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The effect of nonuniform density on the absolute instability of

two-dimensional inertial jets and wakes

Ming-Huei Yu and Peter A. Monkewitz
Department 0/ Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, University o/California, Los Angeles,
California 90024-1597

(Received 5 January 1990; accepted 16 March 1990)

The boundary between absolute and convective (linear) instability oftwo-dimensional inertial
jets and wakes is determined as a function of the ratio of jet/wake to ambient density, as well
as the ratio of mixing layer thickness to jet/wake width, the velocity ratio, and the Reynolds
number. For this, a viscous, heat-conducting ideal gas is taken as the fluid, a zero Mach
number, no buoyancy and a parallel basic flow are assumed, and the density variation is
achieved by specifying a mean temperature profile similar to the velocity profile. Considering
both "varicose" and "sinuous" disturbances, results are obtained for the inviscid top-hat
jet/wake bounded by two vortex sheets, the inviscid jet with continuous velocity and density
profiles, and the viscous wake. For the latter, both constant and temperature-dependent
viscosity are investigated. In all the cases it is found that low density of the high-speed fluid
promotes absolute instability, while low density of the low-speed fluid has the opposite effect.
By comparison with experiments it is shown that the present results provide useful information
about the parameter range in which flow oscillations are self-excited.


The connection between self-excited oscillations in a

nonparallel shear flow and local absolute and convective instability has been the subject of considerable recent research.
The term "local" instability thereby refers to the instability
of a hypothetical parallel flow with velocity and density profiles that match the ones of the nonparallel flow at a given
downstream location. The terms "absolute" and "convective," on the other hand, characterize the linear impulse response of the parallel flOW. I ,2 If, after an initial localized
impulse, the resulting disturbances eventually contaminate
the entire flow, it is referred to as absolutely unstable. Conversely, if the disturbances are convected away and ultimately leave the flow undisturbed (in the absence of further forcing), it is convectively unstable.
The relation between local absolute instability and the
onset of self-excited or time-amplified oscillations of an entire nonparallel flow (also referred to as growth of a "global"
mode) has been illuminated by Chomaz et aU and Huerre
and Monkewitz, 4 for instance. In short, if stream wise variations of the basic flow are small on the scale of a typical
instability wavelength, and if the instability is not dominated
by long-range pressure feedback (as in edge tones, for instance), it is found that time growth of a linear global mode
is only possible when a region of local absolute instability
exists in the flow. Hence the search for absolute instability
represents an effective and inexpensive, albeit not foolproof,
way of searching the parameter space of a complex nonparallel flow for the occurrence of self-excited oscillations. It is
in this spirit that the present investigation has been conducted. The hitch is of course that local absolute instability does
not necessarily lead to self-excited oscillations. It appears,
however, that for the two best explored flows with local absolute instability, the two-dimensional bluff-body wake and
the axisymmetric low-density jet, the local analysis always

Phys. Fluids A 2 (7), July 1990

yields useful (conservative) approximations for the critical

parameters that characterize the onset of time-amplified global oscillations.
For variable-density round jets, Monkewitz and Sohns
have shown that the additional spatial modes found by Michalke6 in heated jets correspond to absolute instability. For
the incompressible case the only effect of the heating in these
inviscid analyses is to lower the jet density, such that the
situation where the (light) jet fluid is different from the ambient is also covered. Using a family of velocity and density
profiles with a variable ratio of mixing layer thickness to jet
diameter, absolute instability in the round jet was foundS for
a density ratio S = Pc /p of centerline and ambient density
below 0.72. To arrive at this value, associated with an axisymmetric disturbance in the potential core region, the fluid
was assumed to be incompressible, inviscid, and at rest outside the jet. Motivated by these calculations, low-density inertial jets were experimentally reexamined for possible selfexcited oscillations, which were indeed discovered both in
heated air jets7,8 and in heliumjets9 exhausting into ambient
In this paper we first present a simple vortex sheet model of two-dimensional jets and wakes that allows a quick
evaluation of the effect of variable density on their stability
characteristics for both varicose and sinuous disturbances.
"Varicose" and "sinuous" thereby refer to the symmetry of
the vortex sheet deformations: for the varicose mode the
transverse deformations of the two vortex sheets are in opposite directions, while they are in the same direction for the
sinuous mode. Then, we compute the density ratio S = 0.95
below which two-dimensional jets become absolutely unstable. As in the round jet, self-excited oscillations are found
experimentally, in this case for S<0.9, which will be the subject of a future paper.
For the wake of a circular cylinder, it has been
shown 10. 1 1 convincingly that von Karman "vortex shed-



