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Biology Weekly Exams Material

Level M Grade 11
Week: 10

From: Oct 30 Till Nov 03

Exams Time Table:

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

AMS/HW
Material AMS: 11008
Sample Questions Exam
1. List the various types of human teeth, its position, its total number and its function.

2. Compare the number and type of permanent teeth with the milk teeth.

3. a. The diagram below shows a longitudinal section through an incisor tooth. Label parts A J
of the tooth.

Biology Weekly Exams Material

b. Describe the position of the pulp cavity in the tooth and state its function.

4. a. What is fluoridation and what is its disadvantage?


b. How does fluoride reduce tooth decay?

5. List the events that lead to tooth decay.

Biology Weekly Exams Material


6. Give the importance of each of the following in maintaining healthy teeth.
a. avoiding eating sugary food
b. brushing the teeth

7. Compare carnivore / herbivore dentition.

8. Describe the herbivore dentition

9. List four functions of the skeleton.

10. Refer to diagram below to identify structures A-F.

Biology Weekly Exams Material

11. What protects the heart and lungs?

12. What are joints and what are their types?

Biology Weekly Exams Material


13. Examine the diagram below carefully.

a. What type of joint is shown in the diagram?


b. Identify labels 1 7 and state each of its function.

14. Compare the composition of both cartilage and bone

15. a. Name the flexor muscle and the extensor muscle.


b. Describe how to:
i. extend the elbow joint
ii. bend the elbow joint

16. a. State three types of muscles

Biology Weekly Exams Material


b. State where each is found
c. Describe its appearance and identify each as voluntary or involuntary

17. Explain why receptors are described as biological transducers.

18. a. Define taxic response.


b. Distinguish between positive taxic response and negative taxic response, give examples.
c. In what way is a tropic response different from a taxic response?

19. a. Describe the sequence of events at the synapse given below.

b. The arrows on the diagram given above indicate the direction of the nerve Explain why the
arrow was drawn in that direction.

Biology Weekly Exams Material

20. a. Name substances excreted by the lungs and state its origin.
b. State where the following waste products originate from i.e. process and organ:
i) Urea
ii) Bilirubin

21. Explain what is osmoregulation.

22. Explain how a hot climate affects the volume and concentration of urine.

23. Insert active immunity or passive immunity where appropriate.


a) Defense against a pathogen by the production of antibodies by the bodys own immune
system following exposure to pathogen. _________
b) Defense against a pathogen by antibodies acquired from another individual eg. antibodies
in mothers milk .__________
c) Immunity gained by vaccination (receiving an injection containing weakened pathogen or
antigen). ___________
d) Immunity gained by infection by a pathogen. ___________
e) Immunity results in the production of memory cells and is long lasting. _________

24. Identify which blood group is a universal recipient. Why?

Biology Weekly Exams Material

Biology Weekly Exams Material


AMS Sample Question Answers
1. List the various types of human teeth, its position, its total number and its function.
Solution:
Type of teeth

Number

Position

Function

Incisors

At the front of mouth

Bite off small pieces of food

Canines

Right behind incisors

Rip and tear / hold and pierce


prey (in carnivores)
In humans have same function as
incisors

Premolars

At the side of the jaw

Crush and grind food

Molars

12

At the back of the jaw

Crush and grind food

2. Compare the number and type of permanent teeth with the milk teeth.
Solution:
Type of teeth

Incisors

Canines

Premolars

Molars

Total number

Milk teeth

20

12

32

Permanent teeth

3. a. The diagram below shows a longitudinal section through an incisor tooth. Label parts A J
of the tooth.

Biology Weekly Exams Material

b. Describe the position of the pulp cavity in the tooth and state its function.
Solution:
a.
A crown
B root
C enamel
D dentine
E pulp cavity
F blood capillaries
G cement (where fibers are embedded)
H fibers (holding tooth in socket)
J nerve / gum
b. The pulp cavity is located in the centre, within the dentine. The pulp cavity contains blood
capillaries and nerve endings. The blood capillaries provide O2 and nutrients to the surrounding
dentine and keeps it alive. The nerve endings help the tooth to detect stimulus eg. pain.

