Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 171

Emergency Management in BC:

Reference Manual

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Foreword
EmergencyManagementBritishColumbia(EMBC),undertheMinistryofPublicSafetyandSolicitor
General,hasdevelopedanonlineEmergencyManagementTrainingManualdesignedtobuilda
commonunderstandingofemergencymanagementinBritishColumbia(BC).
ThemanualisdesignedasareferenceguidetosupportthecoreEmergencyManagementprinciples
appliedinBC.ItismeanttocomplimenttheEmergencyManagementtrainingthatisofferedthrough
EMBC.Itwillprovideacomprehensiveoverviewto:

BCsemergencymanagementframework

Therolesandresponsibilitiesofalllevelsofgovernmentinpreparingforandrespondingto
majoremergencies

Thesystems,processesandstructuresformitigating,preparingfor,respondingtoand
recoveringfromemergencies

Whilethemanualdoesnotcovereverythingyoumayencounterinhelpingyourcommunity,itwillhelp
youseeemergencymanagementfromabroadperspective.

Audience

Themanualisintendedforindividualsinvolvedinvariouslevelsoftheemergencymanagementfield,
including:

localgovernmentandemergencyresponsepersonnel
seniorandelectedofficials
emergencyresponseagencies
volunteerorganizations
healthandsocialserviceagencies
provincialgovernmentstaff
privatesectorrepresentatives

|Foreword

06/08/2011V1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

HowtoUsethisManual
TheEmergencyManagementReferenceGuideisdividedintoninemodulesandsupplementary
informationisattachedasadditionalreadingandtemplatesattheendofeachmodule.TheManualis
structuredasfollows:

Module1:IntroductiontoEmergencyManagementprovidesabasicunderstandingof
emergencymanagementinBC.

Module2:EmergencyManagementProgramsprovidesanoverviewoftherolesand
responsibilitiesofindividualsandfamilies,local,provincialandfederalgovernmentsand
FirstNationsinemergencymanagement.

Module3:BCsEmergencyResponseManagementSystemprovidesanoverviewofthe
theframeworkforastandardizedemergencyresponseinBC.

Module4:EmergencyPlanningprovideskeyinformationonthecreationoflocal
governmentemergencyplansandemergencyoperationscentres.

Module5:EmergencyOperationsCentreprovidesanoverviewofthepurpose,rolesand
functionsofanemergencyoperationscentre.

Module6:SupportingPeopleinEmergenciesprovideskeyinformationaboutsupporting
individualsandfamiliesduring,andintheaftermath,ofanemergency.

Module7:HumanResourceManagementprovideskeyinformationforcreatingahealthy
emergencyresponseenvironmentandbecominganeffectiveleader.

Module8:EmergencyResponseprovidesbestpracticesformanaginganemergency
response,suchaseffectivecommunication.

Module9:EmergencyFinancialAssistanceprovidesanoverviewofthefinancial
requirementsassociatedwithanemergencyresponse.

MaintainingthisManual
TheEmergencyManagementReferenceGuidewillbeupdatedtoensureitremainsaccurate,relevant,
andcontinuestoreflecttheevolutionofemergencymanagementinBC.Forthemostuptodate
version,pleaserefertothewebsiteatwww.pep.bc.ca

|Foreword

06/08/2011V1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Introductionto
Emergency
Management

1.0 Overview
BritishColumbiaisalargeanddiverseprovince,withruggedmountainrangesandvastbodiesof
wateranditsuniquegeographyandvariedclimateresultsinarangeofpotentialhazards.Floodingis
oneofBCsmostfrequenthazards,alongwithlargewildlandurbaninterfacefires.Severeweatherisa
threattoallpartsoftheprovince,withthepotentialfortsunamis,landslides,avalanchesandstorms.A
severeearthquakeisalsoaneverpresentthreat.Inadditiontothesenaturalhazards,thereisalsothe
potentialofhumancausedemergencies,suchashazardousmaterialspillsorinfrastructurefailuresthat
couldthreatenlivesandcauseextensivedamageintheprovince.Thereareatotaloffiftyseven
identifiedhazardsthatthreatentheprovince.
WhilenoareawithinBCisimmunefromthethreatofhazards,effectiveemergencymanagementcan
reducetheimpactonthecommunity.Emergencymanagementisacontinuousandintegratedprocess
involvingtheeffortsofindividuals,privatesector,local,provincialandfederalgovernmentstoidentify
threats,determinevulnerabilitiesandestablishrequiredresourcestobeabletorespondeffectivelyto
anemergency.
InBC,localauthorities(i.e.,municipalities,regionaldistricts,FirstNationsandfederalparks)are
responsibleforplanningandrespondingtoemergencieswithintheirjurisdictionalareas.Emergency
ManagementBritishColumbia(EMBC)providesleadershipinemergencymanagementonbehalfofthe
Province.EMBCworksdirectlywithlocalgovernments,provincialministries,otherjurisdictionsand
volunteersinacoordinatedefforttopreparefor,respondtoandrecoverfromemergencies.

|IntroductiontoEmergencyManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.0 EvolutionofEmergencyManagement
Overthepastcentury,Canadianshaveexperiencedsometragicevents.Therearehistoricalrecordsand
anthropologicevidenceofdevastatinghurricanesontheeastcoastandearthquakesinthewestthat
datebackhundredsofyears.In1917amajorexplosioninHalifaxharbourresultedinimmenselossof
lifeandpropertyandintensesufferingforthesurvivorsthisincidenthighlightedtheneedfor,andis
widelyconsideredtohaveshaped,emergencymanagementinCanada.
Ithasonlybeeninthelast60yearsthatformalgovernmentsponsoredemergencymanagement
systemshaveexistedinCanada.Manyoftheoriginalemergencymanagementeffortswerecivildefence
oriented,andmilitarymodelsofemergencymanagementwereaugmentedwithcivilianvolunteers.
Gradually,thefocusshiftedfromanationaleffortofemergencymanagementtoagreateremphasison
emergencyplanningatthecommunitylevel.Inthe1950s,thefocusonemergencypreparednesswas
increasingandbythelate1960s,allprovinceshadpassedemergencymanagementlegislationandwere
formingtheirownemergencyprograms.Duringthistime,individualswithexpertiseinfire,policeor
militaryservicesfulfilledtheemergencymanagementrequirementsofthecommunity.
Inthe1970sand1980s,therewasagrowingawarenessthatcatastrophicdisastersrequired
extraordinaryresponsefromalllevelsofgovernment.Itwasduringthistimethatemergency
managementbegantoemergeasadistinctfieldfromthatoffirstresponse(i.e.,fire,policeand
emergencymedicalservices).Bythe1990s,emergencymanagementwasbecomingmoreintegrated
intothewiderpolicyandmanagementframeworkandthefocusofemergencymanagementbeganto
shiftfrombeinghighlytaskspecifictomorestrategicandlongrange.
TheearthquakethatstruckSanFranciscoinOctoberof1989provedtobeapowerfulcatalysttothe
developmentofemergencymanagementinNorthAmerica.Citizenscouldnowwitnessthedevastation
andtherescuesinrealtimeontelevision,andthepoliticalwilltoproduceanemergencymanagement
modelforBCledtothecreationoftheEmergencyProgramActin1993.TheinformationinthisAct
providedanewframeworkforemergencymanagementandrequiredmunicipalitiestodevelop
emergencyplans.
Recentyearshavewitnessedahostoflargescaledisastersofvariouskindsthroughouttheworld.
AttacksontheWorldTradeCentreandthePentagonin2001,Baliin2002and2005,Madridin
2004,Londonin2005,andthe2006transatlanticaircraftplothaveincreasedtheprofileof
emergencymanagementinrespondingtothethreatofterrorismworldwide.Theunprecedented
lossoflifeanddevastationofthe2004tsunamithathitSouthAsiahasalertedcoastalcommunities
forthecontinuedneedtoprepareforthistypeofevent.In2005HurricaneKatrinaalonedestroyed
300,000homesanddisplacedabout800,000people.Thelinkagebetweenclimatechangeand
extremeweathereventshashighlightedtherequirementforcomprehensiveemergency
management.SevereAcuteRespiratorySyndrome(SARS),WestNileVirusandtheriskofPandemic

|IntroductiontoEmergencyManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Influenzabroughttotheforefronttheneedforhealthprofessionalstobuilduponexistinghealth
responseframeworksandstrengthentieswithemergencymanagement.
Muchhaschangedinemergencymanagementduringthelasttwodecadesandthepracticeof
emergencymanagementisstillevolvingandgrowing.Thisevolutionis,toalargeextent,inresponseto
variousthreatstohumanandnaturalresources.Alsoasscienceandtechnologyhaveimprovedthe
abilitytoanticipatecatastrophicdisasters,theresponsibilitytoreducethepotentialformassivelosses
ofhumanlivesandpropertyhasincreasinglybeenassumedbygovernmentsandotheremergency
managementagencies.
Preparingtodealeffectivelywiththethreatofadditionalemergenciesinthe21stcenturyhasbecomea
highpriorityforalllevelsofgovernment.InBC,theProvincerecognizedthattheincreasinglycomplex
natureofemergencymanagementrequiredacomprehensivemanagementstructuretoensureahighly
coordinatedandorganizedresponsetoallincidents.TheProvinceestablishedtheBritishColumbia
EmergencyResponseManagementSystem(BCERMS),basedontheIncidentCommandSystem(ICS)
createdintheUnitedStates,toprovidethestructureforintegratedemergencymanagementwithinthe
province.BCERMSisnowmandatoryforallprovincialgovernmentagencies,andrecommendedforlocal
government.

3.0 EmergencyLegislation
Theauthorityandresponsibilityforemergencymanagementisestablishedinanumberoffederaland
provincialacts.

3.1 FederalLegislation
TwofederalstatutessetoutthebroadresponsibilitiesoftheGovernmentofCanadaforemergency
preparednessandresponse.TheseActsaretheEmergenciesActandthePreparednessAct,their
responsibilitiesare:

EmergenciesActdefinesfourcategoriesofemergenciesinwhichthefederalgovernment
mayberequiredtoact:publicwelfareemergencies(i.e.,naturalorhumandisasters);public
orderemergencies(i.e.,threatstointernalsecurity);internationalemergencies(i.e.,
externalthreatstoCanadaoritsallies);andwar.
EmergencyPreparednessActdefineswhatthefederalgovernmentanditsinstitutions
mustandshoulddotoensuretheyarealwayspreparedinanemergency.

3.2 ProvincialLegislation
TheEmergencyProgramActsetsoutthebroadresponsibilitiesforemergencymanagementwithinthe
province.Outliningtheresponsibilitiesoflocalauthorities,provincialministriesandcrowncorporations.
ThefollowingsectionsfromtheActidentifytheobligationsofalocalauthority:

|IntroductiontoEmergencyManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Section6(1)Alocalauthorityisatalltimesresponsibleforthedirectionandcontrol
ofthelocalauthority'semergencyresponse.

Section6(2)Alocalauthoritymustprepareorcausetobepreparedlocalemergency
plansrespectingpreparationfor,responsetoandrecoveryfromemergenciesand
disasters.

Section6(3)Alocalauthoritymustestablishandmaintainanemergency
managementorganizationtodevelopandimplementemergencyplansandother
preparedness,responseandrecoverymeasures.

TheLocalAuthorityEmergencyManagementRegulationprovidesadditionaldetailregardinglocal
authoritiesemergencymanagementresponsibilities.Theregulationrequireslocalauthoritiesto
prepareemergencyplansthatreflecttheassessmentoftherelativeriskofoccurrenceofahazardand
thepotentialimpactonpeopleandproperty.Theemergencyplansmustaddressallthejurisdictional
areasforwhichthelocalauthorityhasresponsibility.Inaddition,localauthoritiesmustcomplete
periodicupdatingofthelocalemergencyplanaswellasestablishandmaintainatrainingprogramthat
includesexercisesforallemergencyresponsestaff.
Insummary,alocalauthoritymust:

definethepotentialemergenciesthatcouldaffecttheirjurisdictionalarea

providepolicyguidanceanddirectiontoemergencymanagementorganizations

conductanassessmentoftheriskofoccurrenceandthepotentialimpactofahazardon
peopleandpropertywithintheirjurisdictionalarea

establishproceduresforreviewandrevisionoflocalemergencyplans

conducttrainingandexercisesforallemergencyresponsestaff

identifyproceduresforobtainingemergencyresources,includingpersonnel,equipment,
facilitiesandfinancialresources

establishproceduresbywhichthelocalemergencyplanistobeimplemented

establishproceduresfornotifyingpersonsthreatenedbyemergencies

coordinatetheprovisionoffood,clothing,shelter,transportation,andmedicalservices
tovictimsofemergencies

establishprioritiesforrestoringessentialservices.

3.3 LocalAuthorityBylaw
Eachcommunitygovernmentmustpassabylawinordertoprovidetheappropriatedelegationof
authoritytotheemergencyprogramexecutivecommitteetooperateasadirectivebody.Thisbylawwill

|IntroductiontoEmergencyManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

authorizeandempowerthedevelopmentandmaintenanceofanemergencyprogrambyanexecutive
committee.Eachregionaldistrictgovernmentmustpassanadditionalbylawtoextendtheservice
throughoutalltheelectoralareasoftheregionaldistrict.
Theimplementingbylawshouldspecifytheorganizationoftheemergencyprogram,delegateauthority
toanEmergencyProgramExecutiveCommitteeandoutlinetheresponsibilitiesofthelocalauthority.
Bylawsshouldbereviewedfollowingeachlocalgovernmentelectiontoensurethatnewlyelected
officialsaremadeawareoftheirresponsibilitiestosupporttheemergencyprogramandtoensurethe
provisionsofbylawsareuptodate.
PassingthebylawreinforcesawarenessoftheEmergencyProgramExecutiveCommitteetothecouncil
orboardanddemonstratestheircommitmentandsupportforthelocalemergencyprogram.
Emergencyprogramsmaybesharedbetweenjurisdictionsbyagreement/bylaws.Emergenciesdonot
respectjurisdictionalboundaries.Asaresult,manycommunitieshavebenefitedbyanintegrationof
emergencyprograms.Asanexample,amunicipalitymayintegratetheirplanswitharegionaldistrict.

|IntroductiontoEmergencyManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

4.0 EmergencyManagementCycle
Emergencymanagementcycleisbasedonthefourpillarsofemergencymanagementmitigationand
prevention,preparedness,responseandrecovery.Theyareallinterconnected.Theactivitieswithinthe
variousphasestakeplaceconcurrentlyandinsupportoftheothers.Forexample,recoveryneedstobegin
shortlyafterresponseactivitiesareinitiated,andmitigationactivitiesoftenstartpriortorecoverybeing
completeandcarryonwhilepreparednessactivitiesareunderway.Thecycleasawholeisanongoing
process.
Thisfourphasecycleofemergencymanagementmitigationandprevention,preparedness,response,and
recoveryisillustratedbythediagrambelow:

Acomprehensiveemergencymanagementprogramisbasedonthefourpillarapproach:

MitigationandPreventionmeansactionstakentoeliminateorreducehazardsandtheirimpacts.
Mitigationinvolvesactionstakentoprotectlivesandproperty,suchasdikeenhancements,landuse
managementandpubliceducation.

Preparednessmeansmeasuresundertakeninadvancetoensurethatindividualsandagencies
willbereadytoreact,bydevelopingemergenciesplans,mutualaidagreements,resource
inventories,training,exercises,andemergencycommunicationssystems.

|IntroductiontoEmergencyManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Responsebeginswhenanemergencyisimminentorastheeventoccurs.Response
encompassestheactivitiesthataddressthedirecteffectsofanincidentandaredesignedto
limitthelossoflife,personalinjuryandpropertydamage.Localgovernmentisresponsiblefor
emergencyresponse.Asindicatedbythesituation,responseactivitiesinclude:
o

gatheringinformationandprioritizingresponseactivities

investigatingthenatureandsourceofthethreat

allocatingscarceresourcesandlifesavingneeds(e.g.,evacuation,searchandrescue,
emergencymedicalassistance)

restoringcriticalinfrastructure(e.g.,communicationsystems,transportation,utilities)

ensuringcontinuityofcriticalservices(e.g.,publicworks).

Recoveryfocusesonactionstorestoreacommunitytoasclosetopredisasterstateas
possible.Recoverymeasuresincludeactivitiessuchas:
o Establishingresiliencycenters
o Supportingevacueesdirectlyimpactedbyemergencies
o Providingfinancialassistanceandrestoringeconomicactivity
o Managingdonations
o Developinginitiativestomitigatetheeffectsoffutureincidents.

Theemergencymanagementcycleisapplicabletoemergencyplanningconductedbyalllevelsof
government,aswellasorganizations,businesses,andindividualsastheydeveloppersonalorfamily
emergencyplans.

5.0 PrinciplesofEmergencyManagement
Theprinciplesofemergencymanagementframethekeyunderlyingbeliefsandgoalsofemergency
management.Theprinciplesaimtoguidethedesign,implementationandongoingimprovementof
frameworks,programs,procedures,guidelinesandactivitiesthattakentogethercomprisethe
emergencymanagementsystemsofCanada.
1.

ResponsibilityalllevelsofsocietyinCanadahaveresponsibilitiesinregardtoemergency
management.Individuals,organizations,businessesandalllevelsofgovernmenthavedutiesto
preparefor,respondtoandrecoverfromemergenciesordisasters.

2.

Comprehensiveacomprehensiveapproachtoemergencymanagementshouldbeadopted
acrossthemitigation,preparedness,responseandrecoverycomponents.Thiscomprehensive

|IntroductiontoEmergencyManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

allhazardsapproachshouldpromotepartnershipsacrossallareasofsocietyandlevelsof
response.
3.

PartnershipsGoodpartnerships,basedoneffectivecollaboration,coordinationand
communication,arekeytoeffectiveemergencymanagement.

4.

CoherencyofActionemergencymanagementrequirescollaboration,coordinationand
integrationbyallpartnersinordertomosteffectivelyapplyemergencymanagementresources
andexecuteactivities.Coherencyofactionreliesonclearroles,responsibilities,authoritiesand
capacitiesofallpartners.

5.

RiskBasedasystematicassessmentofhazards,threats,risksandvulnerabilitiesshouldbe
carriedoutbeforeappropriateemergencymanagementmeasuresaredeveloped.Risk
managementpracticesshouldfacilitateimproveddecisionmakingbyclarifyingthetypesofrisk,
includingthecauses,likelihoodofoccurrenceandseverityofconsequences.

6.

AllHazardshazardsshouldbeidentified,assessedandthenprioritizedagainstpotential
vulnerabilities.Assessingtherisksassociatedwithallhazardsinanintegratedwayhelpsreduce
thevulnerabilityofpeople,property,theenvironmentandtheeconomy.

7.

Resilienceresilienceisthecapacityofacommunityoragencytobouncebackorabsorbthe
impactofemergenciesordisastersandresumebusiness.Acommunitymayevenusethe
emergencytobuildbackbetter.

8.

ClearCommunicationclearcommunicationbyappropriateauthoritiestoallstakeholdersisa
criticalandcontinuousprocessbefore,duringandafteranemergency.Authoritiesmust
continuallydevelopandmaintainsolidcommunicationlinkagesduringallphasesofemergency
management.

9.

ContinuousImprovementlessonslearnedandknowledgegeneratedfromexperiences,
observations,andreflectionsshouldbeusedtocontinuallyimprovepracticesandpreventthe
samechallengesfromrecurring.Continuousimprovementshouldbesharedwidelyandforman
integralpartofeveryemergencymanagementfunction.

10. CodeofEthicswhilenosinglecodeofethicshasyetbeenagreeduponfortheprofession,the
CodeofEthicsoftheInternationalAssociationofEmergencyManagers,withitsemphasison
respect,commitmentandprofessionalismisgenerallyacceptedasthestandardforemergency
managers.

|IntroductiontoEmergencyManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Emergency
Management
Programs

1.0 Introduction
EmergencymanagementinBritishColumbiaisacommunitybased,allhazardsapproachwhichbegins
withindividuals.Dependingonthenatureandscopeoftheemergency,localgovernment,provincial
government,federalgovernmentandotheragenciesmaybeinvolved.However,themajorityof
emergenciesarehandledatthelocallevel.
Individuals,occasionallywithhelpfromneighbours,planandrespondtoawiderangeofemergencies,
suchaspoweroutagesorflooding.Whentheemergencyisbeyondthescopeofwhatanindividualcan
handle,thelocalgovernmentstepsintoprovideassistance.Assistancemayrangefromafirecrew
attendingahousefiretothemanagementofalargescaleevacuationofthecommunity.
Ifthescale,complexityordurationoftheemergencythreatenstoexhaustmunicipalresources,thelocal
governmentmaycallontheprovincialgovernmentforassistance.Similarly,ifthecapacityofthe
provincialgovernmentisexhausted,theprovincemaycallonthefederalgovernmentforassistance.The
federalgovernmentmaycontributeitsownresources,orlooktootherprovincesortheinternational
communityforassistanceinresponsetoalargescaleemergency.
Asthediagramdepicts,emergencymanagementisbaseduponanintegratedmodelofshared
responsibilitywiththefederalgovernment,provincialgovernment,municipalgovernment,thebusiness
communityandindividualcitizenswhohavearesponsibilitytobepreparedforemergencies.

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.0 IndividualandFamily
Eachcitizenisresponsiblefortheirpersonalemergencypreparedness.Knowingwhattodowhena
majoremergencyoccursinthecommunityandwhatpersonalpreparednessmeasuresareneeded(such
asafamilyemergencyplan)willstrengthentheirabilitytocareforthemselves.Itisrecommendedthat
individualsbepreparedforupto72hours.
Beforebeingabletoseetotheneedsofthecommunity,individualstaskedwithapublicsafetyrole
mustensurethattheyarepersonallypreparedsothattheyareabletodevotetheirattentiontothe
emergencyathand.Personalandfamilypreparednessmustbeconsideredbyallcitizensand,asleaders
inemergencymanagement,leadingbyexampleiscritical.
Certaintypesofeventslikeseverestormsorpoweroutagesmaydictatethatpeopleshelterinplace,
whileotherslikewildlandinterfacefiresmayrequireanevacuationwithlittlenotice.Animportantstep
towardspersonalpreparednessiscompilingbothasurvivalkitaswellasaGrabngokit.AGrabngokit
canformpartofthelargersurvivalkit,thoughitneedstobeselfcontainedandlightenoughtoeasilybe
carried.Ideasforitemsthatindividualsshouldplantoincludeintheirsurvivalkittobepreparedforup
to72hoursarelistedonthefollowingpage.

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Basicitemsyouwillneedtosurvivefor72hours:
Wateratleastfourlitresofwaterperpersonperday(includingsmall

bottlesthatcanbecarriedeasilyincaseofanevacuationorder)
Foodthatwon'tspoil,suchascannedfood,energybarsanddried

foods(remembertoreplacethefoodandwateronceayear)
Manualcanopener
Flashlightandbatteries
Candlesandmatchesorlighter(remembertoplacecandlesinsturdy

containersandtoputthemoutbeforegoingtosleep)
Batterypoweredorwindupradio(andextrabatteries)
FirstAidKit
Specialitemssuchasprescriptionmedications,infantformulaand

equipmentforpeoplewithdisabilities
Extrakeysforyourcar,house,safedepositboxetc
Cashinsmallerbills,changeforpayphones,bankinginformation
Acopyofyouremergencyplanincludingcontactinformation
Copiesofidentificationpapers(licenses,birthcertificates,healthcards)
Copiesofallinsurancepoliciesandcontactinfoforinsuranceagent

Recommendedadditionalkitsupplies:
Achangeofclothingandfootwearforeachhouseholdmember
Sleepingbagorwarm(foil)blanketforeachhouseholdmember
Awhistle(incaseyouneedtoattractattention)
Garbagebagsforpersonalsanitation
Toiletpaperandotherpersonalcaresupplies
Safetygloves
Basictools(hammer,pliers,wrench,screwdrivers,fasteners,workgloves)
Smallfueldrivenstoveandfuel
Twoadditionallitresofwaterperpersonperdayforcookingandcleaning
Thingstokeepchildrenbusy
Informationandpetsuppliesiftakingpetsalong

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Anotherwaytoenhancepersonalpreparednessistogetinvolvedwithinyourcommunitysemergency
program.Itcouldbeassimpleasaccessingthecommunityorregionaldistrictwebsiteandlearning
moreaboutthelocalemergencyprogramorattendingpubliceducationevents.Forthoselookingfora
higherlevelofinvolvement,therearevariousvolunteerorganizationsthatplayapartduring
emergenciessuchasEmergencySocialServicesorEmergencyRadioCommunications.

3.0 LocalGovernment
Whenanemergencyextendsbeyondindividualcapability,itbecomestheresponsibilityofthelocal
government(i.e.,municipalityorregionaldistrict).
MostemergenciesinBCaremanagedbylocalgovernmentsatthefirstresponselevel(site)anddonot
requireactivationoftheemergencymanagementstructure[asdescribedinModule3].Thefirstlevelof
emergencyresponseisprovidedbyfireand/orpoliceservicesandmayinvolvetheactivationofthe
EmergencyOperationsCentre(EOC).Forspecifichazardssuchasflooding,severestorms,and
infrastructurefailures,publicworksorengineeringdepartmentsmayprovideafirstlevelofresponse.
Otherfirstresponders,suchastheRCMPandBritishColumbiaAmbulanceService,haveaprovincial
mandatebutwithalocalpresencethroughdetachmentsorstations.Theseagenciesareusually
accessedthrough911andhaveinternaldispatcharrangements.
Firstlevelresponsemayalsoincludemutualaid.Examplesincludeagreementswithneighbouring
jurisdictionsforadditionalfireorpoliceresources,orarrangementswithEmergencySocialServicesfor
supporttofamilies.TheseresourcesareactivatedbytheIncidentCommanderandcoordinatedatthe
IncidentCommandPost.
EmergencySocialServices(ESS)isalsoactivatedbytheEOC.Itismostoftenactivatedbyanincident
commanderinsmalllocalizedeventssuchashousefires,butinlargerscaleresponsestheEOCmanages
ESSthroughoperations.
WhiletheEmergencyProgramisnotdirectlyinvolvedinthemanagementofthefirstlevelofemergency
response,itdoeshavearoleintheeffectivecoordinationoflocalemergencyresources.Throughthe
planningandexercisingprocess,informationissharedbetweenemergencyresponderstogainabetter
understandingofrolesandresponsibilities.
EmergencyprogramsforlocalauthoritiesaresimilarforFirstNationsgovernments.FirstNationsmay
adopttheserolesandresponsibilitiesthroughBandCouncilResolutionorbylaw.TreatyFirstNations
havelocalauthorityresponsibilityunderprovinciallegislation.

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.1 EmergencyManagementCommittees
Localgovernmentsusuallyestablishtwoemergencymanagementcommittees:EmergencyExecutive
CommitteeandEmergencyPlanningCommittee.Thenamesandstructuresofthesecommitteesmay
varyslightlyfromcommunitytocommunity,andinsomecasestheremaybeoverlapormergingofthe
twocommittees(e.g.,electedofficialsmayparticipateinbothcommittees).
EmergencyExecutiveCommittee
ThepurposeoftheEmergencyExecutiveCommitteeistooverseetheprocessofplanningandrespondingto
anemergencywithinthejurisdictionofthelocalauthority.TheEmergencyExecutiveCommitteeisresponsible
forsettingpolicydirectiontoensureallaspectsofthecommunitysEmergencyManagementProgramare
addressed,includingapprovingtheEmergencyPlan,establishingtheemergencyprogrambudget,and
appointingtheEmergencyProgramCoordinator,aswellaspotentiallyotherkeyemergencyresponse
personnel(e.g.,EmergencySocialServicesDirector).
TheEmergencyExecutiveCommitteeisasubcommitteeofthelocalMunicipalCouncilorBoard.This
committeeconsistsofthefollowingrepresentatives:Mayorand/orCouncilRepresentation,RegionalDistrict
Chair,theChiefAdministrativeOfficer,andtheEmergencyProgramCoordinator.
EmergencyPlanningCommittee
TheEmergencyPlanningCommitteeisresponsibleforplanningacommunitysEmergencyManagement
Program.TheEmergencyPlanningCommitteeiscomprisedoflocalgovernmentpersonnel,agency
representativesandvolunteers,andisusuallychairedbytheEmergencyProgramCoordinator.
TheEmergencyPlanningCommitteeconsistsofthefollowingrepresentatives:
EmergencyProgramCoordinator
ChiefAdministratorOfficer
Seniorrepresentativesfromalldepartmentsincluding:
o fire
o police
o publicworks
o engineering
o parksandrecreation
o finance
BCAmbulancerepresentative
RegionalHealthAuthorityrepresentative
EmergencySocialServicesDirector
InformationOfficer
SchoolDistrictrepresentative

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Representativesfromotherorganizationsoragencieswhomaybecomecommitteemembersorattend
specificmeetingsincluding:

Provincialandfederalagencies
Utilities
Communitygroups
Volunteerorganizations
Neighbouringjurisdictions
Businessandindustry
Mutualaidpartners

TheEmergencyPlanningCommitteeusuallymeetsmonthlyandmayhavesubcommitteestodealwith
specificaspectsofemergencyplanning,responseoperations,training/exercises,and/orrecovery.

3.2 EmergencyProgramCoordinator
TheEmergencyProgramCoordinator(EPC)isakeypositionintheMunicipalEmergencyProgram.The
EPCisresponsibleforthemanagementandcoordinationofemergencypreparedness,responseand
recoveryandfordevelopingandmaintaininganemergencyprogramforthecommunity.TheEPC
receivespolicydirectionandsupportfromtheEmergencyPlanningCommittee.
TheEPCmustpossessstrongleadershipandcommunicationskills,andbeabletoworkwithelected
officialsaswellasvolunteers.Theymustworkwellunderstressandbeabletomanageateamwithinan
emergencyoperationscenterduringresponse.IdeallytheEPCpositionisfulltimeandfilledbyan
individualwhocancommittothevariousaspectsofemergencypreparednessandmanagement,rather
thananindividualwhoalsohasfirstresponseduties,suchasaFireChieforPoliceChief).
KeyresponsibilitiesofanEPCareasfollows:

Developandmaintaincommunityemergencyplans
o

Coordinate,reviewandupdatethelocalEmergencyResponseandRecoveryPlanand
EmergencyProgramStrategicPlan

Provideadvicetodepartmentsindevelopingandmaintainingspecializedemergency
plans(e.g.,EmergencySocialServices,EmergencyRadioCommunications)

Supervisetheworkofvariousemergencycommitteesorsubcommittees

Liaisewithinternalstaffandexternalagencies
o

Coordinatewithprovincialandregionalcounterpartsinthedevelopmentofemergency
preparednessandresponseplans

Provideasinglepointofcontactforthelocalemergencyprogramandmaintainupto
datecontactlists

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Buildrelationshipswithinternalstaffandexternalagenciesthathaveemergency
responseroles

Establishandmaintainuptodateresourcelists(e.g.,howtoobtainspecificresources)

Providetrainingandexercisetostaff,volunteersandthecommunity
o

Identifycommunitytrainingneedsanddesign,developanddelivertrainingandexercise
materials,asrequired

Promote,coordinateandconductregulareducation/awareness,trainingandexercises
forlocalgovernmentstaff,EOCstaff,volunteersandthepublic

Develop,promoteandmaintainvolunteerprograms
o

Manageand/orsupportvariousvolunteerbasedprogramssuchas:EmergencySocial
Services,EmergencyRadioCommunications,NeighbourhoodEmergencyPreparedness

Providevolunteermanagement,volunteerrecognition,fundingandothersupport,as
required

Assistwithemergencyoperations
o

EstablishaprimaryEmergencyOperationsCentre(EOC)andidentifybackupEOCfacility

Acquire,maintain,testandreplenishEOCequipment,suppliesandinstallations

CoordinateoradviseonassigningpersonneltofillfunctionswithintheEOC

Providefinanceandadministrationonbehalfoftheemergencyprogram
o

Prepareanannualbudget,basedondirectionoftheEmergencyExecutiveCommittee

Acquire,manageandmonitorfundingfortheemergencyprogram,suchas:Joint
EmergencyPreparednessProgram(JEPP)fundingorDisasterFinancialAssistance(DFA)

Maintainallprogramrecords,statisticsandotherrelevantinformation

Coordinatethepurchaseandtrackingofallequipment,materialsandsupplies

3.3 LocalVolunteerPrograms
Emergencyvolunteerscomefromeverycorneroftheprovinceandfromallwalksoflife.Their
communityspirit,dedicationandcommitmenttohelpingotherskeepsBCstrong.
EmergencySocialServices
Localauthoritiesareresponsibleforensuringthehealth,safety,andwellbeingoftheircitizens.Inorder
tomeetthislegislatedrequirement,mostcommunitieshaveestablishedanEmergencySocialServices
(ESS)Programcomprisedoflocalvolunteersand/orstaff.