1990 American Institute of Physics


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ding," at least at low Reynolds numbers, is the nonlinear

result of a time-amplified wake instability. The connection
to local absolute instability has been established by, among
others, Koch,12 Triantafyllou et al.,13 Monkewitz and
Nguyen,14 Monkewitz,15 and Hannemann and Oertel. 16 To
date, only the influence of the Reynolds number and of base
bleed on the absolute instability of incompressible, homogeneous bluff-body wakes has been analyzed. Experimental
evidence I 7-2 I shows that heating the near wake is also effective in suppressing von Karman vortex shedding. This paper
shows that the suppression goes hand in hand with a reduction and eventual elimination of absolute instability when
the density of the wake is lowered, in complete analogy to the
cases where the Reynolds number is decreased or base bleed
is applied.

In this section we briefly present the equations underlying our parallel stability analysis. As the transition between
convective and absolute instabilityl.2 is sought, we will not
present a traditional temporal or spatial analysis, but rather
compute the complex frequency WO and wave number k associated with the mode of zero group velocity,


The imaginary part of wO, w~, is the temporal growth rate of

the mode with dwl dk = 0 and is referred to as "absolute
growth rate." If w~ > 0, one has absolute instability, provided
WO corresponds to the coalescence of a "downstream" and an
"upstream" mode, or equivalently, if kO is a so-called
"pinch-point" (see Refs. 1 and 2). The numerical scheme
employed in the following to find WO has already been described in Refs. 5 and 15, for instance.

u( y) = 1 - A
F( y) = {I

+ 2AP( y),

+ sinh2N [ y arcsinh( I)]} - t,

u*(y=O) -u*(y= (0)

u*(y=O) +u*(y= (0)
The parameter A in (2a) is the velocity ratio defined by
(2b), where A> 0 corresponds to jets, while A < 0 in wakes.
The profile-shape parameter N allows for a continuous variation between a top-hat jet or wake bounded by two vortex
sheets (N = (0) and a sech2( y) profile (N = 1). The maximum slope or vorticity thickness
defined graphically on
Fig. 1, is asymptotically given for large N by
Ow - 2112 /[N arcsinh( 1)], with only 9% error at N = 1 and
1.7% at N = 2.
To simplify matters, we assume the fluid to be an ideal
gas and produce the variable density by heating. Using the
ambient or free-stream density p'!, and temperature T'!, as
references and assuming constant mean pressure throughout
the flow field, the equation of state for an ideal gas reduces to
(3a). For the mean temperature profile, a profile [Eq. (3b)]
similar to the velocity profile is assumed. This corresponds
to the Busemann-Crocco relationship in the limit of zero
Mach number, which is exact for a Prandtl number of unity.
The additional parameter S in (3b) specifies the density ratio (3c) between the centerline of the jet or wake and the


p( y) = T( y) - I ,
T( y) = 1 + (S- 1


1)F( y),

S==.p*( y = O)/p*( y = (0).

Figure 1 defines the coordinates used in this analysis,

and also shows a typical mean velocity profile characterized
by the centerline velocity u~ = u*( y = 0) and the freestream velocity u'!, = u*( y = (0), where * denotes a dimensional quantity. In the following, we use the same twoparameter family of velocity profiles (2a) as in Refs. 14 and
15, with the reference velocity u:v = (u~ + it'!, )/2 and the
reference length yfl2 defined by it* ( yfl2 ) = u:v :

Coo = 123.6 KIT*( y = (0).




Phys. Fluids A. Vol. 2. No.7. July 1990


+ Coo) I ( T + Coo)],

f..l (T) = T 312 [ (1

FIG. 1. Definition of coordinates

and mean flow profile parameters.


