreenwiper
a)
b)

c)

d)

e)

f)
g)

81

82

Chapter11Designofhydrostaticbearings

ProblemsChapter11
Problem11.1:Linearaxiswithhydrostaticbearings

Consideroneofthetwolinearaxisofahighprecisionlatheshownbelow.Thedimensionsofthe
bearingsonthetopsurfaceareL0=50mm,L1=30mmandL2=10mm.Thegaugepressureofthepump
ispspa=4MPa.Thepressurefactor=(prpa)/(pspa)=0.5.Consideralinearpressuredropfromprto
pa.ThefilmthicknessatnominalloadF(h=h0)ish0=15106m.Thepocketdepthh2=20h0.Theslider
moveswithv=0.1m/stoitstargetpoint.Theviscosityofthelubricantis=0.15Pas,thedensity=
950kg/m3thespecificheatcapacityc=2000J/(kgK).

a)

CalculatetheeffectivecontactareaAe/A.AeisdefinedasF=(prpa)AewhereFisthebearingload,
prpaisthegaugepressureinthepocket.

b)

CalculatetheflowQ[litre/hr]

c)

Calculatethelengthoftherestrictorwhenassumingaviscousflowandcheckwhethertheflowin
therestrictorremainslaminar(Re<2300).Thediameteroftherestrictorisd=0.15mm.

d)

CalculatetheviscousshearforceFf[N]oftheindividualbearingelements.

e)

Calculatethetemperatureincreaseofthelubricantbyviscousshear.

Hint:Thepumpingpower
flowrateQiscancelledout.

whichgives:

.Notethatthe

Chapter11

Designofhydrostaticbearings

Problem11.2:E.P.bearingswithshallowpocket

Achoicemustbemadebetweenoneoftwotypesoflongrectangularhydrostaticthrustbearings.

i)

ahydrostaticbearingwithexternalrestrictor.Thepocketdepthinthisbearingismorethen10
timeslargerthanthefilmthicknessh0.

ii)

ahydrostaticbearingwithshallowpocket.Thepocketdepthinthisbearingisapproximatelythe
sameasthefilmthicknessh0.

Thelengthofthebearingisthatlargethataonedimensionalflowcanbeconsidered.Withnominal
load,thepressurefactor0(h0)=0.5.Answerthequestionsbelowforbothbearingconfigurations.
a)

Drawthepressuredistributioninbothbearings.

b)

WhatisthenominalloadF/L,expressedinL1,L2andps?

c)

WhatistheflowrateQ/L,expressedinh0,ps,L1andL2?

d)

WhatistherequiredpumppowerN/L[W/m],expressedinh0,F,,L1andL2?

e)

WhatshouldL21bewhenaminimalpumpingpowerisrequiredwithF,h0,andL1asinput?

83

84

Chapter11Designofhydrostaticbearings

f)

Whatistheoptimumforh1/h0ifL21=1/2?

g)

Takeforbearingtypei)L21=1/3andforbearingtypeii)L21.=5/6.TakeforbothbearingsequalB,
L1,F,andh0.Thencalculatethepressureratiops,i/ps,ii,flowratioQi/QiiandthepowerratioNi/Nii.

h)

WhatistheloadincreaseFmax/Fwhenhmin60?

Problem11.3:E.P.4pocketjournalbearingwithcapillaryrestrictors

Fromafourpocketjournalbearingisgiven:ps=6MPa(60bargaugepressure),0=0.5,D=40mm,L/D=1,
LT/L=LA/L=0.25,R/R=1/1000,max=0.5,=0.2Pa@s,l/d=40.
a)

CalculateAe/Aofoneofthefour
bearingelements.

b)

Calculatethebearingstiffness
andloadcapacity.

c)

Calculatetheflowandrequired
pumpingpower.

d)

Calculatethedimensionsofthe
capillaryrestrictors.

Problem11.4:E.P.4pocketthrustbearingwithcapillaryrestrictors

Alockgatecanalsobecarriedbyathinwaterfilminsteadofwheelsrunningonrails.ThePrinsWillem
AlexanderlockgateintheriverIJinAmsterdamarethefirstintheworld(1995)designedinthatway.
Thelockgatesiscarriedonbothendsbyaselfaligningcircularthrustbearingwithfourpockets.
Dependentonthetilt,apressuredistributionisgeneratedasillustratedinthefigurebelow.

