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St

Structural

t

l Concrete

C

t (ACI 318M-11)

318M 11)

Overview

O

i

off ACI 318M

Design of Prestressed Concrete

Evaluation of Existing Structures

David Darwin

Vietnam Institute for Building Science and

Technology (IBST)

Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

December 12-16, 2011

This morning

Overview of ACI 318M-11

318M 11

Design of Prestressed Concrete

(Ch t 18)

(Chapter

Strength Evaluation of Existing

Structures (Chapter 20)

This afternoon

Analysis and design of

Flexure

Shear

Torsion

Axial load

Tomorrow morning

Design of slender columns

Design of wall structures

High-strength concrete

Legall standing

L

t di

Scope

p

Approach to Design

Loads and Load Cases

C

Strength Reduction Factors

Legal standing

Serves as th

S

the llegall structural

t t l concrete

t

building code in the U.S. because it is

adopted

d t d by

b the

th generall building

b ildi code

d (IBC)

(IBC).

Scope

ACI 318M consists of 22 chapters and 6

appendices that cover all aspects of building

design

Chapters

1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Scope, Contract Documents, Inspection,

Approval of Special Systems

Chapters

3. MATERIALS

Cementitious Materials, Water, Aggregates,

Admixtures, Reinforcing Materials

4. DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS

Freezing and Thawing, Sulfates, Permeability,

Corrosion

5 CONCRETE QUALITY,

5.

QUALITY MIXING,

MIXING AND PLACING

6. FORMWORK, EMBEDMENTS,

AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

7. DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT

Hooks and Bends,, Surface Condition,, Tolerances,,

Spacing, Concrete Cover, Columns, Flexural Members,

Shrinkage and Temperature Steel, Structural Integrity

8.

CONSIDERATIONS

Design Methods; Loading, including Arrangement of

Load; Methods of Analysis; Redistribution of Moments;

Selected Concrete Properties; Requirements for

Modeling Structures (Spans, T-beams, Joists...)

REQUIREMENTS

Load Combinations, Strength Reduction Factors,

Deflection Control

Beams and One-way Slabs, Columns, Deep Beams,

Bearing

g

12. DEVELOPMENT

AND SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT

13 TWO-WAY

13.

TWO WAY SLAB SYSTEMS

14. WALLS

15 FOOTINGS

15.

16. PRECAST

CONCRETE

MEMBERS

STRUCTURES

21. EARTHQUAKE

EARTHQUAKERESISTANT

STRUCTURES

Appendices

A. STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS*

B. ALTERNATIVE

PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLEXURAL AND

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

C. ALTERNATIVE LOAD AND STRENGTH

REDUCTION FACTORS

D ANCHORING TO CONCRETE*

D.

CONCRETE

F EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN SI

F.

SI-METRIC,

METRIC MKSMKS

METRIC, AND U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS OF

NONHOMOGENOUS EQUATIONS IN THE CODE

Approach to design

Qd = design loads

Sn = nominal strength

Sd = design strength

M = safety

f t margin

i

Sd = Sn Q

Qd

Sd

= design strength = Sn

= load factors

Qd

= design loads

Loads Qd

specified in ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads

Reston, Virginia, USA

Loads

Dead loads (D)*

Live loads (L)*

Roof live loads (Lr))*

Wind loads (W)

full load

E th

Earthquake

k lloads

d (E)

f ll lload

full

d

Rain loads (R)*

Snow loads (S)*

*S

Service-level

i l

l lloads

d

Loads

Impact include in L

Self-straining effects (temperature, creep,

shrinkage,

g , differential settlement,, and

shrinkage compensating concrete) (T)

Fluid loads (F)

Lateral soil pressure (H)

Factored Load = U = Qd

by ASCE 7 and ACI 318M

U = 1.4D

U = 1.2D + 1.6L + + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.5W)

U = 1.2D + 1.0W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)

U = 1.2

1 2D + 1.0

1 0E + 1.0

1 0L + 0.2

0 2S

f

by ASCE 7 and ACI 318M

U = 0.9

0 9D + 1.0

1 0W

U = 0.9D + 1.0E

L d ffactors

Load

t

by

b ACI 318M

If W based on service-level forces, use 1.6W place of

1.0W

If E based on service-level forces, use 1.4E in place

of 1.0

1 0E

Tension-controlled sections

0.90

Compression-controlled

Compression

controlled sections

Members with spiral reinforcement 0.75

Oth members

Other

b

0 65

0.65

Shear and torsion

0.75

Bearing

0.65

Post-tensioning

Post

tensioning anchorages

0 85

0.85

Other cases

0.60 0.90

Tension-controlled

compressioncontrolled sections

T beam

T-beam

b

hf

dt

As

bw

exceed the Required Strength (factored load)

