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ME 330

Manufacturing Processes
MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY:
Joining Methods using Fasteners

Overview of processes

Principle of the process

Structure and configuration

Process modeling

Defects

Design For Manufacturing (DFM)

Process variation

Mechanical Assembly: Definition


Use of various methods to mechanically attach two or more
parts together. This can be done by

Principle of the assembly: create the force constraint on the


two parts that are assembled.

Two Major Types of Mechanical Assembly


1. allow for disassembly

Use of the third part component


Use of the deformation between two components to
be assembled.

2. create a permanent joint with no possibility of disassembly

Adhesion and bonding

Pros of Mechanical Assembly


1. Ease of assembly accomplished with relative ease by
unskilled workers

Minimum of special tools required


Can be done in a relatively short time

2. Ease of disassembly at least for the methods that


permit disassembly

Principle of the process

Structure and configuration

Process modeling

Defects

Design For Manufacturing (DFM)

Process variation

Use of the third part component - fastener


for the joining with a possibility of
disassembly
See for a good overview:
http://www.fastenal.com/web/search/products/_/N-gj4wao&
http://www.mcmaster.com/#fastening-joining

Fastens: Screws, Bolts, and Nuts


1. Screw - externally threaded fastener generally assembled
into a blind threaded hole. Some screws are self-tapping,
so there is no need to tap the hole.
2. Bolt - externally threaded fastener inserted into through
holes and "screwed" into a nut on the opposite side.
3. Nut - internally threaded fastener having standard threads
that match those on bolts of the same diameter, pitch, and
thread form.

Self-Tapping Screws
Designed to form or cut threads in a pre-existing hole into
which it is being turned.
For thicker materials, a hole needs to be drilled first,
otherwise cracking may result.
(a) thread-forming, and
(b) thread-cutting, also called
a tapping screw.

Nut Types
Hex nut: plain type
Wing nut: designed for hand tightening
Nylon insert lock nut: has nylon insert to resist
loosening. Also called Nylock nut
Castle nut: used with a cotter pin to prevent loosening

Some Facts About Screws and Bolts


1. Screws and bolts come in a variety of sizes, threads, and
shapes.
2. Much standardization in threaded fasteners, which promotes
interchangeability.
3. Canada and US is converting to metric, further reducing
variations.
4. Differences between threaded fasteners affect tooling
Example: different screw head styles and sizes require
different screwdriver designs.

Head Styles on Screws


Common head styles available on screws

Courtesy of www.mikesenese.com

Drive Styles on Screws


Common drive styles available on screws

Courtesy of www.mikesenese.com

Washer Types
a)
b)
c)
d)

plain (flat) washers


spring washers: dampens vibration and resists loosing of bolt/screw
Lock washer: designed to resist loosening of bolt/screw
split lock washer: designed to resist loosening of bolt/screw

(d)

Use of the third part component - fastener


for the permeant joining
Rivets
Unthreaded, headed pins used to join two or more

parts by passing the pin through holes in parts and


forming a second head in the pin on the opposite

side

Five Basic Types of Rivets


(a) Solid, (b) tubular, (c) sem itubular, (d) bifurcated, and (e)
compression

Applications and Advantages of Rivets


1. Used primarily for lap joints.
2. A primary fastening method in aircraft and aerospace
industries.
3. Advantages:

High production rates


Simplicity
Dependability
Low cost

Tooling and Methods for Rivets


1. Impact - pneumatic hammer delivers a succession of
blows to upset rivet.
2. Steady compression - riveting tool applies a continuous
squeezing pressure to upset rivet.
3. Combination of impact and compression.

Fastening with Eyelets


(a) Eyelet, (b) assembly sequence: (1) inserting eyelet
through holes and (2) setting operation

Summary
1. Mechanical assembly concept providing
constraints on two parts
2. Assembly can be: permanent and disassemble.
3. Disassembly possibility: bolts-nuts, screw.
4. Permanent: rivets.
5. Rives: cheap, efficient used in aircraft, ship.