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ESSprovidesshorttermassistancetoindividualswhoareforcedtoleavetheirhomesduetofire,floods,
earthquakesorotheremergencies.ESSassistanceincludesfood,lodging,clothing,emotionalsupport,
andfamilyreunificationandistypicallyprovidedfor72hours.Thisperiodprovidesevacueeswiththe
opportunitytoplantheirnextstepsincludingsecuringalternateaccommodations,contactinginsurance
agents,familiesandfriends,orlocalnonprofitagencies.
EmergencyRadioCommunications(ERC)
Majoremergenciescaninvolvetheeffortsofvariouslevelsofgovernmentandmultipleresponse
agenciesthatmustbeabletocoordinateresources,shareinformation,andmakeeffectivedecisions.
Whencommunicationsareimpaired,theinabilitytoshareandaccesscriticalinformationcanseriously
hindertheresponseandrecoveryefforts.EmergencyRadioCommunications(ERC)canprovidethe
necessaryskillsandresourcestoensurecontinuationoftheabilitytocommunicatewhennormal
methodsfailduetodamagetoinfrastructureorsystemoverloads.
ERCvolunteersprovidecommunicationduringstatesofemergencywhenallotherservicesfail.When
cellulartowersandantennasareblowndown,amateurradioprovidescommunicationbetweenthe
outsideworldandthepublicinareasaffectedbyanemergency.
ERCestablishescommunicationlinkageswithemergencyresponsepersonnelatvarioussites,suchas:

IncidentCommandPost
EmergencyOperationCentre
ESSReceptionCentre/GroupLodging
ProvincialRegionalEmergencyOperationCentre
Agencies
Utilities
NonGovernmentOrganizations

SomeofthecommunicationtechnologyavailabletoERCincludes:

Voiceradio,satellite,cellular
Textpacket,email,airmail
Imagephotos,videos

GeneralServiceVolunteers
GeneralServicevolunteersoffershorttermsupporttoemergencyresponse.Thesevolunteerservices
rangefromdrivers,exercisefacilitators,firstaiders,manualworkers,toadditionalclericalsupportstaff.

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

4.0 ProvincialGovernment
4.1 EmergencyManagementBritishColumbia
EmergencyManagementBritishColumbia,orEMBC,wasformedtobethecoordinatingagencyinthe
BCprovincialgovernmentforcrossgovernmentemergencymanagementactivities.EMBCprovides
executivecoordination,strategicplanning,andmultiagencyfacilitationandmaintainseffectiveworking
relationshipsinanincreasinglycomplexemergencymanagementgovernanceenvironment.
EMBCenhancespublicsafetyandresiliencyforindividualsandcommunitiesthroughoutBCandreduces
propertyandeconomiclossfromactualorimminentemergenciesby:
Providingleadership,expertiseandresourcestopromoteindividualandcommunity

awarenessandpreparedness
AdvisingtheProvince,andlocalauthoritiesonemergencypreventionstrategies
Coordinatingandensuringtimelyresponsestoemergencies.
Providingtrainingandsupporttovolunteersandlocalgovernment

EMBCStructure
EMBC,undertheMinistryofPublicSafetyandSolicitorGeneral,istheoverarchingorganization
encompassingfivestrategicbusinessunits;StrategicPlanning,PolicyandLegislation,Mitigation,
EmergencyCoordination,Response,StrategicBusinessServicesandtheCoronersService.
ThediagramonthenextpageshowstheEMBCorganizationalchart.

|EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

10 |EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EMBCsheadquartersislocatedinVictoria.Therearealsosixregionalemergencymanagementoffices
inKamloops,Nelson,PrinceGeorge,Surrey,Terrace,andVictoria(asthemapshows).

RegionalEMBCstaffareresponsibleforimplementingandmaintainingplanning,preparedness,
response,andrecoveryactivitiesattheregionallevel.Regionalstaffworkwithlocalgovernmentsyear
roundtoprovidetrainingandsupportbefore,during,andafteremergencies.Regionalmanagers
coordinatetheintegrationofkeyregionalstakeholdersandmaintaincriticallinkagesbetweenlocal
government,provincialandfederalstaff,FirstNations,industry,volunteers,andthepublic.
Duringlargescaleemergencies,theemergencymanagementstructureisactivatedwhenaBC
communityoranysignificantinfrastructureisthreatenedbyanemergency.Regionalmanagersare
responsiblefortheactivationofthePREOCtosupportlocalgovernmentresponse.PREOCsareco
locatedwithregionalemergencymanagementoffices.Similarly,theProvincialEmergencyCoordination
Centre(PECC)andpossiblytheCentralCoordinationGroup(CCG)maybeactivatedattheprovincial

11 |EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

leveltofacilitateaprovincialresponsetoalargescaleevent.[Module3providesmoredetailaboutBCs
emergencyresponsestructureandfunctionsofthePREOC,PECCandCCG].
EmergencyCoordinationCentre
Asaprimarypointofcontact,theEmergencyCoordinationCentre(ECC)allowstheprovincetobenefit
fromaonewindowapproachtoreportingemergencyincidents.TheECCoperates24/7,tofacilitate
responsetoreportsofhumanmadeandnaturaldisastersthatoccurthroughouttheprovince.This
includesbutisnotlimitedtodangerousgoodsspills,searchandrescueoperations,motorvehicle
Incidents,flooding,urbaninterfacefires,earthquakes,tsunamis,urbanfires,andbodyrecoveries.ECC
staffliaisewithrepresentativesfromnumerousfederal,provincial,municipalandprivatesector
agencies,thepublic,media,aswellasnationalandinternationalcounterpartsinresponsetothesecalls.
TheECCreceivesapproximately7,600incidentsand300,000callsannually.50,000ofthosecallsare
directlyassociatedwithproblemwildlifeandviolationreportsonbehalfoftheMinistryofEnvironment,
ConservationOfficerService(MOECOS).
ECCliaiseonadailybasiswithRegionalandHQEMBCstaffwithregardtoincidentsandgeneral
informationtrafficrelatedtoemergencymanagementinBC.
TemporaryEmergencyAssignmentManagementSystem(T.E.A.M.S.)
TemporaryEmergencyAssignmentManagementSystem(TEAMS)isacriticalcomponentforstaffing
theProvincialRegionalEmergencyOperationsCentres(PREOC)duringresponsetoallhazard
emergencies.TEAMSmembersareprovincialemployeesfromvariousministriestrainedintheBritish
ColumbiaEmergencyResponseManagementSystem(BCERMS).Throughinterministryagreements,
theyareavailableonshortnoticeandcansupplementEMBCstaffduringemergencyactivationswhere
additionalcapacityisrequired.

4.2 ProvincialMinistries
InadditiontoEMBC,(MinistryofPublicSafetyandSolicitorGeneral)otherprovincialministriesand
crowncorporationsalsohavelegislatedemergencymanagementresponsibilities.EMBCisresponsible
forprovidingcoordinationwithprovincialministriesandcrowncorporationsinsupportoflocal
governmentresponse.LocalgovernmentsaccesssupportfromthoseministriesthroughthePREOC.

4.3 ProvincialVolunteers
Morethan13,000volunteersaroundBCprovideassistancetotheirlocaljurisdiction,someofwhomare
registeredasprovincialvolunteers.Volunteersrespondtoanaverageof6,000incidentsayear,inall
kindsofweather,anyplace,anytime.

12 |EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ESSMobileSupportTeams
LocalauthoritiesarenormallyabletohandlemostofthecommunitysESSrequirementsthroughtheir
existingESSteam.WhenadditionalESSsupportisrequiredlocally,andmutualaidfromsurrounding
communitiesisexhausted,arequestforassistanceismadetotheProvinceforthedeploymentofESS
MobileSupportTeams(MSTs).
MobileSupportTeams(MSTs)provideshorttermsupporttolocalESSteamsduringanemergency.
MSTsareabletotravelonshortnoticetoanycommunityandprovideonthespottraining,mentoring
andconsultationforlocalESSpersonnel.Therearefiveregionallybasedteamsthroughouttheprovince
comprisedofexperiencedandhighlytrainedESSvolunteers.
AnEmergencyOperationCentre(EOC)mayrequestMSTassistancethroughaProvincialRegional
EmergencyOperationsCentre(orPREOC).[Module3:BCERMSprovidesadescriptionofanEOCand
PREOC.]EMBCisresponsibleforcostsassociatedwithtraining,exercising,anddeployingMSTs.
EmergencyRadioCommunications
Duringemergencies,aprovenmeansofcommunicationhasbeenemergencyradiocommunications,
notablyamateurradio.EMBC,throughtheProvincialEmergencyRadioCommunicationsSociety
(PERCS),isalignedwiththemanyamateurradioclubsthroughoutBC,therebylinkinghundredsof
volunteeramateurradiooperatorswhoareavailabletoassistwithcommunicationsintheeventofan
emergency.
EMBCmaintains,throughvolunteerStationManagers,communicationsequipmentateachofthe
PREOCstoallowcontactwithlocalandregionalemergencyoperationscentresthroughtheradio
operatornetwork.Thecommunicationsequipmentusediscapableofbothvoiceanddigital(data)
communications.EMBChasdeployablekitsthatcanprovidethesamecommunicationscapabilitiesin
thefieldsupportingsiteorlocaloperations.
SearchandRescue
SearchandRescue(SAR)teamsrespondtocallsforstranded,lost,orinjuredpersons.SARresponders
haveextensivespecializedskills,whichmayincludenavigation,tracking,roperescue,swiftwaterand
avalanchetraining.SARmayalsoassistthecoronerwithrecoveryofthedeceased.
MostSARteamsareorganizedasregisteredvolunteersocietiesandhavevaryingdegreesofassociation
withthelocalmunicipality.ThepoliceforceofjurisdictionhastheresponsibilityforGroundandInland
WaterSAR.TheBCAmbulanceService,Coroner,orDepartmentofNationalDefencemayalsotaskSAR
groups.

13 |EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

PEPAir
SearchandRescueformissinganddownedaircraftistheresponsibilityoftheDepartmentofNational
DefenceandiscoordinatedbytheJointRescueCoordinationCentre(JRCC)locatedinVictoria.PEPAir
assistsDNDduringsearchandrescuemissionswhenadditionalresourcesandlocalknowledgeis
required.
AsaBCwidevolunteeraviationorganization,PEPAirisalsodedicatedtotheprovisionofairsearch
supporttotheGroundandInlandWaterSearchandRescueProgram.
RoadRescue
RoadRescueTeamsprovidevehicleextrication,roperescueandotherspecializedrescueservicesin
responsetomotorvehicleaccidents.Respondersattendtooutofjurisdictionmotorvehicleaccidents
acrosstheprovince.
RoadRescuetrainingmayincludehazardousmaterialawareness,embankmentrescue,firesuppression,
andFirstRespondertraininginadditiontoextricationtraining.BCRoadRescueorganizationsinclude
FireDepartments,RoadRescueSocieties,andSARteams.

4.4ProvincialEmergencyManagementStructure
ProvincialRegionalEmergencyOperationsCentre(PREOC)
APREOChasoverallresponsibilityto:

CoordinatetheprovincesresponsetoemergenciesanddisasterswithinaPEPregion

Coordinateregionalprovincialandagencysupportforalocalauthority,FirstNationsor
otherprovincialministryoragency

Prioritizethedeploymentofprovincialresourcesonaregionalbasisand/ortothose
designatedcriticalbythePREOC

ReportdirectlytoandtakepolicydirectionfromtheProvincialEmergencyCoordination
Centre(PECC)

ProvidethePECCwithsituationalinformationoneventswithintheregionincluding
PREOCactivitiesinsupportoflocalauthorities

RequestresourcesfromthePECCwheneverappropriateand/orsufficientresourcesare
notavailablewithintheregion.Additionalresourcesmayinclude,butarenotlimitedto,
thoseprovidedbyprovincial,federalorinternationalagenciesaswellastheprivate
sector

14 |EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ProvincialEmergencyCoordinationCentre(PECC)
Theemergencyoperationcentreestablishedandactivatedattheprovincialcoordination
supportleveltofacilitateandcoordinatetheprovincialgovernmentsoverallprioritiesand
objectivesinasignificantemergencymanagementevent.ThePECCislocatedattheEMBC
KeatingOfficeHeadquartersinVictoria.

5.0 FederalGovernment
5.1 PublicSafetyCanada
Atthefederalgovernmentlevel,PublicSafetyCanada(PSC),throughtheEmergencyMeasuresAct,
developsprogramsandpoliciestopreparefornationaldisasters.PSCoverseesCanadasinvolvementin
internationalemergencypreparednessmatters,andprovidesfederalDisasterFinancialAssistance
Arrangements(DFAA)tohelpcommunitiesrebuildfollowingadisaster.Thisprogramisadministered
throughprovincialandterritorialgovernmentsandfundingisonlyavailablewhenthemoneyspentby
theprovince/territoryexceedstheamountdesignated,asdefinedbythepopulationbase.
PSCdevelopsnationalpolicy,responsesystems,andstandards,andissuesalertstohelpprotect
Canada'scriticalinfrastructure.PSCalsoworkscloselywithotheremergencymanagementorganizations
acrossCanada,,andprovidessupporttoregionalpartnersandfirstrespondersintheformoffunding
(e.g.,JEPP),tools,andtraining.TheGovernmentOperationsCentre(GOC),locatedinOttawa,isthe
centreformonitoringandcoordinatingthefederalresponsetoemergencies.Regionaloperational
supporttotheGOCisprovidedthroughPSCsnetworkofregionaloffices.

5.2 IndianandNorthernAffairsCanada
IndianandNorthernAffairsCanada(INAC)isoneofthefederalgovernmentdepartmentsresponsible
formeetingtheGovernmentofCanada'sobligationsandcommitmentstoFirstNations,InuitandMtis,
andforfulfillingthefederalgovernment'sconstitutionalresponsibilitiesintheNorth.INACis
responsibleforemergencymanagementonnontreatyFirstNationsland.MostoftheDepartment's
programsaredeliveredthroughpartnershipswithAboriginalcommunitiesandfederalprovincialor
federalterritorialagreements.INACalsoworkswithurbanAboriginalpeople,MtisandNonStatus
Indians(manyofwhomliveinruralareas)throughtheOfficeoftheFederalInterlocutor.

5.3 FirstNationsEmergencyServicesSociety
TheFirstNationsEmergencyServicesSociety(FNESS)isfundedbyINACtosupportFirstNationsin
preparingforemergencies.FNESSassistsFirstNationswithtraininganddevelopingemergencyplans.
INACmayalsoauthorizeFNESStogointocommunitiesduringanemergencytosupporttheFirst
Nationswithevacuationswhenanevacuationalertororderisrequired.

15 |EmergencyManagementPrograms

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

BritishColumbia
EmergencyResponse
ManagementSystem

1.0Introduction
TheBritishColumbiaEmergencyResponseManagementSystem(BCERMS)isacomprehensive
provincialemergencymanagementsystemthatensuresacoordinatedandorganizedresponsetoall
emergencyevents.BCERMSprovidestheframeworkforastandardizedemergencyresponseinBC.
BCERMSisbasedontheIncidentCommandSystem(ICS),whichwasoriginallydevelopedasafire
responsemanagementsystemintheUnitedStates.ICShasbeenwidelyadoptedbyfirstrespondersand
emergencymanagementprogramsthroughoutNorthAmerica.ICShasbeentestedinarangeof
emergenciesandisdesignedtoprovideanappropriateemergencyresponsenomatterwhattypeof
emergencyisinvolved,andnomatterhowmanyagenciesorjurisdictionsareinvolved.BCERMShas
adoptedmanyfeaturesoftheICSforapplicationtoemergencyresponsewithinBC.
Specifically,BCERMSisdesignedto:

Standardizetheprocessforthedeliveryofamultiministry,multiagencycoordinated
responsetoallemergencies

GuideleadministriesandCrowncorporationsinpreparingtheiremergencyplans

Clarifytherolesandresponsibilitiesateachdesignatedlevelofresponse

|BCEmergencyResponseManagementSystem

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

TheprovincialgovernmentendorsedthestandardsestablishedforBCERMSin1992,andthroughpolicy
hasmandateditsapplicationforallprovincialministries,agencies,andCrowncorporations.BCERMSis
recommendedforusebylocalgovernments,regionaldistricts,FirstNations,andtheprivatesector.
BCERMShasbeenwidelyadoptedbymanykeyresponseagenciesasthestandardizedprocessfor
organizingandmanagingaresponsetoemergenciesinBC.

1.1ResponseGoals
BCERMSsupportsaprescribedsetofresponsegoals,setoutinpriorityorder,to:
1.

Provideforthesafetyandhealthofallresponders

2.

Savelives

3.

Reducesuffering

4.

Protectpublichealth

5.

Protectgovernmentinfrastructure

6.

Protectproperty

7.

Protecttheenvironment

8.

Reduceeconomicandsociallosses

1.2KeyComponents
ThefivecomponentsofBCERMSaresummarizedasfollows:
Operations&Control BCERMSprovidesacommonorganizationalstructureandapproachfor
themanagementofpersonnel,equipment,facilitiesandresources.
BCERMSenhancescommunicationsbetweenagenciesinrespondingto
anemergency,andprovidesaresponsestructurebasedonICS.
Qualifications

BCERMSdefinesastandardforthemanagementofeachfunctionalarea
andlevelwithintheemergencyresponsemanagementsystem.

Technology

BCERMSestablishestheuseofcommontechnologyinsupportof
emergencyoperations.

Training

BCERMSmandatesthetrainingofdesignatedpersonneltomeet
establishedstandards.

Publications

BCERMSdefinescommonstandardsforforms,reports,instructional
terminology,andotherwrittenmaterial.

|BCEmergencyResponseManagementSystem

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.ResponseStructure
Agenciesmustbeabletoworkcooperativelywithoneanotherinanorganizedresponsestructure,while
maintainingfullauthorityandresponsibilityfortheirrespectivejurisdictionalroles.MuchlikeICS,
BCERMSusesacommonstructuretosupportandcoordinateresponseactivities.BCERMSdefinesthe
structureformanaginganemergencyinfourlevelsofresponse:
SiteLevel
SiteSupportLevel
ProvincialRegionalCoordination
ProvincialCentralCoordination

BCERMSexpandsontheICSprinciplesestablishedforthesiteleveltothreeadditionaloffsitelevelsof
supportfortheemergencyincident:sitesupport,provincialregionalcoordination,andprovincialcentral
coordination.

Theabovediagramshowstherelationshipofthevariousemergencyresponselevelsandtheprimary
communicationlinkages.

|BCEmergencyResponseManagementSystem

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.1Site
Thesiteisthefirstlevelofresponseactivityandthevastmajorityofallincidentsaremanaged
effectivelyatthislevel.Resourcesareappliedtosolvetheproblemspresentedbyanemergency
incidentandICSisusedtomanagetheresponse.Agenciesthattypicallyprovideasitelevelresponseare
police,fire,andambulance.
TheIncidentCommanderisresponsibleforalldirectionatthesite.Thisincludesoverallresponsibility
forthesafetyandhealthofallpersonneloperatingatthesite.Theresponseisconductedfroman
IncidentCommandPost(ICP).

2.2SiteSupport
Inlargerincidents,respondersonsitemayrequirepolicy,coordination,andresourcesupport.An
EmergencyOperationsCentre(EOC)issetupoffsite,andideally,inapredesignatedfacility,toprovide
thissupport.EOCsarenormallyactivatedattherequestoftheIncidentCommanderorseniorofficial.
EOCsmaybeestablishedbyanylevelofgovernmentortheprivatesectorinanefforttosupportthe
entireresponseorthatofanindividualresponseagency.
Theroleofthesitesupportlevelistoprovidesupporttotheincidentsiteandtocoordinateandmanage
allnonsiteactivities.
EmergencyOperationsCentreresponsibilitiesinclude:
Policydirectionandsupport
Informationcollection,evaluationanddisplay
Coordinationofoffsiteagenciesandoperations
Prioritizationofresourcesifmultiplesites
Resourcemanagement
Publicinformationandwarning

|BCEmergencyResponseManagementSystem

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

KEYDIFFERENCESBETWEENSITEANDSITESUPPORT
SITE

Evacuation

Deliversordersto
door
Setsupdetoursigns
Staffsroadblocks
Providessecurityfor
evacuatedareas

SITESUPPORT

WritesEvacuation
Order
Obtainsapprovals
andsignatures
Coordinatesplanning
forevacuationroutes

PROVINCIALREGIONAL
SUPPORT
Receivesevacuationorder
fromlocalauthority
SupportsEOCwith
evacuation,ESSsupportif
required

Orderssandbags

Receivesandprocesses
sandbagorder
Arrangesforandconfirms
transportationofsandbagsto
community

Wildland/Urban Alldirectfirefighting
InterfaceFire
activities

Coordinatespublic
informationactivities

Coordinatesmultijurisdiction
responseandcoordination

Landslides

Arrangesforgeotechnical
assessment

Coordinatesmultijurisdiction
responseandcoordination
Identifiesandmakesavailable
subjectmatterexperts

Flooding

Fillsandplacessandbags

Clearsdebris

Table2.2showssomeexamplesofhowsimilaractivitieswoulddifferbetweensiteandsitesupport

2.3ProvincialRegionalCoordination
TheProvincialRegionalEmergencyOperationsCentre(PREOC)coordinates,facilitates,andmanages
information,policydirection,andregionalresourcesinsupportoflocalauthoritiesandprovincial
agenciesrespondingtoanemergencyattheprovincialregionalcoordinationlevel.
Thislevelprovidesemergencyresponseserviceswhereincidentscrosslocalauthorityboundariesor
wherelocalauthoritiesarenotorganizedtofulfiltheirrole(aswell,intheunincorporatedareaof
Stikine).Togetherwiththeprovincialcentralcoordinationlevel,thislevelintegratesoverallprovincial
supporttotheincidentandisgenerallystaffedbylocaland/orregionalprovincialrepresentatives.
TheProvincialRegionalEmergencyOperationsCentre(PREOC):
Managestheassignmentofregionalministryandagencysupportfortheresponsetoan
emergency

|BCEmergencyResponseManagementSystem

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Whereaneventimpactsmultiplejurisdictions,thePREOCprioritizesthedeploymentofcritical
regionalresourcesinaccordancewithrisktolifeandsafety
WherenoLocalAuthorityexists,thePREOCdirectlymanagestheresponse
ThePREOCreportsdirectlytoandtakespolicydirectionfromthePECC(centralcoordination
level)
ThePREOCrequestsresourcesfromthePECCwheneverresourcesarenotavailablewithinthe
region,includingmilitaryorinternationalsupport

2.4ProvincialCentralCoordination
Theprovincialcentralcoordinationlevelmanagestheoverallprovincialgovernmentresponseand
prioritizesprovincialgovernmentobjectivesinresponsetotheemergencyrequirementsoftheother
levels.Italsoservesasthecoordinationandcommunicationlinkwiththefederaldisastersupport
system.
AProvincialEmergencyCoordinationCentre(PECC)isestablishedattheprovincialcentral
coordinationleveltodirectandcoordinatetheprovincialgovernmentsoverallemergency
responseandrecoveryefforts.TheProvincialEmergencyCoordinationCentre(PECC):

Managestheprovincialgovernmentresponseandprovidespolicydirectionforregional
emergencyoperations

SupportsPREOC(s)operationsbymanagingtheassignmentofprovincialsupporttothe
regionallevels

Ensuresadequateprovincewidemobilizationandallocationofcriticalassets

ImplementstheBCEmergencyPublicInformationPlan

FacilitatestheacquisitionoffederaldisastersupportthroughPublicSafetyCanada

|BCEmergencyResponseManagementSystem

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Figure2.4

Figure2.4depictsthestructureformanaginganemergencywithinthefourlevelsofresponse
designatedbyBCERMS.

2.5CentralCoordinationGroup(CCG)
TheCentralCoordinationGroupprovidesstrategicdirectiontoallprovinciallevelsupportand
coordinationthroughthePECCtoprovincialministriesandfederalagenciesandresourcessupporting
theemergency.
OneoftheimportantaspectsofBCERMSisthecommonalityofstructureatalllevelsoftheresponse
system.Module5:EmergencyOperationsCentreprovidesfurtherdetailabouttheEOCstructureand
itscorrespondingfunctions.

|BCEmergencyResponseManagementSystem

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Emergency
Planning

1.0 Introduction
Emergencyplanningaimstopreventemergenciesfromoccurringwherepossible,andwhenan
emergencydoesoccur,goodplanningshouldreduce,controlormitigatetheeffectsoftheemergency.
Preparednessisacontinuousprocessinvolvingtheeffortsatalllevelsofgovernment,privatesectorand
nongovernmentalorganizationstoidentifythreats,determinevulnerabilities,andidentifyrequired
resources.Emergencypreparednessisanongoingprocessthatshouldevolveaslessonsarelearnedand
circumstanceschange.
Localgovernmenthasdirectresponsibilityforthesafetyofitscitizensandanemergencyplanisakey
componentofalocalemergencyprogram.Theemergencyplanprovidesanoverviewofthe
communitysresponseorganizationandpolicies,establishestheoverallauthorityforconducting
emergencyoperations,describesthehazardsthattheplanintendstoaddress,andassignsresponsibility
foremergencyplanningandoperations.Whenanemergencythreatensorstrikes,thecommunitymust
bepreparedtotakeimmediateaction.
AnEmergencyOperationCenter(EOC)isacentrallocationwhereresponsepersonnelcancoordinate
andmakedecisionsinsupportofemergencyresponseactivitiesatthesitelevel.Emergency
preparednessinvolvesasmuchpreplanningaspossibleandthedesignationofavarietyofemergency
facilitiescanenhanceresponselogisticswhenanemergencyoccurs.TheEOCintegratespersonnel,
procedures,communicationsandequipmentintoacommonsystemwithresponsibilityforcoordinating
anemergencyevent.Thismoduleexaminesthekeycomponentsofemergencyplanninginsupportof
thedevelopmentofanintegratedemergencymanagementsystem.

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.0 EmergencyPlanning
Theprocessofdevelopinganemergencyplanistheresponsibilityofthelocalauthorityaslegislated
throughtheEmergencyProgramAct.Thelocalauthoritymustsupporttheideaofemergencyplanning,
providefundingforit,andappointthemembersoftheemergencyplanningcommitteewhoinitiatethe
process.Whentheworkoftheemergencyplanningcommitteeiscomplete,electedofficialswillbe
askedtoapprovethelocalemergencyplan.

2.1 StepsinthePlanningProcess

Emergencyplanningbeginswithestablishingariskprofiletodeterminetheprioritiesfordeveloping
plansandendswithareviewandrevisionoftheplan,whichrestartsthewholecycle. Althoughthere
aremanywaystoprepareanemergencyplan,stepsintheprocessinclude:
1. Conductahazard,riskandvulnerabilityanalysis(HVRA)
2. Developtheemergencyplan
3. Gainapprovaloftheemergencyplan
4. Exercisetheplanandevaluateitseffectiveness
5. Review,revise,andmaintaintheplan

2.2 PlanningPrinciples

Emergencyplanningmustmeetlegislatedrequirementsandbebasedonriskprofilesofthecommunity.
Theemergencyplanneedstohaveaconceptofoperationsbuiltintoitthatallowsforscalabilitybased
ontheneedsarisingfromtheemergency,regardlessofthehazardorsizeoftheevent.Theemergency
planshouldbemodularinlayouttokeepindividualsectionssmallenoughtobeeffectivelyusedduring
anemergency,andconsistofanumberofdocumentsorsupplementaryplansthatfocusonactionsand
procedures.Explanatoryandbackgroundinformationshouldbekepttoaminimumintheemergency
plan.Lastly,thereshouldbeintegrationbetweenplanningdocumentsandthelocalgovernments
trainingcurriculum.
Emergencyplanningisasharedresponsibilityandmustinvolveallpartnersincludingalllevelsof
government,theprivatesector,nongovernmentalorganizations,individualcitizensandvolunteers.
Integratedplanningbringstogetherkeyagenciestoensurerolesandresponsibilitiesaredefinedand
understood,andduplicationisavoided.Integratedplanningcanbecomplexandchallengingbutthe
rewardsareobviouswhendisparateagenciesareabletorespondtoemergenciesinacoordinated
manner.Communitypartneragenciesshouldberepresentedintheplanningprocess:

BusinessandIndustryrepresentativestheroleoflocalbusiness,industry,andutilities
needstobeconsideredwhenplanningforemergencies.

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

HealthCarerepresentativeshealthcareservicesthatarerequiredduringanemergency
haveprovisionswithintheHealthAuthoritiesAct,withtheexceptionofservicesprovidedby
physiciansandtheBCAmbulanceService.TheMinistryofHealthrequireshealthauthorities
todevelopemergencyplans,fulfillemergencyresponseroles,andshareresourceswith
otherhealthauthoritiesifrequired.

SchoolsBoardrepresentativesrepresentativesofschoolboards(s)shouldbeincludedon
thelocalauthorityemergencyplanningcommittee,andschoolemergencyplansneedtobe
coordinatedandintegratedwiththelocalauthorityemergencyplan.

Mostoftheemergencyplanningprinciplesforalocalcommunityapplytotheemergencyplanning
activitiesofotheragenciesorinstitutionsand,toacertainextent,emergencyplanninginbusinessand
industry.

3.0 Hazard,RiskandVulnerabilityAnalysis
Priortodevelopingaresponseplan,potentialhazardsmustfirstbeidentifiedandprioritizedbasedon
thefrequencyandseverityoftheimpacttothecommunity.Thepurposeoftheemergencyplanning
processistoproducearealisticanalysisofthepotentialhazardsandtodeveloparesponseprogram
thatwilldealeffectivelywiththeirimpact.Ahazard,riskandvulnerabilityanalysis(HRVA)isintendedto
provideacommunitywithaquantitativecomparisonofrisksthatmayexist.
Definitionsforeachofthesetermsare:

Hazardasourceofpotentialharm,orasituationwithapotentialforcausingharm,intermsof
humaninjury;damagetohealth,property,theenvironmentandotherthingsofvalue;orsome
combinationofthese.

Riskaconceptthattakesintoconsiderationthelikelihoodthatahazardwilloccur,aswellas
theseverityofpossibleimpactstohealth,property,theenvironment,orotheritemsofvalue.

Vulnerabilitydescribesthepeople,property,infrastructure,industry,resources,or
environmentsthatareparticularlyexposedtoadverseimpactfromahazardevent.

Impactthephysical/environmental,social,economicandpoliticalconsequencesoradverse
effectsthatmayoccurastheresultofahazardevent.

TheHRVAismandatedbytheLocalAuthorityEmergencyManagementRegulationoftheEmergency
ProgramAct.Section2(1)ofthisregulationrequireslocalauthoritiestoprepareemergencyplansthat
reflect:

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Thelocalauthority'sassessmentoftherelativeriskofoccurrenceandthepotentialimpacton
peopleandpropertyoftheemergenciesordisastersthatcouldaffectalloranypartofthe
jurisdictionalareaforwhichthelocalauthorityhasresponsibility.
TheHRVAreportisthefoundationaldocumentforanylocalemergencyprogramandshouldbe
completedbeforeastrategicplanoranyemergencyresponseandrecoveryplansarewritten.When
completed,theHRVAwillguideresponseactionsbyidentifyingthehazardsthatposethegreatestrisks
tothecommunity,thetypeanddegreeofdamagethecanbeexpectedforeachhazard,andthetypes
ofresourcesthatwillmostlikelybeneededtorespond.Hazardsubjectmatterexpertsshouldbe
consultedduringtheHRVAprocess.
EMBChasdevelopedanonlineHRVAtoolkittoassistemergencyplannersinconductinganHRVA
[link]:http://www.pep.gov.bc.ca/hrva/toolkit.html
Diagram3.1showstheHRVAmayindicatethatthemostfrequentlyoccurringemergencydoesnot
necessarilyholdthegreatestthreat.Forexample,whilefloodingmayoccurfrequentlywithina
community,thegreatestriskmaybeanearthquakeduetoitsdevastatingconsequences.Withlimited
timeandresources,emergencyplannersshouldfirstdetermineriskreductionactionitemsbasedonthe
severityoftherisk.

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Diagram3.1ExampleofanHRVAchart
Itisimportanttobeawareofthedangersthatexistinthecommunityandtodesignanemergencyplan
withthosehazardsinmind.Hazardscanbeclassifiedintothreecategories:natural(e.g.,earthquakes),
technological(e.g.,hazardousmaterialsspills)andintentional(e.g.,terrorismorcivildisturbance).
IntheProvinceofBC,earthquakes,tsunamis,floods,landslides,avalanches,interfacefires,severe
stormsandhazardousmaterialspillsaresomeofthehazardsthatcouldthreatenlivesandcause
extensivedamage.Thechartonthenextpagesummarizesthenaturalhazardsandhumancausedor
technologicalhazardsthathavethepotentialtoadverselyimpacttheprovince.

