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project report
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Practical Training
at
220kV Grid Transmission Substation,
Balotra (Rajasthan)
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the
Award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Electrical Engineering
2016-17

Submitted To:
Mr. Manoj Chhimpa
Assistant Professor
(Electrical Engineering Department)

Submitted By:
Lalit Kumar
Roll No:- 13EEBEE730
Final Year EE(II-Shift)

Certificate

Preface
Practical training in must for each and every student and specially for technical
students for their success in completion of technical education. Study remain in
complete without having practical knowledge of what we have gone thought the
theory. It is rather important of every student to be practical along with his
knowledge. Without having any lagging effect, a student should have admirable
knowledge of his practical field. Enclosures regarding his field should be made with
every receipt and view point. In the conclusion it is opinion that practical training is
more important for each and every technical student along with theoretical
knowledge. I am very thankful to Mr. Manish sharma, Junior Engineer (Operation)
for taking personal interest and helped me in making this training successful. I am
also thankful to Mr. Anupam Kumar Saxena, EX. Engineer (P & amp; A) for
arranging this Practical Training a success.

Acknowledgement
This report is an outcome of the contributions made by some of the peoples.
Therefore it is my sole responsibility to acknowledge them. I am greatly thankful to
the sincere efforts made by Mr. Manish Sharma, J.E. (maintenance) without
whom this project would be abstract. I also thank the staff of 220kV Grid
Transmission Substation, Balotra-Rajasthan who took out there precious time to
tell me about the various equipments. My special thanks is dedicated to Mr. Vijay
Kumar, J.E. (maintenance).

Lalit Kumar
B.Tech (7th Sem)
Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Govt. Engineering College Bikaner

Contents
1.Company Profile
2.Electrical Substation
2.1.Types Of Substation
2.1.1.Transmission Substation
2.1.2.Distribution Substation
2.1.3.Collector Substation
2.2.Components Of Substation

3.Conductors
3.1.Aluminum In Place Of Conductors
3.2.Types Of Conductors
3.2.1.AAC
3.2.2.AAAC
3.2.3.ACSR
3.2.4.ACAR

4.Transformers
4.1.Instrument Transformers
4.1.1.Current Transformer
4.1.2.Potential Transformer
4.1.2.1. Capacitor Voltage Transformer
4.2.Auto Transformer

5.Capacitor Bank
6.Isolators
7.Circuit Breakers
7.1.Types Of Circuit Breakers
7.1.1.Sulfur Hexafluoride H V Circuit Breaker
7.1.2.Carbon Di Oxide H V Circuit Breaker

8.Lightning Arresters
9.Description Of Substation
9.1.Panel Section
9.1.1.Control Panel Section
9.1.2.Relay And Protection Panel Section
9.2.Yard

10.Some Full Forms Related To Substation


11.Components Used In Yard(220kV Substation ,Naubasta)
12.Conclusion

1. Company Profile
Rajasthan Power Transmission Corporation Limited,
incorporated under the Companies Act 1956, was incorporated in 2006 with
the main objective to acquire, establish, construct, take over, erect, lay, operate, run,
manage, hire, lease, buy, sell, maintain, enlarge, alter, renovate, modernize, work
and use electrical transmission lines and/or network through extra high voltage, high
voltage and associated sub-stations, cables, wires, connected with transmission
ancillary services, telecommunication and telemetering equipment in the State of
Uttar Pradesh, India and elsewhere.

Electricity
Saved
is
Electricity
Produced..!

2. Electrical Substation
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and
distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high too low, or the reverse,
or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station
and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different
voltage levels. Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or
may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. Generally, substations
are unattended, relying on SCADA for remote supervision and control.
A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high
transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of
two different transmission voltages. The word substation comes from the days before
the distribution system became a grid. As central generation stations became larger,
smaller generating plants were converted to distribution stations, receiving their
energy supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. The first
substations were connected to only one power station, where the generators were
housed, and were subsidiaries of that power ratio. As this project report is based on
220kV Grid Transmission Substation, Balotra, Rajasthan; so the components
used there are described below.

2.1 Types of substation


1.Transmission substation
A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The
simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases,
substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated
for fault clearance or maintenance. A transmission station may have transformers to
convert between two transmission voltages, voltage control/power factor correction
devices such as capacitors, reactors or static VAR compensators and equipment such
as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power
systems.