Thelockgateissevenmetreshigh,25metreslongandthreemetreswidth.Thedrymassofthelockgate
amountstoapproximately180tonnes.Inthewater,theweightisreducedbytheairpocketsinthedoor
to50tonnes.Underthenominalbearingloadof250kNoneachbearing,awaterfilmiscreatedwitha
thicknessof130m(water=0.001Pas).Thepocketsareafewmillimetresdeep.Thedoorcanmove
withavelocityofv=0.24m/s.Becausethebearingshavetocarryadoubleoverload,restrictorsare

Chapter11

Designofhydrostaticbearings

85

includedwhichwillreducethefeedpressurepswithanominalloadtothepocketpressurepr=0.4ps
(pa=0).Bothbearingsarefed+bythesamepump.

a)

Giveanapproximation(10%)fortherequiredpumpingpower.(Assumealinearpressure
distributionandcalculatetherequiredpocketpressure,supplypressure,theflowandfinallythe
pumpingpower).

b)

Calculatethefrictioncoefficientbyviscousshearinginthethinwaterfilm?

c)

Duringtestswithaprototypehydrostaticthrustbearing,thefrictioncoefficientprovedtobe
=0.001.Thishighervalueisaresultoftheinpracticeincompleteseparationofthebearing
surfaces.IfthefrictioncoefficientincontactequalsBL.=0.1andthefrictioncoefficientwithafull
filmisnegligiblecomparedtothisvalue,whatpartoftheloadisthentransferredbycontact?

d)

Considerapumpwithasupplypressureps=2.4MPa(24bar)whenfullrestricted(Q=0).Ifthereisa
pumppressureof2MPaneededtocarry250kN,whatloadcanbecarriedwheni)thebearing
surfacesarenarrowlystillseparated(h60),ii)thebearingsurfacesareincontactandthepressure
onlyactsinthepocketareas?

e)

Someoneproposestoapplyonerestrictorinthecentralfeedratherthantheseparaterestrictors
connectedtotheindividualpockets.Theadvantagewouldbethatonlyonerestrictorisneededfor
eachbearing.Whatwouldbetheconsequence?

86

Answers
11.1)Linearaxiswithhydrostaticbearings

a)

b)
c)

d)

e)
11.2)E.P.bearingwithshallowpocket

a)

b)

Chapter11Designofhydrostaticbearings

Chapter11

87

Designofhydrostaticbearings

c)

d)
e)
f)

withzerostiffness!Thismeansthat

isrequired.

g)
h)
i)

11.3)E.P.journalbearing
a)
where0.9isthecorrectionforajournalbearing(page372).
b)

fromtable11.1page371,whereh0=RandAe/Aiscorrectedbythefactor0.9
c)

d)

11.4)
a)

b)

E.P.thrustbearings

88

Chapter11Designofhydrostaticbearings

c)
d)

e)

Withthismethod,theselfaligningcapabilityofthebearingwouldbelostbecausethepressureinall
fourpocketswouldbecomeindependentofthebearingtilt.

Chapter12

Designofaerostaticbearings

89

ProblemsChapter12
Problem12.1:CircularEPairbearingpadwithpressuredistributiongroove
Advancedhighprecisiontoolingmachinesareequippedwithhydrostaticbearingsorairbearings(main
spindle,slideways),becauseofthelowfriction,highstiffnessandsmoothoperation.Therearesome
standardairbearingscommerciallyavailable,asoftheshelfproducts.But,mosthydrostaticbearingsand
airbearingsarecustomdesignedandmanufactured.Althoughstandardbearingsaremadeinlarger
series,theyarestillquiteexpensive.Withsomedesignexpertisethesebearingscanbedesignedand
manufacturedinhouseforrelativelowcost.Approximatedesignsolutionsofthebearingpropertieswill
sufficeformostapplications.Firststepinadesignprocessistocalculatetherequiredbearingsize.
Considertheexternallypressurized(EP)airbearingwithapressuredistributiongrooveoverthesurface
asshowninthefigurebelow.
Supplypressureps=5bar(0.5MPa)
Ambientpressurepa=1bar
Recesspressurepr=3bar
BearingRadiusR0=25mm
GrooveradiusR1=20mm
Groovewidth0.5mm
Groovedepthh2=0.2mm
Flyingheighth0=5m
Thegroovedepthislargecomparedtotheflyingheight(filmthickness)whichresultsinahomogenous
pressuredistributioninthecircumferenceofthebearing.Forapproximatesolutionsthepressure
distributionisapproachedbyalinearpressuredropfromprtopa.
ConsiderthegaspropertiesR=287m2/(s2K),=18106Pas,=1.4,0=1.2kg/m3andCD=0.7
a)
b)
c)

