Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

1

. . . . -

.
.
.. , .. .

-
2004

.
: ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
: (
) t0,
t>t0.

.

,
,
,
,
,
.
,
, .

.
,
. (,
)
.

.

(x,y,z).
r r r
i , j , k - , ox, oy, oz
(. ).
t1
r r r
t2
i = j = k =1.
S
z
r
r
(1)
r12
r - - - ,
(2)

t .
r
r
r
r
r
r2
r
r r1
r (t ) = x(t )i + y (t ) j + z (t )k .
y
r
rko r
r1 - -,
i j
t1 .
r
r2 - -, x
t 2 .
r
r r
r12 = r2 r1 - t = t 2 t1 .
, .
S-

r
dr -

, - . r 12 S .
dt . d r = dS
.

3
dr
-
dt
.
r
dr dS
dS
r
, =
.
= =
=
dt
dt
dt
.
r
r
r
= 12 - .
t
r
r d
-
a=
dt
r
. r
r
r
n
r F
a r
,
II : a =

m
r
r
F , an
r
a
( .).
r
r
a
:
r
F
a ,
r
an .
r r r
r
r
a = a + an = a + an n .
r
r
, n - , , ,
r
r
r

, a - , an O
r
dS
.

a an . dt
d r
r
r
d . d
d n
(. .):
r
r
r
r
r
r
d = d + d n = d + d n n .
d
r
r
r
R
+ d
d
R
d

,
d
d n .
dS ,
R ( R - ).
dS d n
dS
, d =
, d n =
.

R
r
dS
d , dt ,
= ,
dt
r d r 2 r
+ n.
a =
dt
R
r
d r
, a =

dt
r 2 r
n
, an =
R
.
r r
d
: = const , a =
= 0 a = an .
dt
2
r r

: R = an =
= 0 , a = a .
R

.

- , r
r
r
r
. r (t ) = x(t )i + y (t ) j + z (t )k ,
r
r dr dx r dy r dz r
dx
dy
dz
= i+
j + k ,
= x ,
=y ,
= z
: =
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt dt
dt
r
r d d x r d y r d z r
a=
=
i+
j+
k.
dt
dt
dt
dt
= x2 + y2 + z2 .

-
.
.
r r
dt : d = a dt .
t 0 t :
r

(t ) (t 0 ) = d = adt .
t0

t0

r
(t ) = (t 0 ) + a (t )dt ,
t0

.
r r
dt : dr = dt .
t 0 t :
t
t
r
r r
r
r
r = r (t ) r (t 0 ) = dr = (t ) dt .
t0

t0

-:
t
r
r
r
r (t ) = r (t 0 ) + (t )dt .
t0

,
X , :
t

x(t ) = x(t 0 ) + x (t )dt .


t0

, , ..
r
(t 0 ) r (t 0 ) .
r


.
R
, , .

.
: ,
r
.


r

d
(. .).
= 2 1 t = t 2 t1 .
r
r
d - dt . d
r
R
,
.
r
r

r d
=
-
dt
t1
.
t2
r
r
d
.
r
d
- .
dt
r
.
r
,
.
r

r
R

r
R

(t ) ,
. ,
.
(t ) .
dt d = dt .
t 0 t
:
t

t0

t0

= (t ) (t 0 ) = d = dt .
, :

6
t

(t ) = (t 0 ) + (t )dt .
t0

dt d = dt .
t

t 0 t = (t ) (t 0 ) = d = dt .
t0

:
t

(t ) = (t 0 ) + (t )dt .
t0


t 0 .

.
, , :
S = R .
:
dS d ( R )
d
= R
( =
=
=R
= R ).
dt
dt
dt
:
r
rr

= R sin ,
= [R ] .
2
:
d d (R)
d
a = R
( a =
=
=R
= R ).
dt
dt
dt
:

an = 2 R

( an =

2
R

= 2 R ).

. .
.
-
, (
).
,
.
,
. , ,

.

. ,
, .

7
XX .
.

.
.

. .
. ,
.
,
, .
, ,
.
1) , ,
.
2) , ,
.
3) , ,
.
4) , ( ).

, .
.

, .
r
r
r
dp r
= F , p = m - ;
dt
m - , ,
.
.
:
r
r
r
r
r F
d
F =m
= ma , a = , ..
m
dt
.
, ,
r
r F
, , a = .
m

.