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

BritishColumbiasHazards
NATURALHAZARDS

HUMAN/TECHNOLOGICALHAZARDS

Atmospheric

TransportationIncidents

Snowstorms

Surfacevehicleaccidents

Blizzards

Aviationrelatedincidents

Icestormsandicefogs

Ships,boats,barges&ferries

Geomagneticstorms

Train,subway,lightrailcrash

Hailstorms

Bridgecollapse

Windstorms

Tunnelaccidentorfire

Hurricanes/cyclones

Energy/UtilityIncidents

Thunderstorms

Fuelshortage

Lightning

Poweroutage

Tornadoes

Watershortage

DustandSandstorms

Communicationproblems

Fires/Explosions

Avalanches
Cold/exposure

WildlandInterface

Heatwaves

Industrial

Globalweather

Residential

Geological

Healthcare

Landslide

Arson

Landsubsidence/sinkholes

Bomb/explosion

Earthquake

Structuralfailure/accident

Expansivesoils

Dam/leveefailures

Hydrologic/Tsunamis

Buildingcollapse

Floodsandflashfloods

Bridgecollapse

Stormsurges

Hazardousmaterials

Droughts

HAZMAT/Oilspills

Erosion

Chemical/WMD

Icejams

SourGas

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

4.0 EmergencyPlans
Thissectionoutlinesthedifferenttypesoflocalemergencyplans,thefactorstoconsiderindeveloping
plans,andtheimportanceofexercisingtheplansandtrainingkeystaff.Localemergencyplansneedto
includethefollowingcomponents:

HumanServicesManagementPlan

ResponsePlan

EvacuationPlan(s)

EmergencyInformationPlan

EmergencyCentreOperationPlan

TrainingandExercisePlans

ThelocalemergencyplanismaintainedandupdatedbytheEmergencyProgramCoordinator(EPC)and
shouldbereviewedannuallyfornecessaryadditionsordeletionstomaintaintheaccuracyofthe
information.TheEPCshouldestablishaprocesstoenablestafftodocumentandsubmitsuggested
changestothelocalemergencyplansinwrittenform.

4.1 LocalEmergencyPlan
Anemergencyplanneedstobecomprehensiveinthatitspecifieshowtoprepareforemergencies,
mitigatetheireffects,respondifoneoccurs,andrecoverfromtheirimpacts.
LocalauthoritiesarerequiredtoprepareanemergencyplanaspertheprovisionsoftheEmergency
ProgramAct.Mostlocalauthoritieshaveemergencyplansthatoutlinetheirrequirementsfor
mitigation,preparedness,response,andrecoveryactivities.AssummarizedinModule1,theLocal
AuthorityEmergencyManagementRegulationrequirestheemergencyplantoinclude:

thepotentialemergenciesthatcouldaffectalloranypartofthelocalauthoritys
jurisdictionalarea

ananalysisoftherelativeriskofoccurrenceofahazardandthepotentialimpacton
peopleandpropertywithinthejurisdictionalarea

thecommitmentofthelocalauthoritytoprovidepolicyguidanceanddirectiontothe
emergencymanagementorganizationandtheprocessbywhichitwillbeprovided

aperiodicreviewandestablishprocedurestoupdatethelocalemergencyplan

emergencyresponseexerciseandtrainingprogramforallemergencyresponsestafftowhom
responsibilitiesareassignedintheplan

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

proceduresforobtainingemergencyresources,includingpersonnel,equipment,
facilitiesandfinancialresources,fromsourceswithinoroutsideofthejurisdictionalarea

proceduresbywhichthelocalemergencyplanistobeimplemented

proceduresbywhichpersonswhomaybeharmedorwhomaysufferlossarenotified
ofanemergency

theprovisionoffood,clothing,shelter,transportation,andmedicalservicestovictimsof
emergencies,whetherthatprovisionismadefromwithinoroutsideofthejurisdictionalarea

prioritiesforrestoringessentialservicesprovidedbythelocalauthoritythatareinterrupted
duringanemergency

recommendationstoserviceprovidersregardingprioritiesforrestoringessentialservicesnot
providedbythelocalauthoritythatareinterruptedduringanemergency

confirmed,potentialoranticipatedassistanceandresourcesofotherlevelsofgovernmentor
othernongovernmentbodies

Developmentoftheemergencyplanbeginswiththecreationofanemergencyprogramoverview,
whoseaudienceisseniorelectedofficialsandseniorlocalauthorityadministrators.Thisdocument
providesahighleveloverviewoftheemergencyprogram,including:asynopsisoftheconceptof
operations;directionandcontrol;proceduresforactivationofthecommunityemergencyoperations
centre;notificationprocedures;andproceduresfordeclarationofalocalstateofemergency.The
emergencyprogramoverviewisbasedupontheHVRAforthecommunitywhichisusuallysignedoffby
theMayor/Chair/Chief,andmakesreferencetoalistofothersupportingemergencyplans.

4.2 HumanConsequenceManagementPlan
Emergencymanagementpractitionershaveidentifiedthatwithoutconsideringthehumanelement
thereisagapinemergencyresponseandrecovery.AHumanConsequenceManagementPlanaddresses
theprovisionoffood,clothing,shelter,transportation,information,andmedicalservicestopeople
affectedbyemergencies.[Module7:SupportingPeopleinEmergenciesprovidesmoreinformation
aboutplanningfortheprovisionofessentialsocialservicestothoseaffected].

4.3 ResponsePlan
TheResponsePlanishazardspecificandbuildsuponHRVAconductedduringthedevelopmentofthe
emergencyplan.TheprovincialHRVAhasidentified57hazardsofconsequencetoBritishColumbians,
suchasflooding,wildfires,andearthquakes.
TheResponsePlanmustoutlinethenecessaryproceduresforreducingtheimpactandaddressingthe
vulnerabilitiesposedbythespecifichazardsidentifiedintheHRVA.ThekeycomponentsofaResponse
Planare:

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

anoverviewofanticipatedimpactsfromidentifiedhighriskhazards

identificationofvulnerablegeographiclocations,populationsand
facilities/infrastructure

specificationofpublicwarning/informationrequirements

identificationofspecialresourcerequirementsandproceduresforlocatingresources

referencestootherplans

4.4 Evacuation(s)Plan

Everycommunityshouldhaveanevacuationplantomeettherequirementtocoordinatetheprovision
offood,clothing,shelter,transportationandmedicalservicestovictimsofemergencies.Thelegislation
thatincludesanevacuationprovisionistheEmergencyProgramAct(throughlocalandprovincial
declarations),FireServicesAct,WildfireAct,andHealthAct.
AnEvacuationPlanshouldprovideforbothminorevacuationsofalimitedarea(e.g.,afireorgasleak)
andmajorevacuationsaffectingalargeportionofthepopulation(e.g.,amajorchemicalrelease).
EvacuationPlansshouldbeflexibleenoughtoaccommodatebothsuddenemergenciesandsituations
withanadvancewarningandprovideshelterinplaceforpeoplewhocannotleaveanareasafely.
EvacuationPlansmustalsoprovidefortwodistinctgroupsofpeople:populationatriskandhost
populationwhowilllookaftertheevacuees.

4.5 EmergencyInformationPlan
TheEmergencyInformationPlanprovidesguidancetotheInformationOfficerandlocalauthority
spokespersonswithregardtopublicinformation,mediarelationsandinternalcommunications.In
emergencyresponseandrecovery,itiscriticalthatallinformationbeingdisseminatedistimely,
accurateandauthoritative.Asapriority,informationshouldaddressvitallifesafetyconcernsfollowed
bymoregeneralinformation.
Priortothereleaseofinformation,effortsmustbemadetocoordinatekeymessagingwithresponse
agencies,neighbouringlocalauthorities,andotherlevelsofgovernment.Multiplesourcesof
informationmayconfusethepublicorleadtoseriousorlifethreateningconsequences.Thekey
elementsofanEmergencyInformationPlanare:

identificationofqualifiedInformationOfficersandappropriatespokespersons

listofmedia,community,andresponseagencycontacts

preparedkeymessages(e.g.,publicserviceannouncementsandemergencyinstructions)

proceduresforestablishmentofacallcentre

checklistsforinformationmeetingsandmediabriefings

|EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

informationfacilitysetupinstructionandsupplylists

policiesandproceduresregardinginformationcoordinationandrelease

4.6 EmergencyCentreOperation(EOC)Plan
TheEOCPlanprovidesguidanceformanaging,operatingandstaffingtheEOCduringresponseand
recovery.TheEOCPlanisasupportingdocumenttothejurisdiction/agencysEmergencyPlanandother
departmentalresponseplans.ThekeyelementsofanEOCPlanare:

authoritymatrixforactivatingtheEOC(i.e.,atleastthreeofficialsshouldbelistedwho
areauthorizedtoactivatetheEOCPlanandinitiateacallout)

conditionsunderwhichanEOCisactivatedandactivationprocedures

checklistsandproceduresforallEOCfunctionsandroles

forms,templatesandotherdocumentationneededtooperateanEOC

TheEOCPlanshouldbetestedregularly(e.g.,annually)toensurestaffandvolunteersarefamiliarwith
theiremergencyroles,andpolicyandproceduresareeffective.Thelessonslearnedthroughtrainingand
exercisingwillassisttheEPCtoupdateandmaintaintheEOCPlanasaneffectivedocument.

4.7 TrainingandExercisePlans
Allpersonnelwhohavebeenassignedtoperformafunctionidentifiedintheemergencyplanmustbe
adequatelytrainedinordertomeettheirobligations.Atrainingplanneedstoreflectlearningobjectives
requiredtoreachthedesiredoutcome.Atrainingplanshouldconsiderthefollowingfactors:

Trainingisbasedontheneedsoftheemergencymanagementorganization

Trainingreflectscurrentpolicies,standardsandbestpractices

Atrainingcalendarisestablished

Trainingisaccessible(i.e.,locationandtimetablesuitableforstafforvolunteers)

Internalandexternaltrainingoptionsareconsidered

Trainingisinteractive

Trainingevaluationprocessisinplace

Validationisanimportantaspectoftheplanningprocessandexperienceshowsthatexercisesarea
practical,efficient,andcosteffectivewaytotesttheplan.Exercisingtheplanisavaluablewaytoassess
theeffectivenessofthetrainingprogram.Thebenefitsofanexerciseplanare:

Promoteemergencypreparedness

10 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Testorevaluateemergencyoperations,policies,plans,proceduresorfacilities

Trainpersonnelinemergencymanagementduties

Demonstrateoperationalcapability

Revealplanningweaknessesandresourcegaps

Improvecoordinationandintegration

Improveindividualperformanceandclarifyrolesandresponsibilities

Developenthusiasm,knowledge,skillandwillingnesstoparticipateinresponseactivities

Gainpublicrecognitionoftheemergencymanagementprogram

Individualexercisesarepartofanoverallexerciseprogram.Theexerciseprogramconsistsofseveral
typesofexerciseschosentodevelopandreinforceemergencyresponseknowledge,skillsandabilities.
Therearefivedifferenttypesofexercises:

Orientationintroducesparticipantsto,orprovidesarefresheron,theemergencyplanand
associatedprocedures.Theseminarisconductedthroughlectures,paneldiscussions,media
presentations,ordiscussingvariousscenariosandrequiredactions.

Drilltestsasingleemergencyresponsefunctionandofteninvolvesanactualfieldresponse.
Adrillisaneffectivemeansofevaluatingandimprovingasingle,orrelativelylimited,
componentoftheresponsesystem.

Tabletopallows,participantstopracticeproblemsolvingforemergenciesbydiscussing
actionsandappropriatedecisionsbasedonascenario.Discussionsareusuallybasedona
describedemergencyscenarioandsupportedbyadditionalprobleminputs.

FunctionalExercisesimulatesanemergencythatincludesadescriptionofthesituation,a
timedsequenceofmessages,andcommunicationbetweenplayersandasimulationgroup.
Participantspracticecoordinated,effectiveresponseinatimepressured,realisticyet
simulatedemergency.

FullScaleExerciseisascloselyrelatedtorealityaspossible.Afullscaleexerciseaddsafield
componenttoasimulatedfunctionalexercisethroughactualandsimulatedmessages.Afull
scaleexerciseteststheactualdeploymentofseldomusedresourcesandofteninvolvesthe
publicandmedia.

11 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

5.0 EmergencyFacilities
Operationalandsupportfacilitiesarerequiredduringanemergencyeventtofillavarietyoffunctions,
suchasmanagementandoversight,evacuation,masscare,donatedgoodsprocessing,and
communications.Predesignatedfacilitiesmayinclude:

EmergencyOperationsCentre(EOC)

ReceptionCentre

GroupLodgingFacility

ResilienceCentre

InformationCentre

Thelocationofanemergencyfacilityshouldbebasedonananalysisofpotentialthreatstothe
communityasthefacilitymustbeabletosurviveanemergency.TheHRVAwillhelptodetermine
whetheraparticulargeographiclocationisvulnerabletoaspecifichazard.Eachfacilityshouldbe
evaluatedbasedonitsabilitytosurvivetherangeofanticipatedhazardsandcontinuetofunction
effectively.
Budgetaryandspacerestraintsoftenmakeitdifficulttodedicateafacilitysolelytoemergency
response,somanyemergencyfacilitieswillserveanalternatepurposeonadailybasis.While
communitybasedfacilitiescanbesuitableemergencyfacilities,certaincriteriashouldbeconsidered:

Accessibility
o Canstaff/volunteers/evacueeseasilyaccessthefacility?
o Isparkingadequateforcars,buses,deliverytrucks,etc?
o Isthefacilityavailable/usableyearroundandallday(e.g.,24/7)
o Doesthefacilityhavehandicappedaccess?

Operations
o Canthefacilityquicklyandeasilybeconvertedtoemergencyuse?
o Canexercisesbeheldannuallytopracticeactivatingandconvertingthespace
foremergencyuse?
o Canthefacilityaccommodateminimumrequirementsforsustainedoperations
(e.g.,backupgeneratorforpowerandlighting)?
o Isthelocalauthority/facilityownerinagreement?

Suitableamenities
o Arerequiredamenitiesavailable(e.g.,kitchen,washrooms,showers,phones)?
o Aremultiplefunctioningroomsavailable?
o Arewashroomsadequate?
o Isfurnituresuitable(e.g.,elementaryschoolequipmentisoftenchildsize)

12 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Security
o Canadequatesecuritymeasuresbeestablished?

Inadditiontoidentifyingthelocationandbuildingforaprimaryfacility,itisimportanttodevelopa
redundantcapabilityatonetotwoalternatelocations.Intheeventtheemergencyrequiresmovingthe
primaryfacility,apreidentifiedalternatewithbackuppowerandcommunicationsequipmentwill
ensurecontinuedoperations.Justaswiththeprimarylocation,thealternatefacilityshouldbelocatedin
ordertominimizeexposurefromnaturalandhumancausedhazards.
Oncesuitablefacilitieshavebeenidentifiedandagreementsareestablishedfortheiruse,itisimportant
todeterminehowbesttousethefacilityforitsintendedemergencyfunction.Forexample,usablespace
suchascouncil/boardrooms,auditoriumsormeeting/trainingroomsshouldbeinvestigatedpriortoan
emergency(buildingorfacilitiesstaffshouldbeconsultedforfurtherguidanceinthisregard).Apre
determinedsetupofanemergencyfacilitywillexpeditetheprovisionofemergencyservices.

5.1 EmergencyOperationsCentre
AnEmergencyOperationsCenter(EOC)isadesignatedfacilityestablishedbyacommunity,jurisdiction,
and/oragencytosupportdisasterresponseandrecovery.TheEOCsupportstheincidentsiteby
coordinatingandmanagingallnonsiteactivitiesincluding:

policydirectionandsupport

informationcollection,evaluationanddisplay

coordinationofagenciesandoperations

establishmentofpriorities

resourcemanagement

communications

publicinformationandwarning

AnEOCisresponsibleforthestrategicoverview(orbigpicture)oftheemergencyanddoesnotnormally
directlycontrolfieldassets;rather,operationaldecisionsaremadeatanEOCandtacticaldecisionsare
madeatthesite.ThefunctionscommontoallEOCsare:

collect,gatherandanalyzedata

decisionmakingtoprotectlifeandproperty

maintaincontinuityoftheorganization,withinthescopeofapplicablelaws

disseminatedecisionstoallconcernedagenciesandindividuals

13 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EOCsvaryinsizeandconfigurationandthekeytodesigninganeffectiveEOCistoensurethefacility
meetstheorganizationsrequirementsforresponseandrecoveryoperations.Inmostinstances,either
staffingrequirementsorfinancialconstraintswilldictatethedesignandchosenlayout.Thereare
severalfactorstoconsiderwhendeterminingthesizeandphysicalconfigurationoftheEOC,including:

StaffingRequirementsthesizeoftheEOCwilldependonthenumberofstaffmembers
required,whichwillbedirectlydependantonthetypeandscopeofanticipatedemergency
events.WhendeterminingtheoptimalsizefortheEOC,youshouldconsiderthemaximum
numberofpeopleyouarelikelytohaveinthefacilityatanyonetimetoensurethereis
sufficientspacetohousebothpersonnelandequipment.

FunctionalRequirementsinanyEOCsetup,representativesmusthavethecapabilityof
meetingtheirfunctionalresponsibilities,suchasgatheringinformation,settingprioritiesand
coordinatingmultiagencyresponse.TheEOCshouldbephysicallyarrangedtoprovide,ata
minimum,spaceforthefollowing:
o

AllEOCfunctions(Management,Operations,Planning,Logistics,Finance/Admin)

PolicyGroup

Breakout/MeetingRooms

RestandEatingAreas

Storage

WhendesigningthefunctionallayoutoftheEOC,considerthefollowing:
o

EOCDirectorisinapositionwhereshe/hecanmaintainsituationalawarenessand
manageoperations.She/heshouldbelocatedinthemainoperationsareawith
connectingcommunicationsandappropriatedisplays

Functionsthatinterfacecontinually,areinterdependent,orindirectsupportofeach
otherarecolocated(e.g.,OperationsandPlanningsectionsandLogisticsand
Finance/Administrationsectionstofacilitatecommunication)

EOCfunctionsareadjacenttodisplaysthatpertaintotheirrole,allowingforeaseof
postinginformationandreferencetosituations

Quietmeetingroomisprovidedwhereemergencypersonnelcandiscusspriority
problemsandconductmanagementbriefingsawayfromthenoiseofoperationsand
communications.

Agenciesthatoperatetheirowncommunicationnetworks(e.g.,police,fire,ambulance
andpublicworks)arelocatednearthesourceoftheircommunicationsorareableto
movethesystemtoalocationwithintheEOC(e.g.,radiocommunication)

14 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Offices,workstationsorfunctionalteamsarepositionedsothereisadequatespace
betweenthemtolessennoiselevelsandinterference

Securityrequirementsareincorporatedintothedesigntoensureunauthorized
personneldonothaveaccesstotheEOC(e.g.,positionasecuritybooth/desknearthe
entrance)

Foodandrestareasaresituatedawayfromthemainoperationsarea

EquipmentandResourcestofunctioneffectively,theEOCmustbeadequatelyequippedwith
furniture,communicationsequipment,informationdisplaysandofficesupplies.When
determiningtheequipmentandresourcerequirementsoftheEOC,considerthefollowing:
o

BuildingSystemstheEOCshouldbeabletoaccommodatetherequirementsforshortterm
andsustainedoperations.VerifytheEOCisadequatelyequippedwithelectricalpower,
water,sewer,heatingandventilationsystems,andgivenprimarypowersourcescanfail,
ensureageneratorisavailabletoprovidebackuppowerfor23dayswithoutrefueling.

Furnituredeterminewhetherworkstationsneedtobefixedormovable.Movablefurniture
(e.g.,foldingtables)canprovidegreaterflexibilityduringactivationanddailyuseofthe
facility.Workstationsmustbeergonomicallysuitabletomeettheneedsofstaffwhomaybe
requiredtoworklonghoursduringasustainedactivation.Thisisparticularlyimportantif
workstationsareequippedwithcomputerequipment.

CommunicationsequiptheEOCwithsurvivablecommunicationssystemsforinternal
operationsandconnectivitytothesite(s),otherEOCs,andkeyresponseandrecovery
organizations.Providealternativecommunicationmethodstoensurecontinuedoperations
(e.g.,landlinetelephone,satellitephone,cellularphone,computers,internet/email,
VHF/UHFradioandAmateurRadio).Developalayoutplanforactivationofphone,faxand
datalines.Allcables,switchesandoutletsshouldbelabeledtoconformtothelayoutplan.
ThiswillfacilitateeasysetupandreconfigurationoftheEOC.Developingmobilecapability
thatcanberelocatedtoanalternatelocationcanalsoaffecttheEOCsconfiguration.

InformationDisplaystheabilitytogather,shareandevaluateinformationiscriticaltoall
EOCfunctions.Inadditiontoprovidingadequatewallspacetopostinformation,ensurethat
bothmanual(e.g.,flipcharts/whiteboards)andelectronic(projector/screen)equipmentare
availabletofacilitatethedisplayofinformation.

OfficeSupplies/EquipmentconsultwithEOCstaffforanyspecificsupplyrequirements
whenassemblingofficesuppliesforthefacility.Staffwillbemorecomfortableintheirwork
environmentiftheyhaveaccesstotheitemstheydependondaily.Considerstoringmaps
andotherreferencematerialintheEOCforquickaccess.

Food/RestAreasdesignatedfoodandrestareasareimportantforthehealthandwell
beingofstaff.Intheeventstaffmustremainonsiteforextendedperiods,sleepingfacilities

15 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

willalsoberequired.TheEOClayoutshouldprovideforminimuminterferencebetween
operationsandsupportareassuchaseating,sleeping,healthandsanitaryfacilities.
SampleEOCFloorPlan
AnEOCfloorplanshouldincludeabasicfurniturelayout,locationofdisplaysandmaps,andany
communicationrequirements.TheEOCfloorplan,onceitisapproved,shouldbecomepartofthe
organizationsEOCplan.
TheEOCslayoutandconfigurationwillchangemanytimesbasedonexperienceandevaluation.The
optimumlayoutcanbedeterminedonlythroughexercisesoractualemergencyoperations.Itmaytake
severalactivationsbeforethebestconfigurationisdetermined.

16 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

DepartmentOperationsCentre

Insomeemergencies,responseagenciesthatrequireuniquelocalsupportfortheiroperationsmay
establishaDepartmentOperationsCentre(DOC).ADOCisprimarilyconcernedwithsupportingthe
operationsoftheagencyandensuringregularactivitiescontinue.TheDOCwillfocusonsuchissuesas
staffschedulingandobtaining,coordinatinganddirectinghighlyspecializedresourcesfortheagencyto
fulfillitsmission.TheAgencyExecutivemaybelocatedattheDOC.TheEOCsrelationshiptoaDOCis
usuallyoneofpolicydirectionandsupportorassistanceinfacilitatingresourcesoractionsatthe
requestoftheDOCDirector.ADOC,ifestablishedbyaprovincialagency,mustutilizetheBCERMS
standards;however,itisrecognizedthatmanyofthefunctionalpositionsoutlinedintheseguidelines
willnotbeapplicable.DOCsestablishedbyprovincialagenciesmaycallforsupportfromaProvincial
RegionalEmergencyOperationsCentre(PREOC)ortheirMinistrysRegionalEmergencyOperations
Centre(MREOC),ifactivated.

5.2 ReceptionCentre
ReceptionCentresarefacilitiesdesignatedassafegatheringplacesforpeopledisplacedfromtheir
homesduetoanemergency.AttheReceptionCentre,individualscanregisterandreceiveEmergency
SocialServices(ESS)aswellasinformationabouttheemergency.TheReceptionCentrehasbeen
referredtobyvariousnames,suchasEvacuationCentre,RegistrationCentre,orDisasterReliefCentre.
Thecorrectterm,ReceptionCentre,describestheinitialfunctionofthecentretoreceiveevacuees
whohavebeenforcedfromtheirhomesbecauseofanemergencyordisaster.
FacilitiesidentifiedasReceptionCentresshouldbesurveyedforfunctionalappropriateness.Whilethe
mostcommonlyusedfacilitiesarethoseownedbythelocalauthority(e.g.,recreationcentres,arenas),
otherlargebuildingsmaybesuitablesuchas:

School/collegegymnasiums

Churchhalls

Fairgroundbuildings

Hotelconferencerooms

Privateservicegrouphalls

Intheeventthatasafe,suitablefacilityisnotavailable(e.g.,followinganearthquake),asitemaybe
selectedandtentsortrailersbroughtinforESSworkerstoprovidethesameemergencysocialservices
toevacuees.Examplesofsitesinclude:

Municipalparks

Campgrounds

Schoolplayingfields

17 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Parkinglots

SampleESSReceptionCentreFloorPlan
BelowisasamplefloorplanforanESSReceptionCentre.Keepinmindthatthisisonlyanexampleand
theactualsetupwillbedeterminedbyanumberofvariables.Forthisreason,itisbeneficialtoconsider
optionalsetupsiftheprimaryone,forwhateverreason,isineffective.

Search &
Reply

Resource
Acquisition

Documentation

Shipping &
Receiving

Waiting Area

Exit

Parking Lot

Parking Lot

Multicultural
Services

Registration and Referrals for Food, Clothing


and Lodging

On-Site Goods Distribution


& Donated Goods

Child Care

Loading
Dock

Transportation
Registration
Only
Recreation

Information

Inquiry about
Family &
Friends

Sign In

Volunteer / Staff
Management

Security
First Aid

Staff Quiet
Area

F
Meeter &
Greeter

Health Services

Pet
Care

18 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

5.3

GroupLodgingFacility

GroupLodgingfacilitiesarepublicfacilitiesthatarenotnormallyusedforlivingpurposes,buthavebeen
adaptedinanemergencytoprovidedormitorytypeaccommodationsforlargenumbersofpeople.
SomepeopleconfuseReceptionCentreswithGroupLodging,believingthatGroupLodgingwilladdress
allevacueeneedsorthatdormitorysleepingaccommodationsarelocatedinReceptionCentres.While
bothofthesescenariosarepossible,ReceptionCentresandGroupLodgingareseparateentitieswith
separatefunctionalroles.
GroupLodgingsitesshouldbeidentifiedduringtheplanningstageandmustconsiderthefollowing:

potentialtotalnumberofevacueesincommunity

demographicsofthecommunitypopulation(i.e.,specialneeds)

geographicalnatureofthecommunity(e.g.,bridges)

highriskareasinthecommunity(e.g.,rivervalley,shoreline,etc.)

communityresources

DeterminationofanappropriateGroupLodgingsiteshouldbebasedonseveralcriteria:

Accessiblebyroads

Available24hoursaday,yearround

Largeparkingarea

Sufficientinternalspaceandsupportamenities:
o Sleepingfacility/capacity
o Washrooms
o Showers
o Kitchenfacilities
o Seatingcapacity
o Telephonelines/phones
o Publicaddresssystem
o Emergencygenerator
o Handicappedfacilities
o Generalspace(otherthansleeping)

GroupLodgingManagersoffice/area

Checkin/checkoutarea

Informationarea

Firstaidarea

19 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Healthcare/emotionalsupportroom

Storagearea

Shippingandreceivingarea

Staffrest/breakroom

Activity/recreationleisurearea(s)

20 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

5.4 ResilienceCentre
AResilienceCentreisaclearinghouseofcommunityrecoveryinformation.Alternately,itmayserve
asastorefrontdropincentrewhereclientscanaskquestionsandpickupinformationmaterialsin
person.Itmayalsoserveastheinterviewcentreforrecoveryclients,andshouldincludesmallmeeting
areasorroomstofacilitateprivateconversations.
TheResilienceCentremayalsohouseatollfreecallservicewhereResilienceCentremembersaddress
questionsaboutrecovery.Thecallserviceshouldalsoincludeatapedvoicemessagethatexplainsthe
centre'shoursofoperationandatelephonenumberthatclientscancallinanemergency.
InadditiontoResilienceCentres,otherfacilitiesmayberequiredtofacilitatecommunityrecovery
including:

RecoveryOperationsCentrereferstotheworkspacesandmeetingroomsusedbythe
RecoveryDirectorandstaffoftheRecoveryOrganization.

Warehousecommunityrecoverymaydrawonthegoodwillofthepublicincollecting
anddistributingclothing,householditems,toys,andothergoodsforthoseaffectedbya
disaster.Warehousefacilitiesmaybeneededtoreceive,sort,store,anddisseminate
goodspurchasedinbulk,aswellasgoodscollectedthroughdonations.

5.5 InformationCentre
OneofthemostcriticalfunctionsoftheEOCistomanageandcoordinatetheflowofinformationtoand
fromthepublic.Thepriorityforcommunicationisalwaysthepeoplemostdirectlyaffectedbythe
emergency,suchasevacuees,butmanyotherswillalsohaveintenseinterest.Dependingonthescope
andscaleoftheincident,avarietyoffacilitiesmayberequiredtomeettheinformationneedsofarange
ofstakeholders.

InformationOfficerSpaceinanEOC

TheInformationOfficerisusuallyoneofthefirstfunctionstobestaffedwithintheEOC.
Asthelevelofresponseactivitycanrapidlyescalate,facilitiesfortheInformationOfficer
mustbereadytogoatamomentsnotice.WithintheEOC,theInformationOfficer
workspacehasrequirementsthatdifferfromthatofmanyotherfunctionsasfollows:
Location
o Aroomcloseto,butseparatedfrom,theEOC
o Noiseseparation,solidwalls,doors
o Suitableroomtogivephoneinterviews
o Readyconnectivitytonewsmedia

Communications

21 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

o
o
o
o
o

Separatelineformediacalls
CableTVhookup
Portableradio
Faxmachine
Computeroptimizedformultimedia(e.g.,speakers,TVcard,DVD
reader/burner,colourprinter)

DisplayServices
o Whiteboardsandeasels

PreparedMaterials
o Uptodatelistofmediacontacts(e.g.,radio,print,TV;localandnational;
InformationOfficercontactsinotherrespondingagencies)
o

Backgrounders(maps,communityprofiles,factsheetsonresponseactivities,
keymessagesforspecifichazards,preparedpublicserviceannouncements)

Establishedlinkswithotherinformationfacilitiesthatmaybeestablished:media
monitoringroom,callcentre,mediabriefingroom,publicmeetingsites,and
remotesites

MediaMonitoringRoom

Inlargeractivationsstaffmaybededicatedtomonitoringmediareports.Provisionsshouldbemadefor
amediamonitoringroomseparatefromtheEOCtofacilitatethisrequirement.Strongcoordinationwith
theInformationOfficermustbemaintained.Asvarioussourcesofinformationmaybemonitored,
multiplesofmediamonitoringequipmentshouldbeavailable(i.e.,televisions,radios,computers,
recordingequipmentandphones).

CallCentre

AcommonEOCfunctionistoestablishameansforthelocalpopulationtoreceiveupdatesandreport
information.ACallCentrewithwelltrained,efficientcalltakersisinvaluableinrelayinginformation
abouttheeventorconsequences.Itisalsoavaluablechannelforthepublictorelatetimelyemergency
relatedinformationtothelocalauthority.ACallCentrerequiresanarrayofphonesandcalltakers.
ACallCentreshouldbeseparatefromtheEOCbutnearbyorwithstrongvirtuallinkstotheInformation
Officer.Somerequirementsforacallcentreinclude:

soundshieldfromotherfacilityusers(e.g.,separateroom,dividers)

abilitytorapidlyexpandphonelines(e.g.,tollfreelines)

displayspace(e.g.,whiteboards,easels)orprojectorforkeymessages,timelyupdates,
andcommonlyusedphonenumbers

22 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

phoneheadsets

accesstocomputers/internet

quicklinktoOperationstopromotetwowayinformationflow

officesupplies

Aneventmayescalaterapidlyandassuch,facilitiesshouldbeplannedforacontinuumofsmalltolarge
activations.EMBCcanassistlocalauthoritieswithobtainingadditionalphonelinesonanemergency
basis.Additionally,volunteergroupsandbusinessesinlargercentresmaybeequippedtotakeoncall
centrefunctionsintheirownfacilities.
MediaBriefingArea
Themediaishighlyeffectiveatdisseminatinginformationtothepublic.Theinformationneedsofthe
mediacanquicklybecomeadistractiontootherEOCactivitiesiftherequirementsarenoteffectively
managed.Itiscriticalthatallemergencyinformationisdisseminatedthroughoneofficialsource,with
anidentifiedspokesperson.Newsconferencesandbriefingsareaconvenientwayforthemediatogain
accesstoemergencyofficials.
Amediabriefingareashouldbeestablishedasearlyaspossibleintheresponseeffortandisusually
staffedbytheEOCsInformationOfficer.Thelocationofthemediabriefingareashouldbeseparate
fromtheEOCandotheroperationalactivity.Commonsitesformediabriefingareasinclude:

entrancestomunicipalhalls

foyerstobuildings

mediumsizedmeetingrooms

hotelconferencerooms(astheyareoftenequippedforthesetypesofevents)

ThemediabriefingareamustbeconnectedtotheEOCbyphoneandinternetsothattheinformation
relayedthroughittothemedia(andthepublic)iscurrentandaccurate.Thespaceneedstobelarge
enoughtoholdapanelofspokespersonsatthefront,organizerstotheside,andmediarepresentatives
attheback.Otherconsiderationsinclude:sufficientelectricaloutletsandphonelines,lighting,
acoustics,backdrop(e.g.,corporatelogo),podium,microphoneandspeakers,nametents,andsignin
sheets.
CommunityMeetingFacility
Thefacilityforcommunitymeetingsshouldbeinaplacethatisconvenienttoresidents.Sitesshouldbe
identifiedpriortoanemergencyeventandcommonlyinclude:

Communityhalls

23 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Meetingroomsinrecreationalfacilities

Schoolauditoriums

Hotelswherethemajorityofevacueesarestaying

Closeto,butnotin,ReceptionCentres

Suchsitesmustbesafeplaceswhereaffectedresidentsareoutofthepubliceyeandawayfrommedia.
Theroomshouldbepreparedwith:

Securityatthedoortoensurethatonlydirectlyaffectedresidentsareadmitted

Wheneverpossible,directaccesstotheIncidentCommander

Displaymaterial(e.g.,projectorforvideoandpictures,mapsonwall)

Coffee,juice,snacks

Potentially,babysittingservices

Asanadjuncttoformalmeetings,informationcanalsobeprovidedthroughkiosksorbulletinboards
locatedatsitesfrequentedbyaffectedresidentsandtravellers:

Ruralpostoffices/generalstores

Communityhalls

Highwayrestareas/ferrylandings

ChamberofCommerce

24 |EmergencyPlanning

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Emergency
Operations
Centre

1.0 Introduction
EmergencyOperationsCentres(EOCs)arekeytoemergencyplanning,responseandrecoveryandcrucial
tosavinglivesandproperty.EOCsbringtogetherpeopleandresourcestomanageincidentsthatare
beyondthecapacityofastandardemergencyresponse.
EOCsprovideameansofcentralizingandcoordinatingtheeffortsofgovernmentofficials,response
agenciesandtheprivatesectorinmanaginganemergencyresponse.Theyfacilitatelongtermoperation,
provideaccesstoinformation,andhelpidentifyandallocateavailableandnecessaryresources.
AsdescribedinModule3:BCERMS,anincidentismanagedfromtheIncidentCommandPost(ICP)atthe
sitelevel,whileatthesitesupportlevels(i.e.,sitesupport,provincialregionalcoordinationandprovincial
centralcoordination)theincidentismanagedfromanEmergencyOperationsCentre.InbroadtermsEOCs
include:

localauthorityEmergencyOperationCentres(EOC)
DepartmentOperationsCentres(DOC)
MinistryOperationCentres(MOC)
ProvincialRegionalEmergencyOperationCentre(PREOC),and
ProvincialEmergencyCoordinationCentre(PECC).