Finally, for the wake calculations the dependence of the

dynamic viscosity on temperature is given by Sutherland's
formula, which takes the nondimensional form (4) with ii'!,
as the reference viscosity,

A. The mean flow




It is noted here that the parallel, i.e., x = independent

basic flow, modeled by (2) and (3), only satisfies the mean
flow equations if viscous and thermal diffusion are negligible. This condition is typically met in variable-density jets
when inertial forces dominate over buoyancy. In low Reynolds number wakes near the onset of von Karman vortex
shedding, on the other hand, the parallel flow assumption is
generally questionable. Nevertheless, in this case the present
approach remains meaningful because, due to mean pressure
gradients, the wake is nearly parallel in the neighborhood of
the most unstable wake profile, which dominates the global
dynamics in the case of self-excitation 15.22.23 and is found at
the station with maximum backflow velocity, i.e., where the
centers of the mean recirculation eddies are located.

B. The disturbance equations

The starting points are the equations of continuity, motion, energy, and state in the form given by Batchelor24 (see
his Eqs. 2.2.2, 3.3.12, 3.4.4, and 1.7.15). For the following
we assume the fluid to be an ideal gas with constant specific
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constant Prandtl number, and zero bulk or expansion 24 viscosity. With this, the thermal conductivity K, nondimensional with K!, , is simply K( T) = fl (T), and the fluctuations of fl and Kare given by fl' = fiTT' and K' = KTT',
respectively. Furthermore, we only consider the limit of zero
Mach number, neglect body forces, buoyancy in particular,
and limit ourselves to two-dimensional disturbances. Every
quantity q is then decomposed into time mean q( y) and
fluctuating part q' (x, y,t). Linearization of the basic equations around the mean leads to the disturbance equations
(5), with (5a) the continuity equation, (5b) and (5c) the xandy-momentum equations, (5d) the energy equation, and
(5e) the equation of state (for easy reference the definitions
of "overall" Reynolds and Prandtl number are listed as (5f):

- ap'- + pup
- '+ _(au'
-ap' + u
- + au') -_ 0,
ax ay




To obtain a quick overview of the parameter space it is

useful to first consider the simplest flow model with an inviscid top-hat jet/wake of uniform velocity and density, bounded by two vortex sheets coincident with density discontinuities. This correspondence to N = 00 in (2a) and R = 00 with
Pr = const. In this case, Eq. (A4) with the boundary conditions (A5) can be integrated analytically, whereby continuity of pressure and transverse displacement must be required
across the vortex sheets. The resulting eigenvalue or dispersion relation between fJ) and k (Rayleigh,25 Sec. 365) is given
below in a form that contains explicitly the two parameters S
and A, as well as the symmetry of the instability mode (note
that in Ref. 4 this dispersion relation is missing three minuses):
S (1 + A - C)2
e k _ se- k '
(1- A - C)2



{ + 1:

sinuous mode,
- 1: varicose mode.
By inspection, one finds immediately that the dispersion relation (7) is invariant under the transformation

s .... s- 1,



Tt+ -u aT'
ax + TyU ')
1 [_(a T'+a-T')
_ aT'
=-- K - 2
R Pr
ay2- +Ky-ay- aT')
- T'] ,
+ -Ty(-KTy T' + KT
ay + -TyyKT


.e... + -=- =





d( )/dy = ( )Y'

R =

d( )/dT= (

p! u:v yT12 lfi!,

Pr =


c;fi! IK!, .


Taking all disturbance quantities in normal mode form,

q' =

qexp[ik(x -




with k the wave number and fJ) the frequency of the mode,
and requiring that all disturbances vanish as I yl"" 00, leads
to an eigenvalue problem for k or fJ), which is listed in the
Appendix and represents a generalization of the Orr-Sommerfeld problem to inhomogeneous flows.