4. a. What is fluoridation and what is its disadvantage?


b. How does fluoride reduce tooth decay?
Solution:

Biology Weekly Exams Material


a. It is the addition of fluoride ions to public water supplies to prevent tooth decay. High levels of
fluoride may cause the teeth to discolor.

b. Fluoride in toothpaste or in water supplies increases the resistance of teeth to bacterial acids.
So, teeth become more resistant to decay.

5. List the events that lead to tooth decay.


Solution:
- Anaerobic bacteria feed on sugar and produce lactic acid
- Lactic acid dissolves the calcium in the enamel
- A cavity (dental cary) appears

6. Give the importance of each of the following in maintaining healthy teeth.


a. avoiding eating sugary food
b. brushing the teeth
Solution:
a. Avoiding eating sugary food prevents a buildup of bacteria and the acid they produce
b. Brushing the teeth prevents a buildup of tartar and thus prevent gum disease

7. Compare carnivore / herbivore dentition.


Solution:

Biology Weekly Exams Material

-Both have incisors, premolars and molars


-Herbivores have no incisors on the upper jaw ; carnivores have incisors present in the
upper jaw and lower jaw.
-Herbivores have no canines
-Herbivores have no carnassial teeth

8. Describe the herbivore dentition


Solution:
- The molars and premolars are broad and ridged to grind food.
- No canines
- The dentine and enamel layers are exposed

Biology Weekly Exams Material


- The dentine is softer than the enamel
- The enamel doesnt cover the whole surface of the tooth.
- The teeth continue to grow while the animal is alive

9. List four functions of the skeleton.


Solution:
i. Support
ii. Protection
iii. Movement
iv. Production of blood cells

10. Refer to diagram below to identify structures A-F.

Solution:
A- cranium

B- ribs

C- humerus

D- ulna

E- femur

F- tibia

Biology Weekly Exams Material


11. What protects the heart and lungs?
Solution:
The rib cage

12. What are joints and what are their types?


Solution:
Joints occur where two or more bones come together.
Fixed joints, ball and socket joints and hinge joints

13. Examine the diagram below carefully.

a. What type of joint is shown in the diagram?


b. Identify labels 1 7 and state each of its function.
Solution:
a. An elbow hinge joint
b.
Structure

Name

Function

Triceps

to straighten the joint when contracted

Tendon

To join muscle to bone

Biology Weekly Exams Material


3

Ligament

To join bone to bone, holding the joint together

Synovial fluid

To reduce friction at joints

cartilage

To reduce friction at joints

Synovial membrane Produces synovial fluid

14. Compare the composition of both cartilage and bone


Solution:
Cartilage contains more proteins, less minerals and less blood vessels than the bone.
Both contain living cells. Cartilage is softer and smoother than bone.

15. a. Name the flexor muscle and the extensor muscle.


b. Describe how to:
i. extend the elbow joint
ii. bend the elbow joint
Solution:
a.

Flexor muscle: biceps


Extensor muscle: triceps

b. i. The biceps relaxes, the triceps contracts


ii. The biceps contracts and the triceps relaxes
16. a. State three types of muscles
b. State where each is found
c. Describe its appearance and identify each as voluntary or involuntary
Solution:

Type of muscle

Location

Appearance

Control

Biology Weekly Exams Material


Striated
(skeletal)
Non-striated

Cardiac

Associated with bones eg.

Striped or striated

Voluntary

Arteries, sphincters, intestines

Smooth, no obvious

Involuntary

and uterus

stripes

Heart

Striped or striated

Biceps, triceps

Involuntary

17. Explain why receptors are described as biological transducers.


Solution:
All receptors are transducers because they convert the energy form of the stimulus into electrical
energy in the neuron. Receptors are specific to receiving certain kinds of stimulus eg. photo
receptors respond to light, chemoreceptors to chemical, thermoreceptors to heat.

