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Department of petrochemical

College of Technical Engineering

Duhok polytechnic University
Chemical lab
Name of students

: 1-muhammad


kamyar fars
3-rasty xalid 4-ranko nawzad




hydrogen peroxide
No, of Experiment: (1)
Date :24-10-2016





This general chemistry course focuses almost entirely on the chemistry of

aqueous systems. This reflects our bias as organisms living on the planet
Earth, where water is everywhere. All living organisms are made up primarily
of water and could not survive without it. Many important geological
processes involve water in its several forms (solid ice, liquid water, or
gaseous steam). Water is a good solvent, meaning that it will readily dissolve
solids, liquids, and gases to create a mixture known as a solution. Chemical
reactions can take place readily in a solution because the reactants are freely
mobile (unlike in a solid) and yet can be quite concentrated (which is not
possible in a gas under ordinary conditions). Indeed, the vast majority of the
chemical reactions you will see in this course (as well as in the subsequent
organic chemistry course) are reactions that take place in solution. The
dissolved substances, called solutes, can be divided into two large classes:
molecular solutes and ionic solutes. Molecular solutes, such as sugar,
methanol, or formaldehyde, are electrically neutralthey do not carry a
charge. Ionic solutes, such as salt or hydrochloric acid, are electrically
chargedthey dissolve into charged ions. A solution with a significant
concentration of ionic solutes can conduct an electric current, as the charged
ions are free to move from one electrode to another (analogous to the way in
which electrons flow through a copper wire to conduct electricity). Such
solutions, and the solutes from which they are formed, are called
electrolytes. The concept of an electrolytea substance which dissolves in
water to yield charged ionic speciesis a central concept in aqueous
chemistry. In this experiment you will investigate the aqueous behavior of
non-electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and strong electrolytes, in order to
understand better the behavior of molecular and ionic species in aqueous

1.To the 1st row that labeled Na2SO4, number its test tubes 1-2.
2. Place 1 mL of o.1 M Na2SO4 into the two test tubes using the pipette.
3. To Na2SO4 solution in test tube #1, add 1 mL of 0.1M of NH 4NO3 and record your observation.
4. To Na2SO4 solution in test tube #2, add 1 mL of 0.1M of AgNO 3 and record your observation.
5. To the 2nd row that labeled NaOH, number its test tubes 1-2.
6. Repeat steps 2-4.
7. To the 3rd row that labeled Na2CO3, number its test tubes 1-2.
8. Repeat steps 2-4.
9. Clean all the glass wares before starting part II.
Part II: Gas-Formation Reaction
1. Add to a dry test tube a few grams of CaCO 3.
2. Add 1 mL of water to step 2.
3. Add 1 mL of 2 M HCl to the test tube and record your observation.
4. Repeat steps 1-3 using Na2SO4 instead of CaCO3.
Part III: Neutralization Reaction
1. Use 250 mL beaker and weigh about 0.5 grams of Mg(OH) 2.
2. Use the graduated cylinder to measure 25.0 mL of water.
3. Add 1-2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator to the beaker in step 1.
4. Add the 25 mL of water that you measured in step 2 to the 250 mL beaker.
5. Use another graduated cylinder to measure 25 mL of HCl.
6. Add HCl to the 250 mL beaker in step 1 and thoroughly stir the solution.

Part IV: Oxidation-Reduction Reaction

1. Put a small piece of copper wire in one of the test tubes.
2. Use the graduated cylinder to measure 5 mL of 6.0 M HNO 3.
3. Transfer HNO3 solution in step 2 to your test tube in step 1.

In Experiment 4 we briefly encountered metathesis, or double decomposion reactions. We will
now examine these reactions in more detail, recognizing the ionic character of the species in
solution. You may recall that metathe sis reactions have the general form
AB+CD -AD+CB [1] This kind of reaction is fairly common, especially in aqueous solution,
where the cations and anions of the substances involved exchange partners. The reaction of
barium chloride with silver nitrate is a typical example:
BaCI 2(aq) + 2AgNO 3(aq) Ba(N0 3)2(aq) + 2AgCI(s)
[2] This form of the equation for this reaction is referred to as the molecular equation. Because
we know that the salts BaC1 2,AgNO 3,and Ba(N0 3)2are strong electrolytes and are completely
dissociated in solution, we can more realistically write the equation as follows:
Ba2(aq) + 2C1(aq) + 2Ag(aq) + 2N0 3(aq) * Ba2(aq) + 2N0 3(aq) + 2AgCI(s)
[3] This form is known as the ionic equation. Reaction [2] occurs because the insoluble
substance AgCI precipitates out of solution. The other product, barium nitrate, is soluble in water
and remains in solution. We see that Ba2 and N0 3 ions appear on both sides of the equation and
thus do not enter into the reaction. Such ions are called spectator ions. If we eliminate or omit
them from both sides, we obtain the net ionic equation Ag(a4) + C1(aq) AgCI(s)
[4] This equation focuses our attention on the salient feature of the reaction: the formation of the
precipitate AgCl. It tells us that solutions ofany soluble Ag salt and any soluble Cl salt, when
mixed, will form insoluble AgCl. When writing net ionic equations, remember that only strong
electrolytes are written in the ionic form. Solids, gases, nonelectrolytes, and weak electrolytes
are written in the molecular form. Frequently the symbol (aq) is omitted from ionic equations.
The symbols (g) for gas and (s) for solid should not be omitted. Thus equation [4) can be written
Ag+ C1 * AgCl(s)
[5) Consider mixing solutions of KCI and NaNO 5.The ionic equation for the reaction is
K(aq) + C1(aq) + Na(aq) + N0 3(aq) K(aq) + N0 3(aq) + Na(aq) + C1(aq)
[6] Because all the compounds are water-soluble and are strong electrolytes, they have been
written in the ionic form. They completely dissolve in water. If we eliminate spectator ions from
the equation, nothing remains. Hence, there is no reaction: K(aq) + C1(aq) + Na(aq) + N0 3(aq)
no reaction
[7) Metathesis reactions occur when a precipitate, a gas, a weak electrolyte, or a nonelectrolyte
is formed. The following equations are further illustrations of such processes. Formation of a
2HC1(aq) + Na2S(aq) - 2NaCl(aq) + H2S(g) Gas Ionic equation: 2H(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + 2Na(aq) +
S2(aq) 2Na(aq) + 2C1(aq) + H2S(g) Net ionic equation: 2H(aq) + S2(aq) + H2S(g) or 2H + S2
H2S(g) Formation of Weak Molecular equation: HNO 3(aq) + NaOH(aq) > H20(l) + NaNO
3(aq) Electrolyte Ionic equation: H(aq) + N0 3(aq) + Na(aq) + 0H(aq) Z H20(l) + Na(aq) + N0
3(aq) Net ionic equation: H(aq) + 0H(aq) * H20(l) In order to decide if a reaction occurs, we
need to be able to determine whether or not a precipitate, a gas, or a weak electrolyte will be
formed. The following brief discussion is intended to aid you in this regard. Table 20.1
summarizes solubility rules and should be consulted while performing this experiment. The

common gases are CO2.SO2,H2S, and NH3.Carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide may be regarded
as resulting from the decomposition of their corresponding weak acids, which are initially
formed when carbonate and sulfite salts are treated with acid: H2C0 3(aq) H20(1) + C0 2(g)
and H2S03(aq) H20(l) + S02(g) Ammonium salts form NH3 when they are treated with
strong bases: NH4(aq) + 0H NH3(g) + H20(l)