Phys. Fluids A, Vol. 2, No.7, July 1990

A .... - A, s .... - s.
Hence, for this simple flow there is a perfect symmetry between, say, the sinuous or von Karman mode in a cooled
wake and the varicose mode in a heated jet.
Before proceeding to the exploitation of the dispersion
relation (7), its physical interpretation is briefly illuminated. This is best done by viewing (7) as an approximation to
the dispersion relation of a continuous profile with thin
shear layers 8., <1 (8., =8!lyT12 defined on Fig. 1), which
is valid for wavelengths of the order of the jet or wake width,
but long compared to 80}' For constant density i.e., S = 1,
this is readily verified: Expanding the dispersion relation of
the broken-line jet (Rayleigh, 25 Sec. 368, Eq. 24), for instance, in terms of k80} <1, with k = O( 1), results at leading
order in (7). Michalke's study26 of the broken-line mixing
layer with piecewise constant density suggests that the same
holds true for S "# 1. Therefore, physically meaningful results
from the dispersion relation (7) are expected only for k 's not
larger than order unity, and entail errors of order Ik80} I. The
unbounded growth rate obtained from (7) as k r .... 00, in particular. need not concern us here, since (7) is not valid for
large kr = 0(8;; 1), where the finite mixing layer thickness
becomes felt and growth is arrested.
The absolute instability boundary in the S-A plane, on
which fJ)~ = 0, is now easily computed for both the sinuous
and the varicose mode. The results, shown on Fig. 2, clearly
display the symmetry (8) and allow three broad conclusions
which will remain qualitatively valid for the cases with continuous velocity and density profiles.
First, no absolute instability is possible at any density
ratio if IA 1,0.69. In other words, absolute instability is suppressed in sufficiently shallow wakes as well as in jets with
sufficient coflow. Conversely, absolute instability is promoted by increasing IAI, in particular to IAI > 1, which corresponds to counterflow either in the wake or exterior to the
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FIG. 2. Stability properties of the two-vortex-sheet model as a function of

density ratio S=pJp~ and velocity ratio A = (u, - u~ )/(u, + u~).
Horizontal hatching: absolute instability of the sinuous mode; vertical
hatching: absolute instability of the varicose mode.

Second, we conclude that in the wake it is always the

sinuous or von Karman mode that first becomes absolutely
unstable, while in the jet it is the varicose mode which corresponds precisely to the experimentally observed symmetry
of self-excited oscillations in both cases.
Third, heating, or rather lowering of the density, is seen
to have opposite effects on the wake and the jet. In the wake
absolute instability is suppressed by low density, while in the
jet it is enhanced. This again correlates with the experimental observations that von Karman vortex shedding is suppressed by heating of the wake, \7-21 while heating of jets
leads to self-excited oscillations in the axisymmetric case7- 9
as well as in the two-dimensional situation (paper in preparation by the present authors).


Based on the results of Sec. III for jets, attention is focused on the behavior of the varicose mode under heating.
Furthermore, we restrict ourselves to inviscid jets exhausting into an ambient gas at rest, i.e., to R = 00 and A = + 1.
For this case, the absolute growth rate m? is shown on Fig.
3 (a) for different density ratios S = PJp as a function of
the inverse profile parameter N- 1 The corresponding absolute frequencies m~ and wave numbers k 0 are shown on Fig.
3 (b). While all profiles in the homogeneous jet are seen to be
convectively unstable, lowering of the jet density leads to
absolute instability of the profiles with relatively large N,
which are typically found in the potential core region of the
jet. The very first profile to become absolutely unstable at the
transition value SA = 0.95 has an N = 5, corresponding to
(0) =0.3. For S < 0.95, m? becomes positive for more and
more profiles in the potential core region. The associated
frequencies m~ are of the order of 1.5, i.e., close to the frequency associated with the jet column mode (note that for
A = 1 the usual Strouhal number is m~/21T').
For comparison, the much lower absolute growth rate
of the sinuous mode (S = 1 only) is also included on Fig.
3(a). Finally, the choice of infinite Reynolds number isjustified by a computation at R = 103, a value lower than in most
laboratory experiments, which yields only a 3% drop of the




FIG. 3. (a) Absolute growth rate fl)~, and (b) frequency fl)~ with corresponding wave number kO in the inviscid, variable density jet (A = + 1)
versus the profile shape parameter N. Varicose mode with S = 1 (-),
S= 0.95 (-- -),S= 0.85 (-'-'-), S= 0.7 (-"-); sinuousmodewithS= 1



Phys. Fluids A, Vol. 2, No.7, July 1990

transition density ratio from SA (R =

SA (R = 103 ) = 0.92.

00 )

= 0.95



Based on the results of Sec. III, as well as those of Refs.