Bending

Mn Mu

Axial load

Pn Pu

Shear

Vn Vu

Torsion

Tn Tu

requirements

using

gp

properties

p

of g

gross sections

cross section

3

b

h

Beams: Ib = Ig Iweb = w

12

3

bh

Columns: Ic = Ig =

12

Analysis by subframes

1. The

1

Th live

li lload

d applied

li d only

l tto th

the flfloor or rooff

under consideration, and the far ends of

columns

l

b

built

ilt iintegrally

t

ll with

ith th

the structure

t t

considered fixed

2. The

2

Th arrangementt off load

l d may b

be lilimited

it d tto

combinations of

(a) factored dead load on all spans with full

factored live load on alternate spans, and

(b) factored dead load on all spans with full

factored live load on two adjacent

j

spans

p

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a) axial forces from factored loads on all floors

or roof and maximum moment from factored

live loads on a single adjacent span of the

floor or roof under consideration

(b) loading condition giving maximum ratio of

moment to axial load

More on columns

construction consider

effect of unbalanced floor or roof loads on both

exterior and interior columns and of eccentric

loading due to other causes

For gravity load, far ends of columns built integrally

with

ith th

the structure

t t

may be

b considered

id d fifixed

d

At any floor or roof level, distribute the moment

between columns immediatelyy above and below

that floor in proportion to the relative column

stiffness

Beams, two

Beams

or more spans

M factor w u l n 2

Beams, two

spans only

Slabs

Slabs,

spans 3 m

Beams, col stiffnesses

8 beam stiffnesses

ln

Max +ve

Max ve left

Composite

Max ve right

moments for t 0.0075

(Chapter 18)

Stresses

Pretensioning

Post-Tensioning

57

Prestressing steels

U.S.

Seven-wire strand: fpu 1725, 1860 MPa

fpy (stress at 1% extension) 85% (for stressrelieved strand) or 90% (for low-relaxation

low relaxation

strand) of fpu

fpy = yield strength

U.S.

Prestressing wire: fpu 1620 to 1725 MPa

(function of size)

fpy (at

( t 1% extension)

t

i ) 85% off fpu

U.S.

fpy 85% (for plain bars) and 80% (for deformed

bars) of fpu

p

0 2% offset or 0.7%

0 7% strain

prestressing steel

Due to prestressing steel jacking force:

0.94

0

9 fpy

0.80fpu

manufacturers recommendation

Post-tensioning

g tendons,, at anchorage

g devices

and couplers, immediately after force transfer:

0.70fpu

designed based on both

Elastic flexural analysis

y

Strength

Considers stresses under both the

Initial prestress force Pi and the

Effective prestress force Pe

Note:

fci = initial concrete compressive

Classes of members

U uncracked calculated tensile stress in

precompressed

d ttensile

il zone att service

i

loads = ft 0.62 fc

T transition between uncracked and

cracked 0.62 fc < ft 1.0 fc

C cracked ft > 1.0 fc

fc in MPa

e = tendon eccentricity

k1= upper kern point

k2= lower kern point

Ic = moment of inertia

Ac = area

radius of gyration:

r2 = Ic/Ac

section moduli:

S1 = Ic/c1

S2 = Ic/c2

Bending moments

Mo = self-weight

g moment

Md = superimposed dead load moment

Ml = live load moment

Maximum p

permissible stresses in concrete at

transfer

(a) Extreme fiber stress in compression,

compression except as in

(b), 0.60fci

(b) Extreme

E t

fiber

fib stress

t

in

i compression

i att ends

d off

simply supported members 0.70fci

(c) Extreme fiber stress in tension at ends of simply

supported members 0.50 fci *

(d) Extreme fiber stress in tension at other locations

0.25 fcii *

* Add ttensile

il reinforcement

i f

t if exceeded

d d

stresses in concrete at service loads

Class U and T members

((a)) Extreme fiber stress in compression

p

due to

prestress plus sustained load 0.45fc

(b) Extreme fiber stress in compression due to

prestress plus total load 0.60

60ffc

Flexural strength

Aps

T = Apsfps

ps

Stress-block

Stress

block parameter 1

1 0.85 for 17 MPa fc 28 MPa

For fc between 28 and 56 MPa, 1

decreases by 0.05 for each 7 MPa

increase in fc

Members with bonded tendons:

b = width of compression face

dp = d (effective

( ff ti depth)

d th) off prestressing

t

i steel

t l

p

f pu d

f ps f pu 1 p

f c d p

1

f y / f c and f y / f c

and refer to compression

p

reinforcement,, As

f ppu d

shall be taken 017

. , d 015

. dp

p

f c d p

ratios 35:

but not greater than fpy or greater than fpe + 420 MPa

Pe

fpe = stress

t

in

i Aps att Pe =

Aps

ratios > 35:

but not greater than fpy or greater than fpe + 210 MPa

Loss of prestress

(a) Prestessing steel seating at transfer

(b) Elastic shortening of concrete

(c) Creep of concrete

(d) Shrinkage of concrete

( ) Relaxation

(e)

R l

ti off prestressing

t

i steel

t l

(f) Friction loss due to intended or

unintended curvature of post-tensioning

tendons

members

Classify as tension-controlled, transition, or

compression-controlled

compression

controlled to determine

Total

T

t l amountt off prestressed

t

d and

d nonprestressed

t

d

reinforcement in members with bonded

reinforcement

i f

t mustt be

b able

bl tto carry 1.2

12

cracking load

members with unbonded tendons

Except in two-way slabs, As = 0.004Act

Act = area of that part of cross section

between the flexural tension face and

center of gravity of gross section

Distribute As uniformly over precompressed

t

tension

i zone as close

l

as possible

ibl tto

extreme tensile fiber

Two-wayy slabs:

Positive moment regions:

Bonded reinforcement not required where tensile

stress ft 0.17 fc

Nc

Otherwise, use As =

0.5fy

Nc = resultant tensile force acting on portion of

concrete cross section in tension under effective

prestress and service loads

Distribute As uniformly over precompressed

tension zone as close as possible to extreme

tensile fiber

Two-way slabs:

T

l b

Negative moment areas at column supports:

As = 0.00075Acf

Acff = larger gross cross-sectional

cross sectional area of slabslab

beam strips in two orthogonal equivalent

frames intersecting at the columns

Distribute

Di

t ib t As between

b t

lilines 1.5

1 5h on outside

t id

opposite edges of the column support

Code includes spacing

p

g and length

g requirements

q

Two-way

Two

way slabs

Use Equivalent Frame Design Method

(Section 13.7)

13 7)

development length

= transfer length

fse fpe

Pe

Aps

similar to that for reinforced concrete

members, but it takes advantage of

presence of prestressing force

Post-tensioned

design

Load factor = 1.2 Ppu = 1.2Pj

= 0.85

(Chapter 20)

(Chapter 20)

When it is required

When we use analysis and when perform a load test

When core testing is sufficient

L d ttesting

Load

ti

when there is a doubt if a part or all of a structure

meets safety requirements of the Code

If the effect of the strength deficiency is well

understood and if it is feasible to measure the

dimensions and material properties required for

analysis, analytical evaluations of strength

based on those measurements can be used

understood or if it is not feasible to establish the

required dimensions and material properties by

measurement, a load test is required if the

structure is to remain in service

properties

1. Dimensions established at critical sections

2. Reinforcement locations established by

measurement (can use drawings if spot

checks confirm information in drawings)

3 Use cylinder and core tests to estimate fc

3.

Core testing

compressive strength of the concrete

based on cylinder tests

Strength is considered satisfactory

S

f

if:

f

1. Three cores are taken for each low-strength

test

2. The average

g of the three cores 0.85fc

3. No individual core has a strength < 0.75fc

Steel

Reinforcing and prestressing steel may be

evaluated based on representative material

If analysis is used,

used values of may be

increased

Tension-controlled 0.90 1.0

Compression controlled 0.75 and 0.65

0.90 and 0.80

Shear and torsion 0.75 0.80

Bearing 0.65

0 65 0.80

0 80

Load arrangement:

Select number and arrangement of spans or

panels loaded to maximize the deflection and

stresses in the critical regions

Use more than one arrangement if needed

((deflection,, rotation,, stress))

Load intensity

Total test load = larger of

(a) 1.15D + 1.5L + 0.4(Lr or S or R)

((b)) 1.15D + 0.9L + 1.5(L

( r or S or R))

(c) 1.3D

In (b), load factor for L may be reduced to 0.45,

exceptt for

f garages, places

l

off assembly,

bl and

d

where L > 4.8 kN/m2

L may be reduced as permitted by general

building code

Loading criteria

Obtain initial measurements (deflection

(deflection,

rotation, strain, slip, crack widths) not more

than 1 hour before application of the first

load increment

Take readings where maximum response is

expected

U att least

Use

l

t four

f

load

l d iincrements

t

Ensure uniform load is uniform no arching

increment and after the total load has been

applied for at least 24 hours

Remove total test load immediately after all

response measurements are made

Take a set of final measurements 24 hours

after

ft the

th test

t t load

l d is

i removed

d

Acceptance criteria

No signs of failure no crushing or spalling

of concrete

g a shear failure is

No cracks indicating

imminent

In regions without transverse reinforcement

reinforcement,

evaluate any inclined cracks with horizontal

projection > depth of member

Evaluate cracks along the line of

reinforcement in regions of anchorage and

lap splices

Acceptance criteria

Measured deflections

2

t

At maximum load: 1

20 ,000h

24 hours after load removed:

1

r

4

2 x span for cantilever

Acceptance criteria

If deflection criteria not met

met, may repeat the

test (at least 72 hours after first test)

2

Satisfactory if: r

5

2 maximum deflection of second test relative to

postion of structure at beginning of second test

If the structure does not satisfy conditions or

criteria based on analysis, deflection, or shear,

it may be permitted for use at a lower load

rating based on the results of the load test or

analysis if approved by the building official

analysis,

Case study

1905 building

Chicago, Illinois

USA

Cinder concrete

floors

Load capacity OK for use

g

as an office building?

Safety shoring

Deflection

measurement

devices

Load through

window

Load stage 14

Findings

Floor could carry uniform load of

2.4 kN/m2

Building satisfactory for both apartments (1.9

kN/m2) and offices ((2.4 kN/m2)

Summary

Overview

Prestressed concrete

St

Strength

th evaluation

l ti off existing

i ti structures

t t

118

M G

McGraw-Hill

Hill C

Companies,

i

IInc.