18. a. Define taxic response.


b. Distinguish between positive taxic response and negative taxic response, give examples.
c. In what way is a tropic response different from a taxic response?
Solution:
a. It is the movement of a whole organism in response to a directional stimulus.

b. A movement towards a stimulus is considered to be positive, while a movement away from a


stimulus is considered to be negative. Example: Euglena move towards light to photosynthesize
(positive), woodlice move away from light to avoid predators and dehydration (negative)

c. A tropic response such as phototropism is a growth response. The shoot of a plant grows
towards the light stimulus (positive)

19. a. Describe the sequence of events at the synapse given below.

Biology Weekly Exams Material

b. The arrows on the diagram given above indicate the direction of the nerve Explain why the
arrow was drawn in that direction.

Solution:
a.
1. Impulses arrive down the axon of the first neuron
2. Vesicles release neurotransmitters by exocytosis
3. Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft / gap
4. Neurotransmitter attaches to the receptors on the membrane of the second neuron
5. Impulse is started in the second neuron
6. Neurotransmitter is broken down by enzyme from second neuron.
b. The impulse can only travel in one direction across the gap: from the pre-synaptic neuron that
releases the neurotransmitter to the post-synaptic neuron that has the receptors. Only one side of
synapse has receptors for the neurotransmitter molecules to bind with.

20. a. Name substances excreted by the lungs and state its origin.
b. State where the following waste products originate from i.e. process and organ:
i) Urea
ii) Bilirubin
Solution:

Biology Weekly Exams Material


a. The excretory substances of lungs are carbon dioxide and water. These excretory waste
products are originated from the metabolic activity called respiration which occurs in all living
cells.

b. i. Urea is formed in the liver when excess amino acids are deaminated.
ii. Bilirubin is formed when the pigment, haemoglobin from expired red blood cells is broken
down in the liver. Urea is passed out in the urine whilst bilirubin is passed out in the faeces
(stool) of humans.

21. Explain what is osmoregulation.


Solution:
Osmoregulation is the maintenance of water balance and occurs in the collecting ducts. It helps
to regulate the volume and concentration of body fluids. This process is under the control of the
hypothalamus in the brain and a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
(Note: diuresis means excessive production of urine; antidiuresis limits the production of dilute
urine)

22. Explain how a hot climate affects the volume and concentration of urine.
Solution:
A hot climate causes humans to sweat. Sweating causes the water potential of the blood to
decrease. This results in the hypothalamus stimulating the release of ADH by the pituitary gland.
More water is reabsorbed and so decreasing the volume and increasing the concentration of
urine.

23. Insert active immunity or passive immunity where appropriate.


a) Defense against a pathogen by the production of antibodies by the bodys own immune
system following exposure to pathogen. _________
b) Defense against a pathogen by antibodies acquired from another individual eg. antibodies
in mothers milk .__________
c) Immunity gained by vaccination (receiving an injection containing weakened pathogen or
antigen). ___________

Biology Weekly Exams Material


d) Immunity gained by infection by a pathogen. ___________
e) Immunity results in the production of memory cells and is long lasting. _________
Solution:
a) Active immunity
b) Passive immunity
c) Active immunity
d) Active immunity
e) Active immunity

24. Identify which blood group is a universal recipient. Why?


Solution:
Group AB has antigen A and antigen B on the surface of red blood cells. Group AB do not have
antibodies A or B in their blood plasma.

I Poorly done questions

Biology Weekly Exams Material


Material HW: BMH18-WRCC
Sample Questions Exam
1. Study the diagram below which shows human dentition. Note the position of the various teeth
type and label 1 4.
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

2. Complete the table below on an adult human dentition. State the major types of teeth and their
numbers.
Type of teeth
Incisors

Number

Premolars
12
3. Identify the type of tooth for biting off small pieces of food in all mammals.

