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Building Code Requirements for

St
Structural
t
l Concrete
C
t (ACI 318M-11)
318M 11)
Overview
O
i
off ACI 318M
Design of Prestressed Concrete
Evaluation of Existing Structures
David Darwin
Vietnam Institute for Building Science and
Technology (IBST)
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
December 12-16, 2011

This morning
Overview of ACI 318M-11
318M 11
Design of Prestressed Concrete
(Ch t 18)
(Chapter
Strength Evaluation of Existing
Structures (Chapter 20)

This afternoon
Analysis and design of
Flexure
Shear
Torsion
Axial load

Tomorrow morning
Design of slender columns
Design of wall structures
High-strength concrete

Overview of ACI 318M-11


Legall standing
L
t di
Scope
p
Approach to Design
Loads and Load Cases
C
Strength Reduction Factors

Legal standing
Serves as th
S
the llegall structural
t t l concrete
t
building code in the U.S. because it is
adopted
d t d by
b the
th generall building
b ildi code
d (IBC)
(IBC).

Scope
ACI 318M consists of 22 chapters and 6
appendices that cover all aspects of building
design

Chapters
1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Scope, Contract Documents, Inspection,
Approval of Special Systems

2. NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS

Chapters
3. MATERIALS
Cementitious Materials, Water, Aggregates,
Admixtures, Reinforcing Materials

4. DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS
Freezing and Thawing, Sulfates, Permeability,
Corrosion

5 CONCRETE QUALITY,
5.
QUALITY MIXING,
MIXING AND PLACING

6. FORMWORK, EMBEDMENTS,
AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

7. DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT
Hooks and Bends,, Surface Condition,, Tolerances,,
Spacing, Concrete Cover, Columns, Flexural Members,
Shrinkage and Temperature Steel, Structural Integrity

8 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN GENERAL


8.
CONSIDERATIONS
Design Methods; Loading, including Arrangement of
Load; Methods of Analysis; Redistribution of Moments;
Selected Concrete Properties; Requirements for
Modeling Structures (Spans, T-beams, Joists...)

9. STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY


REQUIREMENTS
Load Combinations, Strength Reduction Factors,
Deflection Control

10. FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS


Beams and One-way Slabs, Columns, Deep Beams,
Bearing
g

11. SHEAR AND TORSION

12. DEVELOPMENT
AND SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT

13 TWO-WAY
13.
TWO WAY SLAB SYSTEMS

14. WALLS

15 FOOTINGS
15.

16. PRECAST
CONCRETE

17. COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL


MEMBERS

18. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

19. SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATE MEMBERS

20. STRENGTH EVALUATION OF EXISTING


STRUCTURES
21. EARTHQUAKE
EARTHQUAKERESISTANT
STRUCTURES

22. STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE

Appendices
A. STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS*

B. ALTERNATIVE
PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLEXURAL AND
COMPRESSION MEMBERS
C. ALTERNATIVE LOAD AND STRENGTH
REDUCTION FACTORS

D ANCHORING TO CONCRETE*
D.
CONCRETE

E. STEEL REINFORCEMENT INFORMATION


F EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN SI
F.
SI-METRIC,
METRIC MKSMKS
METRIC, AND U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS OF
NONHOMOGENOUS EQUATIONS IN THE CODE

Approach to design
Qd = design loads

Sn = nominal strength
Sd = design strength

M = safety
f t margin
i

Design Strength Required Strength


Sd = Sn Q
Qd

Sd

= design strength = Sn

= strength reduction factor

= load factors

Qd

= design loads

and in Chapter 9 of ACI 318M

Loads Qd
specified in ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads

for Buildings and Other Structures

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)


Reston, Virginia, USA

Loads
Dead loads (D)*
Live loads (L)*
Roof live loads (Lr))*
Wind loads (W)
full load
E th
Earthquake
k lloads
d (E)
f ll lload
full
d
Rain loads (R)*
Snow loads (S)*
*S
Service-level
i l
l lloads
d

Loads
Impact include in L
Self-straining effects (temperature, creep,
shrinkage,
g , differential settlement,, and
shrinkage compensating concrete) (T)
Fluid loads (F)
Lateral soil pressure (H)
Factored Load = U = Qd

Load cases and load factors


by ASCE 7 and ACI 318M
U = 1.4D
U = 1.2D + 1.6L + + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.5W)
U = 1.2D + 1.0W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
U = 1.2
1 2D + 1.0
1 0E + 1.0
1 0L + 0.2
0 2S

Load cases and load factors


f
by ASCE 7 and ACI 318M
U = 0.9
0 9D + 1.0
1 0W
U = 0.9D + 1.0E

L d ffactors
Load
t
by
b ACI 318M
If W based on service-level forces, use 1.6W place of
1.0W
If E based on service-level forces, use 1.4E in place
of 1.0
1 0E

Details of other cases covered in the Code

Strength reduction () factors


Tension-controlled sections
0.90
Compression-controlled
Compression
controlled sections
Members with spiral reinforcement 0.75
Oth members
Other
b
0 65
0.65
Shear and torsion
0.75
Bearing
0.65
Post-tensioning
Post
tensioning anchorages
0 85
0.85
Other cases
0.60 0.90

Tension controlled and compression


Tension-controlled
compressioncontrolled sections

T beam
T-beam

b
hf

dt

As
bw

Strain through depth of beam

Design Strength ( x nominal strength) must


exceed the Required Strength (factored load)
Bending

Mn Mu

Axial load

Pn Pu

Shear

Vn Vu

Torsion

Tn Tu

Load distributions and modeling


requirements

Structure may be analyzed as elastic


using
gp
properties
p
of g
gross sections

Ig = moment of inertia of gross (uncracked)


cross section

3
b
h
Beams: Ib = Ig Iweb = w
12
3
bh
Columns: Ic = Ig =
12

Analysis by subframes
1. The
1
Th live
li lload
d applied
li d only
l tto th
the flfloor or rooff
under consideration, and the far ends of
columns
l
b
built
ilt iintegrally
t
ll with
ith th
the structure
t t
considered fixed