BCERMSusescommonterminologytoenablevariousagenciesandlevelsofgovernmenttoeffectively
worktogether.InBCERMS,thiscommonterminologyisappliedtothefunctions,positiontitles,and

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

facilitydesignationswithinanEOC.ItisrecommendedthatanEOCutilizetheBCERMSprinciplesfor
organizingandmanagingEOCoperationsandactivities.
ThisModuledescribesthefunctions,positiontitlesandresponsibilitiesofpositionscommontoanEOC.
Module4:EmergencyPlanningdescribesthephysicalcomponentsofanEOCfacility.

2.0 EOCOrganizationalStructure
TheEOCorganizationalchartbelowdescribesthestructureofanEOCfortheeffectivemanagementof
emergencyresponseandrecovery.InBCERMS,theEOCisorganizedaroundfivemajorfunctions:

Management
Operations
Planning
Logistics
Finance/Administration

Bymaintainingthesameorganizationalstructurethroughoutthevariousresponselevels,operational
effectivenessisoptimized.ThestructureoftheEOCisdefinedintheorganizationalchartasfollows:

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

AnEOCmaybeactivatedattherequestoftheIncidentCommander(seebelow)orseniorofficialto
provideoveralljurisdictionaldirectionandcontrol,coordinationandresourcesupport.WhenanEOCis
activated,aPolicyGroupmaybeestablishedtoprovidepolicyadvicetotheEOC.
ResponsibilitiesofthefivemajorfunctionsinanEOCaresummarizedbelow:
Managementprovidesoverallemergencypolicyandcoordinationoftheresponseandincludes:
informationmanagement,riskmanagementandliaisonfunctions.
Operationscoordinatesalloperationsinsupportoftheemergencyresponsethrough
implementationoftheEOCActionPlan.
Planningcollects,evaluates,anddisseminatesinformation;developstheEOCActionPlanand
SituationalReports;maintainsallEOCdocumentation.
Logisticsprovidesfacilities,services,personnel,equipmentandmaterials;ensurestheEOCis
operational.
Finance/Administrationprovidesfinancialactivitiesandotheradministrativeaspects.
WhileBCERMStermsatsiteandsitesupportlevelscanlargelybeusedinterchangeably,therearesome
specificdifferences:

Atthesite,thepersonwithoverallresponsibilityforresponseistheIncidentCommander;
whereasatsitesupportlevelstheequivalentpositionistheDirector.

Atthesite,theIncidentCommanderplussupportingfunctions(Information,SafetyandLiaison)
areknowncollectivelyasCommandStaff;whereasatthesitesupportlevelstheEOCDirector,
DeputyDirectorandsupportingfunctionsarereferredtoasManagementStaff.

Atthesite,CommandStaffincludesaSafetyfunction;whereasatsitesupportlevelsthe
comparablefunctionisRiskManagement.TheRiskManagementfunctionatsitesupportincludes
greateremphasisonsecurityandanenhancedscoperelatedtosafetyissues.

UnifiedCommand
UnifiedCommandallowsorganizationsandagencieswithjurisdictionalorfunctionalresponsibilityforthe
incidenttojointlydevelopacommonsetofincidentobjectivesandstrategies.
Responseonsitemaybedirectedeitherbysinglecommandorunifiedcommandfromasingleonsite
incidentcommandpost.Likewise,responseandrecoverycoordinationduringsitesupportattheEOC
mayinvolveeithersingleorunifiedmanagement.Thisisaccomplishedwithoutlosingorgivingup
organizationalauthority,responsibility,oraccountability.

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ApplyingUnifiedCommandintheEOCmeansthatanycombinationoforganizationsmaywork
cooperativelytomanagetheEOCactivities.Inotherwords,theEOCDirectorpositionisfilledby
consensusamongtwoormoremembersinUnifiedManagement.Forexample,theCanadianCoastGuard
mayjointhemunicipalEOCascodirectorstohelpcoordinateresponsetoanoilspill.

2.1

CommonIdentification

BCERMShasdefinedacommonidentificationsystemforpersonnelfillingpositionswithinanEOC.The
followingcoloursareusedtohelpquicklyidentifyspecificfunctionsthatworkwithinanEOC,PREOCand
PECC:

GreenDirectorandDeputyDirector
RedLiaison,InformationandRiskManagementOfficer
OrangeOperations
BluePlanning
YellowLogistics
GreyFinance/Administration

Identificationmaytaketheformofavestorarmband.Theseidentifiersdonotprecludeanypersonnel
fromwearingtheiragencysinsigniaoruniform.

2.2 SpanofControl

Spanofcontrolindicatesasupervisorcanonlyeffectivelymanageuptoamaximumof7staff;5being
ideal,with37asthenorm.ThesituationwilldictatetheextenttowhichthemajorEOCfunctionsare
filledinresponsetoanevent.Ataminimum,anactiveEOCrequiresonlytheEOCDirectorpositionbe
filled,whileotherfunctionsarestaffedbasedonthedeterminationoftheEOCDirectorasnecessary.
Whenspanofcontrolisexceededinanyofthefivemajorfunctions,additionalEOCorganizational
elementsshouldbeactivated.Theseelementsarecommonlyreferredtoas:
Branches
Groups
Units
ThesupervisorofeachoftheorganizationalelementsintheEOCassumesthefollowingtitle:

EOCDirector
SectionChief
BranchCoordinator
GroupSupervisor
UnitLeader

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.0 EOCFunctions
ThefunctionsoutlinedontheEOCorganizationalchartareseparatedintothreebroadcategories:Policy
Group,ManagementandGeneralStaff.Theprimaryresponsibilitiesassociatedwitheachofthefunctions
aredescribedbelow.

3.1

PolicyGroup

ThePolicyGroupsupportstheemergencyresponseeffortbyprovidinginterpretationofexistingpolicies,
developingnewpoliciestoaddressemergingsituations,andprovidingcontinuityofgovernance
throughouttheresponseandrecoveryeffort.ThePolicyGroupiscomprisedoftheheadofthe
organization(e.g.,Mayor,ChairorChief)andotherseniorexecutives.
WhilethePolicyGroupmakeshighleveldecisionsregardingresponseandrecoveryefforts,itdoesnot
havedirectresponsibilityforemergencymanagementatthesite.Itisrecommendedthatmembersofthe
PolicyGroupbeavailableneartheEOCforconsultationduringanemergencyresponse.
AlegaladvisorisrecommendedforthePolicyGroup.Thelegaladvisorprovidesguidancerelatingto
interpretationofbylaws,regulationsandlegalrequirementsofemergencylegislation.Itisimportantthat
formalproceduresbeadoptedtospecifytheresponsibilityandlimitationsofthePolicyGrouppriortoan
emergencyevent.
PolicyGroupresponsibilitiesare:
PolicyDirectionandSupport

Adviseonexistingpoliciesandexaminetherequirementfornewortemporarypoliciesto
supportresponseandrecoveryoperations

KeepapprisedastothestatusoftheemergencyeventbyreviewingEOCSituationReports

ConsultwiththeEOCDirectorand/orLegalAdvisorsregardinganypotentiallegalissuesand
recommendedcoursesofaction

SetExpenditureLimits

ConsultwithEOCDirectortodetermineappropriateexpenditurelimitsforresponseand
recovery

Authorizelocalauthorityemployeestoperformservicesdeemednecessaryinresponsetothe
incident

Authorizeaccesstofacilitiesandservicesofthelocalauthority

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

RequestforOutsideSupport

TheEOCDirectorcanrequestextraordinaryresourcesand/oroutsideassistancefromother
localauthorities,and/orprovincialgovernment.

PublicInformation

UponrequestoftheEOCDirector,actasspokespersonforthejurisdictionandparticipatein
mediabriefings

Recognition

Ensurestepsaretakentoacknowledgethecontributionsofresponseandrecoverystaffand
volunteers

AfterActionReview

Establishtherequirementsfordebriefingresponseandrecoverypersonnel,andsetaduedate
fortheAfterActionReport

3.2 ManagementStaff
ManagementStaffareresponsiblefortheoverallcoordinationoftheemergencyresponseatthesite
supportlevel:informationmanagement,healthandsafety,riskmanagementandliaisonactivities.
ManagementStaffisorganizedintothefollowingseparatefunctions:EOCDirector,DeputyDirector,
Information,RiskManagementandLiaison.TheprimaryresponsibilitiesofManagementStaffare
describedbelow.
3.2.1 EOCDirector
TheEOCDirectorhasoverallmanagementresponsibilityforcoordinationbetweenemergencyresponse
andsupportingagenciesintheEOC.ManagementresponsibilitiesremainwiththeEOCDirectoruntilthey
areassignedtospecificsectionswiththeEOCstructure.TheEOCDirectorworksinconjunctionwith
Managementtoestablishprioritiesforresponsewithintheaffectedarea.TheEOCDirector:

AssessesthemagnitudeofthesituationtodeterminetheappropriatelevelofEOC
coordination

Developsstrategiestoachieveincidentobjectives,approvestheEOCActionPlan,andensures
allactionsarecoordinatedwithinestablishedpriorities

EstablishesappropriatestaffinglevelsfortheEOCandapprovesallresourcerequests

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Ensuresriskmanagementprinciplesareappliedandadequatehealthandsafetymeasuresare
inplaceforallactivities

Directsemergencypublicinformationactions,approvespressreleases,andotherpublic
informationmaterials

LiaiseswithElectedOfficialsandensuresinteragencycoordinationiseffectivewithintheEOC

Requestsmutualaidand/orprovincialorfederalsupport
3.2.2 DeputyDirector

TheDeputyDirectorisresponsibleforsupportingtheEOCDirectorinallaspectsofmanagingtheEOCand
forcoordinatinginternalEOCfunctions.TheDeputyDirectorundertakesspecialassignmentsatthe
requestoftheEOCDirectorandassumestheroleofEOCDirectorinhis/herabsence.TheDeputy
Director:

Communicatespolicydirectionandactionprioritiestoallstaff

Facilitatesgeneralbriefingsanddebriefingsatshiftchanges

AssiststheEOCDirectorinorganizingandsupportingtheEOCstaff,monitorstheirhealthand
wellbeing,andconductsexitinterviewsduringdemobilization

AssiststhePlanningSectionChieftoprepareforEOCactionplanningmeetings

Ensurestheeffectiveflowofinformation,bothinternalandexternaltotheEOC

Ensureresourcerequestsareprioritizedandtracked
3.2.3 InformationSection

TheInformationsectionisresponsibleforpreparingandreleasinginformationabouttheincidenttothe
newsmedia,EOCpersonnel,andotherappropriateagenciesandorganizations.TheInformationsection
servesasthecoordinationpointforallpublicinformation,mediarelations,andsomeinternalinformation
sourcesfortheEOC.ResponsibilitiesoftheInformationsectionare:
PublicInformation

Ensuresthepublicwithintheaffectedareareceivesaccurateinformationaboutlifesafety
procedures,publichealthadvisories,reliefandassistanceprogramsandothervital
information

EnsuresthataTollFreePublicInformationService(hotlineorcallcentre)isestablishedto
providehelpfulinformationandadvicetothepublic

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Developsaccuratemessagingcontentformediabriefings,websiteetcanddistributespublic
information

Coordinateswithotheragenciesonpublicmessaging

MediaRelations

Servesasthecoordinationpointforallmediareleasesandrespondstomediacalls

Coordinatesmediareleaseswithofficialsrepresentingotheraffectedresponseagencies

DevelopsaformatforpressconferencesandbriefingsinconjunctionwiththeEOCDirector

Maintainsapositiverelationshipwiththemediarepresentatives,monitoringallbroadcasts
andwrittenarticlesforaccuracy

InternalInformation

Developsmessagingsheetsand/orFAQsheetstoensureconsistentandaccurateinformation
sharingamongstEOCstaff

MaintainsawebsiteestablishedforEOCinformation

LiaiseswithInformationOfficersestablishedatPREOC,DOCs,MROCs,EOCsandother
agencies
3.2.4 RiskManagementSection

TheroleoftheRiskManagementsectionistoidentifyandrecommendtotheEOCDirector,strategiesfor
riskreductionandinitiativestopromotesafetyandsecurity.Thisincludestimely,complete,specific,and
accurateassessmentofhazardsandrequiredcontrols.
Managementshallevaluatetherisktopersonnelwithrespecttothepurposeandpotentialresultsof
theiractionsineachsituation.Insituationswheretherisktopersonnelisexcessive,activitiesshallbe
limitedtodefensiveandprotectiveoperations.ResponsibilitiesoftheRiskManagementsectionare:
RiskManagement

Ensuresgoodriskmanagementpracticesareappliedthroughouttheresponseorganization
andthateveryfunctioncontributestothemanagementofrisk

ProtectstheinterestsofallEOCparticipants,agencies,andorganizationsbyensuringdue
diligenceininformationcollection,decisionmaking,andimplementation

Monitorssituationsforriskexposuresandascertainsprobabilitiesandpotentialconsequences
offutureevents

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

InformstheEOCDirectorofallsignificantriskissuesandprovidesfactualinformation

Safety

Providesadviceonsafetyissuesandcorrectsanyandallunsafeoperationswithinoroutside
thescopeoftheEOCActionPlan

NotifiestheEOCDirectorofanysafetyissuesandcorrectiveactions
Note:WhiletheRiskManagementOfficerisresponsibleforsafety,itisrecommendedthatasafety
specialistbeappointedwhoisfamiliarwithallaspectsofsafetyandrelevantlegislation.

Security

Ensuresthatappropriatesecuritymeasureshavebeenestablishedtoallowauthorizedaccess
totheEOCfacility
3.2.5 LiaisonSection

TheLiaisonOfficerisresponsibleforassistingandcoordinatingactivitiesbetweentheEOCDirectorand
variousrepresentativesfromotheragenciesorgroupsarrivingattheEOC.
TheLiaisonsection:

FunctionsasapointofcontactforrepresentativesfromotheragenciesarrivingattheEOC

Liaiseswithelectedofficials,otherEOCs,thePREOC,DOCs,MROCs,andotherorganizations
notrepresentedintheEOCtocommunicateEOCguidelines,directives,ActionPlansand
situationinformation

AssistsEOCDirectorinensuringproperproceduresareinplacefordirectingagency
representatives,communicatingwithelectedofficials,andconductingVIP/visitortoursofthe
EOCfacility

3.3

GeneralStaff

TheGeneralStaffincludesOperations,Planning,Logistics,andFinance/Administrativeresponsibilities.
TheseresponsibilitiesremainwiththeDirectoruntiltheyareassignedtoanotherindividual.Whenthe
Operations,Planning,LogisticsorFinance/Administrativeresponsibilitiesareestablishedasseparate
functionsintheEOC,theyaremanagedbyasectionchiefandcanbesupportedbyotherfunctionalunits.
3.3.1 OperationsSection
TheOperationssectionisresponsibleforcoordinatingalljurisdictionaloperationsinsupportofthe
emergencyresponsethroughtheimplementationoftheEOCsActionPlan.TheOperationssection

|EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

coordinateswiththesitelevelandDOCs,andisstructuredinaccordancewithkeyresponsefunctions
(i.e.,police,fire,ambulance,publicworks,andemergencysocialservices).TheOperationssection:

EnsurestheEOCDirectoriskeptapprisedofallsignificantissuesaffectingOperations

CoordinatesalloperationalfunctionsassignedtotheEOC,andensuresassignmentsand
operationalobjectivesidentifiedintheEOCActionPlanarecarriedouteffectively

CoordinateswithanyactivatedDOCs,MROCsandPREOCtoconveyresourcerequestsand
eventstatusinformation

ConductsOperationalbriefings

EstablishesBranches/UnitstosupporttheappropriateleveloforganizationfortheSection:
o

OperationalAreaCoordinator(s)

EmergencySocialServicesBranch

AgencyOperationBranchHumanServices

AgencyOperationBranchCriticalInfrastructure

3.3.2 PlanningSection
ThePlanningsectionisresponsibleforcollecting,evaluatinganddisseminatinginformationaboutthe
incident,anddevelopingtheEOCActionPlanandSituationReportincoordinationwithotherfunctions.
ThePlanningsection:

EnsuresEOCDirectoriskeptapprisedofallsignificantissuesaffectingPlanning

Collects,analyzes,anddisplaysinformationandpreparesSituationReports

IncoordinationwithSectionChiefs,ensuresStatusReportsarecompletedandutilizedasa
basisforEOCSituationReportsandEOCActionPlans

PreparesanddistributestheEOCActionPlanandfacilitatestheactionplanningprocess

ConductsAdvancePlanningactivitiesandpreparesreports

EstablishesUnitstosupporttheappropriateleveloforganizationfortheSection:
o

SituationUnit

ResourcesUnit

DemobilizationUnit

10 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

DocumentationUnit

AdvancePlanningUnit

RecoveryUnit

TechnicalSpecialistsUnit

DocumentsandmaintainsfilesonallEOCactivities,includingresourcestatusinformationon
allequipmentandpersonnelassignedtotheincident.
3.3.3 LogisticsSection

TheLogisticssectionisresponsibleforprovidingfacilities,services,personnel,equipmentandmaterials
fortheEOCandinsupportofsiteresponse.Thisincludes:providingtelecommunicationservicesand
informationtechnology,locatingoracquiringequipment,supplies,personnel,facilities,and
transportationaswellasarrangingforfood,lodging,securityandothersupportservicesasrequiredfor
theEOCandfieldrequirements,suchassupporttoReceptionCentre(s).TheLogisticssection:

EnsurestheEOCDirectoriskeptapprisedofallsignificantissuesrelatingtoLogistics

WorkscloselywithOperationstoestablishprioritiesforresourceallocationwithinthe
operationalregion

Ensurescriticalresourcesareallocatedaccordingtodirectionandprioritiessetoutbythe
OperationsSection

EstablishesBranches/UnitstosupporttheappropriateleveloforganizationfortheSection:
o

InformationTechnologyBranch(CommunicationsUnit,ComputerSystemsUnit)

TransportationUnit

EOCSupportBranch(FacilitiesUnit,SecurityUnit,ClericalUnit)

SupplyUnit

PersonnelUnit

3.3.4 Finance&AdministrationSection
TheFinanceandAdministrationsectionisresponsibleforallfinancial,administrative,andcostanalysis
associatedwiththeevent.TheFinanceandAdministrationsection:

WorkswithEOCDirectortodetermineexpenditureauthoritylevelsfortheEOC

11 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Maintainsaccuratedocumentationandsubmitsauthorizationformstoappropriate
authorities

Maintainsallfinancialrecords(e.g.,timesheets)

Ensurestravelandexpenseclaimsandotherclaims(e.g.,WorkersCompensation)are
processed

EstablishesUnitswithintheSectiontosupportresponseefforts,asneeded:
o

TimeUnit

Compensation&ClaimsUnit

PurchasingUnit

CostUnit

DisasterFinancialAssistanceUnit

3.4 EOCFunctionalResponsibilities
Agenciesshouldensurethatallpersonnelwhomaybeinvolvedinemergencyactivitiesaretrainedin
BCERMStotheirexpectedassignmentlevelsorjobfunctions.Managementdelegatesassignmentsbased
ontheavailability,qualifications,andexpertiseofpersonnel.Therolesandresponsibilitiesofeach
functionofresponsearedescribedindetailbelow,beginningwithacommonsetofresponsibilitiesthat
mustbefollowedbyallEOCresponsepersonnel,asfollows:

3.4.1 CommonResponsibilitiesofallEOCPersonnel
NotificationofActivation/Deployment

Confirmjobassignmentandaccommodationarrangements

Requestbriefoverviewoftheevent

Clarifyanyspecialtravelinstructions,includinglocationtoreporttoandarrivaltime

Confirmanycommunicationsprotocols

Ensureregularjobresponsibilitiesarereassignedduringabsence,andwherethisisnot
possibleconsiderdecliningactivation

Monitoranyeventrelatedinformationfrommedia,internetetc.

12 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Assesspersonalequipmentreadinessbasedonthesituation,timeofyearetc.

Maintainachecklistofitems(e.g.,medications,cash,computer)andpersonalGrabnGoKit

Leavecontactinformationwithfamilyandfriends

Usetraveltimetomentallyswitchgears(i.e.,leaveyourdaytodayjobbehind)

CheckinataccommodationdestinationpriortoarrivingattheEOC

ActivationPhase

CheckinwiththePersonnelUnit(inLogistics)uponarrivalattheEOC,obtainidentification
cardandvest

CompleteEOCCheckinlistandPEPTaskRegistrationform

IfyouareavolunteerorhavenopreassignedEOCrole,registerwiththeLiaisonOfficer

ReporttoEOCDirector,SectionChief,orotherassignedsupervisor

Receivebriefingfromimmediatesupervisor

Setupyourworkstationandreviewyourpositionchecklist,formsandflowcharts

Establishandmaintainapositionlogthatdescribesyouractions/decisionsduringyourshift

Determineyourresourceneeds,suchasacomputer,phone,fax,stationary,plancopies,and
otherreferencedocuments.AcquireworkmaterialsfromLogistics

OperationalPhase

Participateinanyfacility/safetyorientations

ParticipateinanyEOCmeetingsandbriefings

Ensurecompliancewithallsafetypracticesandproceduresandreportunsafeconditionsto
theRiskManager(orDirectororDeputyDirector)

Supervisorsshallmaintainaccountabilityfortheirassignedpersonnel;organizeandbrief
subordinates

Knowyourassignedcommunicationmethodsandproceduresforyourareaofresponsibility

Completeformsandreportsrequiredofyourpositionandensureproperdispositionofevent
documentationasdirectedbytheDocumentationUnit

Ensureallequipmentisoperationalpriortoeachworkperiod

13 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Reportanysignsorsymptomsofextendedincidentstress,injury,fatigue,orillnessfor
yourselforcoworkerstoyoursupervisor

Briefshiftreplacementonongoingoperationswhenrelievedatoperationalperiodsor
rotation

DemobilizationPhase

Respondtodemobilizationtimelinesandbriefsubordinatesregardingdemobilization

Completeallrequiredforms,reports,andotherdocumentationandsubmitpaperwork
throughyoursupervisortoPlanning(DocumentationUnit)priortodepartingtheEOC

Ifanyopenactionsarenotcomplete,ensureadesignateisbriefedthoroughlypriorto
departure

Cleanupyourworkareabeforeyouleave.Returnanycommunicationsequipmentorother
materialsspecificallyissuedforyouruse

Ifrequired,deactivateyourassignedpositionandcloseoutlogswhenauthorizedbytheEOC
Directorordesignate

Preparepersonalbelongingsfordemobilization

Completedemobilization,includingexitinterview

FollowEOCcheckoutprocedures.ReturntoLogistics(PersonnelUnit)tosignout

Upondemobilization,notifyEOCofyoursafereturnhome

Leaveaforwardingphonenumberwhereyoucanbereached

ParticipateinAfterActionactivities,includingdebriefs

Accesscriticalincidentstressdebriefings

3.4.2 PolicyGroup
SummaryofResponsibilities

ProvidesoverallemergencypolicyanddirectiontotheEOCDirector

Setsexpenditurelimits

Formallyrequestsoutsidesupportorresources(e.g.,ProvincialandFederalsupport)

14 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

AuthorizesdeclarationandterminationofStateofLocalEmergency

Providesdirectionforemergencypublicinformationactivities

Actsasaspokespersonforthejurisdiction

ActivationPhase

ConvenetheEOCPolicyGroupattheEOCordesignatedsite,asrequestedbytheEOCDirector

Obtaincurrentsituationstatusandabriefingonpriorityactionstakenandoutstandingfrom
theEOCDirector

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

OperationalPhase

Examineneedfornewortemporarypolicies,asrequiredtosupportresponseoperations

ConsultwithEOCDirectortodetermineappropriateexpenditurelimits

Prepareforandparticipateinanymediabriefings

EnsureadequatepublicinformationmaterialsarebeingissuedfromtheEOC

ConsultwithEOCDirectorand/orLegalAdvisorsonanypotentiallegalissuesand
recommendedcourseofaction

ConsultwithEOCDirectortodetermineneedforextraordinaryresourcesoroutsideassistance

ConsultwithEOCDirectortodeterminetheneedfordeclarationandterminationofStateof
LocalEmergency

KeepappraisedastothestatusoftheemergencyeventbyreviewingEOCSituationReports

DemobilizationPhase

ProclaimterminationoftheemergencyresponseandhaveEOCproceedwithrecoveryefforts

EnsureallpaperworkhasbeenforwardedtoPlanning(DocumentationUnit)

Provideinputtotheafteractionreport

Participateinformalpostoperationaldebriefs

RecognizeEOCstaffmembersandresponsepersonnelfortheirefforts

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

15 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.4.3EOCDirector

SummaryofResponsibilities

TheEOCDirectorhasoverallmanagementresponsibilityforcoordinationbetweenemergency
responseandsupportingagenciesintheEOC,andinconjunctionwiththeManagementTeam
andGeneralStaff,setsprioritiesforresponseeffortsintheaffectedarea

ProvidesupporttotheIncidentCommanderandresponseagenciesandensurethatallactions
areaccomplishedwithintheprioritiesestablished

EstablishtheappropriatestaffinglevelfortheEOCandcontinuouslymonitororganizational
effectivenesstoensurethatappropriatemodificationsoccur

EnsurethatinteragencycoordinationisaccomplishedeffectivelywithintheEOC

Direct,inconsultationwiththeInformationOfficer,appropriateemergencypublicinformation
actionsusingthebestmethodsofdissemination.Approvetheissuanceofpressreleases,and
otherpublicinformationmaterialsasrequired

LiaisewithElectedOfficials

Ensureriskmanagementprinciplesandproceduresareappliedforallactivities

Reportsto
PolicyGroup
ActivationPhase

Obtainbriefingfromwhateversourcesareavailable

ObtainPEPtasknumber

Determinetheappropriatelevelofactivationbasedonsituationasknown.Callout
appropriatepersonnelfortheinitialactivationoftheEOC

RespondimmediatelytoEOClocationanddetermineoperationsstatus

DeterminewhichEOCfunctionsareneeded,assignSectionChiefsasappropriateandensure
theyarestaffingtheirfunctionsasrequired:
o

OperationsSecurityChief

LogisticsSectionChief

PlanningSectionChief

16 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Finance/AdministrationSectionChief

DeterminewhichadditionalManagementTeampositionsarerequiredandensuretheyare
filledassoonaspossible:
o

InformationOfficer

RiskManagementOfficer

LiaisonOfficer

EnsureanEOCorganizationandstaffingchartispostedandthatarrivingstaffareassigned
appropriateroles

EstablishinitialprioritiesfortheEOCbasedoncurrentstatusreports

ScheduletheinitialeventbriefingandhavethePlanningSectionChiefpreparetheagenda

ConsultwiththeLiaisonOfficerandGeneralStafftodeterminewhatrepresentationisneeded
attheEOCfromotheremergencyresponseagencies

AssigntheLiaisonOfficertocoordinateoutsideagencyresponsetotheEOC,andtoassistas
necessary

Obtainpersonaltelecommunicationsequipment

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

OperationalPhase

Maintainapositionlogandanyotherrelevantforms

MonitorGeneralStaffactivitiestoensurethatallappropriateactionsarebeingtakenand
initialEOCresponseprioritiesandobjectivesaredecidedandcommunicatedtoallinvolved
parties

Establishoperationalperiodsandmanagementtimelines

Setandcommunicateprioritiesandobjectives

InconjunctionwiththeInformationOfficer,conductnewsconferencesandreviewmedia
releases,informationbulletins,andadvisoriesetcforfinalapproval,inaccordancewith
establishedprocedures

EnsurethattheLiaisonOfficerisprovidingforandmaintainingeffectiveinteragency
coordination

17 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ConsultwiththePlanningSectionChieftoprepareprioritiesandobjectivesfortheEOCAction
Planningmeeting

ConvenetheinitialEOCActionPlanningmeetings.EnsurethatallSectionChiefs,Management
Team,andotherkeyagencyrepresentativesattend

Ensurethatappropriateplanningproceduresarefollowed

RequestthatthePlanningSectionChiefchairtheinitialEOCActionPlanningmeetingand
facilitateallfutureEOCActionPlanningmeetings

ApproveandauthorizeimplementationofallActionPlans

ConductperiodicbriefingswiththeEOCManagementTeamtoensureresponseprioritiesand
objectivesarecurrentandappropriate

Establishandmaintaincontactswithotherjurisdictions,thePREOC,andotherBCERMS
organizationallevelsasappropriate

Documentalldecisionsandapprovals

ApproveresourcerequestsnotincludedintheActionPlan

ConductperiodicbriefingsforthePolicyGroup

PreparetobriefthePolicyGrouponthepossibilityfordeclarationofaStateofLocal
Emergency

ConsultwiththePREOConproceduresfordeclaringaStateofLocalEmergency

Assigninwriting,delegatedpowers,ifany,underthedeclaration

AssignspecialprojectstotheDeputyDirector

Briefyourreliefatshiftchange,ensuringthatongoingactivitiesareidentifiedandfollowup
requirementsareunderstood

DemobilizationPhase

Authorizedemobilizationofsections,branchesandunitswhentheyarenolongerrequired

Ensurethatanyopenactionsnotyetcompletedwillbehandledafterdemobilization

Ensurethatallrequiredformsorreportsarecompletedpriortodemobilizationandforwardto
Planning(DocumentationUnit)

18 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EnsurethatanEOCAfterActionReportispreparedinconsultationwiththePlanningSection
andtheEOCManagementTeam

Terminatetheemergencyresponseandproceedwithrecoveryoperationsasproclaimedby
thePolicyGroup

DemobilizetheEOCwhentheemergencyeventnolongerrequirestheEOCactivated

Ensureallotherfacilitiesandsupportagenciesarenotifiedofdemobilization

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

3.4.4 DeputyDirector
SummaryofResponsibilities

AssumetheroleofEOCDirectorinhis/herabsence.SeeEOCDirectorTaskchecklist

UndertakespecialassignmentsattherequestoftheEOCDirector

EnsuretheefficientandeffectiveflowofinformationwithintheEOC

Ensureresourcerequestsareprioritizedandtracked

SupporttheEOCManagementTeambycommunicatingpolicydirectionandactionpriorities
toallEOCstaff

MonitorthehealthandwelfareofEOCstaff.Mediateandresolveanypersonnelconflicts

Facilitatebriefingsanddebriefingsatshiftchanges

CoordinateinternalfunctionsoftheEOCforeffectiveoperationalcapability

Reportsto
EOCDirector
ActivationPhase

RespondtoEOClocationandassistEOCDirectorindeterminingoperationalstatus

Obtainbriefingfromsourcesthatareavailable

SupervisesetupoftheEOCforthemosteffectiveandefficientoperations

19 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EstablishaworkingareaonbehalfoftheEOCManagementTeamsandensurepersonnel,
equipment,andsuppliesareinplace

Obtainpersonaltelecommunicationsequipment,ifrequired

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

OperationalPhase

Maintainapositionlogandanyotherrelevantforms

Supportmanagementstaffactivitiestoensurethatallappropriateactionsarebeingtaken

AssistEOCDirectorindeterminingandcommunicatingpriorities,objectivesanddecisionsto
allEOCstaff