1221 Avenue of the America

New York,

York NY 10020 USA

Figures copyright 2011 by

American Concrete Institute

38800 Country Club Drive

F

Farmington

i t Hills,

Hill MI 48331 USA

D li ti authorized

Duplication

th i d or use with

ith thi

this presentation

t ti only.

l

David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory

Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering

2142 Learned Hall

L

Lawrence,

K

Kansas, 66045-7609

66045 7609

(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631

daved@ku.edu

Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Analysis and Design for Flexure, Shear,

Torsion,, and Compression

p

plus

p

Bending

g

David Darwin

Vietnam Institute for Building Science and

Technology (IBST)

Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

December 12-16, 2011

This afternoon

Analysis and design for

Flexure

Shear

Torsion

Compression plus bending

Material properties

Concrete

fc,min 17 MPa, no fc,max -- values up to 140 MPa

Usual fc 28 or 35 MPa

higher strengths used for columns

Reinforcing steel

fy 280, 350, 420, 520, 550 MPa

Usual fy 420 MPa

Size

No. 10

No. 13

No. 16

No. 19

No. 22

No. 25

No. 29

No. 32

No. 36

Actual diameter

9.5 mm

12.7 mm

15.9 mm

19.1 mm

22.2 mm

25.4 mm

28.7 mm

32.2 mm

35.8 mm

Size

No. 43

No. 57

Actual diameter

43.0 mm

57.3 mm

Flexure

Mn Mu

At working loads

Cracked transformed section

At ultimate load

Concrete stress-block

stress block parameters

Stress-block

Stress

block parameter 1

1 0.85 for 17 MPa fc 28 MPa

For fc between 28 and 56 MPa, 1

decreases by 0.05 for each 7 MPa

increase in fc

Flexural strength

= 0.003

Reinforcement ratio

Tension reinforcement

As

bd

C

Compression

i reinforcement

i f

t

As

bd

reinforcement ratio, s = y

Steel yields just

as concrete

crushes

specified values of steel strain s = t

or conservatively

Maximum value of ,

s = 0.004

0 004

tension-controlled

controlled

member, s = 0.005

Thi is

This

i the

th effective

ff ti maximum

i

value

l off

Flexural strength

Mn

Mn As fy d

2

Minimum reinforcement

To ensure that the flexural strength of a

reinforced concrete beam is higher than the

cracking moment:

flange in tension, replace bw by smaller of

2bw or flange

g width b

requirements:

4

As (p

(provided))

As ((required)

q

)

3

Slabs and footings As,min = temperature

and shrinkage reinforcement

0 005]

Nominal moment capacity for fs fy

M n M n1 M n 2

As f y d d As As f y d

2

Nominal moment capacity for fs fy

M n M n1 M n 2

M n M n1 M n 2

As f s d d As f y As f s d

2

As f s d d 0.85 f cabb d

2

Minimum reinforcement ratio so that

compression steel yields:

If <

c must be calculated (q

(quadratic equation):

q

)

tension-controlled sections

As

bd

T beams

Symmetric T beam:

b 1/4 span length

bw + 16hf

bw + clear distances to next beams

Slab on only one side:

b bw + 1/12 span length

b w + 6h f

bw + clear distance to next beam

Isolated T beam:

hf bw ; b 4bw

location

Analyze

A

l

as

rectangular beam

Analyze

A

l

as

T beam

In practice

practice, use depth of stress block a

Nominal capacity

As

Asf

w

; f

bw d

bw d

Limits on reinforcement for tension-controlled

section

w ,0.005 0.005 f

Maximum spacing s of

reinforcement closest

tension face

fs by analysis or = 2/3 fy

Distribution of reinforcement when flanges of T

beams are in tension:

1. Distribute reinforcement over smaller of

effective flange width or width equal to 1/10

span

p

2. If the effective flange width exceeds 1/10

span place some longitudinal reinforcement

span,

in outer portions of flange

Shear

Vn Vu

Function of both bending and shear stresses

Contribution of stirrups

Vs nAv f yt

For a horizontal projection of the crack p

p

and a stirrup spacing s, n

s

d

In most cases, p d . Thus, conservatively, n

s

A v f yt d

giving Vs

s

with

Vd

Vc 0.16 f c 17

bw d 0.29 f cbw d

M

Inclined stirrups

p

Vs nAv f yt sin Av f yt sin cos tan

s

d sin cos

Vs Av f yt

s

Vu Vn Vc Vs

[Note ]

0.75

= 1.0 for normalweight concrete

= 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete

= 0.75 for all-lightweight concrete

except for footings and solid slabs; certain

hollow-core slabs; concrete joists; beams with

h < 250 mm; beams integral with slabs with h <

600 mm, 2.5hf, and 0.5bw; beams made of steel

fiber-reinforced concrete with f c 40 MPa, h <

600 mm, and Vu 0.17 f cbw d

Value

limited, b

butt the value

al e of fc

is limited to a maximum of 8.3 MPa unless

minimum transverse reinforcement is used

s d/2 (0.75h for prestressed concrete)

600 mm

These values are reduced by 50% where

Vs 4 fcbw d

Critical section

Maximum Vu for sections closer than d (h/2

for prestressed concrete) from the face of a

support may be taken as the value at d (or

h/2) provided that three conditions are met:

