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1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO

MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT


1. INTRODUCTION
1000 m3 Ash Silo is a steel strucure of 12000 mm in inner diameter. Vertical wall height is 11000 mm and hopper height is
1683 mm. DIN 1055-6, DIN 18800-4 standards and ASD criteria shall be used for the calculation of stresses and thicknesses
of the structures.
2. MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Material to be stored

: Ash

Density of material

= 7,85

kN/m3

Angle of slope of a bulk material

: r

= 41,0

Coefficient of wall friction

= 0,62

Horizontal load ratio

:K

= 0,46

Conversion factor for horizontal load ratio

: ak

= 1,20

Conversion factor for coefficient of wall friction

: a

= 1,07

Conversion factor for angle of internal friction

: aq

= 1,16

Characteristic dimensions for the inner cross-section of the silo

: dc

= 12,000

Characteristic dimensions for the outlet of the silo

:d

= 2,240

Height of the vertical silo shaft, measured from the hopper junction
up to the equivalent bulk material surface

: hc

= 11,000

Height of the hopper measured from the envisaged hopper top up to


the hopper junction

: hh

= 1,683

Height of the hopper measured from the outlet of hopper up to the


hopper junction

:h

= 1,369

Overall height of a silo with hopper, measured from the envisaged


hopper peak, up to the equivalent bulk material surface

: hb

= 12,683

Distance between the equivalent bulk material surface and the lowest : ho
point at the base of the bulk material cone

= 1,739

Total height of the back-filled cone at the bulk material surface

: htp

= 0,000

Angle of inclination of the hopper wall with ref. to the vertical

= 74,3

Angle of inclination of the hopper wall with ref. to the vertical

= 15,7

Area of cylindrical section

:A

D
4

= 113,10

m2

Inner circumference of the cross-section of the vertical silo

:U

= d

= 37,70

Volume of cylindrical section

: Vc

= Ah

= 1244,07

m3

3. PROPERTIES OF SILO

Volume of conical section

: Vh

Vh

h(

= 63,04
= V +V

Total volume of silo

:V

Total weight of the material in the silo

: Wm = V

Page 1 / 15

d
d
d d
+ +
)
2
2
2 2
3
m3

= 1307,11

m3

= 10260,84 kN

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT

4. LIMITATIONS OF THE CODE

Following limitations should be checked to apply DIN 1055 Part 6:


l1

l2

l3

h
< 10
d

1,06 OK

= h < 100

12,68 OK

= d < 60

12,00 OK

5. LOADS ON VERTICAL SILO WALLS

Based upon the design of the silo structure and its susceptibility to different types of malfunctions, various accuracy
standards are used in the process of determining the influences on silo structures. The silo influences should be determined
in accordance with standardized categories specified in DIN 1055 Part 6. The standardized category of the silo is "2" as the
capacity of it is
100 t<Wm<1000 t (Actual capacity of the silo is 740 t, full height is used for thickness calculations)

The loads on the vertical silo walls are to be determined in


accordance with the criteria pertaining to the slimness of the silos

h
d

= 0,92

--> low silo

Fill Loads on the Vertical Walls


Horizontal load after the filling

: Phf

=P

Wall friction loads after the filling

: Pwf

=P

Asymptomatic horizontal loads at a great depth from the stored bulk


material

: Pho = K z

= 37,98

kN/m2

A
KU

= 10,52

Characteristic depth according to the theory of Janssen

: zo

Depth variation function for small silos

: YR

= 1

Parameters in the conditional equations of the hopper loads

:n

= (1+ tan & ) 1

Vertical load in the bulk material after the filling

= -1,56

: Pvf

= z'

Unit of measurement of the depth for determining the vertical loads in : zv


low silos

1
n+1

Characteristic value of the sum total of the wall friction loads for each : pwf
running meter in the circumferential direction of the vertical silo wall
in the case of fill loads

Page 2 / 15

zh
z h

+1

h
z

z h
= P

(z + z 2 h )!()
z h !

(z z' )

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
Phf

Pwf

z
(m)

zv
(m)

(kN/m )

(kN/m )

0,50

0,34

-10,17

-6,31

2,00

1,99

1,70

3,50

3,26

5,00

Pvf
(kN/m2)

pwf
(kN/m)

-0,27

2,71

3,65

1,05

0,04

15,65

0,14

9,43

5,84

0,25

25,63

5,55

4,28

14,78

9,16

0,39

33,60

16,95

6,50

5,12

18,66

11,57

0,49

40,16

32,59

8,00

5,82

21,58

13,38

0,57

45,68

51,36

9,50

6,42

23,85

14,78

0,63

50,40

72,53

11,00

6,94

25,64

15,89

0,67

54,49

95,57

YR

Reference Surface Load for Fill Loads


For low silos hc/dc1,0 of all categories, the fill type of reference
surface loads need not be taken into account. While hc/dc=0,92,
reference surface load shall not be taken into account.