2. The
2
Th arrangementt off load
l d may b
be lilimited
it d tto
combinations of
(a) factored dead load on all spans with full
factored live load on alternate spans, and
(b) factored dead load on all spans with full
factored live load on two adjacent
j
spans
p

(a)

(b)

(c)

Moment and shear envelopes

Columns designed to resist


(a) axial forces from factored loads on all floors
or roof and maximum moment from factored
live loads on a single adjacent span of the
floor or roof under consideration
(b) loading condition giving maximum ratio of
moment to axial load

More on columns

For frames or continuous construction,


construction consider
effect of unbalanced floor or roof loads on both
exterior and interior columns and of eccentric
loading due to other causes
For gravity load, far ends of columns built integrally
with
ith th
the structure
t t
may be
b considered
id d fifixed
d
At any floor or roof level, distribute the moment
between columns immediatelyy above and below
that floor in proportion to the relative column
stiffness

Simplified loading criteria

Beams, two
Beams
or more spans

M factor w u l n 2
Beams, two
spans only

Slabs
Slabs,
spans 3 m
Beams, col stiffnesses
8 beam stiffnesses

ln

Max +ve

Max ve left

Composite
Max ve right

Allowable adjustment in maximum


moments for t 0.0075

Design of prestressed concrete


(Chapter 18)

Behavior of reinforced concrete

Reinforced concrete under service loads

Theory of prestressed concrete


Stresses

Methods of prestressing concrete members


Pretensioning

Post-Tensioning

57

Prestressing steels

Strength of prestressing steels available in


U.S.
Seven-wire strand: fpu 1725, 1860 MPa

fpy (stress at 1% extension) 85% (for stressrelieved strand) or 90% (for low-relaxation
low relaxation
strand) of fpu

fpu = ultimate strength


fpy = yield strength

Strength of prestressing steels available in


U.S.
Prestressing wire: fpu 1620 to 1725 MPa
(function of size)

fpy (at
( t 1% extension)
t
i ) 85% off fpu

Strength of prestressing steels available in


U.S.

High-strength steel bars: fpu 1035 MPa


fpy 85% (for plain bars) and 80% (for deformed
bars) of fpu
p

fpy based on either 0.2%


0 2% offset or 0.7%
0 7% strain

Maximum permissible stresses in


prestressing steel
Due to prestressing steel jacking force:
0.94
0
9 fpy
0.80fpu
manufacturers recommendation
Post-tensioning
g tendons,, at anchorage
g devices
and couplers, immediately after force transfer:
0.70fpu

Prestressed concrete members are


designed based on both
Elastic flexural analysis
y
Strength

Elastic flexural analysis


Considers stresses under both the
Initial prestress force Pi and the
Effective prestress force Pe
Note:

fc = concrete compressive strength


fci = initial concrete compressive

strength (value at prestress transfer)

Classes of members
U uncracked calculated tensile stress in
precompressed
d ttensile
il zone att service
i
loads = ft 0.62 fc
T transition between uncracked and
cracked 0.62 fc < ft 1.0 fc
C cracked ft > 1.0 fc
fc in MPa

Concrete section properties


e = tendon eccentricity
k1= upper kern point
k2= lower kern point
Ic = moment of inertia
Ac = area
radius of gyration:
r2 = Ic/Ac
section moduli:
S1 = Ic/c1
S2 = Ic/c2

Bending moments
Mo = self-weight
g moment
Md = superimposed dead load moment
Ml = live load moment

Concrete stresses under Pi

Concrete stresses under Pi + Mo

Concrete stresses under Pe + Mo + Md + Ml

Maximum p
permissible stresses in concrete at
transfer
(a) Extreme fiber stress in compression,
compression except as in
(b), 0.60fci
(b) Extreme
E t
fiber
fib stress
t
in
i compression
i att ends
d off
simply supported members 0.70fci
(c) Extreme fiber stress in tension at ends of simply
supported members 0.50 fci *
(d) Extreme fiber stress in tension at other locations
0.25 fcii *
* Add ttensile
il reinforcement
i f
t if exceeded
d d

Maximum permissible compressive


stresses in concrete at service loads
Class U and T members
((a)) Extreme fiber stress in compression
p
due to
prestress plus sustained load 0.45fc
(b) Extreme fiber stress in compression due to
prestress plus total load 0.60
60ffc

Flexural strength

Aps

T = Apsfps
ps

Stress-block
Stress
block parameter 1
1 0.85 for 17 MPa fc 28 MPa
For fc between 28 and 56 MPa, 1
decreases by 0.05 for each 7 MPa
increase in fc

1 0.65 for fc 56 MPa

Stress in prestressing steel at ultimate


Members with bonded tendons:

p = Aps/bdp = reinforcement ratio


b = width of compression face
dp = d (effective
( ff ti depth)
d th) off prestressing
t
i steel
t l

Members with bonded tendons and non-prestressed bars:


p

f pu d
f ps f pu 1 p

f c d p

1

f y / f c and f y / f c
and refer to compression
p
reinforcement,, As

f ppu d
shall be taken 017
. , d 015
. dp
p
f c d p

Members with unbonded tendons with span/depth


ratios 35:

but not greater than fpy or greater than fpe + 420 MPa
Pe
fpe = stress
t
in
i Aps att Pe =
Aps

Members with unbonded tendons with span/depth


ratios > 35:

but not greater than fpy or greater than fpe + 210 MPa

Loss of prestress
(a) Prestessing steel seating at transfer
(b) Elastic shortening of concrete
(c) Creep of concrete
(d) Shrinkage of concrete
( ) Relaxation
(e)
R l
ti off prestressing
t
i steel
t l
(f) Friction loss due to intended or
unintended curvature of post-tensioning
tendons

Limits on reinforcement in flexural


members
Classify as tension-controlled, transition, or
compression-controlled
compression
controlled to determine
Total
T
t l amountt off prestressed
t
d and
d nonprestressed
t
d
reinforcement in members with bonded
reinforcement
i f
t mustt be
b able
bl tto carry 1.2
12
cracking load