((a)) Support

pp reaction introduces compression

p

into the end region

(b) Loads applied at or near top of member

(c) No concentrated load placed between

critical section at d (or h/2) and the face

of the support

Stirrup design

Prestressed concrete

Vcw

Vci

dp taken as distance from extreme compressive

fiber to centroid of prestressing steel but need

not be taken < 0.8h for shear design

d taken as distance from extreme compressive

fiber to centroid of p

prestressing

g steel and

nonprestressed steel (if any) but need not be

taken < 0.8h for shear design

g

1.7 fcbw d

ffactored

t d superimposed

i

dd

dead

d and

d lilive lload

d

causing maximum factored moment at section

1.7 fcbw d

yt = distance from centroid to tension face

fpe = compression at tension face due to Pe alone

fd = stress due to unfactored beam self weight

g at

extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is

cause byy external load

under Pe

Vp = vertical component of effective

prestress

t

force

f

Pe

Simplified design

the ends of p

pretensioned beams

Effect of axial loads

Torsion

Tn Tu

Equilibrium torsion

Equilibrium torsion

Compatibility torsion

Compatibility torsion

Ed b

Edge

beam:

Torsionallyy stiff

Torsionallyy flexible

Stresses caused

by torsion

Thin-walled

Thin

walled tube under torsion

q

T

t aAot

principal

i i l tensile

te ile stress

t e

ft 0.33 f c

cr cracking shear stress 0.33 f c

Tcr 0.33 f c 2 Aot

Acp area inside full outside perimeter pcp

t

T

cr

Acp

pcp

2

; Ao Acp

3

0.33 f c

Acp2

pcp

kN-m

by xo and yo measured to centerline of outermost

closed transverse reinforcement

Aohh = xoyo

ph = 2(xo + yo)

Torque

q supplied

pp

by

y side 4:

Hollow section

Solid section

ACI provisions

= 0.75

Tu Tn

where

h Ao = 0.85

0 85Aoh

= 30 to 60, 45 recommended

Minimal torsion

Neglect torsional effects if Tu cracking

torque =

Equilibrium vs

vs. Compatibility Torsion

For members subjected to compatibility torsion,

member is assumed to crack in torsion, reducing

its rotational stiffness, and Tu may be reduced to

cracking torque =

shears must be used to design adjoining members

Under combined shear and torsion, total shear

stress v is limited to

Hollow sections

Solid sections

reinforcement

s ph/8, 300 mm

Spacing requirements for shear also apply

spaced at 300 mm,

mm at every corner of

stirrups, and no smaller than No. 10 bar. Must

be anchored to develop fy at face of supports

supports.

Effect of axial loads

Some details of hollow sections

Pn Pu

Mn Mu

= 0.65

0 65 for

f tied

ti d columns

l

Po 0.85 f c Ag Ast f y Ast

Ag = gross (total) area of concrete

Ast = total area of steel reinforcement

Spirally reinforced columns

Tied columns

At least No. 10 for longitudinal

g

bars up

p to No. 32

and at least No. 13 for No. 36, 43, and 57

Spacing s along the length of the column

16 diameter

di

t off longitudinal

l

it di l b

bars

48 diameter of tie bars

least dimension of column

Every corner and alternate longitudinal bar

shall

h ll h

have llateral

t l supportt provided

id d b

by th

the

corner of a tie with an included angle 135

d

degrees

and

d no b

bar shall

h ll b

be ffarther

th th

than

150 mm clear on each side along the tie

f

from

such

h a llaterally

t ll supported

t db

bar

Volumetric reinforcing ratio

l

Ach = core area of column measured to the outside

diameter of the spiral

fyt = yyield strength

g of spiral

p

reinforcement 700 MPa

interaction diagrams

Eccentricity e

Example

Example

Interaction diagrams

Balanced failure

diagrams

e /h

Pu

Pn

Kn

fcAg fcAg

Pu e

Mn

Pn e

Rn

Applying -factors

factors and limits on maximum

loads

Slenderness

Summary

A l i and

Analysis

dd

design

i ffor

Flexure

Fl

Shear

Sh

T i

Torsion

C

Compression

i plus

l b

bending

di

Tomorrow morning

Design of slender columns

Design of wall structures

High-strength concrete

112

M G

McGraw-Hill

Hill C

Companies,

i

IInc.

1221 Avenue of the America

New York,

York NY 10020 USA

Duplication authorized for use with this presentation only.

David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory

Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering

2142 Learned Hall

L

Lawrence,

K

Kansas, 66045-7609

66045 7609

(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631

daved@ku.edu

Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Design of Slender Columns by ACI 318

David Darwin

Vietnam Institute for Building Science and

Technology (IBST)

Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

December 12-16, 2011

This morning

Slender columns

Walls

High strength concrete

High-strength

Slender columns

Notation

Effective length factors and effect of

slenderness on strength

g

Moment magnification

ACI design criteria

Design procedures

Nonlinear second order analysis

y

Linear second order analysis

Moment magnification procedure

Notation

I = moment of inertia

A = area of cross section

r = radius of gyration = I A

, l = column length

k = slenderness ratio = k/r

Pc critical

iti l b

buckling

kli lload

d

Et I

2

Et = tangential

t

ti l modulus

d l off elasticity

l ti it

Pc

2E t I

2E t A

k r

Frames

k(braced) < k(unbraced)