2.Distribution substation
A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to
the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity
consumers to the main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of
power, so the distribution station reduces voltage to a level suitable for local
distribution.
The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or
sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 115 kV, or whatever is
common in the area. The output is a number of feeders. Distribution voltages are
typically medium voltage, between 2.4 kV and 33 kV depending on the size of the
area served and the practices of the local utility. The feeders run along streets
overhead (or underground, in some cases) and power the distribution transformers
at or near the customer premises.

3.Collector substation
In distributed generation projects such as a wind farm, a collector substation
may be required. It resembles a distribution substation although power flow is in the
opposite direction, from many wind turbines up into the transmission grid. Usually
for economy of construction the collector system operates around 35 kV and the
collector substation steps up voltage to a transmission voltage for the grid. The
collector substation can also provide power factor correction if it is needed, metering
and control of the wind farm. In some special cases a collector substation can also
contain an HVDC converter station.

2.2 Components of Substation


Various components are used at grid transmission substations. These are as
follows :(i)
Conductors
(ii) Current Transformers
(iii) Potential Transformers
(iv) Power Transformers (Auto Transformer)
(v) Capacitive Voltage Transformers
(vi) Line Isolators
(vii) Bus Isolators
(viii) Lightning Arresters
(ix) Capacitor Bank
(x) Circuit Breakers

3. Conductors
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material
which permits the flow of electric charges in one or more directions. For example, a
wire is an electrical conductor that can carry electricity along its length. In metals
such as copper or aluminium, the movable charged particles are electrons. Positive
charges may also be mobile, such as the cationic electrolyte(s) of a battery, or the
mobile protons of the proton conductor of a fuel cell. Insulators are non-conducting
materials with few mobile charges and which support only
insignificant electric currents.

3.1 Aluminium in place of Copper:


a) Much lower cost
b) Lighter weight
c) Larger diameter
d) Lower voltage gradient less ionization/corona

3.2 Types of conductors used in 220kV substations are:a) AAC -> All Aluminium Conductors
b) AAAC -> All Aluminium Alloy Conductors
c) ACSR -> Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced
d) ACAR -> Aluminium Conductor Alloy Reinforced

All Aluminium Conductors (AAC)

APPLICATIONS
AAC are used primarily for overhead transmission and primary and secondary
distribution, where ampacity must be maintained and a lighter conductor (compared
to ACSR) is desired, and when conductor strength is not a critical factor. Classes B
and C are used primarily as bus, apparatus connectors and jumpers, where additional
flexibility is required.
CONSTRUCTION
Aluminium 1350-H19 wires, concentrically stranded.

All Aluminium-Alloy Conductor (AAAC)

APPLICATIONS
Used as bare overhead conductor for primary and secondary distribution.
Designed utilizing a high-strength aluminiumalloy to achieve a high strength-toweight ratio; affords good sag characteristics. Aluminium-alloy gives 6201-T81
gives AAAC higher resistance to corrosion than ACSR.
CONSTRUCTION
Aluminium-alloy 6201-T81 wires, concentrically stranded.

Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR)

APPLICATIONS
Used as bare overhead transmission conductor and as primary and secondary
distribution conductor and messenger support. ACSR offers optimal strength for line
design. Variable steel core stranding enables desired strength to be achieved without
sacrificing ampacity.
CONSTRUCTION
Aluminium 1350-H19 wires, concentrically stranded about a steel core.
Standard core wire for ACSR is class A galvanized.
Class A core stranding is also available in zinc-5% aluminium - mischmetal
alloy coating.
Additional corrosion protection is available through the application of grease
to the core or infusion of the complete cable with grease.
ACSR conductor is also available in non-specular.

Names of ASCRs

Aluminium Conductor Aluminium Alloy Reinforced (ACAR)

APPLICATIONS
Used as bare overhead transmission cable and as primary and secondary
distribution cable. A good strength-to-weight ratio makes ACAR applicable where
both ampacity and strength are prime considerations in line design; for equal weight,
ACAR offers higher strength and ampacity than ACSR.
CONSTRUCTION
Aluminium 1350-H19 wires, concentrically stranded about an aluminiumalloy 6201-T81 core. Although the alloy strands generally comprise the core of the
conductor, in some constructions they are distributed in layers throughout the
aluminium 1350-H19 strands.