Discharge Loads on the Vertical Silo Walls


For low silos hc/dc1,0 the symmetric discharge loads can be
equalized with the fill loads.
Reference Surface Load for Discharge Loads
For low silos hc/dc1,0 of all categories, the formulation of a reference
surface load of the discharge type can be ignored in case of an
eccentricity during emptying which is smaller than the critical value of
0,1*dc.

6. LOADS ON SILO HOPPERS AND SILO BOTTOMS


The loads on the walls of the silo hoppers are to be determined as
per the foll. Classification relating to the inclination of the hopper
walls:
1)

If the angle of inclination of the bottom with the


horizontal is less than 5 then the bottom is
presumed to be level (flat bottom)

2)

If the other two cases mentioned do not apply,


then the hopper is presumed to have a gentle
inclination (flat)

3)

A hopper is said to be steep if the foll. criteria are


met

tan <

1 K/a,
2 /a-

3,56 > 0,53

Then the hopper is flat.

The bottom load augmentation factor

: Cb

Vertical load at the hopper junction after the filling (foot of the vertical : Pvft
silo shaft)

Page 3 / 15

= 1,2
= C P'

= 65,39

kN/m2

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
Empirical coefficient

:b

= 0,20

Geometry factors for the hopper loads

:S

= 2

1K

The effective or the mobilized characteristic coefficient of wall friction : heff =


2 tan
for the hopper

= 0,08

Fill Loads

Load ratio in the hopper after the filling (relationship between loads
perpendicular to the silo wall and mean vertical loads in the bulk
material)

: Ff

Ff
Parameter in the conditional equations of the hopper loads

:n
n

The mean vertical load in the hopper

: Pv

= 1

b
tan
1+
3

= 1,00
= S 1 b 3 cot
= 0,03

n1

x
h

The loads perpendicular to the hopper walls

: Pnf

= F P'

The wall friction loads

: Ptf

= F P' 3

Pv

Pnf

+ P' 8

x
h

Ptf

x
(m)

(kN/m )

(kN/m )

(kN/m2)

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

1,50

59,71

59,47

4,50

1,68

65,39

65,12

4,93

Discharge Loads
Wall friction angle in the hopper between bulk material and hopper
wall

: wh = tan>) ( 3 )
wh = 0,08

Wall friction angle in the hopper between bulk material and hopper
wall

Load ratio in the hopper during the discharge (relationship between


loads perpendicular to the silo wall and mean vertical loads in the
bulk material)

: i

= & a ?

= @ + sin>)

= 0,18

: Fe

Fe

Page 4 / 15

= 47,56

sin @
sin <

1 + sin < cos()


1 sin < cos(2 + )

= 1,02

: Pne = F3 P'

The loads perpendicular to the hopper walls

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT

: Pte

= F3 P' 3

Importance factor

:I

= 1,50

Effective ground acceleration coefficient (seismic zone-1):

: A0

= 0,40

Behavioural coefficient

:R

= 4,00

Design response spectrum

: S(T) = 2,50

Length of the cone

:s

Surface area of the cone

: Ah

Assumed weight of the cone shell (th=40 mm)

Assumed weight of the vertical wall shell (tc=12 mm)

The wall friction loads

x
(m)

Pv

Pne

Pte

(kN/m2)

(kN/m2)

(kN/m2)

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

1,50

59,71

61,06

4,62

1,68

65,39

66,86

5,06

7. SEISMIC LOADS

h
cos

= 6,23

d s
2

= 117,46

m2

: Wh

= A t 77

= 361,78

kN

: Wc

= d t h 77

= 744,96

kN

= 58,73

kN

Wc

= 383,17

kN

= W +W

Assumed total weight of the shell

: Ws

Weight of the air injection units

: Wai = A 0,5

Weight of the penthouse

: Wph = 51,50

kN

Weight of the roof and other equipments

: Wr

kN

Snow load

: Wsn = 45,00

kN

Live load

: WL

= 35,00

kN

Total weight of the silo

:W

= WC + WD + WE< + WF + W& + WG

Seismic load acting on the silo

:V
V

Page 5 / 15

= 250,00

= 11401,03

kN

I AI S T W
R

= 4275,38

kN

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
Weight of plates, structure or equipments