Braced frame

Unbraced frame

Pc2 << Pc1

effect

Moment magnification

For a column in single curvature:

1

y y0

1 P Pc

and

Mmax

1

M0

1 P Pc

Moment magnification

For a column in double curvature with

equal end moments:

1

y y0

1 P 4Pc

Moment magnification

More generally, when the end moments

are nott equal:l

Cm

Mmax M0

1 P Pc

where

h

M1

0.4,

Cm 0.6 0.4

4 M2 M1

M2

Define: M1 M2 0 for single curvature

0 for double curvature

Braced (nonsway):

(

y)

Neglect slenderness when

ku/r 34 12M1/M2

40

where u = unsupported length (clear distance)

Unbraced (sway):

Neglect slenderness when

ku/r 22

= ratio of (EI/c) of compression members to

((EI/)) of flexural members in a p

plane at one

end of a compression member

member

b center-to-center

t t

t off joints

j i t

Design procedures

Nonlinear second-order analysis

Linear second-order

second order analysis

M

Moment

t magnifier

ifi procedure

d

Nonlinear second-order

second order analysis

Section properties

Moments of inertia:

Beams

Columns

Walls uncracked

cracked

Flat plates and flat slabs

0.35Ig

0.70Ig

0.70Ig

0 35Ig

0.35

0.25Ig

Area

1.0Ag

Modulus of elasticity Ec

Sustained load

For members

F

b

under

d sustained

t i d llateral

t l lload,

d

divide I by (1 + ds), where

ds

1 .0

maximum factored shear within story

Mmax = M0

Nonsway

y if

Pu o

Q

0.05

Vus c

where

Pu sum of factored vertical loads in a story

Vus factored

f t d horizontal

h i

t l shear

h

iin a story

t

o 1st-order relative storyy deflection

c column length, center-to-center of joints

Note:

Q P Pc

Thus, for Q 0.05, Mmax 1.05M0

Nonsway frames

Mc ns M2 ;

ns

M2,min Pu 15 0.03h

Cm

1 .0

1 Pu 0.75Pc

Pc

2EI

ku

M1

Cm 0.6 0.4

0 .4

M2

Stiffness reduction

factor

EI

0 .2

2E

EI

EI

c g

EsIse

1 dns

or

EI

dns

0 .4

4E

Ec I g

1 dns

1.0

maximum factored axial load for same load combination

Sway frames

Moments M1 and M2 at ends of member

M1 M1ns s M1s

M2 M2ns s M2s

1

s

1; if s 1.5, use second-order

1 Q

elastic analysis or

1

s

1

1 Pu 0.75Pc

When calculating s

k 1.0

ds

d is substituted for dns

d when calculating EI

ds

1 .0

maximum factored shear within story

ds is most often = 0

Pu and Pc summed for all columns on floor

Summary

Notation

Effective length factors and effect of

slenderness on strength

g

Moment magnification

ACI design criteria

Design procedures

Nonlinear second order analysis

y

Linear second order analysis

Moment magnification procedure

29

M G

McGraw-Hill

Hill C

Companies,

i

IInc.

1221 Avenue of the America

New York,

York NY 10020 USA

Figures copyright 2011 by

American Concrete Institute

38800 Country Club Drive

F

Farmington

i t Hills,

Hill MI 48331 USA

D li ti authorized

Duplication

th i d ffor use with

ith thi

this presentation

t ti only.

l

David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory

Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering

2142 Learned Hall

L

Lawrence,

K

Kansas, 66045-7609

66045 7609

(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631

daved@ku.edu

Slender columns

Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Design of Wall Structures by ACI 318

David Darwin

Vietnam Institute for Building Science and

Technology (IBST)

Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

December 12-16, 2011

This morning

Slender columns

Walls

High strength concrete

High-strength

W ll (Ch

Walls

(Chapters

t

14 10,

14,

10 and

d 11)

Outline

Overview

O

e e

Notation

General design requirements

Minimum reinforcement

Reinforcement around openings

p

g

Design of bearing walls (3 methods)

Design of shear walls

Construction

method

Cast-in-place

C

ti l

Precast

Tilt-up

Design

g

loading

Axial

A

i l lload,

d flflexure,

and out-of-plane shear

In-plane shear

Types of Walls

Cast-in-place

p

Precast

Tilt up

Tilt-up

Construction

method

Cast-in-place

C

ti l

Precast

Tilt-up

Design

g

loading

Axial

A

i l lload,

d flflexure,

and out-of-plane shear

In-plane shear

Bearing walls*

Shear walls*

alls*

l = Vertical reinforcement ratio

t = Horizontal reinforcement ratio

c = Height of wall measured center-to-center

center to center of

supports

h = Wall thickness

hw = Total height of wall

w = Length of wall

Mcr = Cracking

g moment

WWR = welded wire reinforcement

Design for axial, eccentric, lateral, shear and

other loads to which the wall is subjected

Walls must be anchored to intersecting

structural elements (floors

(floors, roofs

roofs, columns

columns))

