7th SEMESTER
NAME
: ________________________
USN
: ________________________
SECTiON
: ________________________
CONTENTS
Sl.
No.
Topics
Page No.
List of Experiments
Examination Questions
11
13
RC triggering circuit
15
AC voltage controller
18
20
10
22
11
Commutation circuits
24
12
Inverters
26
13
28
14
30
15
32
16
33
17
36
18
41
19
53
20
Viva Questions
58
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EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
1. Obtain the VI characteristics of a given SCR by conducting a suitable experiment & find
the holding current, latching current & forward resistance.
2. Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain the VI characteristics of a unidirectional fourlayer device for two gate currents. Determine breakdown voltage & holding current, for
both the cases.
3. Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain the VI characteristics of the Bi-directional switch
experimentally. Determine the holding current & break down voltage in 1st & 3rd
coordinate.
4. Conduct the suitable experiment to draw VI characteristics of the given IGBT. Using that
find the threshold voltage & Trans- resistance of the IGBT.
5. Conduct a suitable experiment to draw VI characteristics of the given MOSFET. Using
that find the threshold voltage & drain resistance of the MOSFET.
6. Design and conduct to obtain triggering input voltage by using RC triggering circuit for
HWR.
7. Design and conduct to obtain triggering input voltage by using RC triggering circuit for
FWR
8. Design and conduct an experiment to obtain synchronized triggering pulse to turn- on
SCR in Half wave with resistive load. Show the load voltage and trigger pulse
waveforms.
9. Design and conduct an experiment to obtain synchronized triggering pulse to turn- on
SCR in Full wave with resistive load. Show the load voltage and trigger pulse
waveform.
10. Conduct a suitable experiment on Half controlled bridge rectifier with resistive
load/RL load. Plot the output DC voltage V/S delay angle graph.
11. Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain output voltage waveform of full controlled
bridge using R-L load. Plot the output DC voltage V/S delay angle graph. i) Without
freewheeling diode, ii) With freewheeling diode.
12. Conduct the suitable experiment to obtain output voltage waveform using jones chopper.
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13. Conduct the suitable experiment to turn off SCR using LC circuit and Auxiliary
Commutation.
14. Rig up and test the chopper circuit to produce variable DC output. Draw the output
voltage V/S duty cycle graph.
15. Conduct a suitable experiment on a chopper to convert constant DC voltage to variable
DC voltage with a duty cycle of ------ Check the result with theoretical value.
16. Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain AC output using Series Inverter.
17. Conduct a suitable experiment to verify the operating principle of a Parallel Inverter.
18. Setup the circuit to control RMS voltage across incandescent lamp using Triac- Diac
combination, plot the graph of load voltage V/S delay angle
19. Conduct a suitable experiment to determining the speed control of DC motor using semi
converter and plot delay angle V/S speed.
20. Conduct a suitable experiment to determine the speed control of a universal motor using
AC voltage controller.
21. Rig up test a chopper circuit to variable DC output using Digital firing circuit, draw the
output voltage V/S duty cycle graph.
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G (Gate)
K
(Cathode)
A
(Anode)
K A G
(2) Triac: BT-136 / BT-139
G (Gate)
MT2
MT1
(Main
terminal-2)
BT
136
(Main
terminal-1)
MT1 MT2 G
IRF
740
G D S
S (Source)
C (Collector)
BC20
G
Gate
G
E (Emitter)
(5) Diac: DB-32C
MT2
MT1
(Main
terminal-2)
(Main
terminal-1)
MT2
MT1
2N
26
46
B2 B1
Notch
E
Bottom view
B1 (Base-1)
OR
E
(Emitter)
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115V
230V/115V-60V-30V-0-30V-60V-115V with 2A
60V
30V
Primary
winding
230V
Secondary windings
with different tapings
0
30V
60v
115V
1:1 pulse
Transformer
In order to identify the primary & secondary windings, check the continuity.