4. Transformers
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive
coupling between its winding circuits. A varying current in the primary winding
creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic
flux through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic flux induces a varying
electromotive force (emf) or voltage in the secondary winding.
Transformers range in size from thumbnail-sized used in microphones to units
weighing hundreds of tons interconnecting the power grid. A wide range of
transformer designs are used in electronic and electric power applications.
Transformers are essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of
electrical energy.

1. Instrument transformer
Instrument transformers are high accuracy class electrical devices used to
isolate or transform voltage or current levels. The most common usage of instrument
transformers is to operate instruments or metering from high voltage or high current
circuits, safely isolating secondary control circuitry from the high voltages or
currents. The primary winding of the transformer is connected to the high voltage or
high current circuit, and the meter or relay is connected to the secondary circuit.
Instrument transformers may also be used as an isolation transformer so that
secondary quantities may be used in phase shifting without affecting other primary
connected devices.
Types of Instrument Transformers:-

Current Transformers
Potential Transformers

Current transformers
Current transformers (CT) are a series connected type of instrument
transformer. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being
measured and have an accurate current ratio and phase relationship to enable
accurate secondary connected metering.
Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn
(either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal
core wrapped with many turns of wire. This affords easy implementation on high
voltage bushings of grid transformers and other devices by installing the secondary
turn core inside high-voltage bushing insulators and using the passthrough conductor
as a single turn primary.
A current clamp uses a current transformer with a split core that can be easily
wrapped around a conductor in a circuit. This is a common method used in portable
current measuring instruments but permanent installations use more economical
types of current transformer.
Specially constructed wideband CTs are also used, usually with an
oscilloscope, to measure high frequency waveforms or pulsed currents within pulsed
power systems. One type provides an IR voltage output that is proportional to the
measured current; another, called a Rogowski coil, requires an external integrator in
order to provide a proportional output.

Ratio
The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary.
A 1000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when 1000 amperes are
passing through its primary winding. Standard secondary current ratings are 5
amperes or 1 ampere, compatible with standard measuring instruments.

Burden and accuracy


Burden and accuracy are usually stated as a combined parameter due to being
dependent on each other. Metering style CTs are designed with smaller cores and
VA capacities. This causes metering CTs to saturate at lower secondary voltages
saving sensitive connected metering devices from damaging large fault currents in
the event of a primary electrical fault. A CT with a rating of 0.3B0.6 would indicate
with up to 0.6 ohms of secondary burden the secondary current will be within a 0.3
percent error parallelogram on an accuracy diagram incorporating both phase angle
and ratio errors.
Relaying CTs used for protective circuits are designed with larger cores and
higher VA capacities to insure secondary measuring devices have true
representations with massive grid fault currents on primary circuits. A CT with a
rating of 2.5L400 would indicate it can produce a secondary voltage to 400 volts
with a secondary current of 100 amperes (20 times its rated 5 ampere rating) and still
be within 2.5 amperes of true accuracy.
Care must be taken that the secondary winding of a CT is not disconnected
from its low-impedance load while current flows in the primary, as this may produce
a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary (especially in a relaying type
CT) and could permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer.

High Voltage Types


Current transformers are used for protection, measurement and control in high
voltage electrical substations and the electrical grid. Current transformers may be
installed inside switchgear or in apparatus bushings, but very often free-standing
outdoor current transformers are used.
In a switchyard, live tank current transformers have a substantial part of their
enclosure energized at the line voltage and must be mounted on insulators. Dead
tank current transformers isolate the measured circuit from the enclosure. Live tank
CTs are useful because the primary conductor is short, which gives better stability
and a higher short-circuit current withstand rating. The primary of the winding can
be evenly distributed around the magnetic core, which gives better performance for
overloads and transients. Since the major insulation of a live-tank current

transformer is not exposed to the heat of the primary conductors, insulation life and
thermal stability is improved.
A high-voltage current transformer may contain several cores, each with a
secondary winding, for different purposes (such as metering circuits, control, or
protection).