CalculatetheapproximatevalueoftheloadcapacityF[N]ofthisbearing.
CalculatethemassflowM[106kg/s].
Calculatethediameterofthesimpleorificewhenonlyoneorificeisconnectedtothepressure
distributiongroove.

90

Chapter12Designofaerostaticbearings

Problem12.2:Designofapartiallygroovedaerostaticjournalbearing
Thebearingconfigurationshownbelowhasgoodselfaligningcapabilityasaresultoftherelativelylarge
distancebetweenthebearings.Bothbearingsmaybedesignedwithdifferentdiametersorlengths,
whichmaybeprofitablewitheccentricloading.Byapplyingdifferentdiametersthefeedingpressure
generatesanaxialforcesothatonethrustringsufficesforaxialpositioning.Theringwillbeseparated
fromthehousingbyaconstantflowsupplywhichcomesfromtheleakageofthepartlygrooved
journalbearingconnectedinserieswiththethrustring.

Thedesignshownaboveissuccessfullyappliedinawaterlubricatedcleaningdevicewithsupply
pressuresover10MPa(100bar)butisalsoapplicableforgaslubrication.
a)Calculatethepressurefactor0thatwilloccurwhenthebearingsarefedbywaterandairrespectively.

b)Sketchthepressuredistributionwhichmayoccurifthebearingisfedbywaterandairrespectively,in
thefigurebelow.

Chapter12

Designofaerostaticbearings

91

Answers
12.1)CircularEPairbearingpad
a)

Approximatesolution

Theexactsolutionoftheloadcapacitywouldresultin332N
b)

c)

dorifice=0.25mm

12.2)Partiallygroovedaerostaticjournalbearing
a)

Theformulatocalculatethevaluefortheincompressiblefluidisgivenby(eq.11.57page375).
SubstitutionofL!=0.9,B!=0.1andn=4gives=0.448.Withaparallelfilmandincompressiblefluid
thepressurelinearlydropsfrompstoprandfromprtopa.
Theformulatocalculatethevalueforthecompressiblefluidisderivedinthesamewayas
describedfortheincompressiblefluid(eq.12.10page389).Workingoutthisequationfinallyresults
in(L!,B!,n,ps/pa).SubstitutionofL!=0.9,B!=0.1,n=4andps/pa=6gives=0.681.Forhighersupply
pressures,approachestheasymptoticvalue0.669.Withaparallelfilmandcompressiblefluidthe
pressuredistributionisconvexassketchedforthesteppedbearinginFigure?.

b)

Withhelicallyshapedgroovesthebearingfunctionremainsandthepistonbecomesdrivento
rotate.Intheotherwayaround,helicalgroovesandanexternallydrivenrotorwillprovideaviscous
pump.Itisevidentthatdesigninge.p.airbearingsandhydrostaticbearingsisacreativejob.

92

Chapter13Designofflexuremechanismsforhighprecisionmotion

ProblemsChapter13

Problem13.1:Shaftbendingbylateralmisalignment

Therearetwotypesofmisalignment:parallelandangularmisalignment.Withparallelmisalignment,the
centerlinesofbothshaftsareparallelbuttheyareoffset.Withangularmisalignment,theshaftsareat
anangletoeachother.