(11) Power (Wattage) resistors: 100/5W, 500/5W, 1K/5W
500
Green coloured
(Thick) Resistors
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Physical appearance
1 Converter Triggering
unit:
900
0
600
1800
00
ON / OFF
120
Trigger O/Ps
1500
30
K
T1
T1
Test Points
T2
Gnd 1 2
T2
5 6
3
7
DC Chopper
Triggering unit:
POWER
10%
90%
DUTY CYCLE
Min
Max
FREQUENCY
ON / OFF
Trigger O/Ps
G
K
Test Points
TMAIN
Gnd 1 2 3
TAUX
4 5 6
POWER
Armature
side
Field side
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EXPERIMENT-1
500 / 5W
A
1k
TYN612
A
VGG
IA
(0-50mA)
V
VAK
VAA
(0-60V )
0-30V
IG
0-30V
VKA VRBO
Breakdown
Region
Forward
Conduction
Region
IL
IH
Reverse Blocking
Region
SCR
TYN
612
K A G
VFBO VAK
Forward Blocking
Region
-IA
PROCEDURE:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
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IG =
VAK ( in volts)
mA
IA (in mA)
IG =
VAK ( in volts)
mA
IA (in mA)
RESULT:
The static characteristics of SCR are conducted & the following values are calculated using its
graph.
The break-over voltages are: VBFO1=
& VBFO2=
Latching Current (IL) =
Holding Current (IH) =
Forward resistance = Rf = VAK / IA =
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EXPERIMENT-2
connecting board.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-
MT2
MT1
(Main
terminal-2)
(Main
terminal-1)
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Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Change the voltage Vs in steps till 30V and observe VB01, the start of break over voltage.
3. Change the voltage Vs in steps in the negative direction till -30V and observe VB02, the start
of break over voltage.
4. Note down the voltage Vo and Current I and plot the graph.
Tabular Column:
Mode-I :
Vo ( in volts)
I (in mA)
Mode-III :
I (in mA)
V0( in volts)
RESULT:The static characteristic of DIAC is conducted & the following values are calculated using its
graph.
The break-over voltages are : VBO1=
VBO2=
10
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EXPERIMENT-3
Milli-ammeter (0-100mA), Voltmeters (0-30V, 2nos), Power supplies & connecting board.
(0-100mA)
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
500/ 5W
A
IRF
40 / 42
1K
VGG
VGS
0-30V
0-30V
ID
VDS
VDD
(0-30V)
0-30V
S
MOSFET
IRF
740
PROCEDURE:
(a) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
G D S
11
VGS1 =
VDS (in volts)
V
ID(in mA)
VGS2 =
VDS (in volts)
V
ID(in mA)
VGS3 =
VDS (in volts)
V
ID(in mA)
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ID
(in mA)
Active region
VGS4
VGS3
VGS2
VGS1
VT
b) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:
(1) Make the connection as shown in the fig.
(2) Keep the Drainsource voltage (VDS) constant (say at 10V).
(3) Vary the gate supply voltage VGG in steps and note down the corresponding drain current (ID),
Gate-Source voltage (VGS) and tabulate the result.
(4) Repeat the above procedure for different values of Drainsource voltage (VDS).
(6) From the readings draw the transfer characteristics & calculate the trans-conductance gm, which is
given by gm = ID (in mA) /VGS (in volts)
TABULAR COLUMN:
Ref
VGG
VDS1 = 5 V
VGS (in volts)
ID(in mA)
VDS2 = 8 V
VGS (in volts)
ID(in mA)
Transfer Characteristics
of MOSFET
ID
(in mA)
VGS(th)
RESULT:The static characteristics of MOSFET is conducted & the following values are calculated using its
graph.
(a) Drain resistance = rd = VDS (in volts) / ID(in mA) =
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EXPERIMENT-4
Milli-ammeter (0-100mA), Voltmeters (0-30V, 2nos), Power supplies & connecting board.
(0-100mA)
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
500/ 5W
A
IRG4
BC-200
IGBT
1K
VGG
VGE
0-30V
0-10V
IC
VCE
VCC
(0-30V)
0-30V
E
V
IGBT
IRG4
BC200
0
PROCEDURE:
G C E
TABULAR COLUMN:
(in mA)
Ref
VGG
0V
0.5V
2V
4V
6V
8V
10V
15V
20V
25V
30V
13
VGE1 =
VCE (in volts)
V
IC (in mA)
VGE2 =
VCE (in volts)
VGE4 = 5.2V
VGE3 = 5.15V
IC (in Ma)
VGE2 = 5.1V
VGE1 = 5.05V
VT
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VCE1 =
VGE (involts)
V
IC (in mA)
VCE1 =
VGE (involts)
V
IC (in mA)
Transfer Characteristics
of IGBT
IC
(in mA)
VGE(th)
RESULT:-
The static characteristics of IGBT is conducted & the following values are calculated using its
graph.