Minimum bonded reinforcement As in


members with unbonded tendons
Except in two-way slabs, As = 0.004Act
Act = area of that part of cross section
between the flexural tension face and
center of gravity of gross section
Distribute As uniformly over precompressed
t
tension
i zone as close
l
as possible
ibl tto
extreme tensile fiber

Two-wayy slabs:
Positive moment regions:
Bonded reinforcement not required where tensile
stress ft 0.17 fc
Nc
Otherwise, use As =
0.5fy
Nc = resultant tensile force acting on portion of
concrete cross section in tension under effective
prestress and service loads
Distribute As uniformly over precompressed
tension zone as close as possible to extreme
tensile fiber

Two-way slabs:
T
l b
Negative moment areas at column supports:
As = 0.00075Acf
Acff = larger gross cross-sectional
cross sectional area of slabslab
beam strips in two orthogonal equivalent
frames intersecting at the columns
Distribute
Di
t ib t As between
b t
lilines 1.5
1 5h on outside
t id
opposite edges of the column support
Code includes spacing
p
g and length
g requirements
q

Two-way
Two
way slabs
Use Equivalent Frame Design Method
(Section 13.7)
13 7)

Banded tendon distribution

Photo courtesy of Portland Cement Association

Development of prestressing strand

development length

= transfer length
fse fpe

Pe

Aps

Shear for prestressed concrete members is


similar to that for reinforced concrete
members, but it takes advantage of
presence of prestressing force

Post tensioned tendon anchorage zone


Post-tensioned
design
Load factor = 1.2 Ppu = 1.2Pj

Pj = maximum jacking force


= 0.85

Strength evaluation of existing structures


(Chapter 20)

Strength evaluation of existing structures


(Chapter 20)
When it is required
When we use analysis and when perform a load test
When core testing is sufficient
L d ttesting
Load
ti

A strength evaluation is required


when there is a doubt if a part or all of a structure
meets safety requirements of the Code
If the effect of the strength deficiency is well
understood and if it is feasible to measure the
dimensions and material properties required for
analysis, analytical evaluations of strength
based on those measurements can be used

If the effect of the strength deficiency is not well


understood or if it is not feasible to establish the
required dimensions and material properties by
measurement, a load test is required if the
structure is to remain in service

Establishing dimensions and material


properties
1. Dimensions established at critical sections
2. Reinforcement locations established by
measurement (can use drawings if spot
checks confirm information in drawings)
3 Use cylinder and core tests to estimate fc
3.

Core testing

If the deficiency involves only the


compressive strength of the concrete
based on cylinder tests
Strength is considered satisfactory
S
f
if:
f
1. Three cores are taken for each low-strength
test
2. The average
g of the three cores 0.85fc
3. No individual core has a strength < 0.75fc

Steel
Reinforcing and prestressing steel may be
evaluated based on representative material

If analysis is used,
used values of may be
increased
Tension-controlled 0.90 1.0
Compression controlled 0.75 and 0.65
0.90 and 0.80
Shear and torsion 0.75 0.80
Bearing 0.65
0 65 0.80
0 80

Load test procedure


Load arrangement:
Select number and arrangement of spans or
panels loaded to maximize the deflection and
stresses in the critical regions
Use more than one arrangement if needed
((deflection,, rotation,, stress))

Load intensity
Total test load = larger of
(a) 1.15D + 1.5L + 0.4(Lr or S or R)
((b)) 1.15D + 0.9L + 1.5(L
( r or S or R))
(c) 1.3D
In (b), load factor for L may be reduced to 0.45,
exceptt for
f garages, places
l
off assembly,
bl and
d
where L > 4.8 kN/m2
L may be reduced as permitted by general
building code

Age at time of loading 56 days

Loading criteria
Obtain initial measurements (deflection
(deflection,
rotation, strain, slip, crack widths) not more
than 1 hour before application of the first
load increment
Take readings where maximum response is
expected
U att least
Use
l
t four
f
load
l d iincrements
t
Ensure uniform load is uniform no arching

Take measurements after each load


increment and after the total load has been
applied for at least 24 hours
Remove total test load immediately after all
response measurements are made
Take a set of final measurements 24 hours
after
ft the
th test
t t load
l d is
i removed
d

Acceptance criteria
No signs of failure no crushing or spalling
of concrete
g a shear failure is
No cracks indicating
imminent
In regions without transverse reinforcement
reinforcement,
evaluate any inclined cracks with horizontal
projection > depth of member
Evaluate cracks along the line of
reinforcement in regions of anchorage and
lap splices

Acceptance criteria
Measured deflections
2
t

At maximum load: 1
20 ,000h
24 hours after load removed:

1
r
4

t MIN(distance between supports, clear span + h)


2 x span for cantilever

Acceptance criteria
If deflection criteria not met
met, may repeat the
test (at least 72 hours after first test)

2
Satisfactory if: r
5
2 maximum deflection of second test relative to
postion of structure at beginning of second test

Provision for lower loading


If the structure does not satisfy conditions or
criteria based on analysis, deflection, or shear,
it may be permitted for use at a lower load
rating based on the results of the load test or
analysis if approved by the building official
analysis,

Case study
1905 building
Chicago, Illinois
USA
Cinder concrete
floors
Load capacity OK for use
g
as an office building?