Whenadriverlikeanelectricmotoriscoupledtoascreworanyotherpieceofequipment,itisessential
thattheshaftsarealigned.Anymisalignmentbetweenthetworesultsincyclicbendingoftheshaftsand
increasedbearingload.Thismayresultinprematurebreakdownoftheequipmentbyfatiguefractureof
theshaftorbearingfailure.

Calculatethebearingloadandshaftbendingstressasafunctionofthelateralmisalignment.

Considerthelateralmisalignmentthatneedstobecompensatedbyelasticdeformationoftheshafts
=0.2mm.ThemoreflexiblepartoftheshaftoftheelectricmotorandthatofthespindleoflengthL1=L2
=60mmanddiameterd=12mm.ThedistancebetweenthemotorbearingsisL3=80mm.
Problem13.2:Resonancefrequencyofaleafspringguiding

TheleafspringsofthelinearguidedescribedinCase13.1page411aremadeaccidentallyofamaterial
thicknessof0.3mm.Whatconsequencesdoesthishaveforthemaximumamplitudeofmotion?

Chapter13

Designofflexuremechanismsforhighprecisionmotion

93

Answers
13.1)
TheformulaforlateralstiffnesscanbederivedfromthedeflectionmodeshowninFigure?b.
Substitutionofv(L)=/2in(?)resultsinF=300N.Themomentofbendingintheshoulderoftheshaft
becomesM=FL=17.8Nm.Thisresultsinabendingstressof=105MPa.Thestressconcentrationlocally
willresultinamuchhigherlocalstress.

ThebearingloadbecomesFb1=FL1/(L1+L3)=127N,Fb2=Fb1F=27N

13.2)
Thestiffnesswillincreasebyafactor(0.3/0.25)3,themaximumbendingmomentwillincreasebyafactor
(0.3/0.25)2,theamplitudeofmotionwillincreasebyafactor(0.3/0.25)2/(0.3/0.25)3=(0.25/0.3)=5/6.This
isareductionof17%.Theresonantfrequencywillincreasebyafactor(0.3/0.25)3/2.

94

Chapter14Machinedesigncalculationsreferenceguide

ProblemsChapter14
Problem14.1:Selflockingofmetricthreadandnut

Flangenutsaremoreresistanttovibrationloosening.Thewidereffectivebearing
arearesultwiththesamefrictionforceinalargertorqueneededforselfloosening.
Sometimesthebearingsurfaceisserratedtoprovidesomeextralockingaction.
Variousalternativelockingmechanismsmaybeemployed;adhesives,safetypins,
nyloninserts.Lugnuts,taperedorsphericalnutsareappliedtocentrethenut
accuratelyandtoreducethetendencyforthenuttoloosen.Finethreadshaveless
tendencytoloosenundervibrationbecauseoftheirsmallerhelixangleandlarger
pitchdiameterd2.

a)

CalculatetheminimumvalueofthecoefficientoffrictionneededforaM10x1.5threadandthatof
anM10x1metricfinethreadinordertoensureitisselflocking.

b)

CalculatetowhatextentthetorqueMG,resultingfromthetreadfriction,willincreasewhen
unscrewingthemetricfinethread.

Problem14.2:Torquecontrolledtightening

Calculatethepercentageofthetighteningtorqueneeded
toovercome

a)thefrictioninthethreadedcontactofanM10x1.5bolt,
b)theheadfacecontactand
c)thepercentageneededtodeveloptheclampingforce.

Considerthecoefficientoffrictionof=0.15andthe
effectivebearingdiameterofthenutofdk=1.3d

Problem14.3:Lugnutsandtaperedwheelbolts

Lugnutsandtaperedwheelboltsaredesignedtocentrea
wheelaccuratelyontheaxleandtoreducethetendencyfor
thenuttoloosen.Carmanufacturersspecifyaproper
tighteninglevelforeveryfastenerofthecar.ForM12x1.5lug
nutswith60degreestaperapropertorqueisgenerally
between90and110Nm(7080lbfft).

Sometimespeopletightenthelugnutsuntiltheycan'tturnit
anymore...then,theyusetheirfootandbodyweight.Witha
wrenchof25cmandaloadof80kgfthiswouldresultinMA=200Nm.