(a) Collector resistance = rc = VCE (involts) / IC (in mA) =
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EXPERIMENT-5
RC Triggering Circuit
AIM:-
a) To study the working of Half wave and Full wave controller rectification using
RC triggering.
b) To plot the response curve V dc v/s
c) To draw the waveforms at different points.
COMPONENTS REQUIRED: SCR (TYN-612), Diodes (IN-4007), Resistors (500 / 5W, 1K),
VoV
RL=500
o
R
Rmin
100
Rv
12V
230V
AC I/P
D2
C
4.7F
A
VSCR
4.7K
0V
G
K
D1
D1: Prevents the breakdown of the gate to cathode junction during the negative half cycle of the I/P
D2: It allows the capacitor to charge in the in the negative direction (there by it introduces the phase shift
between capacitor voltage & the supply voltage)
DESIGN:
Let us assume that Vs = 24V, Vg (min) = 0.5V, Ig (min) =4mA, VD1 = 0.7V, Ig (max) = 500mA.
The thyristor turns on when the capacitor voltage reaches to the minimum triggering voltage (V gt), which
is given by: VC = Vg (min) + VD1
Therefore the maximum value of Rv is obtained from the equation given by:
Vs > Ig(min) * RV + Vc.
Where Vs is the instantaneous supply voltage.
But Vc = Vg (min) + VD1
Rv < Vs V g (min) V D1 = 24V 0.5V 0.7V = 5.7K
Choose RV = 4.7K. (POT)
I g (min)
4mA
Also Rmin > Vs = 24V = 48
Choose Rmin = 100.
I g (max) 500mA
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(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Vo
D1
RL=500/
5W
IN-4007
12V
VSCR
230V
AC I/P
12V
SCR
IN-4007
TYN-410
Rmin
100
Rv
10K
G
C
47F
D2
DESIGN:
Let Vs = 48V, then Vdc = 2 Vm/ = 30V.
To find C use the relation given by: RC > 50 T C > 50 T 50*20m 50F
2
2R
2*10K
Hence choose C = 47 F
TABULAR COLUMN:
in degrees
VL (volts)
VL
Vm /
16
900
1800 in degrees
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WAVE FORMS:
Output for RC-triggering for HWR:
Vs
Vm
Vs
Vm
4 t
4 t
Vo
Vo
(2 +)
( +)
( +)
VSCR
(2 +)
(3 +)
(3 +)
VSCR
(2 +)
(2 +)
RESULT: RC triggering circuit for HWR & FWR are designed & waveforms at different points
are observed.
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EXPERIMENT-6
AC Voltage Controller
AIM: a] To study the speed control of universal motor using Triac-Diac combination.
Vo
Lamp/motor
150V/
230V
AC
Mains
Rmin=100/5W
MT2
1M
BT-136
G
0V
VT2T1
MT1
DB32C
C=100nF/200V
PROCEDURE:
- + Sin (2)
2
(5) Compare the theoretical O/P voltage with the practical values.
(6) Draw a graph of Vo(rms) versus delay angle ()
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TABULAR COLUMN:
Delay angle ()
measured from the CRO
Delay angle
() in degrees
EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:
Vo(rms) Theoretical =
1/2
Vo(rms) practical
Measured using multimeter
VS
Vm
VC
( +)
(2 +)
Vo
( +)
(2 +) 3 t
VT1T2
( +)
2 (2 +)
IDEAL GRAPH:
Vo(rms)
Delay angle ()
RESULT: An AC voltage controller is studied & its O/P rms voltage is calculated & verified
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EXPERIMENT-7
330, 100, Pot (10K), CRO with probes, Transformer & connecting board.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
UJT TRIGGERING CIRCUIT
FOR HWR CIRCUIT:
Rs = 330
RL=500
/ 5W
D1
12V
Rmin
100
Rv
10K
IN-4007
IZ15V
230V
AC I/P
12V
R2
1K
E
C
0.47F
IN-4007
D2
Vo
B2
2N2646
A
VSCR
G
B1
Pulse Transformer
Designing: (Same for both HWR & FWR): Let Secondary voltage of the transformer
Vs = 48V, Is = 50mA, Vz = 15V, = 0.66, tg = 50S & T = 5mS
Hence Vdc = 2 Vm/ = 30V.