Safety shoring

Deflection
measurement
devices

Load through
window

Moving lead ingots through the window

Load stage 14

Findings
Floor could carry uniform load of
2.4 kN/m2
Building satisfactory for both apartments (1.9
kN/m2) and offices ((2.4 kN/m2)

Summary
Overview
Prestressed concrete
St
Strength
th evaluation
l ti off existing
i ti structures
t t

118

Figures copyright 2010 by


M G
McGraw-Hill
Hill C
Companies,
i
IInc.
1221 Avenue of the America
New York,
York NY 10020 USA
Figures copyright 2011 by
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Drive
F
Farmington
i t Hills,
Hill MI 48331 USA
D li ti authorized
Duplication
th i d or use with
ith thi
this presentation
t ti only.
l

The University of Kansas


David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor


Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory
Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering
2142 Learned Hall
L
Lawrence,
K
Kansas, 66045-7609
66045 7609
(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631
daved@ku.edu

Building Code Requirements for


Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)
Analysis and Design for Flexure, Shear,
Torsion,, and Compression
p
plus
p
Bending
g
David Darwin
Vietnam Institute for Building Science and
Technology (IBST)
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
December 12-16, 2011

This afternoon
Analysis and design for
Flexure
Shear
Torsion
Compression plus bending

Material properties
Concrete
fc,min 17 MPa, no fc,max -- values up to 140 MPa
Usual fc 28 or 35 MPa
higher strengths used for columns

Reinforcing steel
fy 280, 350, 420, 520, 550 MPa
Usual fy 420 MPa

Reinforcing bars 11 sizes:


Size
No. 10
No. 13
No. 16
No. 19
No. 22
No. 25
No. 29
No. 32
No. 36

Actual diameter
9.5 mm
12.7 mm
15.9 mm
19.1 mm
22.2 mm
25.4 mm
28.7 mm
32.2 mm
35.8 mm

Size
No. 43
No. 57

Actual diameter
43.0 mm
57.3 mm

Flexure

Mn Mu

At working loads
Cracked transformed section

At ultimate load

Equivalent stress block

Concrete stress-block
stress block parameters

Stress-block
Stress
block parameter 1
1 0.85 for 17 MPa fc 28 MPa
For fc between 28 and 56 MPa, 1
decreases by 0.05 for each 7 MPa
increase in fc

1 0.65 for fc 56 MPa

Flexural strength

= 0.003

Reinforcement ratio
Tension reinforcement
As

bd
C
Compression
i reinforcement
i f
t
As

bd

Balanced condition and balanced


reinforcement ratio, s = y
Steel yields just
as concrete
crushes

Reinforcement ratio corresponding to


specified values of steel strain s = t

or conservatively

Maximum value of ,
s = 0.004
0 004

Maximum for a tension


tension-controlled
controlled
member, s = 0.005

Thi is
This
i the
th effective
ff ti maximum
i
value
l off

Flexural strength

Mn

Mn As fy d
2

Minimum reinforcement
To ensure that the flexural strength of a
reinforced concrete beam is higher than the
cracking moment:

For statically determinate members with


flange in tension, replace bw by smaller of
2bw or flange
g width b

Exceptions to minimum reinforcement


requirements:
4
As (p
(provided))
As ((required)
q
)
3
Slabs and footings As,min = temperature
and shrinkage reinforcement

Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement

Cover and spacing

Doubly reinforced beams [ > 0.005


0 005]

Doubly reinforced beams


Nominal moment capacity for fs fy

M n M n1 M n 2

As f y d d As As f y d
2

Doubly reinforced beams


Nominal moment capacity for fs fy
M n M n1 M n 2
M n M n1 M n 2

As f s d d As f y As f s d
2

As f s d d 0.85 f cabb d
2

Doubly reinforced beams


Minimum reinforcement ratio so that
compression steel yields:

If <

c must be calculated (q
(quadratic equation):
q
)

Doubly reinforced beams


tension-controlled sections
As

bd

T beams

Effective flange width b


Symmetric T beam:
b 1/4 span length
bw + 16hf
bw + clear distances to next beams
Slab on only one side:
b bw + 1/12 span length
b w + 6h f
bw + clear distance to next beam
Isolated T beam:
hf bw ; b 4bw

Consider two cases based on neutral axis


location

Analyze
A
l
as
rectangular beam

Analyze
A
l
as
T beam

In practice
practice, use depth of stress block a

Nominal capacity

As
Asf
w
; f
bw d
bw d
Limits on reinforcement for tension-controlled
section

w ,0.005 0.005 f

Flexural crack control

Flexural crack control


Maximum spacing s of
reinforcement closest
tension face

fs by analysis or = 2/3 fy

Flexural crack control


Distribution of reinforcement when flanges of T
beams are in tension:
1. Distribute reinforcement over smaller of
effective flange width or width equal to 1/10
span
p
2. If the effective flange width exceeds 1/10
span place some longitudinal reinforcement
span,
in outer portions of flange

Skin reinforcement required when h > 900 mm

Shear

Vn Vu

Diagonal tensile stress in concrete


Function of both bending and shear stresses

Shear stress at cracking taken as shear strength

Behavior of diagonally cracked beam

Beams with web reinforcement

Behavior of beams with web reinforcement

Contribution of stirrups
Vs nAv f yt
For a horizontal projection of the crack p
p
and a stirrup spacing s, n
s
d
In most cases, p d . Thus, conservatively, n
s
A v f yt d
giving Vs
s

Total shear capacity

with

Vd

Vc 0.16 f c 17
bw d 0.29 f cbw d
M

Vc may be taken conservatively as

Inclined stirrups

p
Vs nAv f yt sin Av f yt sin cos tan
s
d sin cos
Vs Av f yt
s

ACI provisions summary


Vu Vn Vc Vs

[Note ]
0.75

Lightweight concrete factor


= 1.0 for normalweight concrete
= 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete
= 0.75 for all-lightweight concrete

Minimum web reinforcement

Required when Vu > 0.5Vc


except for footings and solid slabs; certain
hollow-core slabs; concrete joists; beams with
h < 250 mm; beams integral with slabs with h <
600 mm, 2.5hf, and 0.5bw; beams made of steel
fiber-reinforced concrete with f c 40 MPa, h <
600 mm, and Vu 0.17 f cbw d

Val e of fc is not limited


Value
limited, b
butt the value
al e of fc
is limited to a maximum of 8.3 MPa unless
minimum transverse reinforcement is used

Maximum stirrup spacing s


s d/2 (0.75h for prestressed concrete)
600 mm
These values are reduced by 50% where
Vs 4 fcbw d

Critical section
Maximum Vu for sections closer than d (h/2
for prestressed concrete) from the face of a
support may be taken as the value at d (or
h/2) provided that three conditions are met:
((a)) Support
pp reaction introduces compression
p
into the end region
(b) Loads applied at or near top of member
(c) No concentrated load placed between
critical section at d (or h/2) and the face
of the support