CalculatetheinitialtensilestressoftheM12x1.5studwith60degreestaperthatwouldoccurwiththe
200Nmtighteningtorque.Consideracoefficientoffrictionof=0.3,dk=1.3d,d2=11.026mm,d3=
10.160mm,d0=(d2+d3)/2andAt=(/4)d02.
Problem14.4:Torquecontrolledtightening

AMoS2basedlubricantisusedinordertoaccommodateeasydisassemblyofascrewjoint.Ifthe
coefficientoffrictioninthethreadedareaandtheheadfacewillreducefrom=0.3to=0.15,towhat
extentwilltheinitialpreloadFiofthescrewassemblyincreaseifthesametighteningtorqueisapplied?
CalculateF'=Fi(=0.15)/Fi(=0.3).ConsideraM12screwjointandaheadfacefrictionof

Chapter14

Machinedesigncalculationsreferenceguide

95

MWD=Fidk/2wheredk=1.3d.
Problem14.5:TorqueAnglecontrolledtightening

Torquecontrolledtighteningresultsinboltforce/clampingforcedeviationsof20%duetovariationon
thetorqueappliedandthescatteronthecoefficientoffriction,despitespecialMoS2basedlubricantsare
used.Thereforemoreadvancedcombinedtorque/anglecontrolledtighteningmethodsareapplied.

Anglecontroltighteningisaprocedureinwhich
afastenerispretightenedbyasocalledsnug
torquetoeliminateplay,andinanextstepitis
furthertightenedbygivingthenutanadditional
controlledrotation.

Boltsaretightenedbeyondtheiryieldpointby
thismethodinordertoensurethataprecise
preloadisachieved.

a)

b)

Calculatetheboltstrainwhentightenedto
i=Rp0.2.
Calculatetheboltstrainwhentightenedin
twosteps,firstsnugtightto25%ofthe
yieldstrengthandthentightenedwitha90
degreesrotationangle.ConsiderM1010.9
boltandaclampedmaterialofL=5d.

Problem14.6:FrictionlossinBowdencables

Calculatethepercentageoflossofactuationforceoverthebended
partoftheBowdencableshowninthefigurebelow.Considera
coefficientoffrictioninalubricatedsteelsteelcontactof=0.15.

Problem14.7:Wedgeeffectinbeltpulleydrives

CalculatethedrivetorqueratioTa/Tb,where
Taistheisthetorquethatcanbetransmitted
whenthebeltissupportedonthepulleywall
surfacesandTbisthetorquewhenthebeltis
supportedonthegroovebottomsurface.
Considerapulleygrooveangleof=40E.

Problem14.8:Jammingofapistonina
cylinder

96

Chapter14Machinedesigncalculationsreferenceguide

Considerapistonmovinginacylinder,asrepresentedinFigure5.19page161.Thepistonhasa
diameterDandalengthL.IftheloadF1actsatthepistonwithamaximumeccentricityofe=D/2,how
longshouldthepistonbetopreventitfromjamming?

Problem14.9:Stickslipmotion

AlargeconcreteplatformiscarriedonPTFEpads.ThePTFEpadsprovideeasyslidingoversteelgirders.
TheheavyloadoftheconcreteplatformisevenlydistributedoverthePTFEpadsbyusingrubberblocks
betweentheconcreteplatformandthePTFEpads.Theconcreteplatformwillbemovedbyusing
hydrauliccylinders.Inthiswayanintermittentdisplacementoftheconcreteplatformistoberealised.

Therubberblockswilldeformelasticallybytheshearforce,beforethepadsstarttoslideoverthe
girders.Thiscausesareductionoftheeffectivestrokeofmovementofthehydrauliccylinders.

a)

Calculatethereductionofdisplacement.Considerh=20mm,andacoefficientoffrictionbetween
thePTFEpadsandsteelgirderscoatedwithanepoxyis=0.1,theshearmodulusoftheNBR
rubberblockG=0.45MPa,thecontactpressureoverthePTFEpadp=0.5MPa.

b)

Calculatethefluctuationofstickslipmotionthatmightoccurwhenthecoefficientoffrictionvaries
betweenstat=0.15anddyn=0.05.ThebearingareaofthepadsisA=0.01m2.