Then Rs = Vs Vz = 30 15 = 300 Choose Rs = 330.
Is50m
Let C = 0.47F, then R1 = tg / C = 50*10-6 / 0.47* 10-6 = 106. Choose R1 = 100.
We know that for an UJT relaxation Oscillator T = RC ln(1/1-)
R = T /{ C ln(1/1-)} = 5*10-3 /{0.47*10-6 ln (1/1-0.66)} 10K.
Hence Choose RV = 10K (pot) in series with a 100 resistor.
R2 = 104 / Vz = 104 / (0.66 * 15) 1K. Hence choose R2 = 1K. Choose RL = 500 /5W
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
D1
Rs = 330
IN-4007
12V
IZ15V
230V
AC I/P
12V
D2
RL=500
/ 5W
R2
1K
Rmin
100
Rv
10K
E
C
0.47F
B2
2N2646
B1
Vo
A
G
VSCR
K
IN-4007
Pulse Transformer
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(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
WAVEFORMS OF UJT
TRIGGERING CIRCUIT:
Vin
Vm
2 (2 +) 3
2 (2 +) 3
2 (2 +) 3
2 (2 +) 3
Vdc
Vm
VZ
Vc
VB1
4 t
Vo
FOR HWR
CIRCUIT
4 t
VSCR
4
Vo
FOR FWR
CIRCUIT
4 t
VSCR
4
RESULT: UJT triggering circuit for HWR & FWR are designed & waveforms at different points
are observed.
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EXPERIMENT-8
30V
K
G
T2
T1
230V
AC I/P
A
K
0V
Isolation
Transformer
D1
A
RL
500
/5W
R
FWD
Vo
CRO &
Voltmeter
D2
A
in degrees
22
Vo(Practical)
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K
G
30V
T2
T1
230V
AC I/P
Isolation
Transformer
0V
RL
500
A
K
G
T12
T11
FWD
TABULAR COLUMN:
in degrees
Vo(Practical)
EXPECTED WAVEFORMS OF A
CONVERTER:
VS
Vm
Vg1
(2 +)
Vg2
Vo(avg)
( +)
Vo
2Vm /
Vo
0
900
( +) 2
(2 +) 3
1800 in degrees
( +)
(2 +)
RESULT: The Half controlled (Semi converter) & Full controlled (Full converter) rectifiers are studied
for both R & RL load.
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EXPERIMENT-9
Commutation Circuits
AIM:- To study the different commutation circuits.
COMPONENTS REQUIRED: SCR (2 Nos-TYN-612), Diodes (2 Nos- IN5402), Firing circuits,
L
10mH
C
10F
TYN-612
Vs
10V
RL
1K
VT
t
VL
toff
t
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Procedure:
(1) Make the circuit as shown in the figure.
(2) Apply a DC voltage using Vs (say 10V).
(3) Switch on the triggering circuit unit & observe
the voltage across the load, thyristors &
capacitors in CRO & then trace them.
(4) Measure the turn off time & verify it using
appropriate formulae.
(5) Repeat the above procedure for all the
Commutation circuits.
Turn off times of different commutation circuits:
Theoretical
Turnoff time
Class-B
toff = (LC)/2
Class-D
toff = 0.693 R1C
Practical
Turnoff time
Result: Class B and Class D Commutation circuits are constructed & their turn off times is
verified.
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EXPERIMENT-10
INVERTERS
AIM:- To study the performance of Series & Parallel inverter circuits.
COMPONENTS REQUIRED: SCR (2 Nos-TYN-410), Diodes (2 Nos- IN5402), Firing circuits,
Series Inverter:
A
C1
T 1 D1
K
RL=50
Vs
10V
Vo
A
C2
T2
G
D2
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Vo
T1
L
C
Vs
10V
RL
50
T2
K
D2
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TABULAR COLUMN:
1
1
2
=
2 42
Type of the Inverter Theoretical Frequency
Practical Frequency
Fmin=
Series Inverter:
Fmax=
Fmin=
Parallel Inverter:
Fmax=
RESULT:
The Series & Parallel Inverters are constructed & their performance is studied.