AssistwithpreparationoftheEOCActionPlanningmeeting

EnsureEOCManagementTeamfollowsEOCbriefingformat

EnsureEOCManagementTeamhassufficientadministrativesupport

CoordinateadditionalstaffingneedswithLogistics(PersonnelUnitCoordinator)

EnsureallEOCstaffcompletePositionLogs

ParticipateinEOCactionplanningandmanagementmeetings

ReportsignificanteventsandanyissuesofconcerntoEOCDirectorandadviseofyour
activities

UndertakespecialprojectsandassignmentsasdirectedbytheEOCDirector

CheckwiththeGeneralStaffonthehealthandwelfareofallEOCstaff.Authorizeand
coordinateadditionalsupportneeds

Mediateandresolveanypersonnelconflicts

ConsultwithEOCDirectoronappointingadditionalstafftoensure24hourshiftschedulingfor
bothEOCDirectorandDeputyfunctions

Arrangefor,andfacilitateoperationalbriefingsanddebriefsandcriticalincidentstress
debriefsforEOCstaff

Briefyourreliefatshiftchange,ensuringthatongoingactivitiesareidentifiedandfollowup
requirementsareunderstood

20 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

DemobilizationPhase

AssistEOCDirectorwithdemobilizationprocedures

Ensurethatanyoperationsnotyetcompletedarehandledandassignedafterdemobilization

CompleteallrequiredformsandreportspriortodemobilizationandforwardtoPlanning
(DocumentationUnit)

AssistwiththepreparationoftheEOCAfterActionReport

Organizeandfacilitatestaffdebriefingsandcriticalincidentstressdebriefs

Organizeandcoordinatestaffrecognitioninitiatives(e.g.,thankyoulettersforthetimeand
expertisethatstaffcontributedtowardsEOCoperations)

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

3.4.5 InformationOfficer
SummaryofResponsibilities

Serveasthecoordinationpointforallpublicinformation,mediarelations,andsomeinternal
informationsourcesfortheEOC

EstablishtheEOCInformationUnit/Section,superviseallstaffassignedasAssistant
InformationOfficersandcoordinatetheiractivities

Ensurethepublicandmediawithintheaffectedareareceivecomplete,accurate,and
consistentinformationaboutlifesafetyprocedures,publichealthadvisories,reliefand
assistanceprograms,andothervitalinformation

EstablishaPublicInformationService(i.e.,CallCentre),asnecessary,andensurenotification
oftheserviceispublicizedforpublicaccesstohelpfulinformationandadvice

Developanddistributepublicinformationmaterials

ProvidemediarelationsbycoordinatingallinformationtothemediafromtheEOC,
respondingtomediacalls,developingformatsforpressconferencesandbriefingsin
conjunctionwiththeEOCDirector,maintainingapositiverelationshipwithmedia
representatives,andmonitoringallbroadcastsandwrittenarticlesforaccuracy

CoordinateVIPandvisitortoursoftheEOCfacility,inconsultationwiththeEOCDirectorand
LiaisonOfficer

21 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

MaintainawebsiteestablishedforEOCinformation

LiaisewithInformationOfficersestablishedatPREOC,DOCs,MROCs,EOCsandotheragencies

Reportsto
EOCDirector/DeputyDirector
ActivationPhase

DeterminestaffingrequirementsandassignpersonneltotheEOCInformationSection.If
Sectionisbiggerthanafewstaff,considerappointingadeputy

Assessskillsrequired(e.g.,writing,issuesmanagement,mediarelations,eventplanning,
liaison)

EstablishcontactwiththePREOCInformationUnitandEOC,MROC,andDOCInformation
Units

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

OperationalPhase

EstablishanInformationSectionworkingwiththeLogisticsSectiontoprovidenecessary
space,materials,telephonesandelectricalpower

ImplementandmaintaintheoverallinformationreleaseprogramfortheEOC

EstablishaPublicInformationService(CallCentre)tohandlepublicinquiriesandtoprovide
emergencysupportinformation

ConsultwithLogisticsInformationTechnologyBranchCoordinatorwithregardto
communicationequipmentneedsandpropersetup

Provideinformationforaprerecordedmessagingline

Establishdistributionlistsforrecipientsofallpublicinformationreleases.IncludethePREOC,
otherEOCs,DOCs,MROCs,ElectedOfficials,neighbouringFirstNationsgroups,emergency
socialservicegroups,media,etc

Dedicateaphonelineformediacalls,providethenumbertothemedia,ensurethereis
adequatestafftorespondtothemedia,andkeeprecordsofallmediacalls

Establishamediacentre/pressroominanareaseparatefrom,butclosetotheEOC,for
briefingsandnewsconferencesandmediatoworkfrom

22 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

CoordinatemediabriefingsandpressconferencesandworkwiththeEOCDirectorto
designatemediaspokespeople

Prepareallmaterialsforbriefingsandpressconferences,includingbriefingmaterialfor
ElectedOfficials.Provideotherassistanceasnecessarytofacilitatetheirparticipationinmedia
briefingsandpressconferences

Developandpublishamediabriefingschedule,toincludelocation,format,andpreparation
anddistributionofhandoutmaterials

Monitorallmediasourcesandidentifyissues,usinginformationtodevelopfollowupnews
releasesandrumourcontrolmaterials

KeeptheEOCDirectoradvisedofallunusualrequestsforinformationandmajorcriticalor
unfavourablemediacomments.Recommendstrategiestoimprovemediarelations

ObtainpolicyguidanceandapprovalfromtheEOCDirectorpriortothereleaseofanyandall
informationtothemediaandpublic

CoordinatewithotherEOCsections,withtheapprovaloftheEOCDirector,toissuetimelyand
consistentadvisories,informationbulletinsandinstructionsforlifesafety,healthand
assistanceforthepublic

Ensurethatannouncements,emergencyinformationandmaterialsaretranslatedand
preparedforspecialpopulations(nonEnglishspeaking,hearingimpaired,etc)

CoordinatewiththeSituationUnitandidentifyamethodforobtainingandverifying
significantinformationasitdevelops

InteractandliaisewithInformationOfficersinareaEOCs,MROCs,DOCs,emergencyresponse
agenciesandthePREOC,andobtaininformationrelativetopublicinformationoperations

DevelopmessagestatementsandQ&AsforEOCstaff,operatorsofthePublicInformation
ServiceandElectedOfficials

EnsureEOCstaffareavailableatincidentsitestocoordinateandconducttoursofthedisaster
area(provideditissafetodoso),andcoordinateanyEOCorElectedOfficialstours

Inadditiontoidentifyingsourcesforassistanceinpressreleases,PSAsandbulletins,maintain
aDisasterAssistanceInformationDirectorywithcontactinformationforfood,shelter,
suppliesand/orhealthservices

AttendEOCbriefingsandparticipateinPREOCConferenceCalls

Ensurethatfilecopiesaremaintainedofallinformationreleased

23 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Conductshiftchangebriefingsindetail,ensuringthatinprogressactivitiesareidentifiedand
followuprequirementsareknown

DemobilizationPhase

Preparefinalnewreleasesandadvisemediarepresentativesofpointsofcontactforfollowup
information

DemobilizetheInformationSection

CompletealllogsanddocumentationandforwardtotheDocumentationUnit

ProvideinformationtosupporttheEOCAfterActionReport

EnsureanyopenactionsareassignedtoappropriatestafforotherEOCsectionsforfollowup

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

3.4.6 RiskManagementOfficer
SummaryofResponsibilities

Ensuresoundriskmanagementpracticesareappliedthroughouttheresponseandthatevery
EOCfunctioncontributestothemanagementofrisk

ProtecttheinterestsofallEOCstaff,agencies,organizationsandothersbyensuringdue
diligenceininformationcollection,decisionmaking,andimplementation

Monitorsituationsforriskexposureandascertainprobabilitiesandpotentialconsequencesof
futureevents

Providetechnicaladvicetocounterpartsatthesite(Safety)andPREOC

Provideadviceonsafetyissuesandcorrectanyandallunsafeoperationswithinoroutsidethe
scopeoftheEOCActionPlan.NotifytheEOCDirectorofthesituationandanyactionstaken.
[WhiletheRiskManagementOfficerisresponsibleforsafety,aSafetySpecialistwhois
familiarwithallaspectsofsafetyandrelevantlegislationshouldalsobeappointed]

Ensureappropriatesecuritymeasureshavebeenestablished,includingaccesstotheEOC
facility

Reportsto
EOCDirector/DeputyDirector

24 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ActivationPhase

PerformariskidentificationandanalysisfortheEOCsiteandoperation

Tourtheentirefacilityareaanddeterminethescopeofongoingandfutureoperations

MonitorsetupproceduresfortheEOCandensurepropersafetyregulationsareadheredto

EnsurethatsecuritycheckpointshavebeenestablishedatallEOCentrances,includingstaff
signinandidentificationprocedures,toallowonlyauthorizedpersonnelaccesstotheEOC

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

OperationalPhase

Establishandmaintainpositionlogandothernecessaryfiles

AssessdamageandlossincollaborationwiththePlanningSituationUnitand
Finance/Administration(CompensationandClaimsfunction)

IdentifyanddocumentriskandliabilityissuesandkeepthePlanningSectionChiefapprised

GatherandorganizeevidencethatmayassistallEOCorganizationsinlegaldefencethatmay
bemoredifficulttoobtainlater

Conductinterviewsandtakestatementstoinvestigatemajorriskmanagementissues

AssisttheEOCDirectorbyreviewingpressreleases,publicalerts,warnings,andpublic
informationmaterialsfromariskmanagementperspective

EvaluatesituationsandadvisetheEOCDirectorofanyconditionsandactionsthatmightresult
inliability(e.g.,oversights,improperresponseactions)

Identifypotentialclaimantsandthescopeoftheirissuesandconcerns

Advisemembersofresponseorganizationsregardingoptionsforriskcontrol,during
operationalmeetingsanduponrequest

Adviseonactionstoreducelossandsufferingtoproactivelysupportresponseandrecovery

EnsureDocumentationUnitissecureandoperatingeffectivelyandadviseonthetypeof
informationtocollect,flowofinformation,andissuesofconfidentiality

Organizeandpreparerecordsforfinalaudit

ConductregularinspectionsoftheEOCfacilityandliaisewiththeEOCSupportBranch
Coordinatortoidentifyanyhazardousconditions,especiallyfollowingaseismicevent.

25 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

CoordinatewiththeEOCSupportBranchtoobtainassistanceforanyspecialsafety
requirements

ProvideguidancetoEOCstaffregardingactionstoprotectthemselvesfortheemergency
event,suchassmokefromawildfireoraftershocksfromanearthquake

CoordinatewithFinance/AdministrationonanyEOCpersonnelinjuryclaimsandrecords
preparationforpropercaseevaluationandclosure

MonitorsecuritycheckpointsandEOCfacultyaccess

AddressanysecurityissueswiththeEOCDirectorandEOCSupportBranchCoordinatorand
recommendimprovements

DemobilizationPhase

AssisttheEOCDirectorindemobilizationactivities,includingcollectionofallrelevantpapers,
electronicrecords,andmaterialnecessaryforpostoperationreportingprocedures

ContributeriskmanagementissuestowardstheAfterActionReport

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

3.4.7 LiaisonOfficer
SummaryofResponsibilities
Functionasapointofcontactfor,andinteractionwith,representativesfromotheragencies
arrivingattheEOC

LiaisewithlocalDOCs,MROCs,andprovincial/federalorganizationsnotrepresentedinthe
EOC

Coordinateagencyrepresentativesandensureallnecessaryrolesarefilled,enablingtheEOC
tofunctioneffectivelyandefficiently

AssistandserveasanadvisortotheEOCDirectorandEOCManagementTeam,andprovide
informationandguidanceregardingtheoutsidefunctionsoftheEOC

AssisttheEOCDirectorinensuringproperproceduresareinplacefordirectingagency
representatives,communicatingwithelectedofficials(fromtheareainvolved),and
conductingVIP/visitortoursoftheEOCfacility

Liaisewithelectedofficials,otherEOCs,thePREOC,provincialDOCs,MROCs,and
organizationsasdirectedbyEOCDirector,andcommunicateEOCguidelines,directives,Action
Plansandsituationinformation

26 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Reportsto
EOCDirector/DeputyDirector
ActivationPhase

ReporttotheEOC

EnsurethatanEOCstaffcheckinprocedureisestablishedimmediately

EnsureregistrationproceduresareestablishedforEOCvolunteers

AssisttheEOCDirectorindeterminingappropriatestaffingfortheEOC

EnsurethatanEOCorganizationandstaffingchartispostedandupdated

ProvideassistanceandinformationtoGeneralStaffregardingstaffingEOCfunctions

Obtainpersonaltelecommunicationsequipment

Ensurethatagencyrepresentativestelephoneand/orradiocommunicationsareestablished
andfunctioning

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

OperationalPhase

AssisttheEOCDirectorandEOCManagementTeamindevelopingoverallEOCpriorities,as
wellasprioritiesfortheinitialActionPlan

Collectandprovideexternal,nonrepresentedagenciesinformationtothePlanningSection
toassistindeveloping,updating,andimplementingEOCActionPlans

ProvideEOCinformationtononrepresentedexternalagencies

ProvidegeneraladviceandguidancetosupportingagenciesandEOCstaff

Ensurethatcommunicationwithappropriateexternal,nonrepresentedagenciesis
establishedandmaintained

PrepareexternalnonrepresentedagencyinformationforbriefingswiththeEOCManagement
Team

AssisttheEOCDirectorinpreparingforandconductingbriefingswithEOCManagement
Team,electedofficials,themedia,andthepublic

EnsurethatoperationalprioritiesandobjectivesidentifiedintheEOCActionPlanare
communicatedtoexternalnonrepresentedagencies

27 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Facilitatecompletionofsituationreportswithexternalnonrepresentedagenciesandforward
tothePlanningSection

AdvisetheEOCDirectorofanycriticalinformationandresources/supportrequestscontained
withinthesituationreports

ForwardapprovedEOCSituationReportstononrepresentedagencies

InconsultationwiththeInformationOfficer,conducttoursofEOCfacility

Provideassistancewithshiftchangeactivity

DemobilizationPhase

NotifyexternalnonrepresentedagenciesinEOCoftheplanneddemobilization

AssistwiththedemobilizationoftheEOCatthedesignatedtime

AssisttheEOCDirectorwithrecoveryoperationsandpreparationoftheEOCAfterAction
Report

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

3.4.8 SectionChiefCommonResponsibilities
Theresponsibilitieslistedbelowaregenerictooperations,planning,logisticsandfinance/administration
SectionChiefs:

UponcheckinreceivebriefingfromEOCDirectorordesignate

Participateinmeetingsandbriefings

Determinecurrentstatusofsectionactivities

Determineresourceneeds

Requestadditionalstaff,ifappropriate,andensuretheEOCDirectorspriorapproval

Assignspecificdutiestosubordinatesandsupervisetheiractivities

Supervisedemobilizationofthesection,includingstorageofsupplies

ProvideLogisticswithalistofsuppliestobereplenished

MaintainsectionrecordsincludingPositionLogdetailingactions,decisions,andevents

28 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Carryoutallassignments

3.4.9 OperationsSectionChief
SummaryofResponsibilities

EnsuretheOperationscoordinationfunctioniscarriedout,includingcoordinatingall
operationalfunctionsassignedtotheEOC

EnsureassignmentsandoperationalobjectivesidentifiedintheEOCActionPlanarecarried
outeffectively

EstablishtheappropriatelevelofBranchandUnitorganizationswithintheOperationsSection,
continuouslymonitoringeffectivenessandmodifyingaccordingly

CoordinateanyactivatedDOCsorMROCsintheoperationalarea

Maintainacommunicationslinkbetweenfieldpersonnel,DOCs,MROCs,andthePREOCfor
thepurposeofcoordinatingtheoverallresponse,resourcerequestsandeventstatus
information

EnsurethePlanningSectionisprovidedwithBranchStatusReportsandMajorIncident
Reports

ConductperiodicOperationsbriefingsfortheEOCDirector

SupervisetheOperationsSection

ActivationPhase

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

EnsuretheOperationsSectionissetupproperlyandthatappropriatepersonnel,equipment,
andsuppliesareinplace,includingtelecommunications,maps,andstatusboards

MeetwithEOCDirectorand/orPlanningSectionChieftoobtainapreliminarysituation
briefing

Basedonthesituation,activateappropriateBranchesbasedonfunctionsorgeographic
assignmentswithintheSection.DesignateBranchCoordinators

EstablishradioorcellphonecommunicationswiththePREOC,DOCsorMROCsoperatingin
thecommunity,andcoordinateaccordingly

29 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

RequestadditionalpersonnelfortheSectionfromPersonnelUnitasnecessarytomaintain24
houroperation

ConferwiththeEOCDirectortoensurethatthePlanningandLogisticsSectionsarestaffedat
levelsnecessarytoprovideadequateinformationandsupportforoperations

CoordinatewiththeLiaisonOfficerontheneedforAgencyRepresentativesintheSection

ObtainacurrentcommunicationsstatusbriefingfromLogistics(InformationTechnology
BranchCoordinator),andensureadequateequipmentandfrequenciesareavailableforthe
section

DetermineactivationstatusofotherEOCsandthePREOC,andestablishcommunicationlinks
withtheirOperationsSections

Basedonthesituation,bothknownorforecasted,determinelikelyfutureneedsoftheSection

IdentifykeyissuescurrentlyaffectingtheSection,meetwithsectionpersonnelanddetermine
appropriateobjectivesforthefirstoperationalperiod

ReviewresponsibilitiesanddevelopadetailedplanforcarryingoutOperationsobjectives

Adoptapositiveattitude.Thinkaheadandanticipatesituationsandproblemsbeforethey
occur

OperationalPhase

EnsureallSectionpersonnelaremaintainingtheirindividualpositionlogsandother
paperwork

Ensurethatinformationonthesituationandresourceinformationisprovidedtothe
appropriateUnitsinthePlanningSectiononaregularbasis

Ifemergencyiswidespread,andtherearetwoormoreIncidentCommandPostsestablished
thatrequiresupportandcoordination,establishOperationalAreaCoordinator(s)

Conductperiodicbriefingsandworktoreachconsensusamongstaffonobjectivesforforth
comingoperationalperiods

AttendandparticipateintheEOCsActionPlanningmeetings

WorkcloselywitheachBranchCoordinatortoensurethatSectionobjectives,asdefinedinthe
currentEOCActionPlan,arebeingaddressed

Logandtrackresourcerequestsandforwardextraordinaryand/orcriticalresourcerequests
totheEOCDirectorforapproval

30 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EnsurethatBranchescoordinateallresourceneedsthroughtheLogisticsSection

EnsurethatintelligenceinformationfromBranchCoordinatorsismadeavailabletothe
PlanningSection(SituationUnit)inatimelymanner

Ensureallmediacontacts/requestsforinformationarereferredtotheEOCInformation
Officer

Ensurethatfiscalandadministrativerequirementsarecoordinatedthroughthe
Finance/AdministrationSection(notifyofemergencyexpendituresanddailytimesheets)

Ensureanexpenditureauthorizationformiscompletedforeverycontract,hire,lease,or
rental

BriefBranchCoordinatorsperiodicallyonanyupdatedinformationyoumayhavereceived

SharestatusinformationwithotherSections

DemobilizationPhase

DeactivateBranchesandorganizationalelementswhennolongerrequired.Ensurethatall
paperworkiscompleteandlogsareclosedandsenttotheDocumentationUnit

EnsureanyopenactionsarehandledbytheSectionortransferredtootherEOCfunctions

DemobilizetheSectionandcloseoutlogswhenauthorizedbytheEOCDirector

Ensurethatanyrequiredformsorreportsarecompletedpriortoyourreleaseanddeparture

CompletealllogsanddocumentationandforwardtotheDocumentationUnit

BepreparedtoprovideinputtotheAfterActionReport

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

3.4.10 PlanningSectionChief
SummaryofResponsibilities

Collect,analyze,anddisplaysituationinformationandprepareperiodicSituationReports

PrepareanddistributetheEOCActionPlanandfacilitatetheActionPlanningprocess

ConductAdvancePlanningactivitiesandreports

DocumentandmaintainfilesonallEOCactivities,includingtrackingresources

31 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ProvidetechnicalsupportservicestothevariousEOCSectionsandBranches

EstablishtheappropriateleveloforganizationforthePlanningSection

ExerciseoverallresponsibilityforthecoordinationofBranch/UnitactivitieswithintheSection

InformtheEOCDirectorofsignificantissuesaffectingthePlanningSection

IncoordinationwithotherSectionChiefs,ensureStatusReportsarecompletedtoinform
SituationReportsandEOCActionPlans

ActivationPhase

EnsurethePlanningSectionissetupproperlyandthatappropriatepersonnel,equipment,
andsuppliesareinplace,includingmapsandstatusboards

Basedonthesituation,activateUnitswithintheSectionanddesignateLeadersforeachUnit:
o

SituationUnit

ResourcesUnit

DemobilizationUnit

DocumentationUnit

AdvancePlanningUnit

RecoveryUnit

TechnicalSpecialistsUnit

Ensuresufficientstaffareavailablefora24hourschedule

EstablishcontactwithPREOCPlanningSectionandcoordinateSituationReportrequirements

InterfaceconstantlywithOperationsSectionChief,obtainandreviewanymajorincident
reports

ReviewresponsibilitiesofUnitsintheSectionanddevelopplanstocarryoutall
responsibilities

PreparealistofkeyissuestobeaddressedbyPlanning,andinconsultationwithSectionstaff,
identifyobjectivestobeaccomplishedduringtheinitialoperationalperiod

KeeptheEOCDirectorinformedofsignificantevents

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

32 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

OperationalPhase

EnsurePlanningpositionlogsandothernecessaryfilesaremaintained

EnsureSituationUnitismaintainingcurrentinformationfortheSituationReport

EnsureOperationsSectioncompletesmajorincidentreportsandBranchstatusreportsand
theyareaccessiblebytheSection(recommendaPlanningLiaisonbeprovidedtoOperations
Section)

EnsureSituationReportisproducedanddistributedtoEOCSectionsandthePREOCatleast
onceduringanoperationalperiod(ormorefrequentlyasdirectedbytheEOCDirector)

AssistOperationsinensuringthatallstatusboardsandotherdisplaysarekeptcurrentand
thatpostedinformationisneatandlegible

EnsureInformationOfficerhasimmediateandunlimitedaccesstoallstatusreportsand
displays

ConductperiodicbriefingswithSectionstaffandworktoreachconsensusamongstaffon
Sectionobjectivesforforthcomingoperationalperiods

ChairActionPlanningmeetingsapproximatelytwohourspriortheendofeachoperational
period

EnsurethatobjectivesforeachSectionarecompleted,collected,andpostedinpreparation
forthenextActionPlanningmeeting

EnsurethattheEOCActionPlaniscompleted,approvedbytheEOCDirector,anddistributed
priortothestartofthenextoperationalperiod

WorkcloselywitheachBranch/UnitwithinthePlanningSectiontoensuretheSection
objectives,asdefinedintheEOCActionPlan,arebeingaddressed

EnsureAdvancePlanningUnitdevelopsanddistributesareportthathighlightsforecasted
eventsorconditionslikelytooccurbeyondtheforthcomingoperationalperiod;particularly
thosesituationsthatmayinfluencetheoverallprioritiesoftheEOC

EnsureDocumentationUnitmaintainsfilesonallEOCactivitiesandprovidesreproductionand
archivingservicesfortheEOC

Providetechnicalservices,suchasenvironmentaladvisorsandothertechnicalspecialiststoall
EOCSections

Ensureallfiscalandadministrativerequirementsarecoordinatedthroughthe
Finance/AdministrationSection

33 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EnsuretheRiskManagementOfficerisinvolvedintheActionPlanningprocess

DemobilizationPhase

EnsuretheDemobilizationPlanfortheEOCiscomplete,approvedbytheEOCDirectorand
distributedtoallEOCSections

OverseepreparationoftheEOCAfterActionReportbytheRecoveryUnit

DeterminedemobilizationstatusofallPlanningUnitsandadvisetheEOCDirector

CompletealllogsanddocumentationsandforwardtotheDocumentationUnit

EnsureanyopenactionsareassignedtoappropriatePlanningstafforotherEOCSectionsfor
followup

Ensurethatallexpendituresandfinancialclaimshavebeencoordinatedthroughthe
Finance/AdministrationSection

ReviewEOCAfterActionReportpriortosubmittingtotheEOCDirectorandtheManagement
Teamforapproval

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

3.4.11 LogisticsSectionChief
SummaryofResponsibilities

EnsuretheLogisticsfunctioniscarriedoutinsupportoftheEOCincluding:providing
telecommunicationservicesandinformationtechnology,locatingoracquiringequipment,
supplies,personnel,facilities,andtransportationaswellasarrangingforfood,lodging,and
othersupportservicesasrequiredfortheEOCandfieldrequirements

EstablishtheappropriatelevelofBranchand/orUnitstaffingwithintheLogisticsSection,
continuouslymonitoringtheeffectivenessoftheorganizationandmodifying

EnsureSectionobjectives,asstatedintheEOCActionPlan,areaccomplishedwithinthe
operationalperiodorwithintheestimatedtimeframe

CoordinatecloselywiththeOperationsSectionChieftoestablishprioritiesforresource
allocationwithintheoperationalregion

KeeptheEOCDirectorinformedofallsignificantissuesrelatingtotheLogisticsSection

34 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EnsurecriticalresourcesareallocatedaccordingtoEOCActionPlanpolicy,prioritiesand
direction

SupervisetheLogisticsSection

ActivationPhase

EnsuretheSectionissetupproperlyandthatappropriatepersonnel,equipmentandsupplies
areinplace,includingmaps,statusboards,vendorreferences,andotherresourcedirectories

Basedonthesituation,activateBranches/UnitswithintheSectionasneededanddesignate
BranchandUnitLeadersforeachelement:
o

InformationTechnologyBranch(CommunicationsUnit,ComputerSystemsUnit)

TransportationUnit

EOCSupportBranch(FacilitiesUnit,SecurityUnit,ClericalUnit)

SupplyUnit

PersonnelUnit

Ensuresufficientstaffareavailablefora24hourschedule

EstablishcommunicationwiththeLogisticsSectionatthePREOC

AdviseSectionUnitstocoordinatewithBranchesinPlanningandOperationsSectionsto
prioritizeandvalidateresourcerequestsfromIncidentCommand/DOCpriortoactingona
request

MeetwithEOCDirectorandEOCManagementTeamandidentifyimmediateresourceneeds

MeetwithFinance/AdministrationSectionChieftodeterminepurchasingauthorityforthe
Section

AssistUnitLeadersindevelopingobjectivesfortheSection,aswellasplanstoaccomplish
theirobjectiveswithinthefirstoperationalperiod,orinaccordancewiththeEOCActionPlan

Adoptaproactiveattitude,thinkaheadandanticipatesituationsandproblemsbeforethey
occur

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

OperationalPhase

EnsureLogisticSectionpositionlogsandothernecessaryfilesaremaintained

35 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

MeetregularlywithSectionstaffandworktoreachconsensusonSectionobjectivesfor
forthcomingoperationalperiods

ProvidePlanningSectionChiefwiththeLogisticsSectionobjectivesatleast30minutespriorto
eachEOCActionPlanningmeeting

AttendandparticipateinEOCActionPlanningmeetings

ProvideperiodicSectionStatusReportstotheEOCDirectorandSituationUnit

EnsureSupplyUnitcoordinatescloselywithPurchasingUnitinFinance/Administration
Section,andthatallrequireddocumentsandproceduresarecompletedandfollowed

EnsureSupplyandPersonnelcoordinateactivitieswithfunctionalBranchCoordinators

Ensurethattransportationrequirementsinsupportofresponseoperationsaremet

Ensurethatallrequestsforfacilitiesandfacilitysupportareaddressed

EnsurethatallresourcesaretrackedandaccountedforincooperationwiththeResources
Unit,aswellasresourcesorderedthroughmutualaid

ProvideSectionstaffwithinformationupdatesviaSectionbriefingsasrequired

Provideyourreliefwithabriefingatshiftchange,ofallongoingactivities,Branchobjectives
forthenextoperationalperiod,andanyotherpertinentinformation

DemobilizationPhase

IdentifyhighcostresourcesthatcouldbedemobilizedearlyandadviseotherSectionChiefs

EnsurecoordinationwithOperationsbeforecommencingdemobilization

DeterminedemobilizationstatusoftheLogisticsSectionandadvisetheEOCDirector

CompletealllogsanddocumentationandforwardtotheDocumentationUnit

EnsureanyopenactionsareassignedtoappropriateLogisticsstaffandotherEOCSectionsfor
followup

EnsureallexpendituresandfinancialclaimsarecoordinatedthroughFinance/Administration

ContributeinformationtowardstheEOCAfterActionReport

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationPhasechecklist

36 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.4.12 Finance/AdministrationSectionChief
SummaryofResponsibilities

Ensureallfinancialrecordsaremaintainedthroughouttheevent

Ensureallondutytimeisrecordedandcollectedforallpersonnel

Ensurecontinuityofthepayrollprocessforallemployeesrespondingtotheevent

ConsultwithEOCDirectoronpurchasingauthority,ifany,forLogistics,Operations,andEOC
ManagementTeam

Ensureworkerscompensationclaimsandalltravelandexpenseclaimsareprocessedwithina
reasonabletime,giventhenatureofthesituation

ActivateUnitswithintheFinance/AdministrationSectionasrequired,monitorSection
activitiescontinuouslyandmodifytheorganization,asneeded

Ensureallrecoverydocumentationisaccuratelymaintainedandsubmittedonappropriate
forms

SupervisetheFinance/AdministrationSection

ActivationPhase

EnsuretheFinance/AdministrationSectionissetupproperlyandthatappropriatepersonnel,
equipment,andsuppliesareinplace

ConfirmpurchasingauthorityfortheEOCwiththeEOCDirector

Basedonthesituation,activateUnitsasneededanddesignateUnitLeadersforeachelement:
o

TimeUnit

Compensation&ClaimsUnit

PurchasingUnit

CostUnit

DisasterFinancialAssistanceUnit

Ensuresufficientstaffareavailablefora24hourschedule

MeetLogisticsandOperationsSectionChiefstoreviewfinancialandadministrative
requirementsandprocedures,andconfirmthedelegatedlevelofpurchasingauthority

37 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

MeetwithallUnitLeadersandensureresponsibilitiesandproceduresareclearlyunderstood

InconjunctionwithUnitLeaders,determinetheinitialFinance/AdministrationActionPlanning
objectivesforthefirstoperationalperiod

NotifytheEOCDirectorwhentheFinance/AdministrationSectionisoperational

Adoptaproactiveattitude,thinkaheadandanticipatesituationsandproblemsbeforethey
occur

FollowtheGenericActivationPhasechecklist

OperationalPhase

EnsureFinance/Administrationpositionlogsandothernecessaryfilesaremaintained

Utilizeprovincialfinance,costaccounting,andtimesheetforms

EnsureSectiondisplaysarecurrentandinformationpostedislegibleandconcise

ParticipateinallEOCActionPlanningmeetings

ProvidecostestimatestotheEOCActionPlanningProcess

BriefallUnitLeadersandensuretheyareawareofallprioritiesintheEOCActionPlan

KeeptheEOCDirector,ManagementTeam,andElectedOfficialsapprisedofthecurrentfiscal
situationandotherrelatedmatters,onanongoingbasis

EnsuretheCostUnitallfinancialrecordsandcostdocumentationisaccuratelymaintained
throughouttheevent,andissubmittedontheappropriateformstotheProvince

EnsuretheTimeUnittracksandrecordsallagencystafftime,andpromptlyprocessestime
sheetsandtravelexpenseclaims

CoordinatewithLogisticsorOperationsSectionstoensurethePurchasingUnitprocesses
purchaseordersanddevelopscontractsinatimelymanner

EnsuretheCompensationClaimsUnitprocessesallWorkersCompensationBoardclaims

DemobilizationPhase

DeterminedemobilizationstatusoftheSectionandadvisetheEOCDirector

Ensureallexpendituresandfinancialclaimshavebeenprocessedanddocumented

CompletealllogsanddocumentationandforwardtotheDocumentationUnit

38 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EnsureanyopenactionsareassignedtoappropriateFinance/Administrationstafforother
EOCsectionsforfollowup

ContributeinformationinputtowardstheEOCAfterActionReport

FollowtheGenericDemobilizationchecklist

39 |EmergencyOperationsCentre

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Supporting
Peoplein
Emergencies

1.0 Introduction
Thelossoflifeandthesocialandeconomicdisruptioncausedbyemergenciesanddisasterscanbe
devastatingforindividualsandcommunities.Supportisrequiredforthoseimpactedbysuchevents
fromtheonsetoftheemergencyandthroughtotherecoveryphase.
Someresponseeffortsfocusonsupportingpeopleaffectedbytheeventbyprovidingthemwith
informationandothercriticalservicessuchasfood,clothing,shelter,healthcareincludingaddressing
theemotionalconsequencessuchasstressandfeelingsofgriefandanger.Otherresponseeffortsmust
concentrateontherepairandrestorationofessentialservicesandinfrastructure,suchasroads,
electricityandcommunicationnetworks.
Thismodulehighlightsthecomponentsofemergencymanagementthatareintendedtosupportpeople
andtheirfamiliesastheycopewithissuesarisingduringandimmediatelyfollowinganemergency.They
includeinformationmanagement,emergencysocialservices,communityrecovery,andpsychosocial
support.