.
,
, ,
, .
r
F .
:
r dpr
F=
,
dt
r r
dp = Fdt .
r r
p1 p 2 t1 t 2 , .
r
t
p2
t
t2
r
r 2 r
r 2 r
r
r
p = Fdt
dp = Fdt p2 p1 = Fdt ,
r
p1

t1

1
r1
p ,
t = t 2 t1 .
N m1 , m2 ...m N .
r r r
: p1 , p 2 ... p N .
r
f ik mk mi -
.
r
Fi - , i .
r
N r
r
dpi

i :
= f ik + Fi .
dt
k =1

k i

i 1 N.
r
N r
N N r
N
dp i
=
f
+
Fi .

ik
i =1
i =1 k =1
i =1 dt
k i
mi
mk
r
N N r
r
r
r
f ik
i
k
f ki
III f ik = f ki f ik = 0 .
i =1 k =1
k i

N
r
d pi

r
N r
N r
dp i
:
= Fi i =1
= Fi .
dt
i =1 dt
i =1
i =1
N
N
r
r
r
r
pi = P Fi = F .
i =1
i =1
r
P .
r
dP r
=F.

dt
r
r
t1 t 2 P1 P2 ,
r r
r t2 r
P2 P1 = P = Fdt .
N

t1

9
.

,
.
r
r
F = 0 , P = const .
, ,
, , .

( )
.
( ), N mi , i = 1...N .
- , :
r 1 N
r
rc = mi ri ,
z
m i =1
mi i- ,
r
ri -,
N

m = mi ( ).
i =1

zc
C

r

rc
r mi
ri
( ).
,
x
xc
0

.
yc
:
N
y
r
2 1
d
mi ri
r

2
d r
r
m i =1
a c = 2c =
.
dt
dt 2
1
.
m
.
r
r
d 2 ri
d 2 ri r
r
1 N
: a c = mi
,
= ai
m i =1
dt 2
dt 2
r
r
r
r
1 N
1 N r F
a c = mi a i = f i = , ai i- ,
m
m i =1
m i =1
r
f i , i- ,
r
F , (
).
r
r
F
: a c = .
m
, ( ) ,
m ,
( ).

10
,
.

. . .
.

r
L r
() -
z
L
.
r
r r r
Lz
L = [r p] .
r
L - ( ).
r
L = rp sin a
p
O
r
r
r a
L ,

(z)
m
r r
r
: L = L z + L (. .).
r
Lz

r
L , , :
r
r r
Lz = [ r p ] z .
r
Lz z .
()
r
- .
M r
r
z
r r
M
M = [r F ] .
Mz
r
M - .
M = rF sin .
r
r
M ,
O
r F
r
(z)

r
r
r
: M = M z + M .
r
M z

r
M , ,
:
r
r r
M z= [r F ] z .
r
M z z .
r
r
M L .

:
r
rr
r
r
r
r r
dL d [ r p ] dr r r dp r r
=
= , p + r , = [ , m ] + r , F = M .
dt
dt
dt dt
r r
[ , m ] = 0 , =0.
,

:
r
r
dL
= M ,
dt

[ ]

11
r
r
dLz
= M z .
dt
, N
.

r r
r
r
dL
L
=
L
= M ,
i
dt


.
r
r
M = M i .
i

.
.
, mi mk :
r
r r
M ik = [ri f ik ] ,
r
mk
a mi
r r
r
M ki = [rk f ki ] ,
r
r r
ri
r
f
k
f
ki
l
ik

M ik = ri f ik sin a = f ik l ,
M ki = rk f ki sin = f ki l

r
M ik

Mik Mki .
.

r
M ki
O

.
:

r
dL
M i = 0 ,
=0.

dt
i =1
N

r
, L = const .

:
() ,
, , .
.

.
,

.
,

. ,

, .
,
.

.
1

12

.
1.

,
, (z) .

( z):
z
r
r r
r
L = [ R p] = L z ,
r

r
r r
R - -,
Lz L
.
z
r
L :
0
r
r

2
R
Lz = Lz = Rp sin = Rm = RmR = mR .
2
m
mR 2
r
p
.

,
.

I z = mR 2 .

r
r
Lz ,
r
r
: L z = I z .

2.
.
,
z .
N .
mi - i- .
Ri -
.
()
, :
N
N r
r
r r N
r
L z = L zi = mi Ri2 = mi Ri2 = I z ,
i =1

i =1

z r

r r
Liz Li

r
Ri

mi
r
pi

i =1

I z = mi Ri2 - z.
i =1

:
1) ;
2) ( Ri );
3) .