14 and 15, we restrict our attention in the wake to the sinuous or von Karman mode. Analogous to Ref. 15, the
boundary between convective and absolute instability in the
S-N- 1 plane has been computed for several Reynolds
numbers of interest. The results for A = - 1 (zero centerline velocity) and A = - 1.25 (backftow of O.llil on the
centerline) are shown on Figs. 4(a) and 4(b), respectively.
To attempt a clarification of the mechanism-inertial or viscous-which leads to the suppression of absolute instability
in heated wakes, computations have been performed for
both constant viscosityjl = 1 (i.e.,jl*=:jl'!,) andjl =jl(n.
The first observation is that, in order to eliminate absolute instability for all N, i.e., all profile shapes, a considerably

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FIG. 5. Absolute frequency (J)0 and wave number k versus density ratio S for
- , A = - I, N- t = 0.6, R = 20; ---, A = - I, N- t = 0.6, R = 0Ci;
-'-'-, A = - 1.25, N- t = 0.8, R = 20; -' '-, A = - 1.25, N- t = 0.8,
R= OCi;---,A= -I,N- t =O,R= 0Ci.






FIG. 4. Boundary between absolute (A) and convective (C) instability in the

S_N- t plane for (a) A = - 1 and (b) A = - 1.25, and different Reynolds
numbers: R = 0Ci (0), R = 100 (6), R = 50 (0), R = 20 (\7). The symbols
mark the Sbelow which a wake of given A and R is convectively unstable for all
N- t Solid lines are for constant viscosity Ii = Ii~, broken lines for temperature dependent Ii( n.

lower density is required than for the double-vortex-sheet

model of Sec. III. Second, it is immediately apparent that the
results for constant and temperature-dependent viscosity are
not significantly different. This leads us to conclude that the
change in stability characteristics brought about by heating
is the result of a subtly modified interaction between the two
mixing layers via the inertial terms and not a viscous effect.
Therefore, we believe that in a heated cylinder wake the
Reynolds number, based on free-stream velocity, cylinder
diameter, and viscosity of the hot recirculation region, cannot, as suggested in Ref. 21, be the only parameter which is
necessary to characterize the onset of von Karman vortex
To give an impression of the variation of absolute frequency and associated wave number with density, W O and k 0
are plotted versus S on Fig. 5 for a few representative cases.
It shows that the principal effect of decreasing wake density

Phys. Fluids A, Vol. 2, No.7, July 1990

is to reduce w?, while k 0 remains virtually constant and w~

increases slightly.
To date, the only quantitative data for the temperature
in the recirculation region, which is required to completely
suppress von Karman vortex shedding behind circular cylinders, have been reported by Berger and Schumm. 20 For a
correlation of our local calculations with their data, the results of Fig. 4 are replotted on the S-R plane of Fig. 6, which
is contained in preliminary form in Ref. 4. It has been obtained by choosing at each Reynolds number the S below
which the profiles (2) and (3) are convectively unstable for
all N. According to the model of Chomaz et al., 3 these boundaries between convective instability at all streamwise locations and local absolute instability are conservative bounds


--- - - - -

FIG. 6. Boundary between absolute (A) and convective (C) instability in

the S-R plane for A = - 1 (0) and A = - 1.25 (6). Solid and broken
lines as in Fig. 4; - - -, experimental boundary below which von Karman
vortex shedding is suppressed by heating of the wake (from Berger and
Schumm20 ).

M. Yu and P. A. Monkewitz


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for possible self-excited behavior, provided that the flow is

not dominated by long-range pressure feedback. In other
words, we expect the onset of von Karman shedding well
inside the region where the most unstable local profile is
absolutely unstable. In order to put the experimental data
onto Fig. 6, the usual Reynolds number R (D), based on freestream velocity and cylinder diameter, must be converted to
the profile Reynolds number R of the most unstable profile,
i.e., the profile with maximum backflow velocity, as in Ref.
15 (see also Sec. II A). Making, also, use of the computed
mean velocity profiles of Karniadakis and Triantafyllou27 at
R (D) = 100, we find R;::;;R (D) /3 in the range
50 < R (D) < 100 with an estimated error of about 10%,
noting that in the definition (2b) of A, u ( y = (0) is replaced by the maximum overshoot velocity u~ax as in Ref.
15. With this, we find that the onset of von Karman vortex
shedding indeed follows the scenario of Chomaz et al. 3 as in
the homogeneous case.