Potential transformers
Potential Transformer or Voltage Transformer are used in electrical power
system for stepping down the system voltage to a safe value which can be fed to low
ratings meters and relays. Commercially available relays and meters used for
protection and metering, are designed for low voltage.
Potential transformers (PT) (also called voltage transformers (VT)) are a
parallel connected type of instrument transformer. They are designed to present
negligible load to the supply being measured and have an accurate voltage ratio and
phase relationship to enable accurate secondary connected metering.

Ratio
The PT is typically described by its voltage ratio from primary to secondary.
A 600:120 PT would provide an output voltage of 120 volts when 600 volts are
impressed across its primary winding. Standard secondary voltage ratings are 120
volts and 70 volts, ompatible with standard measuring instruments.

Burden and accuracy


Burden and accuracy are usually stated as a combined parameter due to being
dependent on each other.
Metering style PTs are designed with smaller cores and VA capacities than
power transformers. This causes metering PTs to saturate at lower secondary voltage
outputs saving sensitive connected metering devices from damaging large voltage
spikes found in grid disturbances.
A small PT (see nameplate in photo) with a rating of 0.3W, 0.6X would
indicate with up to W load (12.5 watts) of secondary burden the secondary current
will be within a 0.3 percent error parallelogram on an accuracy diagram
incorporating both phase angle and ratio errors. The same technique applies for the
X load (25 watts) rating except inside a 0.6% accuracy parallelogram.

Markings
Some transformer winding primary (usually high-voltage) connection points
may be labelled as H1, H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally designed to be grounded)
and X1, X2 and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Sometimes a second isolated
winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) (and third (Z1, Z2, Z3) may also be available on the same
voltage transformer. The primary may be connected phase to ground or phase to
phase. The secondary is usually grounded on one terminal to avoid capacitive
induction from damaging low-voltage equipment and for human safety.

Types of PTs
There are three primary types of potential transformers (PT): electromagnetic,
capacitor, and optical. The electromagnetic potential transformer is a wire-wound
transformer. The capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) uses a capacitance potential
divider and is used at higher voltages due to a lower cost than an electromagnetic
PT. An optical voltage transformer exploits the electrical properties of optical
materials.

Capacitor Voltage Transformer


A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), or capacitance coupled voltage
transformer (CCVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step down extra
high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for measurement or to operate
a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two
capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to
tune the device to the line frequency, and a transformer to isolate and further step
down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay.

The tuning of the divider to the line frequency makes the overall division ratio
less sensitive to changes in the burden of the connected metering or protection
devices.
The device has at least four terminals: a terminal for connection to the high
voltage signal, a ground terminal, and two secondary terminals which connect to the
instrumentation or protective relay.
CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in
excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of wound primary voltage
transformers would be uneconomical. In practice, capacitor C1 is often constructed
as a stack of smaller capacitors connected in series. This provides a large voltage
drop across C1 and a relatively small voltage drop across C2.
The CVT is also useful in communication systems. CVTs in combination with
wave traps are used for filtering high frequency communication signals from power
frequency. This forms a carrier communication network throughout the transmission
network.

2. Auto transformer
An autotransformer (sometimes called autostep down transformer) is an
electrical transformer with only one winding. The "auto" (Greek for "self") prefix
refers to the single coil acting on itself and not to any kind of automatic mechanism.
In an autotransformer portions of the same winding act as both the primary
and secondary transformer. The winding has at least three taps where electrical
connections are made. Autotransformers have the advantages of often being smaller,
lighter, and cheaper than typical dual-winding transformers, but autotransformers
have the disadvantage of not providing electrical isolation.
Working
The primary voltage is applied across two of the terminals, and the secondary
voltage taken from two terminals, almost always having one terminal in common
with the primary voltage. The primary and secondary circuits therefore have a
number of windings turns in common. Since the volts-per-turn is the same in both
windings, each develops a voltage in proportion to its number of turns. In an
autotransformer part of the current flows directly from the input to the output, and
only part is transferred inductively, allowing a smaller, lighter, cheaper core to be
used as well as requiring only a single winding.
One end of the winding is usually connected in common to both the voltage
source and the electrical load. The other end of the source and load are connected to
taps along the winding. Different taps on the winding correspond to different
voltages, measured from the common end. In a step-down transformer the source is
usually connected across the entire winding while the load is connected by a tap
across only a portion of the winding. In a stepup transformer, conversely, the load is
attached across the full winding while the source is connected to a tap across a
portion of the winding.