Biology Weekly Exams Material


4. Identify the type of teeth in carnivores for:
a. ripping and tearing or for piercing and holding prey,
b. for shearing flesh (acting like the blades of a pair of scissors)

5. Compare milk teeth and permanent teeth in humans.

6. a. List the sequence of events that lead to tooth decay.


b. How will the above affect pH in the mouth?

7. Studies have shown that there is correlation between the level of fluoridation and the incidence
of tooth decay.
a. i. What is fluoridation?
ii. What is the disadvantage of fluoridation?
b. How does fluoride reduce tooth decay?

8. a. Complete the table to show key types of teeth in carnivore and herbivore.
Incisors Canines Premolars
Carnivore

Molars

Carnassial teeth

Biology Weekly Exams Material


dentition
Herbivore
dentition
b. Compare dog dentition and herbivore eg. sheep.

9. What are antagonistic muscles? Give examples.

10. a. Name the flexor muscle and the extensor muscle.


b. Describe how to:
i. extend the elbow joint
ii. bend the elbow joint

11. List the various functions of the skeleton.

12. What is the function of the synovial fluid?

13. What is the role of a tendon in a joint?

Biology Weekly Exams Material


14. Compare striated and non-striated muscles.

15. What is cardiac muscle? What are its special characteristics?

16. Complete the following table on the 3 types of joints and their characteristics with
example.

Type of joint

Characteristics

Example

Fixed joint
Ball and socket
joint
Hinge joint

17. What type of joint allows a circular movement?

18. Identify structures 1-7 in the diagram of an elbow joint, shown below.

Biology Weekly Exams Material

19. Refer to the diagram below to complete the table that follows using words such as contracts,
relaxes, extends or flexes:

Biology Weekly Exams Material


Muscle X

Muscle Y

Joint Z

Muscle M

Muscle N

Joint P

Figure 1
Figure 2

Figure 2

20. List the features which allow the alveoli to be adapted to gas exchange.

21. Describe what occurs during inhalation.

22. Describe what occurs during exhalation.

23. What is respiration?

24. What is the addictive substance in tobacco smoke?

Biology Weekly Exams Material


25. Fill in the blank:
Excretion is necessary for the removal of _____(a)____ materials, the waste products of
____(b)_____ and substances in ______(c)_____ of requirements from organisms.

26. a) Name the true excretory organs of the human body?


b) Name an organ that is not considered a true excretory organ.

27. Define ureter, what is the role of the ureter in the urinary system?

28. What is the role of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

29. Where does Selective reabsorption occur?

30. Name the process that occurs in the glomerulus:

31. From where does the motor neuron carry impulses? To where does it lead these
impulses?

32. What is the function of a sensory neuron?

Biology Weekly Exams Material


33. Describe what happens to nerve impulse at the junction where 2 neurons meet.

34. Explain why receptors are described as transducers.

35. List the sequence of events that lead to tooth decay.

36. What are the four functions of the skeleton?

37. What is cardiac muscle? What are its special characteristics?

38. Compare striated and non-striated muscles.

39. What are antagonistic muscles? Give examples.

Biology Weekly Exams Material

40. Describe what happens to nerve impulse at the junction where 2 neurons meet, i.e, at the
synapse.

41. The spinal nerves has two roots, the dorsal root and the ventral root. What is the function of
the roots in each spinal nerve?