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EXPERIMENT-11
1F
Vo
T2
Vs
10V
RL
500
Vo
t
Ton
10mH
Toff
Procedure:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
28
Ton
Toff
Vs=10V
D = Ton. .
Ton + Toff
Vo(avg) (Theoretical)
= D * Vs
Vo(avg) (Practical)
(Multi-meter reading)
Expected Graph:
Ton
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Vs=10V
Toff
D = Ton. .
Ton + Toff
Vo(avg) (Theoretical)
= D * Vs
Vo(avg) (Practical)
(Multi-meter reading)
Vo(avg)
Duty
Cycle (D)
Result: A DC Chopper is constructed & its performance is studied.
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EXPERIMENT-12
G
T1
A
AC
Mains
G
T2
A
Vo
RL
500/5W
0V
D2
D1
A
Armature M
side
AA
F
Field side
FF
Procedure:
(1) Switch on the triggering circuit & observe the triggering pulses generation from it.
(2) Rig up the circuit as shown in the fig. With R-load only. Connect the triggering circuit to
the SCRs.
(3) Apply 30V from the secondary of the transformer & observe the O/P voltage waveform
across the load resistor (RL), on the CRO.
(4) Now switch off the Mains & then Triggering circuit & replace the load resistor (R L) by
the motor as shown in the fig.
(5) Switch on the Field supply & mains, then switch on the Triggering circuit
(6) Now observe the running of the motor.
(7) Vary the firing angle () in steps & note down the corresponding speed of the motor
using a Tacho-meter.
(8) Tabulate the readings & plot the graph of delay angle () versus speed.
NOTE: While Switching on, the AC mains is switched on first & then the firing circuit. While
switching off the circuit, switch off the mains first, then the firing circuit should be switched off.
Tabular Column:
Delay angle ()
in degrees
30
Vo(avg)
(Measured using multi meter )
Expected waveforms:
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VS
Vm
Vg1
(2 +)
Vg2
t
( +)
Ideal Graph:
( +) 2
(2 +) 3
Vo(avg)
&
Speed
0o
90 o
Result: The Speed control of a DC motor is studied & the graph of O/P average voltage & its
speed are plotted for different values of delay angle.
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EXPERIMENT: 13
Preset
Clock Generator
(Astable
Multivibrator)
Reset
CLK
FlipFlop
N-Bit
Counter
En
Load
TP
TN
B
Reset
Sync
Signal (~8V)
DC 5V
Supply
ZCD (Zero
Crossing
Detector)
A
Procedure:
Waveforms:
Carrier
Frequency
Oscillator
TM
TA
ZCD O/P
C
C
Down Counting
Counter O/P
maximum
B
B
fc
when
Y=0
When
Y= 1
32
G1
G2
G1
G2
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EXPERIMENT-14
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the controller o/p A1, A2, B1, B2 to A1 A2 B1 B2 i/ps (respectively) of the
Stepper Motor Module.
2. Connect +ve common terminal to +ve supply.
3. Switch on the power supply to the unit. It displays S-00.
4. Press SET on SMC.
5. Display shows rpm(Rev Per Sec).
6. Press ENT for Speed MODE.
7. Display 00.
8. Press INC key to set rpm.
9. Press ENT
10. Displays DR FR (Direction of rotation).
11. Press INC/DEC to change direction of rotation.
12. Press ENT.
13. Displays HF ST or FL STEP.(Step size Half or Full)
14. Use INC/DEC to select step size.
15. Press ENT.
16. Then it displays n.. Rpm set for speed mode.
17. Press Run/Stop for running or stopping the motor.
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STEP MODE:
1. Switch on the power supply.
2. Display shows S 00
3. Press SET.
4. Display shows rpm.
5. Press INC/DEC to change to step mode
6. Follow similar steps as above from step 7 for setting the parameters for step mode.
7. In the last display shows S. Steps set.
8. Run/Stop will make the motor to run by respective steps.
TABULAR COLUMN: Speed Mode.