Limitations
An autotransformer does not provide electrical isolation between its windings
as an ordinary transformer does; if the neutral side of the input is not at ground
voltage, the neutral side of the output will not be either. A failure of the insulation
of the windings of an autotransformer can result in full input voltage applied to the
output. Also, a break in the part of the winding that is used as both primary and
secondary will result in the transformer acting as an inductor in series with the load
(which under light load conditions may result in near full input voltage being applied
to the output) . These are important safety considerations when deciding to use an
autotransformer in a given application.

Because it requires both fewer windings and a smaller core, an


autotransformer for power applications is typically lighter and less costly than a twowinding transformer, up to a voltage ratio of about 3:1; beyond that range, a twowinding transformer is usually more economical.
In three phase power transmission applications, autotransformers have the
limitations of not suppressing harmonic currents and as acting as another source of
ground fault currents. A large three-phase autotransformer may have a "buried" delta
winding, not connected to the outside of the tank, to absorb some harmonic currents.
In practice, losses mean that both standard transformers and autotransformers
are not perfectly reversible; one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver
slightly less voltage than required if it is used to step up. The difference is usually
slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical.
Like multiple-winding transformers, autotransformers operate on timevarying magnetic fields and so will not function with DC.
Applications
Autotransformers are frequently used in power applications to interconnect
systems operating at different voltage classes, for example 138 kV to 66 kV for
transmission. Another application is in industry to adapt machinery built (for
example) for 480 V supplies to operate on a 600 V supply. They are also often used
for providing conversions between the two common domestic mains voltage bands
in the world (100-130 and 200-250).
On long rural power distribution lines, special autotransformers with
automatic tap-changing equipment are inserted as voltage regulators, so that
customers at the far end of the line receive the same average voltage as those closer
to the source. The variable ratio of the autotransformer compensates for the voltage
drop along the line.
A special form of autotransformer called a zig zag is used to provide
grounding (earthing) on three-phase systems that otherwise have no connection to
ground (earth). A zig-zag transformer provides a path for current that is common to
all three phases (so-called zero sequence current).

5. Capacitor Bank
A capacitor bank is a grouping of several identical capacitors interconnected in
parallel or in series with one another. These groups of capacitors are typically used
to correct or counteract undesirable characteristics, such as power factor lag or
phase shifts inherent in alternating current (AC) electrical power supplies. Capacitor
banks may also be used in direct current (DC) power supplies to increase stored
energy and improve the ripple current capacity of the power supply.
Single capacitors are electrical or electronic components which store electrical
energy. Capacitors consist of two conductors that are separated by an insulating
material or dielectric. When an electrical current is passed through the conductor
pair, a static electric field develops in the dielectric which represents the stored
energy. Unlike batteries, this stored energy is not maintained indefinitely, as the
dielectric allows for a certain amount of current leakage which results in the gradual
dissipation of the stored energy.
The energy storing characteristic of capacitors is known as capacitance and is
expressed or measured by the unit farads. This is usually a known, fixed value for
each individual capacitor which allows for considerable flexibility in a wide range
of uses such as restricting DC current while allowing AC current to pass, output
smoothing in DC power supplies, and in the construction of resonant circuits used
in radio tuning. These characteristics also allow capacitors to be used in a group or
capacitor bank to absorb and correct AC power supply faults.
The use of a capacitor bank to correct AC power supply anomalies is typically
found in heavy industrial environments that feature working loads made up of
electric motors and transformers. This type of working load is problematic from a
power supply perspective as electric motors and transformers represent inductive
loads, which cause a phenomenon known as phase shift or power factor lag in the
power supply. The presence of this undesirable phenomenon can cause serious losses
in terms of overall system efficiency with an associated increase in the cost of
supplying the power.
The use of a capacitor bank in the power supply system effectively cancels out
or counteracts these phase shift issues, making the power supply far more efficient
and cost effective. The installation of a capacitor bank is also one of the cheapest
methods of correcting power lag problems and maintaining a power factor capacitor
bank is simple and cost effective.
One thing that should always be kept in mind when working with any capacitor
or capacitor bank is the fact that the stored energy, if incorrectly discharged, can
cause serious burns or electric shocks. The incorrect handling or disposal of

capacitors may also lead to explosions, so care should always be exercised when
dealing with capacitors of any sort.