Biology Weekly Exams Material


HW Sample Question Answers
1. Study the diagram below which shows human dentition. Note the position of the various teeth
type and label 1 4.
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.1
Solution:
1 incisor

2 Canine

3 Premolar

4 Molar

2. Complete the table below on an adult human dentition. State the major types of teeth and their
numbers.
Type of teeth
Incisors

Number

Premolars
12

Biology Weekly Exams Material


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.1 Basic Question Number 1
Solution:
Type of teeth
Incisors
Canines
Premolars
Molars

Number
8
4
8
12

3. Identify the type of tooth for biting off small pieces of food in all mammals.
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.1 Basic Question Number 1
Solution:
Incisors

4. Identify the type of teeth in carnivores for:


a. ripping and tearing or for piercing and holding prey,
b. for shearing flesh (acting like the blades of a pair of scissors)
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.3 Basic Question Number 4
Solution:
a. Canine
b. Carnassial teeth (these are specialized premolars)

5. Compare milk teeth and permanent teeth in humans.


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.1 Basic Question Number 2(a)
Solution:

Biology Weekly Exams Material

Milk teeth are temporary and fell out during childhood. Permanent teeth are replaced during
adulthood.
Milk teeth are smaller ; permanent teeth are larger and last a life time.
Milk teeth are comprised of 20 teeth; permanent teeth are comprised of 32 teeth.
Milk teeth are comprised of 8 incisors, 4 canines and 8 molars (no premolars) ; in permanent
teeth, there is an additional 8 premolars and 4 molars in the adults.

6. a. List the sequence of events that lead to tooth decay.


b. How will the above affect pH in the mouth?
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.2 Basic Question Number 2(b)
Solution:
a. After eating sugary food:
- Anaerobic bacteria in the mouth feed on sugar & produce lactic acid
- Lactic acid dissolves the calcium out of the hard enamel
- A cavity or dental caries appears
b. The acid produced will lower the pH in the mouth, and therefore increase its acidity.

7. Studies have shown that there is correlation between the level of fluoridation and the incidence
of tooth decay.
a. i. What is fluoridation?
ii. What is the disadvantage of fluoridation?
b. How does fluoride reduce tooth decay?
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.2 Basic Question Number 2(c)
Solution:
a. i. Fluoridation is the addition of fluoride ions to water supplies. Usually 1 part per million is
added.
ii. Fluoridation is a disadvantage if too much fluoride is added to water, i.e., 2 ppm. This is
because teeth may become discolored.

Biology Weekly Exams Material


b. Fluoride ions make teeth more resistant to decay.

8. a. Complete the table to show key types of teeth in carnivore and herbivore.
Incisors Canines Premolars

Molars

Carnassial teeth

Incisors Canines Premolars

Molars

Carnassial teeth

Present

present

present

present

present

present

absent

present

present

absent

Carnivore
dentition
Herbivore
dentition
b. Compare dog dentition and herbivore eg. sheep.

Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.3 Basic Question Number 4
Solution:
a.

Carnivore
dentition
Herbivore
dentition

b. Canines and carnassial teeth are present in dog but absent in herbivores eg. sheep.

9. What are antagonistic muscles? Give examples.


Reference:
Solution:

Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5, Basic Question Number 8

Biology Weekly Exams Material


They are muscles that work in opposing pairs,
Examples are circular and radial muscles of the iris in the human eye, and triceps and biceps
muscle in the human arms.

10. a. Name the flexor muscle and the extensor muscle.


b. Describe how to:
i. extend the elbow joint
ii. bend the elbow joint
Solution:
a.

Flexor muscle: biceps


Extensor muscle: triceps

b. i. The biceps relaxes, the triceps contracts


ii. The biceps contracts and the triceps relaxes
11. List the various functions of the skeleton.
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.4 Basic Question Number 5
Solution:
- Support: the bones of the legs and vertebral column hold the human body upright
- Protection: the rib cage offers protection to organs like the heart and lungs
- Movement: the muscles attached to the bones of the limb cause movement
- Production of blood cells: bone marrow found in bones are the site for the production of blood
cells.

12. What is the function of the synovial fluid?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5 Basic Question Number 7(d)
Solution:

Biology Weekly Exams Material


Synovial fluid reduces friction at a joint.

13. What is the role of a tendon in a joint?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5 Basic Question Number 7(b)
Solution:
The tendon joins muscle to bone.