Problem14.10:PVvalue

ConsiderapolymerbearingwithaPVvalueofPV=0.2MPaAm/s.Theshaft
diameterd=20mm,thebearingwidthL=d,rotationalspeedn=477rpm.

a)

Calculatetheloadthatthisbearingcansustain.

b)

Calculatepowerlossinthisbearingatthemomentoffailure,assuminga
coefficientoffriction=0.2

Problem14.11:Operatingclearance

Ifabearingbushingispressfittedinametalhousingacumulationofmachiningtolerancesresultina
largevariationofthebearingbushinginsidediameter.Toensureapositiveclearanceunderthemost
unfavourableconditionstheminimumvalueofthediametraloperatingclearanceisgenerally1%ofthe
shaftdiameter(dR=0.05Das).Theoperatingclearanceisdefinedastheminimumclearanceduring
operation.Effectsresultinginadecreaseofclearanceduringoperationarethermaldimensionalchanges
andforsomepolymersmoisturerelateddimensionalchanges.

a)

Calculatethedecreaseofthebearingclearance[%]ofaPAplainbearingbushingwithashaft
diameterofd=12mmandawallthicknessoft=3mm.Consideratemperatureincreaseofthe
polymerofdT=80degreesandalinearexpansioncoefficientofPAof=80106/K

Chapter14

Machinedesigncalculationsreferenceguide

97

Problem14.12:TrueorUntrue?

1.

Thestaticcoefficientoffrictionisgenerallynormativeinclampingjointsandinterferencefits,
explainedbythestiffnessoftheclampedmaterialwhichisinmostcasessmallerthanthestiffness
ofthestructure.

2.

TheloadcapacityofpolymersteelcontactssubjectedtoslidingislimitedbythePVvalue,whichis
definedastheproductofaveragebearingpressureandtheslidingvelocity.

3.

ThePVvalueofapolymercarbonsteelcontactissignificantlyhigherthanthatofthesame
polymerausteniticstainlesssteelcontact.

98

Chapter14Machinedesigncalculationsreferenceguide

Answers
14.1) Thethreadisselflockingwhen!>nwhere!=atan(/cos(/2)),=60Eand
n=atan(P/d2),d2=d0.649519P.

Substitutionofd=10mm,P=1.5mmgives>0.046,withP=1mmthen>0.029.
Itcanbeconcludedthatfinethreadsarelesssusceptibletovibrationloosening.

Thetorquenecessarytoovercomethreadfrictionwhenunscrewingis:

14.2)

Totalfriction

CPercentageheadfacefriction:

CPercentagethreadfriction:

CPercentageclamping:

14.3)

Theheadfacefrictionhasincreasedbyafactor1/cos()=2andbecomes68%ofMA.
14.4)

IfapreloadofFi=0.8F0.2wasintendedwithacoefficientoffrictionof=0.3,andthesametightening
torquewouldbeappliedwhenlubricatedwiththeMoS2basedlubricantthenthescrewjointwouldbe
overstretchedduringtighteningandwillbreakoff.
14.5)

Chapter14

Machinedesigncalculationsreferenceguide

99

14.6)

14.7)

14.8) Thesystemjamswhen>h/e.Substitutionofh=Lande=D/2gives>L/D.Thismeansthat
withL/D>thepistonwillnotjaminthecircumstancesgiven.
14.9)
Figure1.26page30:
14.10)
a)
b)
14.11)

14.12)
Untrue:1
True:2,3

100

Design for lifetime performance and reliability

TableA1:ConversionfactorstoSIUnits
Length:
1foot(ft)
1inch(in)
1mile

=
=
=

1200/3937
25.4E03
(5280feet)

m
m

Mass:
1slug
1pound(lb)

=
=

1.356
746

W
W

Volume:
1gal (US)
1gal(UK)
1barrel

=
=
=

3.785E03
4.546E03
(42gallon)

m3
m3

=
=

14.59
0.454

kg
kg

=
=
=

4.448
1E05
9.81

N
N
N

Temperature:
Celsius(EC)
=
Kelvin(K)
=

(EF32)5/9
EC+273

=
=
=

6895
1E+05
(1lb/in2)