6. Isolators
In electrical engineering, a disconnector or isolator switch or disconnect
switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energised
for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution
and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power
removed for adjustment or repair.
High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow
isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission
lines, for maintenance.
Often the isolation switch is not intended for normal control of the circuit and
is used only for isolation; in such a case, it functions as a second, usually physically
distant master switch (wired in series with the primary one) that can independently
disable the circuit even if the master switch used in everyday operation is turned on.

Isolator switches have provisions for a padlock so that inadvertent operation is not
possible. In high voltage or complex systems, these padlocks may be part of a
trapped-key interlock system to ensure proper sequence of operation.
In some designs the isolator switch has the additional ability to earth the
isolated circuit thereby providing additional safety. Such an arrangement would
apply to circuits which interconnect power distribution systems where both end of
the circuit need to be isolated.
The major difference between an isolator and a circuit breaker is that an
isolator is an off-load device intended to be opened only after current has been
interrupted by some other control device. Safety regulations of the utility must
prevent any attempt to open the disconnector while it supplies a circuit.

7. Circuit Breakers
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to
protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic
function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt current flow. Unlike a fuse, which
operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either
manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made
in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance
up to large switchgear designed to protect high-voltage circuits feeding an entire
city.

Operation
The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in lowvoltage circuit
breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for large

currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault
current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases
the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage
circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, protection relays, and
an internal control power source.
Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to
interrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as
springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the
contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault
current itself.
Small circuit breakers may be manually operated, larger units have solenoids
to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.
The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive
heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting
(opening) the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys,
and other highly conductive materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by the
erosion of contact material due to arcing while interrupting the current. Miniature
and molded case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts have
worn, but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have replaceable
contacts.
When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained,
cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts
can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum,
air, insulating gas, or oil as the medium the arc forms in.

Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc are : Lengthening / deflection of the arc
Intensive cooling (in jet chambers)
Division into partial arcs
Zero point quenching (Contacts open at the zero current time crossing of the
AC waveform, effectively breaking no load current at the time of opening.
The zero crossing occurs at twice the line frequency i.e. 100 times per second
for 50 Hz.
Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits. Finally, once
the fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be closed to
restore power to the interrupted circuit.

Types of circuit breakers


1. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) high-voltage circuit breakers

A sulphur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses contacts surrounded by sulphur


hexafluoride gas to quench the arc. They are most often used for transmission-level
voltages and may be incorporated into compact gas-insulated switchgear. In cold
climates, supplemental heating or de-rating of the circuit breakers may be required
due to liquefaction of the SF6 gas. Issues related to SF6 circuit breakers.
Issue Related To SF6
The following issues are associated with SF6 circuit breakers:(a)Toxic lower order gases
When an arc is formed in SF6 gas small quantities of lower order gases
are formed. Some of these by-products are toxic and can cause irritation
to eyes and respiratory systems.
(b)Oxygen displacement
SF6 is heavier than air, so care must be taken when entering low
confined spaces due to the risk of oxygen displacement.
(c)Greenhouse gas
SF6 is the most potent greenhouse gas that the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change has evaluated. It has a global warming potential that
is 23,900 times worse than CO2.

Alternatives to SF6 circuit breakers


Circuit breakers are usually classed on their insulating medium. The follow
types of circuit breakers may be an alternative to SF6 types.
Air blast
Oil
Vacuum
CO2

2. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) High-Voltage Circuit Breakers


In 2012 ABB presented a 72.5 kV high-voltage breaker that uses carbon
dioxide as the medium to extinguish the arc. The carbon dioxide breaker works on
the same principles as an SF6 breaker and can also be produced as a disconnecting
circuit breaker. By switching from SF6 to CO2 it is possible to reduce the CO2
emissions by 10 tons during the products life cycle.