14. Compare striated and non-striated muscles.


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5, Basic Question Number 9
Solution:
Striated muscle: known as skeletal muscle. Non-striated muscle: known as smooth muscle.
Contraction of striated muscle moves bones of the skeleton. Non-striated muscle brings about
movement in organs like uterus, intestine and arteries and sphincters..
Striated muscles appear striped and bring about voluntary movement. Non-striated muscles have
no stripes and are involved in involuntary movement.

15. What is cardiac muscle? What are its special characteristics?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5, Basic Question Number 9
Solution:
It is the muscle which is only found in the heart.
Cardiac muscle is special because it is myogenic and does not fatigue. This means it initiates its
own contraction and is able to contract continuously. Like smooth muscles, it is involuntary.

16. Complete the following table on the 3 types of joints and their characteristics with
example.

Biology Weekly Exams Material


Type of joint

Characteristics

Example

Fixed joint
Ball and socket
joint
Hinge joint
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5 Basic Question Number 6(a, b)
Solution:

Type of joint
Fixed joint
Ball and socket

Characteristics

Example

Non moveable

Pelvis, cranium

Allows a circular movement

Shoulder, hip

Allows a movement forward

Knee, elbow, lower

joint
Hinge joint

and backward in a

jaw

straight line

17. What type of joint allows a circular movement?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5 Basic Question Number 6(b)
Solution:
Ball and socket joint

18. Identify structures 1-7 in the diagram of an elbow joint, shown below.

Biology Weekly Exams Material

Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5
Solution:

Structure

Name

Triceps

Tendon

Ligament

Synovial fluid

cartilage

ulna

Synovial membrane

19. Refer to the diagram below to complete the table that follows using words such as contracts,
relaxes, extends or flexes:

Biology Weekly Exams Material

Muscle X

Muscle Y

Joint Z

Muscle M

Muscle N

Joint P

Muscle X

Muscle Y

Joint Z

contracts

relaxes

flexes

Figure 1
Figure 2

Figure 2

Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5
Solution:

Figure 1

Biology Weekly Exams Material


Figure 2

Figure 2

relaxes

contracts

extends

Muscle M

Muscle N

Joint P

relaxes

contracts

flexes

contracts

relaxes

extends

20. List the features which allow the alveoli to be adapted to gas exchange.
Reference: Biology Level M, Chapter 1.1. Basic Question number 1
Solution:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Large surface area


Thin walls
Moist surface
Rich blood supply

21. Describe what occurs during inhalation.


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 1.2, Basic question number 8
Solution:
- External intercostal muscles contract.
- Ribs are pulled upward and outward.
- Diaphragm muscle contracts and diaphragm becomes flat.

22. Describe what occurs during exhalation.


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 1.2, Basic Question number 2
Solution:

Biology Weekly Exams Material


- Internal intercostal muscles contract.
- Ribs move inward and downward.
- The diaphragm muscle relaxes into a domed shape.

23. What is respiration?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 1.2, Basic Question number 3
Solution:
A chemical, cellular reaction in which glucose is oxidized to release energy.

24. What is the addictive substance in tobacco smoke?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 1.5, Basic question number 7
Solution:
Nicotine

25. Fill in the blank:


Excretion is necessary for the removal of _____(a)____ materials, the waste products of
____(b)_____ and substances in ______(c)_____ of requirements from organisms.
Reference:
Biology level M, Book 1, Chapter 4.1, Basic Question 3.a
Solution:
a. toxic
b. metabolism
c. excess

26. a) Name the true excretory organs of the human body?

Biology Weekly Exams Material


b) Name an organ that is not considered a true excretory organ.
Reference:

Biology level M, Book 1, Chapter 4.1,.Basic Question Number 1 .a

Solution:
a)

b)

Lungs

Kidneys

Liver
Skin

27. Define ureter, what is the role of the ureter in the urinary system?
Reference:
Biology level M, Book 1, Chapter review, Basic Question Number 3.a
Solution:
A tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

28. What is the role of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Book 1, Chapter 4.3, Basic Question Number 6.a
Solution:
It makes the collecting ducts more permeable, so water is reabsorbed back into the body
and a small quantity of very concentrated urine is produced.