Stirrup design

Prestressed concrete

Vcw

Vci

Vc for prestressed concrete


dp taken as distance from extreme compressive
fiber to centroid of prestressing steel but need
not be taken < 0.8h for shear design
d taken as distance from extreme compressive
fiber to centroid of p
prestressing
g steel and
nonprestressed steel (if any) but need not be
taken < 0.8h for shear design
g

Vc = lesser of Vcii and Vcw


1.7 fcbw d

Mmax and Vi computed from load combination of


ffactored
t d superimposed
i
dd
dead
d and
d lilive lload
d
causing maximum factored moment at section

Vc = lesser of Vcii and Vcw


1.7 fcbw d

Vd = shear due to unfactored self weight of beam


yt = distance from centroid to tension face
fpe = compression at tension face due to Pe alone
fd = stress due to unfactored beam self weight
g at
extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is
cause byy external load

fpc = compressive stress at concrete centroid


under Pe
Vp = vertical component of effective
prestress
t
force
f
Pe

Simplified design

11.3.4 and 11.3.5 address conditions near


the ends of p
pretensioned beams

Other provisions (not covered today)


Effect of axial loads

Torsion

Tn Tu

Equilibrium torsion
Equilibrium torsion

Compatibility torsion

Compatibility torsion

Ed b
Edge
beam:

Torsionallyy stiff

Torsionallyy flexible

Stresses caused
by torsion

Thin-walled
Thin
walled tube under torsion

Shear flow q, N/m

q
T

t aAot
principal
i i l tensile
te ile stress
t e

ft 0.33 f c
cr cracking shear stress 0.33 f c
Tcr 0.33 f c 2 Aot
Acp area inside full outside perimeter pcp
t
T

cr

Acp
pcp

2
; Ao Acp
3

0.33 f c

Acp2
pcp

kN-m

Torsion in reinforced concrete member

Torque vs. twist

After cracking, area enclosed by shear path is defined


by xo and yo measured to centerline of outermost
closed transverse reinforcement

Aohh = xoyo
ph = 2(xo + yo)

Torque
q supplied
pp
by
y side 4:

Force in axial direction

Longitudinal steel to resist torsion

Torsion plus shear

Hollow section

Solid section

ACI provisions
= 0.75
Tu Tn

where
h Ao = 0.85
0 85Aoh
= 30 to 60, 45 recommended

Minimal torsion
Neglect torsional effects if Tu cracking
torque =

Equilibrium vs
vs. Compatibility Torsion
For members subjected to compatibility torsion,
member is assumed to crack in torsion, reducing
its rotational stiffness, and Tu may be reduced to
cracking torque =

Redistributed bending moments and resulting


shears must be used to design adjoining members

Limitations on shear stress


Under combined shear and torsion, total shear
stress v is limited to

Limitations on shear stress


Hollow sections

Solid sections

Reinforcement for Shear and Torsion

for single leg, fyt 420 MPa

Combined shear and torsion

Minimum transverse reinforcement

Maximum spacing of transverse


reinforcement
s ph/8, 300 mm
Spacing requirements for shear also apply

Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion

Use longitudinal bars at perimeter of section


spaced at 300 mm,
mm at every corner of
stirrups, and no smaller than No. 10 bar. Must
be anchored to develop fy at face of supports
supports.

Other provisions (not covered today)


Effect of axial loads
Some details of hollow sections

Compression plus bending

Pn Pu
Mn Mu

= 0.75 for spiral columns

= 0.65
0 65 for
f tied
ti d columns
l

Theoretical maximum axial capacity


Po 0.85 f c Ag Ast f y Ast
Ag = gross (total) area of concrete
Ast = total area of steel reinforcement

Maximum axial loads permitted by ACI 318


Spirally reinforced columns

Tied columns

Transverse reinforcement - ties


At least No. 10 for longitudinal
g
bars up
p to No. 32
and at least No. 13 for No. 36, 43, and 57
Spacing s along the length of the column
16 diameter
di
t off longitudinal
l
it di l b
bars
48 diameter of tie bars
least dimension of column

Transverse reinforcement - ties


Every corner and alternate longitudinal bar
shall
h ll h
have llateral
t l supportt provided
id d b
by th
the
corner of a tie with an included angle 135
d
degrees
and
d no b
bar shall
h ll b
be ffarther
th th
than
150 mm clear on each side along the tie
f
from
such
h a llaterally
t ll supported
t db
bar

Transverse reinforcement ties

Transverse reinforcement spirals

Transverse reinforcement spirals


Volumetric reinforcing ratio

Ag = gross area off column


l
Ach = core area of column measured to the outside
diameter of the spiral
fyt = yyield strength
g of spiral
p
reinforcement 700 MPa

Strain compatibility analysis and


interaction diagrams
Eccentricity e

Example

Example

Interaction diagrams

Balanced failure

Design aids and generalized interaction


diagrams
e /h
Pu
Pn
Kn

fcAg fcAg

Pu e
Mn
Pn e
Rn

fcAg h fcAg h fcAg h

Applying -factors
factors and limits on maximum
loads

Other provisions (not covered today)


Slenderness

Summary
A l i and
Analysis
dd
design
i ffor
Flexure
Fl
Shear
Sh
T i
Torsion
C
Compression
i plus
l b
bending
di

Tomorrow morning
Design of slender columns
Design of wall structures
High-strength concrete

112

Figures copyright 2010 by


M G
McGraw-Hill
Hill C
Companies,
i
IInc.
1221 Avenue of the America
New York,
York NY 10020 USA
Duplication authorized for use with this presentation only.