13

.
mi dm , Ri r
:
I z = r 2 dm .
(m)

( ) .
dm = dV , dV - .
, :
I z = r 2 dV .
(V )

, ,
r
( Lz = const I z I z ).
, ,
, .

.
, .
:
r
r
L z = I z .

. :
r
r
dL z
d
= Iz
.
dt
dt
,
r
r
r
dL z
d r
= Mz,
= , :
dt
dt
r
r Mz
=
- .
Iz

.
.

.
1. ,
z (),
mi R .
z
:
2
2
I z = R mi = R m .
I z = mR 2 .

2. ( )
,
,
.

14
dV
r, dr h.
R

I z = r 2 (2r h)dr = 2 h r 3 dr =
R 4 hR 4 (R 2 h ) R 2
=
=
4
2
2
, R 2 h = V , V = m .
= 2h

: I z =

dr
h

mR 2
.
2

2R

.
Z
,

,
.
I z - Z,
I c - Z c ,
Z , ,
d , , :

Zc
d
C

I z = I c + md 2 .
.
( I C ) l m
Z C , ,
m
dr (. .) dm = dr ,
l
m
dI C = r 2 dm = r 2 dr .
l

:
l/2
l/2
Z
3 l/2
2
ZC
m
mr
ml
=
.
I C = 2 dI C = 2 r 2 dr = 2
l 0
l 3 0
12
0
,
1
Z C I C = ml 2 .
r
12

C
Z , Z C ,
dr
(. .).
l
l
:
2
2
2
ml 2 ml 2 ml 2
l
+
=
I Z = I C + m =
.
12
4
3
2

15
1
, I Z = ml 2 .
3

. .
,
, , ,
.
r
A F - , ,
.
r
r
(A) F dr
r
r
dr :
d
r
r r
A = F dr .
r
2
F
:
1
A = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz .
r
F (1) (2) :
( 2)
r r
A = F dr .
(1)

P - , A
dt , :
r r
A F dr r r
P=
=
= F .
dt
dt
.

16

. .

m1 m2 ,
r ,


, .
r
r
m1m2 r
Fg = G 2 ,
r
r
3

G = 6,67 10 11
2
.
- ,
.
:
r
r
r
Fg = 3 , = Gm1m2 .
r

m2
m1 (1) (2) (. .).

q1 q2 ,
r ,
,

.
, .

r
r1

(1)

r
Fg
m1

r
r

m2
r
dr
r
r2

r
r
q1 q2 r
Fk = k
,
r2
r
9
k = 9 10 2/2 .
q1 q 2 - ,
(
).
:
r
r
r
F = 3 , = kq1q2 .
r
q 2
q1
(1) (2) (. .).
(1)
r
r
r1
F
k
r + q2
r
r
dr
+
q1

r
r2

(2)
(2)
() (1)
(2) ():
r
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
r
r
r r
1 r r
1
A = 3 dr = 3 r dr = 3 r (dr ) r , (dr ) r -
r
r
r
(1)
(1)
(1)
-, ()
().
r
(dr ) r = dr r .
r2

1 1
1
dr = .
2
r
r1 r2
r1

:
A =

Ag =

m1m2
r1

mm
1 2 .
r2

Ak =

kq1q2 kq1q2

r1
r2

17
, ,
(),
(). ,
( ) ,
, () . ,
.


, m ,
,
g . , ,
.
, , z
(1)
: h1
r
r
F = mg .
(1)
m drr
(2) .
r

F

r
h2
dr (. .).
(2)
r r
A = F dr = F (dr ) F , (dr ) F 0
r
r
dr F .
r
A = F ( dz ) = mgdz , (dz ) dr z .
(1) (2)
h2

h2

h1

h1

: A = mgdz = mg dz = mgh1 mgh2 .

A = mgh1 mgh2 .
, ,
.
, .


, .
, m .
x ,
r r
dr r
:
=0
r
;
Fy
m
>0 ;
<0 .
r
r -
0 x
.
r
dr - .
r
F - , ,
.

18

r
r
, F = kr ,
k - , .
:
r r
r r
r
A = F dr = r dr = r (dr ) r = rdr .
r
r
r
(dr ) r dr r .
,
r
r
r1 r2 :
r2

A = rdr =

r12

r1

A =

r12

r2 2
2

r2 2

.
2
2
, .


,
, .
:
(2)
r r
AT = FT dr = FT dS .
r
F
r
T

d
m r
(1) (2):
( 2)

A = FT dS .
(1)

(1)

FT = Const AT = FT S .
. ,
. , , ..
. , - .