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.0 PublicInformationManagement
Publicinformationmanagementisanessentialactivityduringanyresponse.Thisinvolvestheaccurate
andtimelydisseminationofinformationtothepublicabouttheeventstakingplaceandtheongoing
effortstoaddressthoseeventsandtheirimpacts.
Priortoanemergency,localauthoritiesmayprovideinformation(e.g.,preparednessbrochures,posters
andseminarsofinterest)toincreasepublicawarenessofemergencymanagementinitiatives,to
encourageparticipationinvariousvolunteerprograms,andtoensurethatthepublicunderstandwhat
theycandotohelpthemselvesbefore,duringandafteranemergency.
Intheeventofanemergency,theEOCactsasaclearinghouseforinformationaboutlocalresponseand
recoveryactivities.WithintheEOC,theInformationManagementUnitdisseminatesinformationasit
becomesavailable.Methodsofconveyingkeypublicinformationinanemergencyinclude:

CallCentreisoftenthefirstpointofcontactforindividualsseekinghelpfollowingan
emergencyordisaster.Callcentresusuallyhavemultiplelines,operateforextendedhoursand
relyonlocalstaff,volunteers,orcontractorstoprovideinformation(e.g.,uptodatehealthand
safetyinstructions).Theyoftenacceptphoneregistrationsfromevacueesandassistwithfamily
reunification.

Internetcanbeanimportantsourceforcurrentinformationonalerts,notices,health
matters,orprogressonresponseactivitiesduringanemergency.Itmaybeadvantageousfor
theEOCtoestablishitselfasanentityontheinternet.ThisletstheEOCdirectlymanage,
monitorandvalidateinformation,andmayalleviatethedemandsontheCallCentre.Formany
residents,thiswillbethedefinitiveinformationsourceinthecommunity.Theinternetisalso
idealforsharinggraphicalinformationsuchasmaps,photographs,andvideo.Toensurethat
theaccuracyandqualityofinformationontheEOCswebpageisalwaysconsistent,theEOC
Directormustapproveinformationpostedtotheinternet.Variousoptionsexistfor
disseminatingpublicinformationthroughtheinternet:

webpage(s)onlocalauthoritywebsite

EOCwebsite

socialmedia(e.g.,Facebook,Twitter,YouTube)

CommunityMeetingsallowforthesharingofinformationonthestatusofeventsandgivethe
publicanopportunitytoaskquestionsoflocalofficialsandsubjectmatterexpertssuchasfirst
responders,emergencysocialservicesstaff,insuranceagents,andrepresentativesfrom
provincialministries,utilities,nongovernmentandcommunitybasedorganizations.

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Mediaplaysanimportantroleasaneffectiveconduitforemergencyinformationfromofficial
sourcestolargeaudiences.Televisioncrewsmaycoveractionrealtime,documentingdamage
topropertyandidentifyingpersonsinneedofassistance.Radioandnewspaperscanalsohelp
topublicizeofficials'instructionsandrecordresponseefforts.

3.0 EmergencySocialServices
EmergencySocialServices(ESS)isaprovinciallysupportedandlocallydeliveredprogramthatprovides
shorttermassistancetoindividualsandtheirfamiliesforcedtoevacuatetheirhomesduetounsafe
conditionsand/orsignificantdamage.ESSprovidestheessentialservicesrequiredtohelppeople
maintainsafetyandhealthincluding:

assistingpeoplemeettheirbasicneedsduringanemergency

assistingpeopletoremainindependentandselfsufficient

reunitingfamiliesseparatedbyemergency

ESSisacriticalcomponentofthelocalauthoritysemergencymanagementprogramand,asperthe
LocalAuthorityEmergencyManagementRegulation,localauthoritiesmust:
Coordinatetheprovisionoffood,clothing,shelter,transportationandmedicalservicesto
victimsofemergenciesanddisasters,whetherthatprovisionismadefromwithinoroutsideof
thelocalauthority.
EmergencySocialServicesteamsincludevolunteers,municipalorregionaldistrictstaff,andmembersof
existingcommunityserviceorganizationsledbyanESSDirectorwhohasbeenappointedtotheposition
(volunteerorpaid)bythelocalEmergencyProgramCoordinator(EPC).
Establishingateamofpeopleandorganizationsfamiliarwiththeservicesavailableinthecommunity
helpstoensurethatpeoplewithESSknowledge,skills,andresourceswillbetheretoassistthe
communityinanemergency.ESSteamshaveexpertiseincrisisintervention,amateurradiooperation,
translationservices,volunteermanagement,firstaid,andfoodsafety.Inordertorespondeffectivelyto
theneedsofevacueesandotherresponseworkers,ESSteamsplan,train,andexercisetogether.
PlanningforESSinvolvesassessingtheavailabilityofcommunityresources,establishingwritten
agreementswithsuppliers(e.g.,hotels,restaurants,thriftstores)foruseduringtimesofdisasterand
determiningthelocationofresources(e.g.,cots,bedding,andinsulatedfoodcoolers).[Module4:
EmergencyPlanningdescribestheimportanceofdevelopingawrittenESSplanwiththisinformation
clearlydocumented].

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.1 ServicestoEvacuees
EmergencysocialservicesarecoordinatedatReceptionCentres,thoughservicesmaybeprovidedat
GroupLodgingfacilitiesordirectlytopeoplewhocannotcometothesecentresduetoadisabilityor
lackoftransportation.ESSisusuallyprovidedforupto72hourstothoseinneedofassistance.During
those72hours,evacueesshouldworktheirinsurancecompany,familyorcommunityorganizationsto
ensurecontinuedsupport.
SomeoftheservicesavailableataReceptionCentreinclude:

ReferralsforFood,Clothing,andLodgingprovidingfoodorfoodpreparationfacilitiesto
evacueesandemergencyresponseworkers;providingsafe,temporarylodgingsforthosewho
areforcedfromtheirhomesandwithoutinsurance(orunabletoimmediatelyaccesstheir
insurancepolicies);andprovidingessentialclothing,blanketsandtoiletriestoevacueeswho
havefledtheirhomeswithnoadvancenotice.

FamilyReunificationregisteringevacuees,inquiringaboutthesafety,wellbeingand
whereaboutsofindividuals,andassistinginthereunificationoffamilies.

EmotionalSupportprovidingemotionalsupporttoevacueesandESSworkersandreferring
thoseinneedtotheappropriatehumanservicesagencies.

VolunteerServicescoordinatingtheassignmentsoftrainedvolunteers,andtrainingwalkin
volunteers.

FirstAidprovidingbasicfirstaidsupportandmakingreferralstoappropriatehealthcare
facilitieswhenrequired.

HealthServicesassistingpeoplewithspecialneeds,suchastheelderlyorthosewithphysical
ormentaldisabilities,toaccessnecessaryservices(e.g.,nursingcare,cleanwater,foodor
sanitation).

Information/Communicationsprovidingaccurate,uptodateinformationtoevacueesandESS
workers,andensuringthatkeyinformationflowseffectivelywithinandoutsideaReception
Centre.

ChildCareensuringparentsareabletocarefortheirchildren,arrangingforqualifiedchildcare
workerstoprovideasupportiveenvironmentandactivitiesforchildrendealingwithan
emergency,andoverseeingchildren(throughtheministryresponsible)whoarriveata
ReceptionCentrewithoutaparentorguardian.

TransportationServicesarrangingtransportationforevacueestohotels,motels,orGroup
Lodgingfacilities.

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

RecreationServicesorganizingactivitiesforallagesandspecialneedsgroupsinaReception
CentreorGroupLodging.

MulticulturalServicesprovidingtranslationservicesandtendingtotheculturalneedsof
evacueeswhereappropriate.

PetServicesassistingwiththecareofdomesticpetsthroughtheprovisionoffood,water,
exercise,andshelter.

TheprovisionofESSvariesbasedonthespecificrequirementsofacommunityandthescopeofthe
eventanditsconsequences.Forexample,anESSteamcomprisingahandfulofpeoplemaybesufficient
forasmallcommunityorisolatedincident,whereasinalargercommunitywherethousandsofpeople
maybeaffectedbyanemergency,numerousESSworkersmaybeneeded.Further,aneighbouringESS
teamthatisunaffectedbythedisastermaybeaskedtoactasahostcommunityandprovideESSto
evacueesforcedtoleavetheirowncommunityduetoanemergencyorunsafeconditions.
Experiencefrompreviousemergenciesindicatesthatgenerallyasfewas1025%ofthepopulationwill
requireESSassistance.Evenifevacueesdonotrequireassistance,theyshouldbeencouragedtogotoa
ReceptionCentretoregisterandobtaincurrentinformationregardingtheemergency.
FacilitiesthatareoftendesignatedasReceptionCentresandGroupLodgingincluderecreationcentres,
schoolgymnasiums,churchhalls,hotelconferenceormeetingrooms,orshoppingmalls.IfsuitableESS
facilitiesarenotavailable,alternatesitessuchasmunicipalparks,campgrounds,schoolplayingfieldsor
parkinglotsmaybeselectedandtentsortrailersbroughtin.ThelocationofReceptionCentresdepends
onthefacilitiesavailableinthecommunityorthespecificrequirementsforafacilityduringaresponse.
[Module4:EmergencyPlanningprovidesmoreinformationaboutReceptionCentresandGroupLodging
facilities].

3.2 ESSSupportOrganizations
EMBChasagreementswithvariousESSSupportOrganizationstoprovideadditionalresourcesto
communitiesandlocalESSteamsinmajoremergencies.Theseagenciesinclude:

BCHousingmaintainsastockpileofcotsandblanketsthroughouttheprovincetoequipGroup
Lodgingfacilitiesandmanagestransportationoftheseresourcesduringemergencies.BC
Housinghastrainedstaffthatcanassistprovincialregionalemergencyoperationscentrestaffin
providingforthetransportationandaccommodationneedsofemergencyresponseworkers.

BuddhistCompassionReliefTzuChiFoundationCanadahastrainedvolunteerslocated
primarilyinthelowermainlandwhowillassistlocalESSteamswithinkinddonations(e.g.,
clothing,householdarticles,toys,cashcards)Mandarintranslationservices,andassistanceto
individualsinatransitiontorecovery.

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

CanadianRedCrossSocietyprovidesvolunteerstrainedinfamilyreunificationtoassistlocal
volunteersandmayestablishaCentralRegistrationandInquiryBureau(CRIB)torespondto
largenumbersofinquiriesfromoutsidethedisasterarea.TheRedCrossalsoassistsindividuals
andfamilieswiththetransitiontorecovery,andprovidesmobilityaidsfromamedical
equipmentstockpiletoevacuees.

JusticeInstituteofBritishColumbia(JIBC)theEmergencyManagementDivisionofJIBC
developsanddeliversESSbasicandadvancedtraining.JIBCisnotanemergencyresponse
organization.

St.JohnAmbulanceprovidesqualifiedvolunteersandequipmentatfirstaidstations.

TheSalvationArmytrainsESSvolunteerstoprovidemeetandgreetandemotionalsupport
servicesandprovidesadditionalmeetandgreetoremotionalsupportworkerstoanaffected
areauponrequestfromEMBC.TheSalvationArmywillalsodeployregionallybasedCommunity
CrisisResponseVehicles,onshortnotice,toanyBCcommunitywhereemergencyfeeding
servicesarerequired.

EmergencySocialServicesAssociation(ESSA)ESSAisanonprofitassociationestablishedto
supportESSvolunteersandcommunitiesinBCinthedevelopmentandmaintenanceoftheirESS
teams.ESSAisnotanemergencyresponseorganization.

3.3 ESSActivationLevels

TherearethreelevelsofactivationforESS:
ESSLevel1resultsfromasmall,localizedeventsuchasahousefire,affectingoneortwo
householdsandlessthanatotalof12people.Servicesareusuallyprovidedatornearthesite
oftheincidentandmaybedeliveredbymembersoftheESSteamorotheragenciesdesignated
bythelocalauthority.ALevel1ESSresponseisfrequentlyactivatedbylocalfireorpolice
dispatchandgenerallyrequiresonlytwoESSresponderswithoutactivationofaReception
Centre.ThisisthemostcommonlevelofESSresponse.
ESSLevel2iscausedbyasignificanteventaffectingmorethan12people,suchasan
apartmentfire,andoftenresultsincalloutoftheESSteamandtheactivationofaReception
Centre.Dependingonthecomplexityandscopeoftheincident,alocalauthorityEmergency
OperationsCentre(EOC)mayalsobeestablishedtosupportESSactivities.
ESSLevel3isusuallydrivenbyamajoremergency,suchaslargescaleflooding,interfacefires,
orseismiceventsinvolvingasignificantnumberofevacuees.AnEOCisactivatedandmultiple
ESSfacilitiesmaybeestablished.Oftenthedurationofoperationisprolonged.

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.4 MobileSupportTeams
IfacommunitysESScapacityisoverwhelmedbyanemergencyandsupportfromneighbouring
communitiesisinsufficient,theProvincialRegionalEmergencyOperationsCentre(PREOC)canassistby
activatinganESSMobileSupportTeam(MST).MSTsareregionallybasedteamscomprisingtrainedESS
volunteersthatassistlocalcommunitiesby:

travellingonshortnoticetoanycommunityrequestingESSguidanceorassistance

providingonsitetrainingandconsultationtoassistinorganizingESSduringan
evacuation

providingadditionalcapacityorrelieftolocalESSteams

TheESSBranchCoordinatorintheEOC(usuallyESSDirector)isresponsibleforassessingtheoverallESS
response.IftheESSBranchCoordinatordeterminesthereisapossibilitythatlocalESSresourcesare
exhausted,thePREOCmayberequestedtoprovideMSTassistance.
EMBCfundsthemanagement,trainingandexercisingofMSTs,andcoversthecostsofMSTtraveland
accommodationduringanemergencyresponse.

3.5 FederalESSSupport
TheOfficeofEmergencyServices,PublicHealthAgencyofCanada,isresponsibleforsupporting
emergencyhealthandsocialservicesintheprovinces,territoriesorabroad.TheOfficeofEmergency
ServicesmanagestheNationalEmergencyStockpileSystem(NESS),whichincludesemergency
equipment,medicalandpharmaceuticalsupplies.Theseareavailableuponrequestfromprovincialand
territorialgovernmentsandfromotherpartsoftheGovernmentofCanada.

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

4.0 CommunityRecovery
Communityresilienceinvolvestheabilitytorecoverfromtheinfrastructuredamage,economic
impairment,andhumansufferingresultingfromanemergency.Successfulrecoverymanagement
dependsontherapidstartupofacommunityrecoveryorganizationduringtheresponsephase(i.e.,as
soonaspeopleareevacuatedorwhenseriousdamageoccurstohomes,infrastructureorbusinesses).
Acomprehensivecommunityrecoveryplan,aspartoftheoverallemergencyprogram,involvesthree
distincttypesofrecoveryefforts:

IndividualRecoveryisaprocessthatempowersindividualstotakepracticalstepsthatare
withintheirabilitytoaccesstherecoveryresourcesavailabletothem.Thisprocessshouldalso
identifygapsinimpactedresidentsneedsandlinkthemtothecommunityrecoveryplanand
thehelpingagencies.

LocalAuthorityRecoveryincludesthereconstructionofcriticalinfrastructureandthere
establishmentofservices(e.g.,utilityservices,roads,buildings,damsanddikes)andshould
commenceimmediatelyaftertheincident.Alongwiththeneedtorespondtoanemergency,a
localauthorityfacestheallimportantchallengeofrestoringdamagedinfrastructureand
ensuringthecontinuationofpublicservices,alsoknownasbusinesscontinuity.Localauthority
recoveryactivitiesfocusoninfrastructureandshouldbemanagedseparatelyfromcommunity
recovery.

CommunityRecoverycomprisestheabilitytorecoverfromthehumansuffering,physical
damage,injury,andeconomicimpairmentresultingfromadisasterandisacriticalelementof
anyemergencyprogram.Communityrecoveryactionsaimtolimitlosses,reducesuffering,and
restorethepsychosocialandeconomicviabilityofthecommunity.Communityrecoveryincludes
thefollowing:
o

coordinatedinformationforaffectedresidentsandbusinesses

advocacyforthoseimpactedbyadisaster

coordinateddonationsoffunds,goods,andservices

volunteerefforttoassistwithcleanupandreconstruction

facilitatedhealing

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Asthediagramshows,effectivecommunityrecoveryshouldbeginsimultaneouslywithresponseand
localauthorityrecoveryefforts.Responseisahighintensity,shortdurationeffort,whilecommunity
recoveryislowerintensity,longerdurationeffortconsumingsimilarlevelsofresources.

4.1 BenefitsofaCommunityRecoveryPlan
Thebenefitstolocalauthoritiesofacommunityrecoveryplanare:

Reducedhumansufferingawellcoordinatedrecoveryefforthelpsresidentsreturntonormal
asquicklyaspossible.

Protectionofcommunityculturerecoveryprovidesanopportunityforcommunityresidents
tocometogethertosupportthosecitizensmostheavilyimpacted.Thecharacterofa
communitycanbeinfluencedbyhowwellorhowpoorlyitsleadersmanagetherecovery
process.Failureinanyaspectofrecoverycanmeanthelossofjobs,taxpayers,andkey
communityfeaturesthatmayhavetakendecadestodevelop.Successinrecoverycanmean
heightenedawarenessofcommunityidentityandapositivefuture.

|SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Reducedeconomiclossessuccessfulandrapidrecoverynotonlyminimizesthefinancialcost
ofanemergencybutcanalsoprovideneweconomicopportunitiesforlocalbusinessesina
communitywithastrengthenedsenseofpurposeandidentity.

Enhancedcommunitysustainabilityrecoverysupportstheconceptofsustainableandresilient
communities,wherebyeveryperson,business,andorganizationisbetterabletowithstand
futureemergencieswithoverallenhancedcommunityhealth.

4.2 CommunityRecoveryConcepts
Therearecommonelementsineveryrecoveryeffort.Thissectionidentifiesthepurposesofa
communityrecoveryplanandhighlightssomeoftheconceptsinthecommunityrecoveryprocess
Awrittenrecoveryplanservesseveralpurposes.Theplan:
Communicatescorepoliciesandprocedurestomunicipal/regionaldistrictstaff
Informsandinfluencesrecoveryplanningwithcooperatingorganizations
Guidesrecoveryactionsfollowinganemergency
Providesaframeworkfortrainingrecoverypersonnelintheirfunctionswithintherecovery

organization
Containsmechanismstocapturelessonslearnedinawaythatadvancesrecoverycapacity

EmergencieswithinBritishColumbiaandelsewherehighlightthreecriticallyimportantconceptsfor
successfulcommunityrecovery:leadership,organizationandcollaboration.
Leadershipisessentialingatheringthemanyorganizationsandindividualsdevotedtoassistingthose
impactedbytheemergencyunderonesetofobjectives,withabeliefthatthoughtfulmanagement
accomplishesmorethanindividualaction.
Toensurethisoccurs,thelocalauthorityshoulddelegateonepersonastheRecoveryDirectorto
providetheleadershipneededtocoordinatesupportfromalllevelsofgovernment,variousservice
agencies,businessesandthegeneralpublic.Duringrecovery,theRecoveryDirectorwillmaintain
directionandcontroloftherecoveryoperationsandbeaccountabletothelocalauthority.
Organizationrepresentstheneedforstructure,order,controlandaccountabilityamongtheindividuals
andagenciescontributingtotherecoveryeffort.Preevent,theRecoveryDirectorshouldforma
dedicatedorganizationaRecoveryWorkingGroupcomposedofrepresentativesfromcontributing
agenciesandindividualsthatworktogethertomeettheneedsofresidents,institutions,businessesand
othercommunityelements.Settingoutprinciplesthatfosterorganizationcanbeadifficultchallenge
duringtheemotionladendaysfollowingadisastersoitiscriticaltodeveloptheRecoveryWorking
Grouppriortoanemergencyevent.

10 |SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Collaborationmeansworkingtogethertoachievespecificgoalsformutualbenefit.Incommunity
recovery,contributingorganizationscollaboratewhentheyshareinformation,resources,tasksand
decisionmakingwiththecommongoalofassistingthoseaffectedreachtheirnewnormal.
Collaborationalsoimpliesrespectforthemissionanddiversityofthedifferentorganizationsinvolved.
Collaboration:
improvesservicestothoseaffected
reducesfragmentation
duplicationofeffort
enhancesproblemsolving
reducingcostsforall

Acommunitymaywanttoengagelocalserviceclubs,agenciesormembersoftheIntegratedDisaster
CouncilofBC(IDCBC)whichcoordinatestheeffortsofthemanygovernmentandnongovernment
agenciesengagedindisasterhumanconsequencemanagementandmanyIDCBCmembersarealready
engagedincommunityrecoveryplanningandoperations.
Withoutleadership,organizationandcollaboration,governments,nongovernmentorganizationsand
volunteerswillreactspontaneouslywithoutcoordinationordirection.Suchadhocactionscan(and
oftendo)makebadsituationsworse,resultinemotionaldistressforthoseimpacted,leadtofrustration
forserviceorganizations,increaseunnecessaryeconomiclossesandextendrecoverytimeandeffort.

4.3IntegratedRecoveryAdvisoryDeployment(iRAD)Team
Asmanylocalauthoritiesarejuststartingtoconductpreeventcommunityrecoveryplanning,
IntegratedRecoveryAdvisoryDeployment(iRAD)Teamshavebeendevelopedtoassistwithcommunity
recoveryactivation.TheiRADTeamisasupportivegroupofsubjectmatterexpertsdeployedtoassist
localauthoritiesandoffershorttermsupport,byprovidingguidanceandconsultationonthe
developmentoftheappropriaterecoveryorganizationthatfitstheneedsandcapacityofthearea.The
iRADteamwillaugmentexistingcommunityplanningbyfillingingapsandofferingguidance.iRADTeam
subjectmatterexpertsmayincludebutisnotlimitedto:

DisasterFinancialAssistancerepresentative
RapidDamageAssessmentexperts
Communications/mediainformationofficer
IntegratedDisasterCouncilofBCmembers
ProvincialRegionalEmergencyOperationsCentre(PREOC)representative

11 |SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

4.4KeyComponentsofCommunityRecovery
RecoveryOperationsCentre/ActivatedRecoveryCellwithinEOCDesignatedRecoveryDirectorwith
decisionmakingpowersandreportingdirectlytopolicygroup.Thefollowingorganizationchartoutlines
theconceptualmodelofaRecoveryOperationsCentreandshowshowitalignswiththeEmergency
OperationsCentre.

DamageAssessmentDamageAssessmentofhomesandinfrastructureiscriticalforsituational
awarenessandinitialindicationofpotentialhumanconsequenceandcommunityrecoveryscopeand
scale.Ifrequested,BCHousingmaybeavailabletoassistthelocalauthoritywithtraininganddamage
assessments.
CommunityMeetingsCommunitymeetingsallowforthetransitionfromresponsetorecoveryand
becomethefocalpointforcommunityaction.Communitymeetingsmustcontinueintotherecovery
phaseofanemergencytoensureimpactedresidentsareawareofcommunityrecoveryactivitiesand
supports.Acommunications/informationofficercanbedeployedwiththeiRADTeamtoassistwiththe
initialmeeting.

12 |SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ResilienceCentreThepurposeoftheResilienceCentreistoassistimpactedindividualsthroughthe
recoveryprocess.TheResilienceCentreprovidesthespacefor,andcoordinationof,thevarious
agenciesandgroupsofferingguidance,adviceandassistance.Theprocesscanbebrokendownintofour
steps.Dependingontheneedsofthecommunity;someofthesestepsmaybeexpandedtoassistthose
withmorecomplexrecoveryrequirements.
1.

CompleteCapacityNeedsAssessmentwiththoseimpacted.
TheCapacityNeedsAssessmentformensurestheResilienceCentrehasafullunderstandingofthe
mosturgentneeds.

2.

AssistindividualstocompletetheirPersonalRecoveryPlan.
Thisformwouldberetainedbytheimpactedindividualsandisdesignedtohelpthemfocuson
practicalnextstepsintherecoveryprocess.

3.

Ensurethosewithurgentneedsareconnectedwiththeagencyorgroupofferingassistanceinthe
particulararearequired
Example:Thiscouldbeanythingfromprovidingcontactwithpublichealthauthoritiesregarding
watertesting,assistancewithcleanupofproperty,faithbasedcounsellingoranyotherassistance
neededtoadvancethemtothenextstepintheirrecoveryprocess.

4.

Supportprogressthroughouttherecoveryprocess.
ThissupportcanbedonebyNonGovernmentOrganizations(NGO)andfaithbasedvolunteer
organizationsandshouldbedoneinacoordinatedmannerwiththeinformationbeingbrought
backandsharedwithinthecollaborativeenvironmentofthelocalauthoritysresiliencecentre.

Whilealltheneedsofthoseimpactedmaynotbemet,providingaonestopshopensuresthat
stakeholdershavetheopportunitytoassistcommunitymembers.Thistypeofassistanceempowersa
communityandhelpsbuildresilience.

13 |SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

MatchingCommitteeTheMatchingCommitteehelpsthoseimpactedmeettheirongoingbasicneeds
andregainpredisasterselfsufficiency.TheMatchingGroupassistsinrecoveryfromtheimpactsofan
emergencybyevaluatingneeds,identifyingresourcesformeetingpriorityneeds,andrecommending
theallocationoflimitedresources.
DonationsManagementDonationsmanagementincludestwoareas:goodsandfundsmanagement.
Goodsmanagementincludesthesolicitationandcontrolofrequiredandunwantedgoods,
receivingandwarehousing,sorting,labelling,qualitycontrol,servicingofgoods,and
distribution.TheGoodsGroupdevelopsandmanagesfacilitiesforreceivinggoodsthatare
donatedorpurchasedinbulk.

14 |SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Donationsmanagementmayleadacommunitytoestablishaseparateaccountthrougha
communityserviceorganizationforthepurposesofcollectingandmanagingdonationsarising
fromanemergency.Thisensuresdonationsthatarecollectedlocallyareappliedlocally.The
MatchingCommitteewillhelpidentifythoseimpactedwhocouldbenefitfromfinancial
donations.
Conclusion:
CommunityRecoveryOrganizationsassistwiththeprovisionofsupportandspecializedresources,
however,thoseimpactedarebestpositionedtodecidehowtheirrecoverywillproceed.Community
recoveryrecognizesthatbothimpactedindividualsandcommunitieshavearangeofrecoveryneeds.As
withpersonalemergencypreparedness,thisisasharedresponsibilitybetweentheindividualandthe
supportofferedbytheCommunityRecoveryOrganization.

5.0 PsychosocialSupport
Inanemergency,thereisanextremeurgencyforactionlivesmaybeindangerandlifesafetyneeds
arecritical.Intheaftermathofanincident,theusualinterventionframeworksmaybeoverloadedand
individualsortheentirecommunitymaybegintoexperienceacutestressonapsychosociallevel.
Therewillalwaysbeapsychologicalimpacttothoseaffectedbyanemergency,regardlessofwhetherit
isalargescaleeventorlimitedtooneortwoindividuals.Thepsychosocialcomponentofanemergency
canhavelonglastingandoftendetrimentalimplicationsifconsiderationisnotgivenintheplanning
stagetomitigationstrategiescapableofaddressingthegreatercommunityneeds.Theresourcesto
implementthesestrategiesareoftenreadilyavailablethroughlocalpractitionersorHealthAuthorities
andshouldformapartofanycomprehensiveemergencyplan.
Theprimaryobjectiveofapsychosocialresponseistoprovideanimmediate,shorttermservicethatwill
helpdisasterortraumasurvivorstorestoreandincreasesafety,confidence,competence,andtrust.
Secondaryobjectivesofapsychosocialresponseincludehelpingindividualssotheycanhelpthemselves,
andenhancingindividualandcollectiveresilience,communityrecovery,andadaptationthrough
responsibilityandaction.
Aneffectivepsychosocialresponseshouldconsiderthefollowingcomponents:

psychologicalfirstaid(e.g.,assessment,onetoonesupport,crisiscounselling,
crisislineresponse)

psychoeducationalinterventions

grouppresentations

development/distributionofmaterials

assessmentofcommunityneeds

15 |SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

spiritualcare

workercare

5.1 PrinciplesofDisasterPsychosocialResponse
Theprinciplesofdisasterpsychosocialresponsearesummarizedasfollows:

Noonewhoseesadisasterisuntouchedbyit.Oneofthecentralprinciplesofdisaster
psychosocialresponseistheassertionthatnoonewhoseesadisasterisuntouchedbyit.
Disasterstress,trauma,andlossareexperiencedatalllevelsandstressandgriefreactionsare
normalresponsestocrisisandloss.Disastersurvivorsareusuallyamongthefirsttorespondin
thewakeofadisaster,oftencontributingtoearlysearchandrescue.Theycontinuetobeactive
participantsandpartnersinlaterphasesofthedisasterresponse.

Thoseaffectedbyadisastershouldbeseenasactivepartners.Peopleaffectedbydisasters
shouldbeseenasactivepartners,notpassivevictimsorserviceconsumers.Aconsultation
modelshouldbeadoptedinwhichaffectedpeopleandcommunitiesareseenastheexpertsin
definingneedsandprovidinginsightintospecificculturalnormsandcontexts.Developmentof
newsocialsupportsystemsandmaintenanceofexistingonesarecrucialtotherecoveryofthe
individualsaswellasthecommunity.Supportofdisasterreliefworkers,includingthose
providingpsychosocialsupport,isalsocrucialtoaneffective,longtermresponse.

Psychologicalfirstaidisnottherapy.Forpsychosocialresponders,psychologicalfirstaidisthe
provisionofimmediatepracticalsupportandempathytothosewhoaremostdistressed.The
goalofpsychologicalfirstaidistoreducephysiologicalarousalandtofacilitateresilience
througheducationaboutcopingstrategiesandavailableresources.
APsychosocialResponderreviewstherangeofreactionsthesurvivorhasexperienced
emotional,physical,andcognitivebothatthetimeoftheeventandafterwards.The
PsychosocialResponderprovideseducationabouttraumaandstressaswellasinformation
abouttreatmentresources.Heorshereviewsthesurvivor'srangeofsupportsystems,including
bothformalandinformalsupports,andassesstheneedforsustainedintervention.Thegoalis
toassistpeopleintakingpracticalstepstowardsresumingordinarylife.Psychologicalfirstaid
shouldfosteraccurateexpectationsandplanningaboutreturningtoand/orreestablishing
normalroutines.Thefocusisconcreteandpractical,aimedatmeetingimmediateneeds.

Comprehensiveandsystematicassessmentsshouldbeconductedthroughoutthedisaster.In
ordertobestrespondtotheneedsofthoseaffected,itisessentialtoworkwithaffected
communitiesandindividualstoassessbothexistingresources,andshorttermandlongterm
needs.Thisrequirescomprehensiveandsystematicassessmentthroughouttheinventory,
recovery,andreconstructionphases.Needsandresourceswilloftenchangeovertime.

16 |SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Effectivepsychosocialsupportisculturallyandcontextuallyresponsive.Interventionsmust
alwaysbeadaptedtotheparticularneedsandculturesofthecommunitiesbeingservedandto
theparticulardisaster.Inordertobeeffective,psychosocialrespondersmustbewillingtowork
innontraditionalways,includingusingactiveoutreach,workingonmultidisciplinaryteams,
workingoutsidethetraditionalofficesetting,andavoidingmentalhealthlabels.

17 |SupportingPeopleinEmergencies

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Human
Resource
Management

1.0 Introduction
Oneofthemostcriticalfactorsindealingwithemergenciesistheskillofthosewhoholdleadership
roles.Emergencymanagersmustbeabletouseleadershiptoeffectivelyleadthecommunityinplanning
for,preventing,andrespondingtoanemergency.Itis,therefore,importanttoensurethattheright
peopleareinleadershiproleswhenanemergencystrikes.Thismoduleidentifiessomeofthekey
aspectsofleadershipthatenableemergenciestobedealtwitheffectively.
Aslocalgovernmentsplanforemergencies,animportantcomponentofthecomprehensiveemergency
managementplanishumanresourcemanagement.Thismoduledescribessomeofthehumanresource
managementresponsabilities,suchasworkercare,staffing,volunteermanagement,occupational
healthandsafetyandcopingstrategiesthatmayarisewhenworkersrespondtoanemergency.
Emergencymanagersprovideleadershipanddirectionforpromotinghealthintheemergency
workplace.

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.0 Leadership
Strongleadershipandacommittedteamareessentialinaneffectiveemergencymanagement
organization,andlackofitcanresultinlossofpublictrust,lossofproperty,andlossoflife.
Aleaderisonewhoprovidesavision,setsdirectionandmotivatespeopletofollowthatdirection.
Relationshipshavetobeinplacebeforetheemergencyandneedtobedevelopedovertime.Mitigation
andpreparednessactivitiessuchasjointtrainingandexercisingcanbeeffectiverelationshipbuilders.
Thekeyaspectsofaneffectiveleaderindealingwithanemergencysituationinclude:theabilitytobuild
trust,communicateeffectively,buildastrongteam,facilitatechange,andapplypersonalinfluence.The
emergencymanagermustgeteveryonetothinknotonlyabouthisorherspecialty,buthowtointegrate
theirworkwiththeoverallgoalsoftheincident.Agencyrepresentativesandtechnicalexpertstendto
beleaderswithintheirownorganizationandbringmuchstrengthtothetable.Tomaximizethevalueof
allcontributors,leadersneedtonotonlycreateanenvironmentwhereinformationissharedfreelyand
taketimetounderstandthecontextofothers,butalsoactivelyseekouthiddeninformation,avoid
assumptionsandlookforfatalflawsinstrategies.