The University of Kansas


David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor


Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory
Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering
2142 Learned Hall
L
Lawrence,
K
Kansas, 66045-7609
66045 7609
(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631
daved@ku.edu

Building Code Requirements for


Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)
Design of Slender Columns by ACI 318
David Darwin
Vietnam Institute for Building Science and
Technology (IBST)
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
December 12-16, 2011

This morning
Slender columns
Walls
High strength concrete
High-strength

Slender columns
Notation
Effective length factors and effect of
slenderness on strength
g
Moment magnification
ACI design criteria
Design procedures
Nonlinear second order analysis
y
Linear second order analysis
Moment magnification procedure

Notation
I = moment of inertia
A = area of cross section
r = radius of gyration = I A
, l = column length
k = slenderness ratio = k/r
Pc critical
iti l b
buckling
kli lload
d

Et I
2

Et = tangential
t
ti l modulus
d l off elasticity
l ti it

Braced columns: effective length factor k 1

Unbraced columns: effective length factor k 1

Effect of slenderness on column strength


Pc

2E t I

2E t A

k r

Frames
k(braced) < k(unbraced)

Braced frame

Unbraced frame
Pc2 << Pc1

Moment magnification the P-


effect

Moment magnification
For a column in single curvature:

1
y y0
1 P Pc
and
Mmax

1
M0
1 P Pc

Moment magnification
For a column in double curvature with
equal end moments:

1
y y0
1 P 4Pc

Moment magnification
More generally, when the end moments
are nott equal:l
Cm
Mmax M0
1 P Pc

where
h
M1
0.4,
Cm 0.6 0.4
4 M2 M1
M2
Define: M1 M2 0 for single curvature
0 for double curvature

ACI design criteria


Braced (nonsway):
(
y)
Neglect slenderness when
ku/r 34 12M1/M2
40
where u = unsupported length (clear distance)
Unbraced (sway):
Neglect slenderness when
ku/r 22

Alignment charts to determine k

Alignment charts to determine k


= ratio of (EI/c) of compression members to
((EI/)) of flexural members in a p
plane at one
end of a compression member

c, = span length of column or flexural


member
b center-to-center
t t
t off joints
j i t

Design procedures
Nonlinear second-order analysis
Linear second-order
second order analysis
M
Moment
t magnifier
ifi procedure
d

Nonlinear second-order
second order analysis

Linear second order analysis

Section properties
Moments of inertia:
Beams
Columns
Walls uncracked
cracked
Flat plates and flat slabs

0.35Ig
0.70Ig
0.70Ig
0 35Ig
0.35
0.25Ig

Area

1.0Ag

Modulus of elasticity Ec next slide

Modulus of elasticity Ec

Sustained load
For members
F
b
under
d sustained
t i d llateral
t l lload,
d
divide I by (1 + ds), where
ds

maximum factored sustained shear within story

1 .0
maximum factored shear within story

Moment magnification procedure

Mmax = M0

Nonsway versus sway structures


Nonsway
y if
Pu o
Q
0.05
Vus c
where
Pu sum of factored vertical loads in a story
Vus factored
f t d horizontal
h i
t l shear
h
iin a story
t
o 1st-order relative storyy deflection
c column length, center-to-center of joints

Note:
Q P Pc
Thus, for Q 0.05, Mmax 1.05M0

Nonsway frames
Mc ns M2 ;

ns

M2,min Pu 15 0.03h

Cm

1 .0
1 Pu 0.75Pc

Pc

2EI

ku

M1
Cm 0.6 0.4
0 .4
M2

Stiffness reduction
factor

EI
0 .2
2E
EI

EI

c g

EsIse

1 dns

or
EI

dns

0 .4
4E
Ec I g
1 dns

maximum factored axial sustained load

1.0
maximum factored axial load for same load combination

Sway frames
Moments M1 and M2 at ends of member
M1 M1ns s M1s
M2 M2ns s M2s
1
s
1; if s 1.5, use second-order
1 Q
elastic analysis or
1
s
1
1 Pu 0.75Pc

When calculating s
k 1.0
ds
d is substituted for dns
d when calculating EI
ds

maximum factored sustained shear within story


1 .0
maximum factored shear within story

ds is most often = 0
Pu and Pc summed for all columns on floor

Summary
Notation
Effective length factors and effect of
slenderness on strength
g
Moment magnification
ACI design criteria
Design procedures
Nonlinear second order analysis
y
Linear second order analysis
Moment magnification procedure

29

Figures copyright 2010 by


M G
McGraw-Hill
Hill C
Companies,
i
IInc.
1221 Avenue of the America
New York,
York NY 10020 USA
Figures copyright 2011 by
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Drive
F
Farmington
i t Hills,
Hill MI 48331 USA
D li ti authorized
Duplication
th i d ffor use with
ith thi
this presentation
t ti only.
l

The University of Kansas


David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor


Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory
Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering
2142 Learned Hall
L
Lawrence,
K
Kansas, 66045-7609
66045 7609
(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631
daved@ku.edu

Slender columns

Building Code Requirements for


Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)
Design of Wall Structures by ACI 318
David Darwin
Vietnam Institute for Building Science and
Technology (IBST)
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
December 12-16, 2011

This morning
Slender columns
Walls
High strength concrete
High-strength

W ll (Ch
Walls
(Chapters
t
14 10,
14,
10 and
d 11)

Outline
Overview
O
e e
Notation
General design requirements
Minimum reinforcement
Reinforcement around openings
p
g
Design of bearing walls (3 methods)
Design of shear walls

Walls can be categorized based on


Construction
method
Cast-in-place
C
ti l
Precast
Tilt-up

Design
g
loading
Axial
A
i l lload,
d flflexure,
and out-of-plane shear
In-plane shear

Types of Walls
Cast-in-place
p
Precast
Tilt up
Tilt-up

Walls can be categorized based on


Construction
method
Cast-in-place
C
ti l
Precast
Tilt-up

Design
g
loading
Axial
A
i l lload,
d flflexure,
and out-of-plane shear
In-plane shear
Bearing walls*
Shear walls*
alls*

Notation and Abbreviation


l = Vertical reinforcement ratio
t = Horizontal reinforcement ratio
c = Height of wall measured center-to-center
center to center of
supports
h = Wall thickness
hw = Total height of wall
w = Length of wall
Mcr = Cracking
g moment
WWR = welded wire reinforcement