Horizontal

H

i

t l llength

th off a wallll considered

id d effective

ff ti

for each concentrated load

center-to center spacing of loads

bearing

g width + 4 wall thickness h

integrally with a wall 40 mm from outside

of spiral or ties

Minimum reinforcement and reinforcement

based on the Empirical Method may be

waived if analysis shows adequate strength

and

d stability

bili

Transfer force to footing at base of wall in

accordance with Chapter

p 15 ((Footings)

g )

Minimum reinforcement

Vertical reinforcement ratio l 0.0015

Reduce to 0.0012 for bar sizes No. 16 and

fy 420 MPa

or for WWR reinforcement sizes 16 mm

Horizontal reinforcement ratio t 0.0025

0 0025

Reduce to 0.0020 for bar sizes No. 16 and

fy 420 MPa

MP

or for WWR reinforcement sizes 16 mm

basement walls):

Mustt have

M

h

two

t

layers

l

off reinforcement

i f

t parallel

ll l

with the faces

((a)) 1/2 to 2/3 of reinforcement in each direction

located between 50 mm and 1/3 of wall

thickness from exterior surface

(b) balance of reinforcement in each direction

located between 20 mm and 1/3 of wall

thickness from interior surface

3h

450 mm

Ties not required around vertical reinforcement

when l 0.01

At least 2 No. 16 bars

i walls

in

ll with

ith 2 layers

l

of reinforcement in

b th di

both

directions

ti

At least

l

t 1 No.

N 16 bar

b

in walls with 1 layer of

reinforcement

i f

t in

i b

both

th

directions

Anchored to develop fy

Axial load and flexure

Shear perpendicular to the wall

Design options:

Wall Designed as Compression Members

(subjected to P & M design as columns)

Empirical Design Method (some limitations)

Alternative

Alt

ti D

Design

i

off Sl

Slender

d Walls

W ll (some

(

limitations)

Design as column, including slenderness

requirements

Also meet general and minimum reinforcement

requirements for walls

Limitations

Thickness of solid rectangular cross section

h (c or w between

b t

supports)/25

t )/25

190 mm for exterior basement and foundation

walls

must be located within the

middle third of the overall

wall thickness

Pu

e h/6

h/6

k c 2

Pn 0.55 fcAg 1

Pu

32h

= 0.65

0 65

factor, k

Walls braced at top and bottom against lateral

t

translation

l ti

Restrained against rotation at one or both

ends

d

k = 0.8

U

Unrestrained

t i d against

i t rotation

t ti att b

both

th ends

d

k = 1.0

Walls not braced against lateral translation

k = 2.0

Late

eral Lo

oad

design, the requirements of this procedure are

considered to satisfy the slenderness requirements

for compression members

P Pu/Ag 0.06fc at

midheight

Wall must be

tension-controlled

Mn Mcr

Provisions cover

Factored moment Mu

Out-of-plane service load deflection s

Factored moment Mu

By iteration

B direct

By

di t solution

l ti

wu

e

Pu

Mu Mua Pu u

w u 2c

Mu

Pe Pu u

8

Mua

Puu

2

u c

5M

u

0.75 48EcIcr

Solve by iteration

section

Es

Pu h

wc

2

Icr

As

d c

Ec

fy 2d

3

Es

not taken < 6

Ec

e

Pu

Mua

Puu

Mua

Mu

2

5Pu c

1

0.75 48EcIcr

Out-of-plane

Out

of plane service load deflection

P

s c / 150

50

Loading

g

D + 0.5L + Wa or

D + 0.5L + 0.7E

(per ACI Commentary and

ASCE 7-10)

Mn

Ma

Mcr

(2/3)Mcr

Ma

cr

(2/3)cr

n

35

P

Ma = Service

load moment

at midheight

including P-

Ma

s

cr

Mcr

5Mcr 2c

cr

48EcIcr

Service deflection

Find Ma by iteration

P

s 2 / 3 cr

M 2 / 3 M

2 / 3

M 2 / 3 M

a

cr

cr

5Mn 2c

n

48Ec Icr

Service deflection

Fi d Ma and

Find

d Icr by

b it

iteration

ti

cr

Shear parallel to the wall in-plane

in plane shear

Shear wall

Design loading

Design for bending, axial load, and in-plane

shear

Bending and axial load: design as

beam or column

If hw 2w, design

d i iis permitted

itt d using

i a

strut-and-tie model (Appendix A)

Shear design

Vu Vn

Vn Vc Vs

Vn 0.83 fchd

Effective depth d

d 0.8hw

Larger value equal to the distance from

extreme compression fiber to center of

force of all reinforcement in tension permitted

when determined by strain compatibility

compression

Vc 0.17 fchd

For walls subject to vertical tension Nu ,

0.29Nu

Vc 0.17 1

Ag

fchd

Alternatively,

Nu d

Vc 0.27 fchd

4 w

or

w 0.1 fc 0.2Nu w h

hd

Vc 0.05 fc

Mu Vu w 2

Wh

When

Mu Vu w 2 iis negative,

ti

second

d

equation

q

is not applicable

pp

stress of about 0.33 fc at centroid of shear-wall

cross section

section.