2.1 BuildingTrust

Trustistheverycoreofleadershipandmustbeearned.Aleadermusthavemutualtrusttofacilitate
change,butitisverydifficulttobuildtrustinachangingenvironment.Oneofthemostcriticalaspects
ofaleadersjobistobuildanenvironmentoftrust.
Whenwetrustsomeone,wehavearelationshipbasedonmutualconfidencethatwebothwill:

dowhatwesay

communicatehonestly

respectoneanothersknowledge,skills,andabilities

maintainconfidentiality

Trustmustbereciprocalandisgeneratedthroughactions.Aleadercanbuildpeoplestrustthrough:

predictableandconsistentbehavior

clearcommunication

beingreliable(e.g.,keeppromises)

beingforthright

Aleaderinemergencymanagementmustbuildtrustatmultiplelevels:

withtheteam

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

withotheragenciesinvolvedinresponseefforts

withmunicipal,regionalandprovincialgovernmentpersonnel

withmembersofthemediaandgeneralpublic

2.2

Communication

Effectiveleaderspossessstrongcommunicationskillsbasedon:

Respectmakingpeoplefeelthattheyandtheiropinionsarevaluedandimportant

Honestybeinggenuine,notplayinggamesorbeingpretentious

Empathytryingtoseethingsfromtheotherpersonspointofview

Peoplecommunicateinanumberofdifferentways:throughbodylanguage,howwespeak,howwe
write,andhowwelisten.

BodyLanguagecancommunicatevolumesabouthowwefeel,sometimesmoreor
differentlythanweintend.Communicationthroughbodylanguageincludes:
o

Facialexpressionsourfacescanunintentionallyrevealouremotionsorreactions,
suchasskepticism,fear,angerorboredom

Gesturesbeawareofthemessagesyousendwithyourgestures.Gesturescanbe
perceivedasdismissive(wavingorshrugginganideaoff),accusatory(pointinga
finger),confrontational(puttinghandsonhips),etc

Eyecontactmakingeyecontactletstheotherpersonknowyouarepaying
attention,thattheconversationisimportanttoyou

Posturearelaxedopenpostureindicatesthatyouarelistening,andifnot
agreeing,atleastwillingtohearwhatisbeingsaid

Verbalexpressionthewordswechoosetousecanhaveabigimpactonhowourmessage
isreceived.Effectivecommunicationisclearandeasytounderstand:
o

expressyourselfassimplyaspossible

avoidjargon

breaklongthoughtsintoseveralsentencesandpausebetweenthemtogiveyour
listenertimetoprocesswhatyouaresaying

Effectivemessagesareexpressedinawaythatdoesnotunnecessarilyprovokeanegative
reactionfromthelistener.Effectiveleaderscarefullychoosetheirwordsandhowtheysay

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

them,considertheemotionalimpacttheymayhaveonthelistener,andhowthatmightaffect
theintentoftheirmessage.
Toneofvoicecanbejustasimportantingettingthemessageacrossasthewordsthatare
choosen.Instressfulsituations,toneofvoicecanbecomeabrupt,demanding,and/or
emotional.

2.3 TeamBuilding

Effectiveleaderscreateateamenvironmentinwhichmembersoftheteamrelyoneachotherto
achievecommongoals.Aspeoplecombinetheirenergies,thecooperativeactionoftheteamcreatesa
greaterresultthantheindividualscouldaccomplishworkingseparately.Aleaderpromotesateam
environmentby:

establishinganenvironmentoftrust

settingupsystemsandstructurestosupportteamwork

encouragingteamcommunication

establishingteamgoalsandteamrewards(i.e.,rewardteameffort)

celebratinggroupachievements,eventhosewhichareminor

fosteringtheevolutionofnaturalleadershipabilitiesingroupmembers

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

The11CommandmentsForAnEnthusiasticTeamprovidesusefultipsforcreatingastrongteam:

2.4 FacilitateChange
Beingabletorespondquicklyandeffectivelytochangeiscrucialforemergencyresponse.Tofacilitate
changeinanorganizationsuccessfully,anemergencymanagermustbeabletocommunicateeffectively
theFourPs:

Purpose:thewhy

Picture:thevision

Plan:theprocess

Part:eachpersonsroleintheproces,andhowchangewillaffecteachperson

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.5 Influence
Inadditiontobuildingtrustandfacilitatingchange,aneffectiveleadermustbeabletoexertpersonal
influencetoachievegoals.Anemergencymanagermustbeabletoexerciseinfluenceinmultiple
directions:

upward(withthoseofhigherrank)

laterally(withpeersinthesameorganizationortheresponsesystem)

downward(withsubordinates)

outward(withpeopleoutsidetheorganization,includingthemedia,thepublic,the
businesscommunity,andothers)

Alloftheleaderhipstrategiesjustreviewedbuildingtrust,communicatingeffectively,buildingastrong
team,facilitatingchangeandpersonalinfluencecontributetoaleadershipenvironment.Inaddition,a
leadercanencourageleadershipdevelopmentinothersthroughsuchactivitiesas:

buildingasharedvision

empoweringothers

coaching

delegating

mentoring

3.0 Wellness/WorkerCare
Theenvironmentsinwhichemergencyrespondersworkaredemandingandassuchcanbea
challengingmixofpositiveandnegativeexperiences.Mostemergencyrespondersbringhighstandards,
energy,empathy,andastrongcommitmenttohelpingothers.Thesequalitiescontributetoa
respondersabilitytobeeffectiveduringaresponse,butcanalsomakethemvulnerabletostress
reactionsandburnout.
Pastexperiencehasshownthatneglectingworkercarecanbeamajorcauseofstress.Considerationfor
workercareneedstobebuiltintotheorganizationalstructurefromthestart.Leadingbyexampleand
consistencyincommunicatingtheimportanceofworkercareisessential,asistheculturebuiltbythe
entireteam.
Leadersshouldprovidetrainingtotheirrespondersinthepsychosocialimpactsofemergenciesto
enableindividualstoincreasetheircapacitytocopewithstress.Copingstrategiescanbediscussedand

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

specificplansmadeforhowtoincorporateworkercareintotheemergencyplan.Theresponsibilityfor
workercareisafunctionoftheDeputyDirectorunlessdelegatedtoSafetyorRiskManagement.
Itisalsoimportantnottolosesightofworkercareforthegroupwithoverallresponsibilityforthe
emergencyresponse(i.e.,EOCDirector,PolicyGroup,andIncidentCommander).Provisionsshouldbe
madeforpeersupportforemergencyleaders,suchaspeersfromanotherjurisdictionorconsultants,to
supportthemanagementteamduringtheresponseandrecovery.

3.1 PersonalNeeds

Whenworkersrespondtoanemergency,theyareoftenrequiredtoputtheirnormallivesonhold.Not
onlywillrespondersnotbeabletofulfildutiesattheirreqularplaceofwork,theymayhavetoleave
behindfamilyobligations.InadditiontoworkinginachallengingEOCenvironment,theirownfamilies
andhomesmaybedirectlyatriskfromtheemergency.Whenrespondersareconfidentthattheirfamily
membersarebeingwellcaredfor,theyarebetterabletofocustheirattentiononresponseduties.
Respondersareoftencalledoutwithlittlenotice.Althoughdesignatedresponsepersonnelgenerally
haveaplanfordeployment,therewillbeoccasionswhentheymayneedsupporttomeettheir
responsibilities.IssuesthatshouldbeaddressedpriortotheassignmentofEOCdutiesinclude:

compensationandliabilitycoverage

workschedulesandbreaks

transportationto/fromEOC

childcare

eldercare,careforotherdependentadults

petcare

abilitytorespondtohomeemergencies

Duringandpostdisaster,oneofthemostcommonlycitedproblemsamongrespondersislackof
information.Respondersmaybeworkinglonghours,sometimesunderpotentiallydangerous
circumstances,andfeeldisconnectedfromknowledgeaboutthehealthandsafetyoftheirfamilies,how
theirroleiscontributingtothesuccessoftheoverallresponse,andkeydecisionsbeingmadeatthe
EOC.Informationisoneofthemostimportantwaysofdemonstratingsupportforrespondersand
reducingtheirstresslevels.Leadersshouldtakeasmuchcareincommunicatingtointernalstaffasthey
dotoexternalstakeholdersandthecommunityatlarge.

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.2 StaffOrientation

AcomprehensiveorientationtotheEOCmakestheresponderfeelwelcomeandsupported.The
orientationisintendedtoprovidetheresponderwithinitialinformationregardingthesituation,
establishreportingrelationshipsandensurepersonalneedshavebeenaddressed.
Stafforientationisaccomplishedin3stages:

1.

Orientationtothefacilitythisincludesacheckin/outprocedureandsafetyprocedures.
FacilityorientationsareusuallyconductedbyPersonnelUnit,Logistics.

2.

Orientationtotheeventthisincludesconductingabriefingorsituationalawareness.Briefings
areusuallyconductedbyOperations.

3.

Orientationtoassignedfunctionthisincludesanorientationtotheworksite,introductionsto
coworkers,reviewofthereportingstructure.Functionalorientationsareusuallyconductedby
thedirectsupervisor.

3.3 WellnessStrategies

Duringmanyactivations,theEOCbecomesmorethanjustaplaceofworkandtheenvironmentcan
becomeallconsumingandveryintense.Inordertomaintainhealthyphysicalandmentalbalance,
respondersmusthaveoutletsforthereleaseofstressandfatigue.Incorporatingphysicalandmental
wellnessintodailyactivitiesmaximizesoperationaleffectiveness.

Eatwellintimesofdisaster,adequatenutritionisessentialtosustainenergyunder
stressfulconditionsandlonghours.Awellconsideredmenuandqualityfoodraisesthe
moraleofresponseworkers.Eveninthefirstoperationalperiod,thoughtmustbegivento
providinghealthymeals.

Mealbreaksmealbreaksofbetween30minutesto1hourshouldbetakenawayfromthe
workstationonceevery5hourstoensurefatigueisminimized.Supervisorsshould
encourageworkerstogetsomefreshairandexerciseduringbreaks,wheneverpossible.

Ergonomicsworkersmaybesittingatunfamiliarworkstationsthatarenotoptimizedfor
ergonomiccomfort.Bytakingafewminutesduringtheorientationtorapidlyassessneeds
andmakeminormodifications,theriskofinjurycanbedecreased.

QuietSpacewheneverpossible,provideanareawithintheEOCdesignatedasaquiet
spacewherenoworkisundertaken.Thisgivesaplaceforshortrestperiodsandquiet
reflection.

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Exercisestronglyencourageachangeinactivityratherthanjustpassiverestduring
breaks.AquickwalkaroundtheEOCbuildingorafewminutesinanearbyparkcanbean
excellentwaytorechargeenergiesandputactivitiesintoperspective.Ifpossible,provide
accesstofitnessfacilities.

EOCServicesdependingonthetypeofincident,thecommunity,andcompositionofthe
EOCteam,otherservicesmaybeavailableanddesirabletoresponseworkersintheEOC
including:
o

spiritualcare

childandyouthcaresupport

consultation

ergonomicconsultation

CriticalIncidentStressManagement

psychologicalandemotionalsupport

healthassessment(e.g.,bloodpressure,etc.)

massageandrelatedservices

nutritionalconsultation

3.4 SelfCareStrategies

TheworkingenvironmentandcultureintheEOCshouldbepositiveandallowselfcaretooccur.Some
strategiesformaintainingahealthyphysicalandmentalbalanceare:

eatwell

taketimetorestandrelax

talkaboutthoughtsandfeelingswithfamily,friends,coworkers,spiritualadvisors,or
healthprofessionals

getphysicalexercise,readordoothercreativeactivities

balancepriorities

maintainasnormalaroutineaspossible

getenoughtodrink,butlimitconsumptionofalcoholordrugs

getenoughsleep

Preventingcumulativestressandburnoutarediscussedfurtherinthemodule.

|HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

4.0 StaffingPlans
TheEOCstaffingplanmustsupportvariousEOCactivationlevelsfromsustained24/7operationstoa
level1supportcrewdependingontherequirementsoftheresponse.TheEOCDirectorwilldetermine
appropriatestaffingforeachactivationlevelbaseduponanassessmentofthecurrentandprojected
situation.Staffingplansshouldincludeatleasttwocompleteshiftsofpersonnelforaninitialperiod
afterwhichreducedstaffingcapacitycanbeconsideredonasectionbysectionbasis.
CorestaffingfortheEOCshouldbedrawnfromstaffalreadyworkingforthejurisdiction.Thiscan
includeemployees,contractorsandvolunteers.Regularstaffcanbeactivatedrapidly.Spending
authorityanddecisionmakingabilitycanbeassignedpriortotheemergencyevent.Regularstaffare
alsofamiliarwithjurisdictionspecificbusinessprocessesandfacilities.
WhileinternalstaffwillformthekeyEOCteam,itisdesirabletohaveparticipationfromexternal
personnel.Theseindividualscancomefromrespondingagenciesoradjacentjurisdictions.Externalstaff
bringskillsandknowledgetotheEOCthatmaynotbeavailableinternally.Earlyintegrationofstafffrom
neighbouringjurisdictionsisespeciallyimportantiftheemergencyeventislikelytoescalate.External
staffshouldbepreidentifiedintheplanningphaseandbeincludedinEOCtrainingactivities.
Contractorscanprovidespecificskillsnotavailablewithintherespondingagenciesandshouldhave
previousemergencymanagementtrainingandexperience.
TheskillsetoftheindividualismoreimportantthantheirregularjobtitleinassigningtheirEOC
function.StaffshouldbefreedfromregulardutieswhileactivatedintheEOC.Provisionsmayneedtobe
madeforbackfillingtheirregularduties.Employmentagreementsneedtobeinplaceatthestartofany
EOCactivation.SpecificworkconditionsforthedurationoftheEOCactivation(suchashoursofwork,
overtimeclaims,travelexpenses,etc.)needtobeclearlydefined.

4.1 Scheduling

Schedulingstaffrequiresachievingabalancebetweenoperationalneedsandtheneedsofresponders.
Carefulattentionmustbepaidtohoursofwork,durationofdeployment,andrestperiodsinorderto
maintainworkercareandtheirabilitytoeffectivelyperform.Forexample,respondersmustbeableto
getsufficientresttominimizefatigue,facilitatesounddecisionmaking,preventinjuriesandaccidents,
andreduceriskofliability.
Policiesregardingschedulingmustbeconsistentlyenforced.Theonlyexceptionsshouldbeiflifeand
propertyisimminentlythreatenedand/ornofurtherresourcesareavailable.InthesesituationstheEOC
Directormayapproveavariationtotheschedulingpolicy.

10 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Cumulativefatigueoccursduringperiodsofprolongedmentalandphysicalexertion.Itiscriticalforall
supervisorstocloselymonitorstaffforsignsoffatigue,impairmentand/orcompromisedperformance.
Coworkersshouldalsobuddyupandwatchforsignsoffatigue.Shiftlengthisakeyfactorin
cumulativefatigue.Thefollowingtablemaybeadoptedfordeterminingstaffingschedulesforworkers:
Days14

Maximumshiftlength14hours(includestraveltosite)

Days514

Maximumshiftlength12hours(includestravelhome)

Wheneverpossible,thelengthofassignmentshouldbelimitedto710days.Thisisconsideredtobe
optimumasitprovidesforconsistencyandsustainabilityofoperationswhilesupportinggoodworker
carepractices.Thesuggestedmaximumshouldbe14consecutivedays.
Incalculatingthelengthofassignment,timealreadyworkedintheregularjobsincethelastrestdays,
travelto,andtravelfromshouldbeconsidered.Aminimumoftworestdaysshouldbeprovided
betweenblocksofshifts.Aminimumof8resthours,moreifsignificanttravelhomeisinvolved,
betweenshiftsshouldbegiven.Workersshouldnotbeexpectedtotakecallsorbeonstandbywhenon
scheduledtimeofffromtheEOC.

4.2 VolunteerManagement

Volunteersneedtoknowthattheircontributionisimportant.Theyaremotivatedwhentheygainin
somewayanewskill,newrelationships,afeelingthatwhattheydidmadeadifference.Inrecruiting
andengagingvolunteers,leadersandsupervisorsshould:

Understandandmeetvolunteersneeds
Matchvolunteersskillsandinterest
o offerataskorrolethatmatchesinterestsandreasonsforvolunteering
o engagevolunteersinallfourphasesofemergencymanagement
Setpeopleupforsuccess
o assignspecific,manageabletaskswithabeginningandanend
o ensureinstructionsareclear,bothverballyandinwriting
o provideareasonabledeadlineforcompletingthetask
o allowfreedomtocompleteataskwhenconvenientforthevolunteer,ifpossible
o allowforthecompletionoftaskswithoutinterruption
o provideadequatetraining
o followuptoensurethetaskisadequatelycompleted
Viewvolunteersasclientsandprovideopportunitiestodevelopskills,suchas:
o communicationsskills
o oralpresentationskills

11 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

o teambuildingskills
o projectmanagementskills
o leadershipskills
Designateavolunteerliaison/resourceprofessional
o provideofficeormeetingspace
o provideadministrativesupport
o makeofficesuppliesavailable
Maintainapositiveorganizationalclimate
o asafe,comfortable,andfriendlyworkingenvironment
o anopportunitytoprovidefeedbackwhenthetaskisfinished
o appreciation,recognitionandrewardsthatmatchthereasonsforvolunteering
Welcomediversity
o varyingageranges
o faithbasedorganizations
o students
o specialneedspopulation
Beflexible
o accommodatechangingavailability
Dontburnpeopleout
o avoidlengthydeployments
o planforsupportandmutualaid
Recognizecontributions
o meaningfulappreciationevents
o tokensofappreciation
o lettersofappreciationtoregularemployer
o commendation/awardsforteam
o longservicepins
o teamwear/identification
o opportunitytotraveltorepresentjurisdictioninotherareas
o debriefingsessions

Themotivationforvolunteerstojoinanorganizationcanbeverydifferentfromthemotivationtostay.
Thismeansbuildingarelationshipsothatwhenthemotivationschange,youcanbeproactiverather
thanreactive.
Themoreinvolvedavolunteeralreadyis,themorelikelytheyaretostayinvolved.Encourage
volunteerstogetmoreinvolvedwithyourorganizationbyfindingopportunitiesforthemtodevelop
theirinterestsandtofeelempowered.Inemergencymanagement,partneringwithagenciesthatoffer
provincial,national,orinternationaldeploymentscanbevaluable.Offervolunteersmorechallenging
opportunitiesormultipleactivitiesthatprovideavarietyofvolunteerassignments(perhapsmixing

12 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

popularandlesspopularassignments).Partnerwithorganizationsalreadyactiveinyourcommunity
(e.g.serviceclubs,faithbasedorganizations,seniorcentres,etc.)becausetheyoftenmaintainastable
volunteerbase.
WhenmixingvolunteerswithregularstaffintheEOCbeawareof,andproactivelyresolve,concerns
thatcanariseoverissuesofpay.Ensurethatvolunteersregularemployersarenotonlysupportiveof
theirvolunteeractivities,butarealsorecognizedforallowingtheiremployeestovolunteer.Consultwith
volunteersbeforetocommittingthemtoalengthydeployment.Ifavolunteerisrequiredtofulfillan
essentialEOCfunctionoutsidethescopeoftheirnormalvolunteerduties,considerationshouldbegiven
toconvertingthemtotemporaryemployees.

4.3 Legalprotectionandsupportforvolunteers

EMBCsupportsvolunteersregisteredwiththeirlocalemergencyprogrambyprovidingthefollowing:

WorkSafeBCWorkerCompensationcoverage(whenengagedinanEMBCrecognisedactivity)
Thirdpartyliabilityinsurance(whenengagedinanEMBCrecognisedactivity)
Training
Expensereimbursement(whenengagedinanEMBCrecognisedandeligibleactivity)

5.0 OccupationalHealthandSafety
Eveninanemergency,itistheresponsibilityoftheagencyhavingjurisdictiontoensurethatallwork
sitesmaintainaneffectivehealthandsafetysystemandcomplywiththeWorkersCompensationAct
OccupationalHealthandSafetyRegulation.Nomatterwhatthesituation,allworkmustbecarriedout
withoutundueriskofinjuryoroccupationalhazardtoanyperson.
HealthandsafetyisasharedresponsibilityandistiedtothefirstgoalofBCERMStoprovideforthe
safetyandhealthofallresponders.AttheEOCandincidentsite,managersandsupervisorsmust
ensurethatrelevantregulationsandsafeworkproceduresarefollowedbytheirstaff,effectivetraining
isprovidedtotheirstaff,safeworkproceduresareimplementedandfollowed,andsafeandhealthy
workconditionsaremaintained.
ItistheresponsibilityoftheEOCPolicyGroupandManagementstafftotakeallreasonablecareto
preventworkrelatedaccidentsanddiseasethroughtherecognition,evaluation,control,andwherever
practical,theremovalofhazards.TheOccupationalHealthandSafetyRegulationmustbeavailableat
eachworkplaceforreference.Theminimummandatoryelementsofasafetymanagementsystemare:

PolicystatementtheorganizationssafetypolicymustbeprominentlydisplayedattheEOC.

13 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Inspectionsinspectionsensurethatsafeworkpracticesarebeingfollowedandareeffective.
Theyalsoidentifyanyunsafeconditionsorpracticesattheworkplacesothattheycanbe
eliminatedorcontrolledbeforeanaccidentoccurs.TheEOCshouldbeinspectedatthestartof
theactivationandatregularintervalsthereafter.Inspectionincludesthepremises,equipment,
workmethodsandworkpractices.Unsafeorharmfulconditionsfoundinthecourseofan
inspectionmustberemediedwithoutdelay.

WrittenInstructionseachworkplacehasuniquehazardsandrequiresspecificworkprocesses.
CommonsafeworkproceduresthatmaybeneededintheEOCsettinginclude:
o

firstaid

buildingevacuation/emergencyprocedures

buildingsecurity

foodhandling

ergonomics

preventionofviolenceintheworkplace

emergencypreparednessandresponseinstructions

WorkplaceHazardousMaterialInformationSystem(WHMIS)

indoorairquality

workingalone

personalprotectiveequipment

exitinterviews

ManagementmeetingsEOCproceduresincluderegularmanagementmeetingsevery
operationalperiod.Areviewofhealthandsafetyshouldbeastandingagendaitem.

Investigationsprovisionmustbemadeforthepromptinvestigationofincidents(e.g.,injuries
andnearmisses)todetermineactionsnecessarytopreventtheirrecurrence.

Recordsdocumentationmustbekeptformeetings,inspections,investigations,worker
orientation,andinjurystatistics.RecordsmustbereadilyavailableforreviewbyaWorkSafeBC
inspector.Informationshouldbesharedwiththejointhealthandsafetycommitteeofthe
agencyhavingjurisdiction.

14 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

InstructionandSupervisionbothinitialorientationtotheworkplaceandcontinuing
promotionofhealthandsafetyarerequiredtobecompliant.Inaddition,specificrequirements
forathoroughorientationtotheworkplaceapplytonewworkers.

DevelopmentofsafeworkproceduresattheEOCstartswithariskassessment.ActivatetheRisk
ManagementOfficerearlytoensurethenecessarysupportsareinplacetopromoteworkerhealthand
safety.Oncepoliciesandprocedureshavebeendeveloped,Logisticsiskeyinimplementingspecific
proceduressuchasfirstaid,safefoodhandling,andbuildingsecurity.
TheEOCssafetymanagementsystemfallsunderthejointoccupationalhealthandsafetycommitteeof
theagencyhavingjurisdiction.RecordsshouldbesharedandforlongerEOCactivations,anEOC
representativeshouldparticipateinthejointoccupationalhealthandsafetycommittee.

6.0 CriticalIncidentStressManagement
Criticalincidentsaredefinedasanytypeofsituationwhichcausespersonneltoexperienceunusually
strongemotionalreactionswhichhavethepotentialtointerferewiththeirabilitytofunctioneitherat
thetimeorlater.Examplesofcriticalincidentsinclude:

alifethreateningexperience

seriousinjuryofselforacolleague

suicide,suddendeathorhomicideofacolleague

lineofdutyinjuryordeath(usuallyworstcauseofCIS)

multicasualtyincidentoraccident

aprolongedincident,especiallywhenresultinginloss

anyincidentinvolvingchildren

failuretosuccessfullyaccomplishgoals,objectivesorasignificanttask

emotionalidentificationwithvictim

aneventthathasanunusuallypowerfulimpactonpersonnel

significantcommunityimpactthatpreventsreturntolifeasweknewit

Sometimesaneventissotraumaticoroverwhelmingthatrespondersmayexperiencesignificantstress
reactionsorCriticalIncidentStress(CIS).CISisdefinedastheemotional,physical,behavioural,and
cognitivereactionstoacriticalincident.Thosewhohavethesenormal,thoughuncomfortable,stress
reactionstoextraordinaryeventsareoftenconfusedbythechangestheynoticeinthemselvesand
others.AnyoftheeventsorsituationslistedabovecancauseCIS.

15 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Criticalincidentsmayproduceawiderangeofstresssymptoms,whichcanappearimmediatelyatthe
scene,afewhourslater,orwithinafewdaysoftheevent.Thestressisastateofarousalthat
accompaniesthecrisisreactioncausedbyacriticalincident.Themoretraumatictheincident,themore
powerfulthestressreactionwillbe.
Stresssymptomsusuallyoccurinanyoralloffourdifferentcategories:

cognitive(thinking)

physical(body)

emotional(feelings)

behavioural(actions)

Peoplemayexperiencesomeorallofthesereactions.Itisimportanttonotethatthesearenormal
responsestostressfulorabnormalevents.Insomecases,peoplemay:

feeloverwhelmedandunabletocopewithdaytodaydemands

feelnumb,shocked,abandoned,andhelpless

feelguiltly,powerless,orangry

havetroublesleeping

stayawayfromwork

experiencedifficultlywithhomelivesandpersonalrelationships(somemaytaketheir
feelingsofguiltorangeroutontheirfamilies,friends,orcoworkers)

withdraw,orturntodrugsandalcohol

sufferfromnightmaresorhaveflashbackstotheevent,oftenfearingtheeventwill
happenagain

feeldifferentlyabouttheirinvolvementwiththeirteamororganization

becomedisillusionediftheybelievethattheirproblemsarenotbeingtakenseriously,or
thattheyarenotbeinggivenadequatesupport

Ifnotmanagedandresolvedappropriately,eitherbyoneselforwithassistance,stressmayleadto
severalpsychologicaldisordersincludingacutestressdisorder,posttraumaticstressdisorder,panic
attacks,depression,abuseofalcoholandotherdrugs.Thewholegroupmaysufferafteracritical
incidenteffectsmayincludepoormorale,decreasedproductivity,increasedaccidents,higherdisability
claims,andgreaterstafforvolunteerturnover.
Somesuggestionstocopewithstressandreduceitsimpactinclude:

exercisingimmediatelyafterthecriticalincident

16 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

deepbreathingexercises

refrainingfromstimulants(coffee,tea,alcohol,sugar,andfats)

reading,watchingTV,ortakingawalkifhavingproblemssleeping

talkingtoatrustedcolleagueaboutfeelings

notcriticisingorridiculingyourselforothers

keepingsharedinformationstrictlyconfidential

Criticalincidentstressmanagement(CISM)isacomprehensivethreepartprogram.Propereducation
andawareness,responseandfollowuptocriticalincidentscanhelpprotectstaffandvolunteersfrom
thenegativeeffectsofcriticalincidentstress.Aproperresponsewillreducetheimpactoftheevent,
facilitaterecovery,andallowaffectedmemberstorestoreanabilitytocopewitheverydayevents.
Supportforstaffandvolunteersisnotcompleteunlessitalsoincludesspecialsupportservicesfor
spousesandsignificantotherswhomaybeindirectlyandnegativelyimpactedbythesametraumatic
eventsaffectingtheresponder.Supportforthefamiliesincludeprovidingeducationalinformation,
debriefings,andoneononeinterventionsasneeded.
Thereareanumberofinterventionstoaddresscriticalincidents:

OneonOneCrisisInterventionanindividualinterventionprovidedbyapeersupportperson
afteracriticalincidentorpotentialcriticalincident.Itisusedtosupport,stabilize,andprovide
stresseducationandtohelpassesstheneedforothermoreformalinterventionslikea
debriefinginagroupsettingifotherindividualswereinvolved.Theyarebestprovidedwithin
2472hoursofanincident(laterifcircumstancesrequire)andmaybeconductedbyspecially
trainedpeers,inpersonorbytelephone.TheymayNOTsubstituteforaformalinterventionif
oneisobviouslyrequiredforagroupofindividuals.Followupisessentialandareferralmaybe
required.

CrisisManagementBriefingsaresmallorlargegroupcrisisinterventionsthatareideally
suitedtolargescalesearchesordisasterresponsesforupto300persons.CrisisManagement
Briefings(CMB)maybethoughtofasaformoftownmeetingfortheexpressedpurposeof
crisisintervention.Acrisismanagementbriefingconsistsoffourdistinctphases(assembly,
information,reactions,andcopingstrategies/resources)andmaybeusedtotriageindividuals
formoreintenseandappropriateinterventionlater.AninterventionteammayincludeCISM
peersupportpersonnel,mentalhealthprofessionalsandoperationalexpertsfromwithinthe
organizationorsuitableoutsideagencies.

DefusingsareprovidedwithinafewhoursofacrisiseventtominimizetheeffectofacuteCIS.
Thegoalistoreduceintensereactionstotheevent,normalizetheexperience,provide

17 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

practical/usefulinformation(stresseducation),developexpectationsaboutrecovery,andto
assesstheneedforfollowupwithacriticalincidentstressdebriefing(CISD).Generally,
defusingslastlessthananhourandarefocussedonwhathappened,howindividualsare
reacting,aswellasprovidingsomeinformationonhowtomanagestressreactions.Apeerteam
member,usuallywithouttheaidofamentalhealthprofessional,leadsadefusing.Thepeer
facilitatingthedefusingwillexplaintomembersthephysical,emotional,andmentalreactions
thattheyare,ormaysoonbe,experiencing.Theyalsoprovideinformationonhowresponders
cantakecareoftheiremotionalandphysicalhealthandtheresourcesthatareavailableto
thosewhorequiremoreassistance.Defusingsareusedprimarilytoassistsmallgroupsof
individualswhoweredirectlyexposedtoandmostseriouslyaffectedbyacriticalevent.Itisless
structuredandlesstimeconsumingthanadebriefinganditmayeliminatetheneedfor,but
maynotsubstitutefor,aformaldebriefingifoneisrequired.Followupisessential.Aswithall
interventions,participantsareanonymous.

CriticalIncidentStressDebriefingearlyinterventionandtreatmentisanacceptedgold
standardbecauseitcanpreventunnecessarydeteriorationandmitigatepotentialsofharmto
selforothers.TheCriticalIncidentStressDebriefing(CISD)isastructuredgroupprocessutilized
inthenormalizationofcriticalincidentstressortraumaticstressandintegratescrisis
interventionstrategieswitheducationaltechniques.CISDisbestconductedintheshortterm
aftermathofacriticalincident,approximately48hourspostincident,butusuallywithinthefirst
72hours(laterifcircumstancesrequire).TherearetwomaingoalsofaCISD:
1.

2.

Mitigatetheimpactofthecriticalincidentonthevictimsoftheevent,definedas:
o

primaryvictims(i.e.,thosedirectlytraumatizedbytheevent)

secondaryvictims(i.e.,thosewhoareinsomewayobserversoftheimmediate
traumaticeffectsthathavebeenexperiencedbytheprimaryvictims,suchas
bystanders)

tertiaryvictims(i.e.,thoseaffectedindirectlybythetraumavialaterexposureto
thesceneofthedisasterorbyalaterexposuretoprimaryorsecondaryvictims).
Typically,tertiaryvictimswerenotexposedtotheimmediatefirsthandaspectsof
thetraumatizingevent,thustheywerenotexposedtotheshockingimmediacy;
theseincludefamilymembersandfriendsofvictimsorrescuers.

Acceleraterecoveryprocessinpeoplewhoareexperiencingstressreactionstoabnormal
traumaticevents.

EverytimeaCISMinterventionisprovided(i.e.,defusing,debriefing,demobilization,crisismanagement
briefing,oneonone)itisnecessarytoensurethatfollowupservicesareprovided.Followupservices
includetelephonecalls,chaplaincontacts,smallgroupmeetings,peervisits,oneononeservices,family
contacts,referralsforprofessionalcontactoranyotherhelpfuloutreachprograms.