: Wp

Weight of material

: Wm

Total weight

:W

Distance between force and support point

:L

No

Portion
height
(m)

Total
height
(m)

tp
(mm)

Wp
(kN)

Wm
(kN)

W
(kN)

L
(m)

W*L
(kN.m)

F
(kN)

M
(kN.m)

1,00

1,68

1,68

40,00

420,52

494,88

915,40

0,84

770,31

53,73

33142,22

2,00

1,50

1,50

16,00

69,76

1331,72 1401,48

0,75

1051,11

73,31

27080,70

3,00

1,50

3,00

16,00

69,76

1331,72 1401,48

2,25

3153,33

219,94

21023,13

4,00

1,50

4,50

14,00

61,03

1331,72 1392,75

3,75

5222,82

364,28

15403,73

5,00

1,50

6,00

14,00

61,03

1331,72 1392,75

5,25

7311,95

509,99

10440,02

6,00

1,50

7,50

12,00

52,30

1331,72 1384,02

6,75

9342,16

651,59

6347,50

7,00

1,50

9,00

10,00

43,58

1331,72 1375,30

8,25

11346,22

791,37

3337,20

8,00

1,50

10,50

8,00

34,86

1331,72 1366,58

9,75

13324,14

929,32

1446,64

9,00

0,50

11,00

8,00

11,62

443,91

455,53

10,75

4896,91

341,55

1191,10

10,00

7,00

18,00

336,50

0,00

336,50

14,5

4879,25

340,31

61298,20

8. THICKNESS CALCULATION

Axial Buckling of Vertical Walls

Axial and hoop stresses in shell membrane

: x

Ideal buckling stress

: xSi

Si

Actual buckling stress

: xSRk

SRk SRk

Limit buckling stress

: xSRd

SRd SRd

Partial safety factor for resistance parameters

: m2

Si

SRk = x2*y

SRd = SRk/m2

: Sx

Non-dimensional slenderness ratio of shell

if
if
if

ON 0,25

0,25< ON < 2
ON 2

then
then
then

C = 1,1

C = 1,1 1 + 0,318

C = 1,45

Page 6 / 15

ON 0,25
1,75

M
NO<

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT

Reduction factor

: x2

ON 0,25

if

0,25< ON 1

if

1< ON 1,5

if

x = 1,233 0,933 ON

then

x = 0,3

then

ON > 1,5

if

x =1

then

x = 0,2

then

ON

ON

Radius of silo wall

: rc

= 6,000

Shell material

: S235JR

Yield strength of shell material

: y

= 235000

Modulus of elasticity of shell material

:E

= 210 10Z

xSi = 0,605 E

kN/m2
kPa

t
r

= 21,18 10Z t

xa

= WF + W& + WG + W8

xm

M
=
r

xw =

d t

p@
t

= 1,35 (NE + NC + N@ )

In the calculations below, shell thicknesses are assumed 1 mm less than their actual values due to corrosion safety.

No

Portion
height
(m)

tp
(m)

(kN/m2)

1,50

0,015

1,50

xSi

xa

xm

xw

(kN/m2)

(kN/m2)

(kN/m2)

Sx

m2

x2

317700,00

0,86

1,22

0,43

19174,45 19536,10

6371,51

0,015

317700,00

0,86

1,22

0,43

16696,09 15963,06

4835,52

1,50

0,013

275340,00

0,92

1,23

0,37

16405,06 14298,87

3951,15

1,50

0,013

275340,00

0,92

1,23

0,37

13563,23 10476,84

2506,79

1,50

0,011

232980,00

1,00

1,25

0,30

12670,73

8391,83

1540,57

1,50

0,009

190620,00

1,11

1,27

0,35

11407,30

6236,03

616,51

1,50

0,007

148260,00

1,26

1,30

0,42

9454,96

4215,33

19,92

0,50

0,007

148260,00

1,26

1,30

0,42

4276,44

1827,31

521,74

Page 7 / 15

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
No

xSRk
2

(kN/m )

(kN/m )

xSRd
(kN/m2)

x/xSRd

60860,79 101184,0 82805,99

0,73

50617,80 101184,0 82805,99

0,61

46784,36 87197,3 70622,70

0,66

35838,25 87197,3 70622,70

0,51

30514,22 70957,9 56731,00

0,54

24650,77 82482,9 64846,72

0,38

18481,79 99591,4 76509,78

0,24

8944,41

0,12

99591,4 76509,78

Meridional Buckling of Hopper Shell

dc

= 12,000

rc

= 6,000

hh

= 1,683

= 0,040

Wh

= 915,40

kN

Mh

= 33142,22

kN.m

= 74,3

= hh/cos()