General design requirements in ACI 318


Design for axial, eccentric, lateral, shear and
other loads to which the wall is subjected
Walls must be anchored to intersecting
structural elements (floors
(floors, roofs
roofs, columns
columns))
Horizontal
H
i
t l llength
th off a wallll considered
id d effective
ff ti
for each concentrated load
center-to center spacing of loads
bearing
g width + 4 wall thickness h

Outer limits of compression member built


integrally with a wall 40 mm from outside
of spiral or ties
Minimum reinforcement and reinforcement
based on the Empirical Method may be
waived if analysis shows adequate strength
and
d stability
bili
Transfer force to footing at base of wall in
accordance with Chapter
p 15 ((Footings)
g )

Minimum reinforcement
Vertical reinforcement ratio l 0.0015
Reduce to 0.0012 for bar sizes No. 16 and
fy 420 MPa
or for WWR reinforcement sizes 16 mm
Horizontal reinforcement ratio t 0.0025
0 0025
Reduce to 0.0020 for bar sizes No. 16 and
fy 420 MPa
MP
or for WWR reinforcement sizes 16 mm

Walls more than 250 mm thick (except


basement walls):
Mustt have
M
h
two
t
layers
l
off reinforcement
i f
t parallel
ll l
with the faces
((a)) 1/2 to 2/3 of reinforcement in each direction
located between 50 mm and 1/3 of wall
thickness from exterior surface
(b) balance of reinforcement in each direction
located between 20 mm and 1/3 of wall
thickness from interior surface

Vertical and horizontal reinforcement spaced


3h
450 mm
Ties not required around vertical reinforcement
when l 0.01

Reinforcement around openings


At least 2 No. 16 bars
i walls
in
ll with
ith 2 layers
l
of reinforcement in
b th di
both
directions
ti
At least
l
t 1 No.
N 16 bar
b
in walls with 1 layer of
reinforcement
i f
t in
i b
both
th
directions
Anchored to develop fy

Reinforcement around openings

Design of bearing walls


Axial load and flexure
Shear perpendicular to the wall

Design of walls for axial load and flexure


Design options:
Wall Designed as Compression Members
(subjected to P & M design as columns)
Empirical Design Method (some limitations)
Alternative
Alt
ti D
Design
i
off Sl
Slender
d Walls
W ll (some
(
limitations)

Walls designed as compression members


Design as column, including slenderness
requirements
Also meet general and minimum reinforcement
requirements for walls

Empirical Design Method


Limitations
Thickness of solid rectangular cross section

h (c or w between
b t
supports)/25
t )/25

100 mm for bearing walls


190 mm for exterior basement and foundation
walls

Resultant of all factored loads


must be located within the
middle third of the overall
wall thickness

Pu
e h/6
h/6

Wall cross section

Design axial strength

k c 2
Pn 0.55 fcAg 1
Pu
32h

= 0.65
0 65

Effective length factor


factor, k
Walls braced at top and bottom against lateral
t
translation
l ti
Restrained against rotation at one or both
ends
d
k = 0.8
U
Unrestrained
t i d against
i t rotation
t ti att b
both
th ends
d
k = 1.0
Walls not braced against lateral translation
k = 2.0

Alternative Design of Slender Walls

Late
eral Lo
oad

When flexural tension controls the out-of-plane


design, the requirements of this procedure are
considered to satisfy the slenderness requirements
for compression members
P Pu/Ag 0.06fc at
midheight
Wall must be
tension-controlled

Mn Mcr

Distribution of load within wall

Provisions cover
Factored moment Mu
Out-of-plane service load deflection s

Factored moment Mu

By iteration
B direct
By
di t solution
l ti

wu

Factored moment Mu by iteration


e

Pu

Mu Mua Pu u
w u 2c

Mu
Pe Pu u
8

Mua

Puu

2
u c

5M
u
0.75 48EcIcr
Solve by iteration

Icr = moment of inertia of cracked


section

Es
Pu h
wc
2
Icr
As
d c
Ec
fy 2d
3

Es
not taken < 6
Ec

Factored moment Mu by direct solution


e

Pu

Mua

Puu

Mua
Mu
2
5Pu c
1
0.75 48EcIcr

Out-of-plane
Out
of plane service load deflection
P

Service Deflection Limit

s c / 150
50

Loading
g

D + 0.5L + Wa or
D + 0.5L + 0.7E
(per ACI Commentary and
ASCE 7-10)

Service Load Deflections


Mn
Ma
Mcr
(2/3)Mcr

Ma

cr

(2/3)cr

n
35

Service load deflections for Ma (2/3)Mcr


P

Ma = Service

load moment
at midheight
including P-

Ma
s
cr
Mcr
5Mcr 2c
cr
48EcIcr
Service deflection
Find Ma by iteration

Service load deflections for Ma > (2/3)Mcr


P

s 2 / 3 cr

M 2 / 3 M

2 / 3

M 2 / 3 M
a

cr

cr

5Mn 2c
n
48Ec Icr

Service deflection
Fi d Ma and
Find
d Icr by
b it
iteration
ti

cr

Design of shear walls


Shear parallel to the wall in-plane
in plane shear

Shear wall

Design loading
Design for bending, axial load, and in-plane
shear
Bending and axial load: design as
beam or column
If hw 2w, design
d i iis permitted
itt d using
i a
strut-and-tie model (Appendix A)

Shear design
Vu Vn
Vn Vc Vs
Vn 0.83 fchd

Effective depth d
d 0.8hw
Larger value equal to the distance from
extreme compression fiber to center of
force of all reinforcement in tension permitted
when determined by strain compatibility

For walls subject to vertical compression,


compression
Vc 0.17 fchd
For walls subject to vertical tension Nu ,
0.29Nu
Vc 0.17 1

Ag

fchd

Nu is negative for tension

lightweight concrete factor

Alternatively use the lesser of


Alternatively,
Nu d
Vc 0.27 fchd
4 w
or

w 0.1 fc 0.2Nu w h
hd
Vc 0.05 fc
Mu Vu w 2

Wh
When
Mu Vu w 2 iis negative,
ti
second
d
equation
q
is not applicable
pp

First equation corresponds to a principal tensile


stress of about 0.33 fc at centroid of shear-wall
cross section
section.
Second equation corresponds to a flexural tensile
stress
t
off about
b t 0.50 fc att a section
ti
w 2 above
b
the section being
g investigated
g