29. Where does Selective reabsorption occur?


Reference:
Biology 2, Book 1, Chapter 4.3, Basic Question Number 5.b.ii
Solution:
Proximal convoluted tubule

Biology Weekly Exams Material


30. Name the process that occurs in the glomerulus:
Reference:
Biology, level M, Book 1, Chapter 4.3, Basic Question Number 5.b.i
Solution:
Ultrafiltration

31. From where does the motor neuron carry impulses? To where does it lead these
impulses?
Reference:
Biology 2, Level M, Chapter 6.2, Basic Question Number 1.b
Solution:
CNS to the effector

32. What is the function of a sensory neuron?


Reference:
Biology 2, Book 1, Chapter 6.2, Basic Question Number 1.b
Solution:
Carries impulses from receptors to CNS.

33. Describe what happens to nerve impulse at the junction where 2 neurons meet.
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 6.3, Basic Question Number 8
Solution:

Neurotransmitter is released
Diffuses across the synapse
Attached to receptors on the second neuron
May start a new impulse on the second neuron
Is broken down as soon as the impulse has passed

Biology Weekly Exams Material


34. Explain why receptors are described as transducers.
Reference:
Biology 2, Book 1, Chapter 6.3, Basic Question Number 3
Solution:
They convert the energy form of stimulus to electrical energy in the neuron.

35. List the sequence of events that lead to tooth decay.


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.2, Basic Question 2.b
Solution:
After eating sugary food:
- Anaerobic bacteria in the mouth feed on sugar & produce lactic acid
- Lactic acid dissolves the calcium out of the hard enamel
- A cavity or dental caries appears

36. What are the four functions of the skeleton?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.4, Basic Question Number 5
Solution:

Support
Protection
Movement
Blood Cells

37. What is cardiac muscle? What are its special characteristics?


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5, Basic Question Number 9

Biology Weekly Exams Material


Solution:
It is the muscle which is only found in the heart.
Cardiac muscle is special because it is myogenic and does not fatigue. This means it
initiates its own contraction and is able to contract continuously. Like smooth muscles, it is
involuntary.

38. Compare striated and non-striated muscles.


Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5, Basic Question Number 9
Solution:
Striated muscle: known as skeletal muscle. Non-striated muscle: known as smooth muscle.
Contraction of striated muscle moves bones of the skeleton. Non-striated muscle brings
about movement in organs like uterus, intestine and arteries.
Striated muscles appear striped and bring about voluntary movement. Non-striated
muscles have no stripes and are involved in involuntary movement.

39. What are antagonistic muscles? Give examples.


Reference:

Biology Level M, Chapter 8.5, Basic Question Number 8

Solution:
They are muscles that work in opposing pairs,
Examples are circular and radial muscles of the iris in the human eye, and triceps and
biceps muscle in the human arms.

40. Describe what happens to nerve impulse at the junction where 2 neurons meet, i.e, at the
synapse.
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 6.3, Basic Question Number 8
Solution:

Biology Weekly Exams Material

Neurotransmitter such as acetylcholine is released from vesicles by exocytosis into the


synaptic gap
Diffuses across the synapse
Attached to receptors on the second neuron
May start a new impulse on the second neuron
Neurotransmitter is broken down by enzymes as soon as the impulse has passed

41. The spinal nerves has two roots, the dorsal root and the ventral root. What is the function of
the roots in each spinal nerve?
Reference:
Biology Level M, Chapter 6.4 Basic Question number 6
Solution:
The dorsal root always carries sensory axons. The ventral root always carries motor axons.

B Grid Questions
I Poorly done questions