Sl. No
RPM set
No of Rotations
Practical RPM
TABULAR C OLUMN: Step Mode [Step angle =1.8 0.1] (Non cumulative)
Sl. No
No of Steps
Theoretical
Degrees
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A2
(GREEN)
B1
(BLUE)
B2
(BLACK)
Half step
A1
(RED)
0
A2
(GREEN)
1
B1
(BLUE)
0
B2
(BLACK)
1
RESULT: The operation of a Stepper motor is studied and the speed control is verified.
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36
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Step 3: Once the step (2) is completed the following window appears. Choose Create a blank
project option.
Step 4: Create the circuit by placing all its parts using Part option from Place menu. In this
way a complete electrical circuit can be formed.
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Step 5: After completing the circuit, make the simulation profile using New Simulation Profile
command from PSpice menu.
Step 6: Go to Edit Simulation Profile in PSpice menu, simulation settings window will
open. Go to Analysis and set the simulation parameters as shown below.
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Step 7: Place the markers (voltage or current) near the required component on the circuit by
using command MARKERS from PSpice menu.
Step 8: Run the simulation by using command RUN from PSpice menu.
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40
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V-
Vs
VOFF = 0
VAMPL = 230v
FREQ = 50
12k
Triac
C
48uf
Output Waveforms:
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2N1595
Vs
VOFF = 0
VAMPL = 30v
FREQ = {f }
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse
2N1595
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 90
f = 60
v rms = 120
Vpulse1
1k
D1N914
D1N914
Output Waveforms:
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2N1595
Vs
VOFF = 0
VAMPL = 30v
FREQ = {f }
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse
2N1595
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 90
f = 60
v rms = 120
Vpulse1
V
500
2
L1
0.5H
D1N914
D1N914
Output Waveforms:
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2N1595
Vs
VOFF = 0
VAMPL = 30v
FREQ = {f }
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse
2N1595
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 90
f = 60
v rms = 120
Vpulse1
V
500
2
L1
0.5H
Output Waveforms:
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PARAMETERS:
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 90
f = 60
Vs
VOFF = 0
VAMPL = 30v
FREQ = {f }
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse1
R1
500
0
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse3
Vpulse2
Output Waveforms:
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PARAMETERS:
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 90
f = 60
Vs
VOFF = 0
VAMPL = 30v
FREQ = {f }
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse1
R1
500
L1
0.5H
0
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse3
Vpulse2
Output Waveforms:
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Vs
VOFF = 0
VAMPL = 30v
FREQ = {f }
Vpulse
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse1
R1
500
D
L1
0.5H
0
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse3
Vpulse2
Output Waveforms:
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3. COMMUTATION CIRCUITS
3. a. Self Commutation with LC in shunt with thyristor (CLASS-B
Commutation)
PARAMETERS:
2
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 60
f = 60
L1
V+
0.5H
2N1595
V3
5Vdc
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
V2
1
V-
C1
5uF
R
1k
Output Waveforms:
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PARAMETERS:
C1
V+
1uF
V-
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
V2
1
L2
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 60
f = 60
10uH
X2
V3
D2
5Vdc
2N1595
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
D1
L1
1
D1N914
Vpulse1
R
1k
0.5H
D1N914
Output Waveforms:
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PARAMETERS:
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 120
f = 60
Vpulse
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
C
1uf
1.5k
Vs
10Vdc
Vpulse1
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
L
1
2
10mH
Output Waveforms:
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5. Inverters
5. a. Series Inverter
2N1595
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
C
10uf
Vpulse
D
1
L1
10mH
10Vdc
100
V-
PARAMET ERS:
R2
Vs
V+
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 90
f = 60
1
L2
10mH
C1
10uf
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
Vpulse1
D1
Output Waveforms:
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5. b. Parallel Inverter
2N1595
PARAMETERS:
L4
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
300uH
Vs
10v
V1 = 0
V2 = 5
TD = {talpha+1/(2*f )}
TR = 0.1u
TF = 0.1u
PW = {0.5/f }
PER = {1/f }
talpha = {alpha/(360*f )}
alpha = 60
f = 60
Vpulse2
TX2
R3V
6.8uf
500
Vpulse3
Output Waveforms:
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gate current & it gets triggered. The triggering of the Thyristor can be controlled from 0 to 180 0,
by raring the resistance value.