Horizontal sections closer to the wall base


than w /2 or hw/2,
/2 whichever is less
less, may
be designed for the same Vc as
computed at w /2 or hw/2
Where Vu Vc/2, minimum wall
reinforcement may be used
Where Vu Vc/2, wall reinforcement
must meet the requirements described
next

Horizontal shear reinforcement


Vs

Av fy d
s

Av

Vu Vc s

fy d

Av
t
0.0025
hs
s w 5, 3h, 450 mm

Vertical shear reinforcement

Ah
hw

0.0025 0.5 2.5
t 0.0025
hs1
w

0.0025
s1 w 3, 3h, 450 mm

Summary
Design
es g o
of walls
a s
Notation
General design requirements
Minimum reinforcement
Reinforcement around openings
p
g
Design of bearing walls (3 methods)
Design of shear walls

50

Figures copyright 2010 by


McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1221 Avenue of the America
New York,
York NY 10020 USA
D plication a
Duplication
authorized
thori ed for use
se with
ith this presentation onl
only.
Photographs and figures on bearing wall design provided
courtesy of the Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois,
USA

The University of Kansas


David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor


Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory
Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering
2142 Learned Hall
L
Lawrence,
K
Kansas, 66045-7609
66045 7609
(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631
daved@ku.edu

Building Code Requirements for


Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)
Design of Structures with High-Strength
Concrete by
y ACI 318
David Darwin
Vietnam Institute for Building Science and
Technology (IBST)
Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
December 12-16, 2011

This morning
Slender columns
Walls
High strength concrete
High-strength

High-strength
High
strength concrete
Background
ACI 318 provisions that apply to high-strength
concrete

Background
High
g sstrength
e g co
concrete
cee=?

1920s

fc > 20 MPa

1950s

> 35 MPa

1990s

> 60 MPa

> 70 MPa

100 135 MPa

High-strength
High
strength concrete
Small %
Important
Columns in high-rise buildings

The tallest building in the world is


constructed of reinforced concrete

Compressive behavior

cylinder size
100 x 200 mm vs.
150 x 300 mm molds

f'c((4x8
8 in.)) = 1.016
0 6f'c(6
(6x12 in.))
f'c(100x200 mm) = 1.016f'c(150x300 mm)

End condition

Stress-strain
Stress
strain curves

Behavior in compression tests

Strength versus age

Strength gain - example


28 days
y

91 days
y

%g
gain absolute
gain

20 MPa

35 MPa

75 %

15 MPa

64 MPa

92 MPa

44 %

28 MPa

Tensile and fracture behavior

Relationship between tensile and compressive


strength

fc vs. fc2 3

Fracture

The energy required to open a crack once


the tensile strength has been reached

Fracture energy vs
vs. compressive strength
250

Frracture Energy (N
N/m)

225
200
175
150
Basalt

Basalt

Limestone

125

Linear (Limestone)
Linear (Basalt)

100
75

Limestone

50
25
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Compressive
p
Strength
g (MPa)
(
)

90

100

Structural behavior
Bond
Shear

Bond

1.83 m
4.88 m

Splices w/o confining reinforcement

Splices w/ confining reinforcement

Asfs/fc11/2 (Tes
st), in.2

Asfs/ffc1/2 (Prediction), in.2

Asfs/fc11/4 (Tes
st), in.2

Asfs/ffc1/4 (Prediction),
(Prediction) in.
in 2

Shear

Creep and shrinkage

Specific creep

Creep coefficient

Shrinkage

ACI 318 provisions that apply to highhigh


strength concrete
Required average strength
Evaluation and acceptance of concrete
Stress block parameter
Limits that apply
pp y to shear,, torsion,, and bond
Transmission of column loads through floor
systems
t

Required average strength

fcr required average strength


ss standard deviation of test results

Evaluation and acceptance of concrete


(a) Arithmetic average of all sets of three
consecutive strength tests* equals or
exceeds fc
(b) No strength test* falls below fc by more than
3.5 MPa when fc is 35 MPa or less; or by
more than 0.10fc when fc is more than 35
MPa
*Test = average strength of three 100 200 mm
cylinders or of two 150 300 mm cylinders

Stress-block
Stress
block parameter 1
1 0.85 for 17 MPa fc 28 MPa
For fc between 28 and 56 MPa, 1
decreases by 0.05 for each 7 MPa
increase in fc

1 0.65
0 65 ffor fc 56 MP
MPa

Limits that apply to shear


shear, torsion
torsion, and
bond
Shear and torsion
The
e value
a ue o
of fc is
s limited
ted to a maximum
a
u
of 8.3 MPa unless minimum transverse
reinforcement
i f
t is
i used
d

Bond
Development and lap splice lengths of
bars are inverselyy proportional to fc
The value off fc is limited to a maximum
of 8.3 MPa

Transmission of column loads through


g floor
systems

Concrete in a floor system


y
often has a compressive strength
b l
below
th
thatt th
thatt off the
th columns,
l
especially
p
y for high-rise
g
buildings
g

If fc for column 1
1.4
4fc for floor system
(fcc 1.4fcs )), one of three requirements
must be satisfied:
1. Place concrete with fcc in the floor out to 600 mm
from column faces and integrate with floor concrete
2. Treat column as if its strength fcs within the
depth of the floor

3. Treat column strength as 0.75fcc 0.35fcs


fcc fcs must not be taken 2.5

Summary
Background
ACI 318 provisions that apply to high-strength
concrete

51

Figures copyright 2003 by


Pearson Education
Education, Inc
Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ USA
Figures copyright
Fi
i ht 2010 by
b
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1221 Avenue of the America
New York, NY 10020 USA
Figures
g
copyright
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American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills,
Hills MI 48331 USA
Duplication authorized for use with this presentation only.

The University of Kansas


David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor


Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory
Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering
2142 Learned Hall
L
Lawrence,
K
Kansas, 66045-7609
66045 7609
(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631
daved@ku.edu