Second equation corresponds to a flexural tensile

stress

t

off about

b t 0.50 fc att a section

ti

w 2 above

b

the section being

g investigated

g

than w /2 or hw/2,

/2 whichever is less

less, may

be designed for the same Vc as

computed at w /2 or hw/2

Where Vu Vc/2, minimum wall

reinforcement may be used

Where Vu Vc/2, wall reinforcement

must meet the requirements described

next

Vs

Av fy d

s

Av

Vu Vc s

fy d

Av

t

0.0025

hs

s w 5, 3h, 450 mm

Ah

hw

0.0025 0.5 2.5

t 0.0025

hs1

w

0.0025

s1 w 3, 3h, 450 mm

Summary

Design

es g o

of walls

a s

Notation

General design requirements

Minimum reinforcement

Reinforcement around openings

p

g

Design of bearing walls (3 methods)

Design of shear walls

50

McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1221 Avenue of the America

New York,

York NY 10020 USA

D plication a

Duplication

authorized

thori ed for use

se with

ith this presentation onl

only.

Photographs and figures on bearing wall design provided

courtesy of the Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois,

USA

David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory

Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering

2142 Learned Hall

L

Lawrence,

K

Kansas, 66045-7609

66045 7609

(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631

daved@ku.edu

Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Design of Structures with High-Strength

Concrete by

y ACI 318

David Darwin

Vietnam Institute for Building Science and

Technology (IBST)

Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

December 12-16, 2011

This morning

Slender columns

Walls

High strength concrete

High-strength

High-strength

High

strength concrete

Background

ACI 318 provisions that apply to high-strength

concrete

Background

High

g sstrength

e g co

concrete

cee=?

1920s

fc > 20 MPa

1950s

> 35 MPa

1990s

> 60 MPa

> 70 MPa

High-strength

High

strength concrete

Small %

Important

Columns in high-rise buildings

constructed of reinforced concrete

Compressive behavior

cylinder size

100 x 200 mm vs.

150 x 300 mm molds

f'c((4x8

8 in.)) = 1.016

0 6f'c(6

(6x12 in.))

f'c(100x200 mm) = 1.016f'c(150x300 mm)

End condition

Stress-strain

Stress

strain curves

28 days

y

91 days

y

%g

gain absolute

gain

20 MPa

35 MPa

75 %

15 MPa

64 MPa

92 MPa

44 %

28 MPa

strength

fc vs. fc2 3

Fracture

the tensile strength has been reached

Fracture energy vs

vs. compressive strength

250

Frracture Energy (N

N/m)

225

200

175

150

Basalt

Basalt

Limestone

125

Linear (Limestone)

Linear (Basalt)

100

75

Limestone

50

25

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Compressive

p

Strength

g (MPa)

(

)

90

100

Structural behavior

Bond

Shear

Bond

1.83 m

4.88 m

Asfs/fc11/2 (Tes

st), in.2

Asfs/fc11/4 (Tes

st), in.2

Asfs/ffc1/4 (Prediction),

(Prediction) in.

in 2

Shear

Specific creep

Creep coefficient

Shrinkage

strength concrete

Required average strength

Evaluation and acceptance of concrete

Stress block parameter

Limits that apply

pp y to shear,, torsion,, and bond

Transmission of column loads through floor

systems

t

ss standard deviation of test results

(a) Arithmetic average of all sets of three

consecutive strength tests* equals or

exceeds fc

(b) No strength test* falls below fc by more than

3.5 MPa when fc is 35 MPa or less; or by

more than 0.10fc when fc is more than 35

MPa

*Test = average strength of three 100 200 mm

cylinders or of two 150 300 mm cylinders

Stress-block

Stress

block parameter 1

1 0.85 for 17 MPa fc 28 MPa

For fc between 28 and 56 MPa, 1

decreases by 0.05 for each 7 MPa

increase in fc

1 0.65

0 65 ffor fc 56 MP

MPa

shear, torsion

torsion, and

bond

Shear and torsion

The

e value

a ue o

of fc is

s limited

ted to a maximum

a

u

of 8.3 MPa unless minimum transverse

reinforcement

i f

t is

i used

d

Bond

Development and lap splice lengths of

bars are inverselyy proportional to fc

The value off fc is limited to a maximum

of 8.3 MPa

g floor

systems

y

often has a compressive strength

b l

below

th

thatt th

thatt off the

th columns,

l

especially

p

y for high-rise

g

buildings

g

If fc for column 1

1.4

4fc for floor system

(fcc 1.4fcs )), one of three requirements

must be satisfied:

1. Place concrete with fcc in the floor out to 600 mm

from column faces and integrate with floor concrete

2. Treat column as if its strength fcs within the

depth of the floor

fcc fcs must not be taken 2.5

Summary

Background

ACI 318 provisions that apply to high-strength

concrete

51

Pearson Education

Education, Inc

Inc.

Upper Saddle River, NJ USA

Figures copyright

Fi

i ht 2010 by

b

McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1221 Avenue of the America

New York, NY 10020 USA

Figures

g

copyright

py g 2011 by

y

American Concrete Institute

38800 Country Club Drive

Farmington Hills,

Hills MI 48331 USA

Duplication authorized for use with this presentation only.

David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory

Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering

2142 Learned Hall

L

Lawrence,

K

Kansas, 66045-7609

66045 7609

(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631

daved@ku.edu

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