Pa
Pa

Dynamicviscosity:
1cP
=
1poise(P)
=

1E03
(100cP)

Pa@s

Pa@m/s
Pa@m/s

Kinematicviscosity:
1cSt
=
1stokes(St)
=

1E06
(100cSt)

m2/s

Force:
1pound(lb)
1dyne
1kgf

Power:
1ftlb/s
1hp

Pressure:
1lb/in2
1bar
1psi

PV:
1psi@fps
1psi@fpm

=
=

2.1E03
35.0E+05

101

Design for lifetime performance and reliability

TableA2Deflectionsandslopesofuniformcantileverbeams
Loading

deflection

slope

TableA3MomentsofinertiaIx,IyandPolarmomentsofinertiaIp
Crosssection

Bending

Elementaryequationsfor
uniformbeamssubjectedto
bendingandtorsion
respectively:

vonMisesequivalentstress
0=1
whenandarebothstaticorfullyreversed,
whenisfullyreversedandremainsstatic
0=0.7
whenremainsstaticandisfullyreversed
0=1.5

Torsion

102

Design for lifetime performance and reliability

TableA4Approximateformulaeforspringstiffness
Spring

Stiffness

103

Design for lifetime performance and reliability

TableA5Bucklinglimitofcompressionloadedbeams[Gero&Timoshenko,1985]

TableA6ApproximatedesignfunctionsSshapedbeams[Koster,1996]

leafspring

wirespring

leavespring

wirespring

longitudinal
stiffness
cxx
lateral
stiffness
czz
bending
stress
z
bucklingload
Fk
1)

Theconfigurationwithreinforcedmidsectionconsideredinthistableshowsanincreaseofthe
bucklingloadbyafactorofninewhilethelateralstiffnesshasincreasedwithonly20%.

104

Design for lifetime performance and reliability

TableA7MomentsofInertia
I

2dm

Radiusofgyration:

i I m

Parallelaxistheorem: I

Iz a 2m

Torque:

T I

Momentofinertia:

1
I mr 2
2

2
I mr 2
5

Linearmotion
Positionx
Velocityv
Accelerationa
LoadF[N]
massm[kg]
Impulsep=mv[kgm/s]
F=ma[N=kgm/s2]
W=Fs[Nm=J]
Ek=mv2[J]
P=W/t=Fs/t[J/s=W]

Rotationalmotion
Angularpositionn
Angularvelocity
Angularacceleration
momentM[Nm]
momentofinertiaI[kgm2]
AngularMomentumH=I[kgm2/s]
M=I[Nm=kgm2rad/s2]
W=Mn[Nmrad=J]
Ek=I2[J]
P=W/t=M[J/s=W]

105

Design for lifetime performance and reliability

TableA8ISOTolerancesforholesandshafts
MetricscrewthreadsISO724(DIN13T1)

Nominal
size
d=D
M1
M1.2
M1.6
M2
M2.5
M3
M4
M4.5
M5
M6
M8
M9
M10
M11
M12
M14
M16
M18
M20
M22
M24
M27
M30
M33
M36
M42
M48
M56

Pitch
P
0.25
0.25
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.100
0.125
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.00
2.50
2.50
2.50
3.00
3.00
3.50
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50

root
radius
r
0.036
0.036
0.051
0.058
0.065
0.072
0.101
0.108
0.115
0.144
0.180
0.180
0.217
0.217
0.253
0.289
0.289
0.361
0.361
0.361
0.433
0.433
0.505
0.505
0.577
0.650
0.722
0.794

pitch
minor
diameter
diameter
d2=D2
d3D1
0.838
0.693
0.729
1.038
0.893
0.929
1.373
1.171
1.221
1.740
1.509
1.567
2.208
1.948
2.013
2.675
2.387
2.459
3.545
3.141
3.242
4.013
3.580
3.688
4.480
4.019
4.134
5.350
4.773
4.917
7.188
6.466
6.647
8.188
7.466
7.647
9.026
8.160
8.376
10.026
9.160
9.376
10.863
9.853
10.106
12.701 11.546 11.835
14.701 13.546 13.835
16.376 14.933 15.394
18.376 16.933 17.294
20.376 18..933 19.294
22.051 20.319 20.752
25.051 23.319 23.752
27.727 25.706 26.211
30.727 28.706 29.211
33.402 31.093 31.670
39.077 36.479 37.129
44.752 41.866 42.857
52.428 49.252 50.046