We have shown that in inviscidly unstable shear flows

low density of the high-speed fluid enhances absolute instability, while low density of the low-speed fluid has the opposite effect. This extends earlier temporal and spatial results 28 ,29 to the modes with zero group velocity. More
precisely, the above conclusion for absolute instability is
identical to the one reached by Maslowe and Kelly28 for
instability, which serves as a reminder that absolute instability is not brought about by any new instability mechanism,
but by a further shift in the balance of stabilizing and destabilizing forces already responsible for the convective instability. It is also noted in passing that experimental spreading
rates of single mixing layers 30,31 show the same trend with
density variation as the linear growth rates.
In both jets and wakes we have further demonstrated
that absolute frequencies and wave numbers scale on the
jet/wake width and not on the thickness of the individual
mixing layers. This suggests that in the flows considered,
absolute instability is brought about mainly by the interaction of the two mixing layers. Extending the results ofHuerre
and Monkewitz,2 one can in fact show that a single hyperbolic tangent mixing layer without reverse flow cannot become
absolutely unstable by heating of the high-speed side. For the
limiting case of one stream at rest, OJO and k 0 are plotted in
Fig. 7 versus the modified density ratio defined in the caption and commonly used in mixing layer studies. 29 ,31 It appears from this computation that marginal absolute instability, i.e., OJ~ = 0, is only reached at Ap = - I when the
density of the high-speed stream is zero.
Finally, we find that the elimination of local absolute
instability by density variation correlates well with the suppression of the von Karman vortex street in the wake, while
its promotion in the case of jets leads to self-excited oscillations of the entire flow.

The authors wish to thank Professor E. Berger and Mr.

M. Schumm of the Technical University of Berlin for mak1180

Phys. Fluids A, Vol. 2, No.7, July 1990





FIG. 7. Absolute frequency (1)0 and wave number k 0 versus modified density
ratio Ap == [p( + 00) - p( - oo)]I[ p( + 00) - p( - 00)] for the hyperbol~ tangent mixing layer u( y) = 1 + tanh(2y)
with .0- 1 (y)
= T( y) = 1 - Ap tanh(2y).

ing the results of their wake-heating experiments available.

The support of this work by the Air Force Office of
Scientific Research under Grant No. 87-0329 as well as the
support of PAM by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation during the write-up are gratefully acknowledged.



Equations (5) together with the assumption (6) of disturbances in normal mode form yield an ordinary differential equation of the sixth order in y, or more conveniently a
system of six first-order equations. To arrive at the form
(Al) below, the density has been eliminated throughout
with the mean equation of state (3a) and Eq. (5e), i.e.,
p = - T/1'2. Furthermore, ally derivatives of ji and K = ji
are converted to T-derivatives according to jiy = jiTTy:


I (-=
- =y
- V - l'k u+-=u-c









y (RU y
ikTy ikiiTTy)
(ikR ~-~--- V+ -=(U-c)

+ k2)Au

+ ikR + (k2 (_ ) jiTuyy
ji P
31' u-c --r;A

_)A ikji A
3't+ 2/-LT u-RU y


+-I (4ikjiU
--_-+ikjiTuy +
(u-c) T


4ikji _
+ --=(u




c) Ty ,

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dT A


to the single second-order equation (A4) for the disturbance

pressure p, with the boundary conditions (AS):

d p _ (py + .!uy ) dp _ k 2p =
p u-c dy


dTy = R Pr Ty V + (k2 _ fiTTyy _fiTTTy




- i//k



ikO - A - c)( I -


-R Prim

{l= [k2+ikRO-A-c)]1I2,
m = [k 2 + ikR Pre 1 - A - c)] 112,

Re(/) > 0,
Re(m) >0.

On the wake/jet centerline y = 0, the boundary conditions

(A3) are chosen according to the desired symmetry of the
mode in the wake) or
instability, sinuous ( = von
varicose. To start the integration, three linearly independent
combinations of the On or b n have to be chosen to yield three
independent solutions:





(y = 0) =






For the inviscid and non-heat-conducting case, the system

(A 1 ), with the boundary conditions (A2) and (A3), reduces


Phys. Fluids A, Vol. 2, No.7, July 1990

~] (y-+ (0) - [ ~ k]e- ,



These equations have been solved by a shooting technique, integrating in from y = 00 as well as out from y = 0,
and matching the solutions at y = 1. Linearly independent
solutions were kept apart by pseudo-orthonormalization according to Monkewitz. 32 The requirement that disturbances
vanish far away from the wake/jet leads to the following
boundary conditions for the three linearly independent solutions that decay as y -+ 00 :

iO- A -


ikR Pr (_u-c )AT - 2fi/iy

+--_- - AT .



~~ ]

(y = 0) =





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M. Yu and P. A. Monkewitz


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