UJT Triggering:
UJT is a Uni-junction Transistor, which exhibits negative resistance region (Increase in
the voltage decreases the current). Hence it can be used as Relaxation Oscillator to generator saw
tooth waves & short durational spikes (pulses). Due to this property it is used as a triggering
circuit for thyristors. When the UJT & SCR both are triggered using the same AC vaoltage, it is
called as Synchronous UJT Triggering circuit. In Asynchronous UJT Triggering they are
triggered using two different voltages.
Working operation: AC input voltage is stepped down using transformer, then it is rectified
using a rectifier. This rectified (DC) voltage is regulated using a zener diode. This regulated
voltage is applied as DC supply voltage for UJT circuit. Here UJT is used as a Relaxation
Oscillator, hence it behaves like a open switch until its emitter voltage reaches peak voltage of it
& as its emitter voltage reaches peak voltage level UJT turns on & it behaves like a closed
switch. This is achieved by charging the capacitor through the resistor. For this the regulated
zener voltage is used. As the capacitor discharges reaches peak voltage of UJT, it turns on &
provides a path for discharging. This discharging of the capacitor takes place very fast, hence a
short duration spike gets developed across its base terminal. This short duration spike (pulse) is
applied to the gate terminal of the thyristor, through 1:1 pulse transformer (which is used for
isolation) to trigger the thyristor. The charging of the capacitor can be controlled by varying the
resistance value & there by the conduction of the thyristor can be controlled.
Single Phase Half controlled & Fully controlled converters:
Converter is basically a controlled rectifier, which gives variable DC voltage. Depending
upon the polarity of the output voltage & current (Quadrants) obtained they are classified as 1
Quadrant, 2 Quadrant & 4 Quadrant converters. Single phase half controlled converter is a single
Quadrant converter & single phase fully controlled converter is a 2 Quadrant converter.
Both of them work in the similar fashion. But half controlled converter uses 2 diodes & 2
thyristors, on the other hand Fully controlled converter uses 4 thyristors. Output voltage is same
in both the cases for R load. But for RL load, the output voltage will have small negative voltage
in case of Fully controlled converters. This negative voltage occurs due to the inductive load &
this can be eliminated using Free wheeling Diode (FWD). These converters are mainly used in
DC drives, power supplies, HVDC systems stc.
Working operation of Half controlled converter: During the positive half cycle, T1-D1 gets
forward biased, by controlling the firing angle of T 1, this half cycle can be controlled. Similarly
during the negative half cycle of the I/P, T 2-D2 gets forward biased, now T2 can be controlled by
varying the firing angle. Thus the negative half cycle can be controlled. Due to the bridge
configuration the output voltage will be always positive. This positive voltage can be controlled
using the delay angle.
Working operation of Fully controlled converter:
Same as Half controlled converter, but the firing of T 1 &T1 should be done simultaneously.
And the firing of T2 &T2 should be done simultaneously.
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chopper is similar to a Class-D commutation circuit. It produces square wave form, whose on &
off periods can be controlled to control the output DC voltage. We control the output DC voltage
in two ways, namely-fixed frequency & variable frequency operations. In fixed frequency
operations, the duty cycle of the output is varied to control it. In variable frequency operations,
the duty cycle is kept constant & frequency of the output wave is varied.
Inverters:
It converts DC signal into AC signal of desired amplitude & frequency. It uses thyristors
with forced commutation. They are mainly used in UPS, Stand by power supplies etc.
Depending upon the commutating elements, they are classified as series & parallel inverters.
Series Inverter: In this case the commutating elements are placed in series with the thyristors. It
uses two Thyristors with two sets of commutating elements. It uses current commutation for the
thyristors. When one thyristor is fired, the other turns off due to the energy stored in the
commutating elements & vice versa. Thus it produces a wave which looks like spike of longer
duration, but if it is properly filtered, then almost sine wave can be obtained.
Parallel Inverter: In this case the commutating elements are placed in parallel with the
thyristors. It uses voltage commutation for the thyristors.