thread
height
h3H1
0.153
0.135
0.153
0.135
0.215
0.189
0.245
0.217
0.276
0.244
0.307
0.271
0.429
0.379
0.460
0.406
0.491
0.433
0.613
0.541
0.767
0.677
0.767
0.677
0.920
0.812
0.920
0.812
1.074
0.947
1.227
1.083
1.227
1.083
1.534
1.353
1.534
1.353
1.534
1.353
1.840
1.624
1.840
1.624
2.147
1.894
2.147
1.894
2.454
2.165
2.760
2.436
3.067
2.706
3.374
2.977

stress
area
As
0.460
0.732
1.27
2.07
3.39
5.03
8.78
11.3
14.2
20.1
36.6
48.1
58.0
72.3
84.3
115
157
193
245
303
353
459
561
694
817
1121
1473
2030

drill
diam.
mm
0.75
0.95
1.25
1.60
2.05
2.50
3.30
3.80
4.20
5.00
6.80
7.80
8.50
9.50
10.20
12.00
14.00
15.50
17.50
19.50
21.00
24.00
26.50
29.50
32.00
37.50
43.00
50.50

106

Design for lifetime performance and reliability

TableA9ISOTolerancesforholesandshafts
ExamplefitsusingISOholebasis
clearancefit
transitionfit
H6
h5
j6,k6
H7
f7,g6,h6
k6,m6,n6
H8
d9,e8,f8,h9

interferencefit
n5,r5
r6,s6
s8,u8,x8

>
#
H6
H7
H8

3
6

6
10

10
18

+8
0
+12
0
+18
0

+9
0
+15
0
+22
0

+11
0
+18
0
+27
0

ISOTolerancesforholes(ISO2862)
Nominalholesizes(mm)
18
30
40
50
65
80
100
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
micrometer
+13
+16
+19
+22
0
0
0
0
+21
+25
+30
+35
0
0
0
0
+33
+39
+46
+54
0
0
0
0

120
140

140
160

160
180

+25
0
+40
0
+63
0

>
#

3
6

6
10

10
18

f6

10
18

13
22

16
27

ISOTolerancesforshafts(ISO2862)
Nominalshaftsizes(mm)
18
30
40
50
65
80
100
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
micrometer
20
25
30
36
33
41
49
58

f7

10
22

13
28

16
34

20
41

25
50

30
60

36
71

43
83

g6

4
12
4
16
0
5
0
8
0
12
0
30
+6
2
+9
+1
+12
+4
+13
+8
+16
+8
+20
+12
+23
+15

5
14
5
20
0
6
0
9
0
15
0
36
+7
2
+10
+1
+15
+6
+16
+10
+19
+10
+24
+15
+28
+19

6
17
6
24
0
8
0
11
0
18
0
43
+8
3
+12
+1
+18
+7
+20
+12
+23
+12
+29
+18
+34
+23

7
20
7
28
0
9
0
13
0
21
0
52
+9
4
+15
+2
+21
+8
+24
+15
+28
+15
+35
+22
+41
+28

9
25
9
34
0
11
0
16
0
25
0
62
+11
5
+18
+2
+25
+9
+28
+17
+33
+17
+42
+26
+50
+34

10
29
10
40
0
13
0
19
0
30
0
74
+12
7
+21
+2
+30
+11
+33
+20
+39
+20
+51
+32
+60 +62
+41
+43

12
34
12
47
0
15
0
22
0
35
0
87
+13
9
+25
+3
+35
+13
+38
+23
+45
+23
+59
+37
+73 +76
+51
+54

14
39
14
54
0
18
0
25
0
40
0
100
+14
11
+28
+3
+40
+15
+45
+27
+52
+27
+68
+43
+90
+65

g7
h5
h6
h7
h9
j6
k6
m6
n5
n6
p6
r6

120
140

140
160

160
180

43
68

+88
+63

+93
+68

Design for lifetime performance and reliability

107