= 6,23

r*

= rc/cos()

= 22,22

xa

xa

= 2247,67

xm =

W
2 r t cos

kN/m2

M
t cos

xm = 27125,81

kN/m2

xw =

^
r
1
] P83 x x +
dx
r
sin

x+
t I
sin

xw = 71,60

kN/m2

= 1,35 (NE + NC + N@ )

= 39750,85

kN/m2

xSi = 0,605 E
_

Page 8 / 15

M
NO<

Sx

x2

= 1,233 0,933 ON

x2

= 0,29

= 228754,64 kN/m2

= 1,01

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
m2 = 1,1 1 + 0,318
m2 = 1,25

ON 0,25
1,75

SRk = x2*y

= 67527,15 kN/m2

SRd = SRk/m2

= 53908,53 kN/m2

NO

= 0,74

<

OK

Shear Buckling of Hopper Shell

s*

= 6,15

1
1
= 0,5 r
cos

Rd
t

= 2,82

= 70,44

E
15 M

I,Zc

Rd
E

t
15 M
if
if

Od 0,25

0,25< Od < 2

then
then

C = 1,1

C = 1,1 1 + 0,318

if

Oe 2

then

C = 1,45

if

Oe 0,25

then

x =1

if
if
if

0,25< Od 1
1< Oe 1,5
Od > 1,5

then
then
then

s
sin
r

= 15,46

OK

ON 0,25
1,75

x = 1,233 0,933 Od

x = 0,3
x = 0,2

Od

Od
O< = 0,75 E

t
Rd

), a

Rd
s

I,a

O< = 518977,24 kN/m2


S

M
NO<

m2 = 1,1 1 + 0,318
m2 = 1,18

x2

Page 9 / 15

= 0,67

Od 0,25
1,75

=1,233 0,933 Od = 0,61

,a I,b

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
O

= x

O ,
C

= 69316,65 kN/m2

= 1,35

= 82107,97 kN/m2

F
r t

= 0,00

= 96,20

<

1,00

<

<

kN/m2

OK

Buckling Check of Hopper Shell

NO

), a
`

0,68

OK

9. ANCHOR BOLT SELECTION

Moment about silo base due to sesimic loads

: Ms

= 33142,22

kN.m

Thickness of the lowest shell course (1 mm corroded)

:t

= 0,015

Compressive stress on the lowest course

: sc

4 MD
W
+
(d +t) t d
(d +t) t

sc

= 39647,98

D
M

= 0,17

<

1,00

4 MD
W
d + 0,2

Total uplift force

:U

Number of anchor bolts

:N

= 36

Maximum tension acting on one anchor bolt

: Tb

= U/N

Number of anchor bolts

: ab

= 200000

Required anchor bold area

: Ab

Selected anchor bolt nominal diameter

: Db

= 52 mm

Page 10 / 15

kN/m2

T 10Z
E

OK

= 10233,13 kN

= 284,25

kN

= 1421,27

mm2

Ab = 1652,00

mm2

kN/m2

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
10. SHEAR KEY SELECTION (ASD PROCEDURE)

kN/m2

Yield strength of the key material

: ys

= 235000

Number of shear keys

: Ns

= 36

Design shear force

: Vs

= V 0,7

Compression stress of concrete

: yc

= 21000

Required bearing area for the shear lug

: As

Assumed width of the shear lug

: Ws

= 0,30

Assumed thickness of grout

: gr

= 0,05

Necessary shear lug depth below the concrete foundation

: Hs

Cantilever end moment acting on a unit length of the shear lug

: Ms

Ms

ND

kN

= 0,0113

m2

= 0,09

kN/m2

VD
0,35 M

AD
+ gr
WD

VD
(HD gr)
(gr +
)
WD
2

= 19,08

Resistance factor for flexure

: b

= 0,75

Required minimum thickness of the shear lug

: ts

Selected dimensions

: 300 * 100 * 30

Page 11 / 15

= 83,13

kN.m/m

6 MD
m MD

= 0,025

mm

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
11. GRAPHICS

General Dimensions

Page 12 / 15

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
Seismic Load Distribution

Page 13 / 15

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
Shear Lug and Anchor Bolt Arrangement

Page 14 / 15

1200 m3 CAPACITY ASH SILO


MECHANICAL CALCULATION REPORT
Anchor Chair Dimensions

Page 15 / 15