8. Lightning Arresters
Lightning arresters are protective devices for limiting surge voltages due to
lightning strikes or equipment faults or other events, to prevent damage to equipment
and disruption of service. Also called surge arresters.
Lightning arresters are installed on many different pieces of equipment such
as power poles and towers, power transformers, circuit breakers, bus structures, and
steel superstructures in substations.

Lightning, is a form of visible discharge of electricity between rain clouds or


between a rain cloud and the earth. The electric discharge is seen in the form of a
brilliant arc, sometimes several kilometres long, stretching between the discharge
points. How thunderclouds become charged is not fully understood, but most
thunderclouds are negatively charged at the base and positively charged at the top.
However formed, the negative charge at the base of the cloud induces a positive
charge on the earth beneath it, which acts as the second plate of a huge capacitor.
When the electrical potential between two clouds or between a cloud and the
earth reaches a sufficiently high value (about 10,000 V per cm or about 25,000 V
per in), the air becomes ionized along a narrow path and a lightning flash results.
The conductor has a pointed edge on one side and the other side is connected
to a long thick copper strip which runs down the building. The lower end of the strip
is properly earthed. When lightning strikes it hits the rod and current flows down
through the copper strip. These rods form a low-resistance path for the lightning
discharge and prevent it from travelling through the structure itself.
The lightning arrestor protects the structure from damage by intercepting
flashes of lightning and transmitting their current to the ground. Since lightning
strikes tend to strike the highest object in the vicinity, the rod is placed at the apex
of a tall structure. It is connected to the ground by low-resistance cables. In the case
of a building, the soil is used as the ground, and on a ship, water is used. A lightning
rod provides a cone of protection, which has a ground radius approximately, equal
to its height above the ground.
Surges due to lightning are mostly injected into the power system through
long cross-country transmission lines. Substation apparatus is always well shielded
against direct lightning strokes. The protection of transmission lines against direct
strokes requires a shield to prevent lightning from striking the electrical conductors.
Terminal equipment at the substation is protected against by surge diverters,
also called surge arrester or lightning arresters. A diverter is connected in parallel or
shunt with the equipment to be protected at the substation between the line and
ground. Ideally, it should
become conducting at voltage above diverter rating
become non conducting again when the line-to-neutral voltage becomes lower
than the design value. In other words, it should not permit any power followon current;
not conduct any current at normal or somewhat above normal power
frequency voltages.

Earthing screen and ground wires can well protect the electrical system against direct
lightning strokes but they fail to provide protection against travelling waves, which
may reach the terminal apparatus.
A lightning arrester or a surge diverter is a protective device, which conducts the
high voltage surges on the power system to the ground.

9. Description of a Substation
It is divided into two parts:1) Panel Section
(a) Control Panel Section
(b) Relay & Protection Panel Section

2) Yard
(a) 220 kV Section
(b) 132 kV Section
(c) 33 kV Section
3) Battery Room(Extra)

1. Panel Section
It is a room which contains all types of panels:(a)Control Panel Section
(i) Control And Relay Panel
(ii) Feeder
(iii) Bus Coupler Control Panel
(iv) Distribution Bus
(v) Remote Tap Changer
(vi) Auto Transformer On Load Tap Changing Control Panel
(vii) Direct Current Distribution Box
(viii) Float And Boost Charger
(ix) Capacitor Bank Panel
(x) Transformer H.V. and L.V. Side Control Panel
(xi) Triple Feeder
(xii) L.T. Distribution Board
(xiii) 40MVA Transformer
(b)Relay And Protection Panel Section
(i) Relay Panel
(ii) Protection Panel
(iii) Rotational Load Shedding
(iv) Line Protection Panel
(v) Transformer Control Panel
(vi) Apex Metering Panel
(vii) Auto Transformer PROIN

10.Some Full Forms Related To Substations

11. Components Used In Yard


(220kV Substation Naubasta, Kanpur)

12. Conclusion

Now I have studied a lot about the electrical transmission system. One must
have never thought that so many things are required for just switching on a television
or a refrigerator or say an electric trimmer. The three wing of electrical system viz.
Generation, transmission and distribution are connected to each other and that
too very perfectly. Here man and electricity work as if they are a family. Lots of
labour, capital and infrastructure is involved in the system just to have a single
phase,220V,50Hz power supply at our houses.

At last I would say...

Energy Saved Is Energy Produced