Working operation: When one thyristor is on (say T 1), the current flows through half of the
transformer, T1 & inductor and causes the capacitor to charge to 2Vs. This voltage gets applied
across the conducting thyrisor T2 & turns it off due to voltage commutation. Now the capacitor
discharges through L & T2, and gets charged in the opposite direction. Now the capacitor
becomes ready for the commutation of T 2 & it can be done whenever T1 is fired again. This
continues producing a slightly tilted square wave across the output.
Note: In case of inverters, the thyristors are connected with anti parallel diodes to provide
alternative path for reverse current, which can occur due to inductive loads.
Speed Control of DC motor:
DC motor is a device, which uses DC voltage to convert electrical energy into
mechanical energy. Mainly there are two types of DC motors, namely: Separately excited DC
motors & Self-excited DC motors. In case of Separately excited DC motor, the field winding
will be excited using a separate supply, but in case of Self excited DC motors the field winding
will not be there separately.
A Separately excited DC motor can be controlled in two ways, namely: Armature
control, Field control. Incase of Armature control, the armature current is varied to control its
Torque & speed. But in field control, the field current is varied to control its speed. A semi
converter can be used to control the armature voltage & there by its current can be controlled,
this in turn controls the speed of the motor.
Speed Control of Universal motor:
Universal motor is basically a series wound motor, capable of working under both AC &
DC inputs. When it works on DC, it is controlled by armature control & it can be done using a
converter and when it works on AC, it is controlled by stator voltage, which can be done using a
AC voltage controller (using two thyristors connected back to back or using a TRIAC). The
speed of the motor can be controlled by varying the firing angles of thyristors.
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What is an SCR?
Why Silicon is used in SCR?
What are Latching & Holding currents? Distinguish them.
What is Break over voltage (VBO)?
Explain the procedure used for finding Latching & Holding currents?
What is the significance of wattage resistors?
Give the applications of SCR.
What are the current & voltage ratings of SCR?
What is the difference between Converter grade & Inverter grade SCRs?
Explain the regions in which SCR can be operated.
What is TRIAC? How it differs from SCR?
In how many modes TRIAC can be operated?
In which of the modes the TRIAC is most sensitive? What is the basis?
How many layers are there in TRIAC?
Give the applications of TRIAC.
What is MOSFET?
What are the types of MOSFETs we have?
What are Drain resistance, trans-conductance & amplification factors of MOSFET.
What is the meaning of Negative temperature coefficient of resistance?
Give the applications of MOSFET.
What is an IGBT?
Compare its features with MOSFET & BJT.
Give the advantages & applications of IGBT.
How many types of IGBTs are available?
Why we call IGBT as majority carrier device?
What is Triggering?
What are the methods of triggering an SCR?
What is the limitation of R triggering?
How RC triggering is better than R triggering?
What is the range of R triggering & RC triggering?
What is meant by synchronized triggering?
What is relaxation oscillator?
What is UJT? How it differs from BJT?
Why UJT is used in relaxation oscillator?
In what region of its characteristics, the UJT is operated for relaxation oscillator
What is the range of in case of UJT triggering?
What is the advantage of UJT triggering over other triggering circuits?
What is the role of Zener diode in this circuit?
What is a pulse transformer? Why it is used in UJT triggering circuit?
What is the role of resistor connected in series with the POT?
What is Commutation?
What is Natural Commutation & Forced Commutation.
How the commutation can be achieved practically?
What are the circuit elements required for Commutation?
What is the difference between current & voltage Commutation?
Dept. of ECE, SJBIT, Bangalore.
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(93) How do you protect SCR against high voltage & currents?
(94) What is the purpose of a Fuse? How does it protects a circuit?
(95) What is PIV rating of a Thyristor?
(96) What is GTO? How it differs from SCR?
(97) Give the advantage & disadvantages of GTO.
(98) What are Harmonics? Why they will get introduced in power electronic circuits
(99) What is a Cyclo-converter? Give its applications.
(100) What is the difference between Un-controlled, Controlled & Fully controlled
devices. Give examples for them.
(101) What is stepper motor?
(102) Why is stepper motor also called digital motor?
(103) How many steps are covered in one revolution?
(104) What is step angle?
(105) What are the applications of stepper motor?
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