19

. .
.
, ,
, .
:
(, , )
;
(, ) .
, , ,
2- ,
.
Wn1 Wn 2 .

mm
mm
: Ag = 1 2 1 2 . :
r1
r2

qq
qq
: Ak = k 1 2 k 1 2 .
A .. = Wn1 Wn 2 .
r1
r2
: A = mgh1 mgh2 .

: A =

r12
2

r2 2
2

A .. = Wn1 Wn 2 .
A .. = dWn .

.
.
mm
mm
Wg = 1 2 + Const . : Wg = 0 r = , const = 0 Wg = 1 2 .
r
r
q1q2
q1q2
Wk = k
+ Const .
: Wk = 0 r = , const = 0 Wk = k
.
r
r
W = mgh + Const .
: W = 0 h = 0 , const = 0 W = mgh .
W =

r2

+ Const .

: W = 0 r = 0 , const = 0 W =

r2

.
2
2
, . ,
,
, , .
,

, .
, .. ,
.

20

.
(1) (2).
, .
r
F .
r
dl :
r
r r
A = Fdl = Fl dl , Fl - F
r
(2)
r
dl .
F ..
:
r
A = dWn .
d
l
m
:

Fl dl = dWn Fl =

dWn
.
dl

(1)

.
.

Wn
x
Wn
Fy =
y
Wn
Fz =
z

Fx =

r W r W r W r
r
r
r
F.. = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k = n i + n j + n k = gradWn .
y
z
x

, ,
,
(,
).
r
F .. = gradWn .
(1) (2) , ..
,
(l )
r r
A .. = F .. dl = Wn1 Wn 2 = 0 .
(l )
(1)(2)
, .
r r
: A .. = F .. dl = 0 -
(l )

21

.
1) .
r
F - , ,
(1) (2).
r
dr :
r
r
r r
r r
r
r r
d r
dr r
AF = Fdr = madr = m
dr = m d = m d = m (d ) = md ,
dt
dt
r
r
( d ) - d .

AF =

( 2)

(1)

md = md =

m 22 m12

, 1 2 - (1)
2
2

(2) .
, ,
(1) (2), ,
. W1 , W 2
. :
AF = W 2 W1 , .. ,
(
).
:
AF = dW .

.
m 2
W =
+ const .
2
m 2
.
W = 0 , = 0 . const=0 W =
2
, (
).
2) .
N .
:
N
mi i2
W =
.
2
i =1
. : i = .
, , :
2 N
m 2
W =
m
=
i 2 .
2 i =1
.
.
mi .
r
- .

22
2

N
mi12
mi
2Iz
2 N
2
m
R
(Ri ) =
=

=
.
i i
2
2
2 i =1
2
i =1
i =1
.
N

W =

W =

I z 2
2

Iz

.

r
r
. d . M z
.
:
( 2)
r r
M
z d .
(1)

(1) (2)
t1 t 2 , 1 2 , 1
2 .
, .
r r
dL
d
M z d = M z d = z d = d ( I z )
= I z d .
dt
dt
:
2
2
22 12 I z 22 I z12

=
I
d
=
I
d
=
I

= W 2 W1 = W .

z
z
z
2
2
2
2
1
1
(Wk = A) , A =

( 2)

r r
M
z d -

(1)

23

.
,
, ,
.
1) :
r
F - .
(1) (2).
r
F .. - .
r
F. . - .
r r
r
r
: F = F .. + F. . ( dr )
r r r r r r
Fdr = F .. dr + F. . dr (1).
(1) :
AF = A .. + A. . , AF - ,
A .. - ,
A. . - .
A .. = dWn AF = dW , :
dW = dWn + A. . ;
d (W + Wn ) = A. . .

W + Wn = W - .
dW = A. . .
A. . = W2 W1 .

.
A. . = 0 , W1 = W2 .
N .
2) , N .
():
N

i =1

- , Wi - i-

Wni - i- k-.
N

W
k =1
k i

ni

- i-

.
1 N N
Wni - .
2 i =1 =1
i

1
, Wni = Wn .
2

24
N

W
i =1

ni

- .

:
N
1 N N
W = Wi + Wni + Wni .
2 i =1 =1
i =1
i =1
N

, ,
W :
W = A + A .

, ,
, .

.
.
, (,
). :
,
, .. ,
.
: , ,
.. , , ,
:
, ,
. .
,
,
. .

25

.
1.
2.
3.
4.

. . . - .: , 1998.- .1.
. . . .- .: , 2000.
. . .- .: , 1997 .
. ., . . .- .: , 2001.
.