18 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1


EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Interventionsarenottherapyandarenotasubstitutefortherapy.Individualsrequiringfurther
supportshouldbedirectedtoamentalhealthprofessional.Defusinganddebriefingsessions,ledbya
trainedspecialist,canhelpvolunteersdealwithstrongemotionslikeguilt,sadness,andanger.Thereare
anumberofandothersourcesavailableontheinternetthatexpandsuponthesubjectofcritical
incidentstress.Theinformationpresentedhereisonlyanintroduction.

19 |HumanResourceManagement

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Emergency
Response

1.0 Introduction
Emergencyresponsebeginswhenaneventisimminentorimmediatelyafteraneventoccurs.Response
includestheactivitiesthataddresstheshortterm,directeffectsofanincident.Responsealsoincludes
theexecutionofemergencyplansandoperationalactivitiesdesignedtolimitthelossoflife,personal
injuryandpropertydamage.
Thismoduleexaminessomeofthekeycomponentsofaneffectiveemergencyresponse:

ActivationofanEOC
EOCactivitiesduringResponse
Demobilization
DeclarationofaStateofLocalEmergency
Evacuations

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.0 EmergencyOperationsCentre(EOC)Activation
AnEOCisactivatedtoenablelocalauthoritiestocoordinateemergencyresponseandrecovery
operationseffectively.Thisisdonethroughanumberofcommonfunctionsincludingthesupportof
managementpoliciesandpriorities,coordinationofeventrelatedinformationandthecoordinationof
theacquisitionandassignmentofresources.ThedecisiontoactivateanEOCisdependentonthescope,
scale,andnatureofanincident.
SuggestedcriteriaortriggerpointsforactivatinganEOCinclude:

significantnumberofpeopleatrisk(e.g.,evacuationsarerequired)

potentialthreattopeople,propertyand/orenvironment

sitesupportisrequired(lengthyactivations,limitedresources,policydirectionneeded)

responsecoordinationisrequiredduetoalargeorwidespreadevent(e.g.,multiple
incidents,multiplerespondingagencies)

resourcecoordinationrequiredduetolimitedlocalresources(orasignificantneedfor
outsideresources ormutualaid)

uncertainconditions(e.g.,possibilityofescalationoftheevent,unknownextentof
damage)

heightenedmediaorpublicconcern(e.g.,significantinformationneeds)

advancedplanningrequiredforananticipatedevent

2.1 AuthoritytoActivate

AnEOCmaybeactivatedbyanyoneofthefollowing:

anIncidentCommanderwithintheEOCsjurisdiction

personsnamedinthejurisdictionsemergencyplanand/orEOCplan(e.g.,EOCDirector,
EPC,ChiefAdministrativeOfficer,FireChief,PoliceChief,Mayororelectedofficials)

directorofEMBCfollowingaProvincialDeclarationofStateofEmergency

2.2 ActivationLevels

TherearethreedesignatedactivationlevelsfortheEOCduringresponse.ActivationLevel1istypicallya
monitoringphasewithverylimitedstaffing,Level2ispartialactivation,andLevel3isfullscale,
roundtheclockactivationwhereallprimaryandsupportagenciesundertheEmergencyPlanare
notified.Theactivationlevelsarebasedonthemagnitude,scopeandstageoftheeventandthestaffing
levelsrequiredtosupportresponseactivities.

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

OnlythoseEOCfunctionsandpositionsthatarerequiredtomeetcurrentresponseobjectivesneedto
beactivated.Nonactivatedfunctionsandpositionswillbetheresponsibilityofthenexthighestlevelin
theEOCorganization.EachEOCfunctionmusthaveapersonincharge.TheEOCorganizationalstructure
shouldbeflexibleenoughtoexpandandcontractasneeded.EOCstaffmayberequiredtotakeonmore
thanoneposition(role),asdeterminedbythenatureoftheemergencyevent,availabilityofresources
and/orasassignedbyasupervisor.TheEOCmaybeactivatedwithorwithoutaDeclarationofaStateof
LocalEmergencyorProvincialEmergency;however,itmustbeactivatedonceaDeclarationhasbeen
made.
ThetablebelowprovidesfurtherdetailabouttheEOCactivationlevelsandcorrespondingstaffing
requirements:

EOC
ACTIVATION
LEVEL

MINIMUMSTAFFINGREQUIREMENTS
(EXAMPLE)

EVENT/SITUATION
Potentialthreat/monitoring:
flood
severestorm
interfacefire

Smallevent/onesite:
23agenciesinvolved
smallscaleEvacuationAlert

EOCDirector
InformationOfficer
LiaisonOfficer
OperationsSectionChief

ProvincialSupport:
PEPnotified

Moderateevent:
twoormoresites
severalagenciesinvolved
majorscheduledevent(e.g.,
conferenceorsportingevent)
limitedevacuations
someresources/supportrequired

EOCDirector
InformationOfficer
LiaisonOfficer
RiskManagementOfficer
SectionChiefs(asrequired)

ProvincialSupport:
PREOClimitedactivation

Majorevent:
multiplesites
multiplejurisdictions
multipleagencies
extensiveevacuations
resources/supportrequired
24/7operation

AllEOCfunctionsandpositions
(asrequired)
PolicyGroup

ProvincialSupport:
PREOCactivation

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.3 ProvincialNotification/Consultation
TheEmergencyPlanmustclearlydefinetheagencyand/orindividual(s)whoaretobenotifiedbasedon
thenatureoftheemergency,levelofriskorthreatassessmentidentifiedforthecommunity,andthe
legislativerequirementtonotify.
Intheeventofanemergency,localgovernmentsmustrequestatasknumberfromEMBC(through
theEmergencyCoordinationCentreat18006633456)iftheyrequire:

assistancewitheligibleresponse/recoverycosts[seeModule9]

WorkersCompensationandLiabilityCoverageforregisteredvolunteers

EvacueeLivingAssistance

EMBCmayalsobecontactedtoinitiatediscussionwithaDutyRegionalManager(DRM).

3.0 EOCActivities
3.1 DecisionMaking
AlldecisionsmadeintheEOCrequireaccurateandtimelyinformationaswellasinputandconsultation
fromrelevantstaffmembersandagencies.TheEOCDirectorisultimatelyresponsibleformakingkey
decisionsonbehalfoftheEOC.ThisisdoneinconsultationwiththeEOCManagementTeam,Incident
Commander(s),andtheEOCPolicyGroup.
EOCDirectorDecisions
IssuesthatrequireadecisionorapprovalfromtheEOCDirectorinclude:

EstablishingEOCprioritiesandobjectives

EOCActionPlans

Extraordinaryresourcesrequests

Pressreleases

Mediainterviews

Publicinformationbulletins

Situationreports

Evacuationorders

Requestmutualaid

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

RequestforProvincial/FederalSupport

TheEOCDirectormustcarefullyassess,evaluate,andprioritizeeachissuerequiringadecision/
approval.Briefingsarecommonlyusedtofacilitatethedecisionmakingprocess.Oncethe
decisionismade,itmustbeassignedtoapplicablefunctions/positionsforimplementationand
communicatedtoallappropriateEOCstaffandBCERMSlevels.

3.2 RiskManagementStrategies
TheEOCshallapplyriskmanagementprinciplesbaseduponthefollowingstrategies:

Assessdamageandloss.Identifyandanalyzelossexposuresinthecategoriesof:

Personnel

Property

Liability

Examinefeasiblealternativeriskmanagementtechniquesinthefollowinggeneralcategories:

Exposureavoidance

Lossprevention

Lossreduction

Segregationofexposures:

Separation

Duplication

Contractualrisktransfer

Riskfinancing

Selectthebestapparenttechniques

Implementthechosentechniques

Monitorandadjustasnecessary

Providefortheoverallsafetyandhealthofpersonnel

Adviseonactiontoreducelossandsuffering

AdviseEOCstaffandresponsepersonnel

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.3 OperationalPeriod
Anoperationalperiodisthetimescheduledfortheexecutionofagivensetoftasksspecifiedinthe
ActionPlan.OperationalPeriodscanbeofvariouslengthsdependingonthenatureandscopeofthe
incident/event.ThelengthoftheoperationalperiodfortheEOCisdeterminedbyfirstestablishingaset
ofobjectivesandpriorityactionsthatneedtobeperformedandthenestablishingareasonableperiod
foraccomplishingthoseactions.Generally,theactionsrequiringthelongesttimewilldefinethelength
oftheoperationalperiod.
Typically,operationalperiodsatthebeginningofanemergencyareshort,sometimesonlyafewhours.
Astheemergencyprogresses,theoperationalperiodsmaybelonger,butshouldnotexceedtwenty
fourhours.ActionPlansarerequiredforeachoperationalperiod.Operationalperiodsshouldnotbe
confusedwithstaffingpatternsorshiftchangeperiods.

3.4 OperationalPlanningCycle
TheOperationalPlanningCycleprocesscanbeusedforsmallershorttermincidentsandevents,aswell
aslonger,morecomplexincidentplanning.Theplanningprocessmaybeginwiththeschedulingofa
plannedevent,theidentificationofacrediblethreat,ortheinitialresponsetoanactualorimpending
event.Theprocesscontinueswiththeimplementationoftheformalizedstepsandstaffrequiredto
developawrittenActionPlan.
Duringtheinitialstagesofincident/eventmanagement,plannersmustdevelopasimpleplanthatcan
becommunicatedthroughconciseverbalbriefings.Frequently,thisplanmustbedevelopedveryquickly
andwithincompletesituationinformation.Astheincident/eventmanagementeffortevolvesovertime,
additionalleadtime,staff,informationsystems,andtechnologiesenablemoredetailedplanningand
cataloguingofevents.Theprimaryphasesoftheplanningprocessarethesamefortheinitialplan,for
therevisionoftheinitialplanforextendedoperations,andfortheincident/eventmanagementteam
developingaformalActionPlan.
Planninginvolves:

Evaluatingthesituation

Developingincident/eventobjectives

Selectingastrategy

Decidingwhichresourcesshouldbeusedtoachievetheobjectivesinthesafest,mostefficient
andcosteffectivemanner

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

FunctionalResponsibilitiesintheplanningcycle
Management
Developstheoverallincidentobjectivesandstrategy,approvesresourceordersand
demobilization,andapprovestheActionPlanbysignature.
Operations
Assistswithdevelopingstrategy,andidentifies,assigns,andsupervisestheresources
neededtoaccomplishtheincidentobjectives.
Planning
Providessituationreports,managestheplanningprocess,andproducestheActionPlan.
Logistics
OrdersresourcesanddevelopstheTransportation,Communications,andMedicalPlans.
Finance&Administration
Developscostanalyses,ensuresthattheActionPlaniswithinthefinanciallimits
establishedbytheDirector,developscontracts,andpaysfortheresources.

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.5 TheOperationalPlanningP
ThePlanningPisaguidetothemeetingofdeliverablesthatoccurduringanoperationalperiod.The
legofthePdescribestheinitialresponsephaseandonlyoccursonceduringanevent.Theround
bellyofthePrepresentsthecyclicaloperationalperiodsthattakeplaceuntiltheeventisover.
Planningbeginswithathoroughsizeupthatprovidesinformationneededtomakeinitialmanagement
decisions.Eachoperationalperiodincludesthefollowingsupportpieces.

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ObjectivesMeeting
TheEOCDirectorestablishesobjectivesthatcovertheentirecourseoftheevent.For
complexevents,itmaytakemorethanoneoperationalperiodtoaccomplishthe
objectives.
o Thecyclicalplanningprocessisdesignedtotaketheoverallincidentobjectivesand
breakthemdownintoassignmentsforeachoperationalperiod.Itisimportantthatthis
initialoverallapproachtoestablishingobjectivesestablishthecourseoftheincident,
ratherthanhavingobjectivesonlyaddressasingleoperationalperiod.

ManagementandGeneralStaffMeeting

o TheEOCDirectormaymeetwithManagementandGeneralStafftogatherinputorto
provideimmediatedirectionthatcannotwaituntiltheplanningprocessiscompleted.
Thismeetingoccursasandwhenneededandshouldbeasbriefaspossible.
o

RegionalConferenceCall
o

PreparationforthePlanningMeeting
o

Inamultijurisdictionalevent,thePREOCwillholdaRegionalConferenceCalltoprovide
eventparticipantswithcurrent/relevanteventinformation,includinganoverviewofthe
statusofactivatedlocalauthority,FirstNation,agencyandministryEOCs.This
conferencecallisanexcellentsourceofregionalinformationandprovidesaccessto
provincialregionallevelsubjectmatterexperts.Thecallmayormaynotoccurinthe
orderpresentedinthisdiagram.

ThePlanningSectioncoordinatesthefollowingactions:

ReviewInformationdeveloped/updatedintheObjectivesMeeting

ReviewinformationgatheredintheRegionalConferenceCall

Assesscurrentoperationseffectivenessandresourceefficiency

Gatherinformationtosupportmanagementdecisions

PlanningMeeting
o

ThePlanningMeetingprovidestheopportunityfortheManagementandGeneralStaff
toreviewandvalidatetheoperationalplanasproposedbytheOperationsSection
Chief.AttendanceisrequiredforallManagementandGeneralStaff.Additional
personnelmayattendattherequestofthePlanningSectionChiefortheEOCDirector.
ThePlanningSectionChiefconductsthePlanningMeetingfollowingafixedagenda.

|EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

TheOperationsSectionChiefdeterminestheamountandtypeofresourcesneededto
accomplishtheplan.ThePlanningSectionsResourcesUnitwillhavetoworkwiththe
LogisticsSectiontoaccommodate.

Attheconclusionofthemeeting,thePlanningSectionStaffwillindicatewhenall
elementsoftheplanandsupportdocumentsarerequiredtobesubmittedsotheplan
canbecollated,duplicated,andmadereadyfortheOperationalPeriodBriefing.

ActionPlanPreparationandApproval
o

EOCBriefing
o

ThenextstepintheIncidentActionPlanningProcessisplanpreparationandapproval.
Thewrittenplaniscomprisedofaseriesofstandardformsandsupportingdocuments
thatconveytheintentanddirectionfortheplanforthenextoperationalperiod.

TheEOCBriefingmaybereferredtoastheOperationalBriefingortheShiftBriefing.
ThisbriefingisconductedatthebeginningofeachOperationalPeriodandpresentsthe
ActionPlan.FollowingtheOperationsPeriodBriefingsupervisorswillmeetwiththeir
staffforadetailedbriefingontheirrespectiveassignments.

ExecutePlanandAssessProgress
o

TheOperationsSectiondirectstheimplementationoftheplan.Thesupervisory
personnelwithintheOperationsSectionareresponsibleforimplementationoftheplan
forthespecificoperationalperiod.Theplanisevaluatedatvariousstagesinits
developmentandimplementation.TheOperationsSectionChiefmaymakethe
appropriateadjustmentsduringtheoperationalperiodtoensurethattheobjectivesare
metandeffectivenessisassured.

SituationReports
TheSituationUnit,PlanningSection,preparestheSituationReport.Itmaybescheduledfor
presentationtothePlanningSectionChiefandotherGeneralStaffmemberspriortoeachPlanning
Meeting.TheEOCDirectororPlanningSectionChiefmayrequiremorefrequentreview/updatetothe
SituationReport.
ThepurposeoftheSituationReportistoprovidestaffinformationforplanningforthenextoperational
period,toprovideinformationtotheInformationOfficerforpreparingnewsmediareleases,andto
summarizeincident/eventinformationforlocalandoffsitecoordination/operationscenters.When
completed,copiesaredistributedtotheEOCDirectorandManagementstaffandSectionChiefs.Itis
postedonastatusboardlocatedattheEOC,andacopyisprovidedtotheProvincialRegional
EmergencyOperationsCentre.AllcompletedoriginalformsMUSTbegiventotheDocumentationUnit.

10 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Documentation
AllEOCactivitiesrequiresomeformofdocumentationandrecordkeeping.Thereshouldbeprepared
formsforeachEOCfunctionresponsibility.Definingwhichformsrequirecompletionaredependenton
theagenciesinvolvedandthescopeandimpactoftheemergency.
Itisextremelyimportanttoaccuratelydocumentactionstakenduringemergencies.Theremustbea
documentedrecordofallpolicyandEOCdecisionsanddirection.Resourcerequestsmustalsobelogged
andtrackedtoensuretheresponseprovidedisrecorded.BCERMSrequiresallpositionstokeepa
personalandfunctionalpositionlogduringevents.Thiswillassistintrackingandmonitoringthe
effectivenessoftheresponseandofEOCActionPlans.Documentationisalsoimportantfortracking
expendituresforcostaccountingandforrequestingprovincialandfederalassistance.
TransferofResponsibilities(ShiftChanges)
Whenastaffmembertransferstheirresponsibilitiestoanother,asimplebutformaltransferbriefing
willberequired.Shifts,therefore,shouldbenolongerthan812hoursandshouldoverlaptoprevent
inadequatereliefofanyfunction.Atransferbriefingshouldsummarizetheactivitiesofthepastshift,
identify,openincidentsoractivities,andiftimepermits,beaccompaniedbyashortwrittensummaryof
thesameinformationforlateruseduringtheoperationoratapostoperationdebriefing.

3.6 ResourceManagement
AtallBCERMSlevels,therewillbesomefunctionalactivityrelatedtomanagingresources.Thiswillvary
fromleveltolevelintermsofdirecting,coordinating,orinventoryingresources.Resourcesmanagedby
theEOCwillusuallybeinatransitmode,toanaffectedarea,oratamarshallingareaawaiting
disbursementtoastagingareaclosertothesceneoftheincident(s).Resourcesassignedtoan
emergencyeventatanylevelmaybemanagedinthreeways:

Singleresource

Taskforce

Striketeam
ResourceRequests
Whenjurisdictionalresourcesareexhaustedand/orunabletofilltheneed,eachresponding
agencywillfirstgothroughtheirDepartmentOperationsCentre(DOC)(ifoneisactivated)totry
toobtainthenecessaryresource.IftheDOCisunsuccessfulinfillingtheresourcerequestitis
thenforwardedtotheIncidentCommander.TheIncidentCommanderwillassessandprioritize
therequestbeforeforwardingittotheEOCOperationsSection.
IftheEOCOperationsSectionisunabletocoordinatefillingtheresourcerequestwiththeEOC
LogisticsandPlanningSections,thentherequestisforwardedtotheEOCDirector.TheEOC

11 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

DirectorthenauthorizesforwardingtherequesttothePREOC.Similarly,ifthePREOCisunable
tofilltheresourcerequest,thePREOCDirectorcanforwardtherequesttothePECC.
ResourcePriorityLevels
Allresourcerequestsshouldbeassignedoneofthefollowingprioritylevels:

EmergencyHavinglifeanddeathurgency

PriorityImportanttosupportoperationswithinaspecifictimelimit

RoutineSupportsregularoperations

ResourceStatus
Resourceswillalwaysbeinoneofthreestatusconditions:

Available

Assigned

Outofservice

CriticalResourceDesignation
Whenaspecificresourceisindemandbymultipleagenciesand/orjurisdictionsandtherearea
limitednumberoftheresourcesavailable,itcanbedesignatedasaCriticalResourcebythe
EOCDirector,PREOCDirector,orPECCDirector.TheEOCDirector,PREOCDirector,orPECC
DirectormustapproveallrequestsforCriticalResources.
ResourceTracking
Resourcerequestsfrequentlyrequirecoordinationamongstavarietyoffunctionsandagency
representatives.MultiplerequestswillbereceivedbytheEOCbyawidevarietyofmeansand
withouttrackingthereisadangerthatacriticalrequestcouldbelost.
Requestsmustbevetted,prioritized,assigned,tracked,andsignedoffbyEOCManagement
whenclosed.TheEOCManagementTeammustbeabletodeterminethecurrentstatusofall
resourcerequests,thesectionsassignedresponsibilityforaction,andthedetailsofanyaction
takenorplanned.Thisinformationiscriticalduringthebriefingandshiftchangeprocess.
ItistheresponsibilityofPlanningsResourceUnittotrackresources.

12 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

3.7 EmergencyCommunications
TelecommunicationSystems
TheEOCcommunicationssystemsshouldprovidereservecapacityforunusuallycomplexsituations
whereeffectivecommunicationscouldbecomecritical.Anintegratedcommunicationsplanshouldbe
developedaspartofeachActionPlan.
AnEOCCommunicationsCentre(radioroom)needstobefunctionaltoprovidebackupmodesof
communicationsservicesshouldthemaintelecommunicationsmeansbeimpactedbytheevent.This
Centre,whileestablishedandoperatedbytheCommunicationUnitinLogistics,isoftenphysically
locatednearOperationsandreceivesoperationaldirectionfromtheOperationsSectionChief.
InformationFlow/Directions
TypesofInformation
InformationcomingintoandoutoftheEOCmustbemanagedcarefully.Standardprotocolsand
PlainEnglishlanguageneedstobeusedforalllevelsofemergencytelecommunicationsinorder
toreducetheconfusionthatcanbecreatedwhenradiocodesareused.Standardterminology
shallbeestablishedandusedtotransmitinformation,includingstrategicoperations,situation
reports,logistics,tacticaloperations,andemergencynotificationsofimminentsafetyconcerns.
BCERMSidentifiesfourtypesofinformationtransactionscommontoemergencies:

Managementdirection

Situationreporting

Resourcerequests

Generalinformation

ManagementDirection
Managementdirectionsmustfollowthelinesofauthorityestablishedfortheresponse
organization.Theselinesarerepresentedinthefunctionandorganizationchartsforeach
BCERMSlevel.Amongthedifferentlevels,commanddecisionsandprioritiesarecommunicated
betweentheIncidentCommanderandDirectorsofeachlevel.
SituationReporting
SituationreportsareaproductmostcommonlymanagedthroughthePlanningSection.All
personnelmustforwardincidentsituationinformationtotheSituationUnitinthePlanning
Section.Collectingsituationdatamayinvolveanumberofsources,includingtheOperations
Section,LogisticsSection,andtheInformationOfficeratagivenlevel.Situationinformationis
alsoreceivedfromlowerandhigherlevels.Followinganalysis,thePlanningfunctionsupports

13 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

operationaldecisionsandsummarizessituationinformationfortheEOCDirectorsapproval.
OnceapprovedtheSituationReportisdistributedbytheInformationOfficertoEOCSection
ChiefsandotherlevelsintheBCERMSstructure.
TheEOCshouldcompile,withinareasonabletimefromreceiptoftheperiodicIncident
CommanderSituationReports,anamalgamatedEOCSituationReportforanyPREOCthatmay
beestablishedintheoperationalarea.
SectionChiefsareresponsibleforprovidingtheEOCDirectorwithperiodicverbalorwritten
updatestotheSituationReport.TheEOCDirectorshouldthentakestepstobriefallthestaffon
thecollectivesituation.Ashortbriefingmaybemostappropriate.
ResourceRequests
ResourcerequestsnormallyflowfromsiteresponderstotheOperationsSectionChiefatthe
SiteLevel,whoreviewsandpassesinontotheLogisticsSectionfortheresolution.IftheSites
LogisticsSectioncannotfilltheneedwithavailableresources,throughpurchasing,orthrough
agencyagreements,theLogisticsandOperationSectionChiefsforwardrequeststotheIncident
Commanderforapproval.Onceapproved,theIncidentCommandermaypasstherequesttothe
OperationsSectionoftheEOC(ifactivated)ordirectlytotheEOCDirector.
GeneralInformation
Generalinformationmaybeexchangedamongmembersofaresponseorganizationatany
givenlevel.BCERMSencourageslateralinformationflowbetweenfunctions.Inaddition,a
representativeofafunctionatonelevelmaywishtoexchangeinformationwithasimilar
functiononelevelaboveorbelowthem.Verifyinggeneralinformationisanimportantstep
beforetakingaction.
EOCsshouldconsiderusingstandardthreepartroundtripmemorandumformsforallinternal
communications.Thesecommunicationsmustbeclearlymarkedwithanoriginatorsmessage
number,originatingdateandtime,andidentifytheoriginatorsnameandfunctionalposition.
Thesameinformationisrequiredwhenreplyingtoaninternalmemorandum.

4.0 EOCDemobilization
Assiteresponseactivitiesdecrease,thelevelofEOCsupportrequiredisreduced.TheDirectorwill
transitiontheEOCintotheDemobilizationPhase.ThisinvolvesastructuredshutdownoftheEOC,
including:

Documentation

14 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Reductionofstaffinglevels

Facilityclosureandreadiness

Debriefing

4.1 Documentation
ItiscriticaltoensurethatallEOCdocumentationiscompiled,properlystored,andreadilyavailableafter
theevent.Documentationprovidesthebasisforinvestigationsandpublicinquiries,debriefsandAfter
ActionReviewsandsupportforfinancialclaimsandbudgets.Documentationmaycomeinvariousforms
includingemail,electronicfiles,onlinelogentries,faxes,andhardcopyincludingpositionlogs.
Confidentialinformationneedstobestoredsecurely.Alldocumentsshouldbeformattedtoensure
futureaccessibility.

4.2 ReductionofStaffingLevels
TheDemobilizationUnitwithinthePlanningSectionisresponsibleforworkingwiththeLogistics
PersonnelUnittocreateastaffingscheduletoreflectthereducedlevelofservicesbeingofferedbythe
EOCandtoidentifyatargetdatewhentheEOCwillcloseoperations.AlthoughtheEOCDirectormust
authorizeanydemobilizationmeasurestobeundertaken,eachSectionChief,withsupportfromthe
DemobilizationUnitandtheLogisticsSection,isresponsiblefordevelopingademobilizationplanthat
recognizesandmeetstheoperationalneedsofthesection.
AsindividualfunctionsarenolongerrequiredattheEOC,theirresponsibilitiesarepassedupwards
withintheorganizationalchart.ForanyfunctionsthatmustcontinueaftertheEOChasbeen
deactivated,thedemobilizationplanshouldaddressthetransferofresponsibilitytotheappropriate
departments/agencies.
Workercareisaprimaryconsiderationduringalloperationalactivationphasesincludingdemobilization.
ThisincludesensuringtravelarrangementsforstaffleavingtheEOC.Travelarrangementsforstaffthat
areleavingmusttakeintoconsiderationhoursworkedandmethodoftravel.Checkinproceduresmust
beestablishedforstaffontravelstatus.Staffshouldbeencouragedtotakeadequaterestpriorto
returningtotheirdailyduties.

4.3 FacilityClosure
DemobilizationoffacilitiesdedicatedtoEOCuse,involvesreturningthefacility,equipment,andsupplies
backtoastateofreadiness.FortemporaryEOCfacilities,thedemobilizationplanmustaddressthe
returnofallfurniture,equipment,andsuppliestopreincidentstate.

15 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

4.4 ExitInterviews/Debriefings/AfterActionReview
ItisimportantallstaffdepartingtheEOCcompleteanexitinterview.Theseinterviewsprovidefeedback
onwhatwentwell,areasrequiringimprovementandanyadditionalsupportrequirementsthe
individualmayhave(e.g.emotionalstressdebriefing).
Forsignificantevents,amoreformalgroupdebriefingmayberequired.Debriefingsessionsoftenoccur
aftertheeventhasconcluded.StaffthatparticipatedattheEOCareinvitedtoameetingtodiscussthe
eventandEOCoperations.Thesemeetingsarefacilitatedandaformaldebriefreportiscreatedbased
ontherecommendationsandlessonslearnedthatresultfromthediscussion.
LargereventsshouldinvolvethecreationofanAfterActionReview.Thisisareportbasedonresponse
documentation,exitinterviewsanddebriefingsessions.Theafteractionreviewsummarizesresponse
decisionsandactivitiesaswellaslessonslearned.ItprovidesguidancetotheEmergencyPlanning
Committeeonfuturepreparednesspriorities(training,equipment,etc.).

4.5 Recognition
Manyvolunteers,businesses,andcommunityorganizationswillhavecontributedtotheemergency
response.Itisimperativethataccuraterecordsaremaintainedsotheircontributionscanbeformally
and/orinformallyrecognized.Staffrecognitionalsoformsanimportantpartofanyresponse,asit
reinforcesandrewardsthemostimportantoutcomesfortheorganization.Aneffectivestaffrecognition
systemissimple,immediate,andpowerfullyreinforcing.
Informal
Itistheresponsibilityofeachsupervisortoprovidedeservedandspontaneous
acknowledgementofworkersonthejob.Letworkersknowhowvaluabletheirworkistothe
wholeoperationby:

Callingthembyname

Communicatingwithrespectusing"please,""thankyou,""goodjob"

Recommendingtoexecutiveforpotentialmediacoverageofcontributionsby
individualsorbusinesses

Formal
Thisformofrecognitioncomesaftertheemergencyandbecomesapermanenttokenof
appreciation.Possibilitiesinclude:

CertificatesofAppreciation

CommunityServiceAwardstobusinesses

16 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Lettersofcommendationfromthedirectoroftheoperation,mayor,orelectedofficials

Lettersofthanksfromthecommunityinvolved

Keepsakepins

Letterstoemployerswholentemployeesasvolunteers,commendingthevolunteers'
workandtheemployers'contribution

Communityrecognitioneventlikeanoutdoorbarbecueoreveningdinner

5.0 DeclarationofaStateofLocalEmergency
Thedeclarationofastateoflocalemergencyenableslocalauthoritiestoexerciseemergencypowers
suchasorderingtheevacuationofresidentsfromtheirhomes,orprohibitingtravelandaccessing
privatepropertywhenanemergencythreatenslives,propertyortheenvironmentwithintheir
jurisdiction.Emergencyplansmustoutlinetheprocessfordeclaringthestateoflocalemergencyaswell
asmanagingtheapplicationoftheemergencypowers.Theuseofadeclarationorderisdirectlylinked
totheimmediacy(shortterm)ofanemergencysituationandintendedtobeusedbythelocal
governmenttoeffectivelyrespondtotheemergency.Thissectionanswerssomeofthemostfrequently
askedquestionsandprovidesastepbystepoutlineofhowtoutilizeadeclarationofastateoflocal
emergency.

Section12oftheEmergencyProgramActallowsthelocalauthority(municipalcouncilorboardofa
regionaldistrict)todeclareastateoflocalemergencyifemergencypowersarerequiredtorespond
effectivelytoanemergencyordisaster.TheMayor(ordelegateintheMayorsabsence)orChair(or
delegateintheMayorsabsence)may,byorder,declareastateoflocalemergencyiftheconsentof
councilorboardmemberscannotbeobtainedinareasonabletime.

5.1 ProcesstoDeclareaStateofLocalEmergency
Theprocesstodeclareastateoflocalemergencyfollowsfoursteps:
Step1theMayor,ChairoftheBoardoralternatedraftstheorderforadeclarationofstate
oflocalemergencyaswellasdelegationdocumentoutliningtheemergencypowersthey
wishtoaccess.
Step2thelocalauthorityshouldsendadraftofthedeclarationorder,accompanyingmaps
(iftheorderisonlyforaportionofthejurisdiction),anddelegationmatrixtotheappropriate
PREOCforreviewtoensuretheorderiscompleteandconsistentwithlegislation.Verbal
confirmationshouldbemadetoensurereceiptofthedraftandtodiscussanyrevisions.

17 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Step3thelocalauthoritymustsendacopyofthesigneddeclarationorder,accompanying
mapsanddelegationmatrixtotheappropriatePREOC,whowillensurethattheSolicitor
Generalisinformedasrequiredbylegislation.Verbalcontactshouldbemadetoensure
receiptofdocuments.
Step4thelocalauthoritymustimmediatelycommunicatedetailsofthedeclarationorder
totheaffectedresidentsusinganymethodthatitconsidersmostlikelytoreachthem.

5.2LimitationsofaStateofLocalEmergency
Alocaldeclarationislimitedgeographicallytothejurisdictionalboundariesofthedeclaringlocal
authorityortoanyspecificallydescribedareawithintheboundaries.Wheretheapplicationof
emergencypowersisrequiredoutsideofthejurisdictionofthelocalauthoritytherearetwooptions:

Theneighbouringjurisdictionmaydeclareastateoflocalemergency

Inthecaseofamajorimpactacrossjurisdictions,aprovincialstateofemergencymaybe
consideredforthewholegeographicarea.
Declarationordersareintendedforfiniteperiodsoftimeandexpire7daysfromthedateand
timeofissue.Thelocalauthoritymay,withtheapprovaloftheMinisterorLieutenantGovernor
inCouncil,extendthedurationofadeclarationofastateoflocalemergencyforperiodsofnot
morethan7dayseach.

5.3

PowersofaLocalAuthority

Duringadeclaredstateoflocalemergency,thelocalauthorityisempoweredtotakecourseofaction
deemednecessarytoprevent,respondto,oralleviatetheeffectsofanemergency,includinganyorall
ofthefollowing:

acquireoruseanylandorpersonalpropertyconsiderednecessarytoprevent,respond
tooralleviatetheeffectsofanemergencyordisaster

authorizeorrequireanypersontorenderassistanceofatypethatthepersonis
qualifiedtoprovideorthatotherwiseisormayberequiredtoprevent,respondtoor
alleviatetheeffectsofanemergencyordisaster

controlorprohibittraveltoorfromanyarea

providefortherestorationofessentialfacilitiesandthedistributionofessentialsupplies
andprovide,maintainandcoordinateemergencymedical,welfareandotheressential
services

causetheevacuationofpersonsandtheremovaloflivestock,animalsandpersonal
propertyfromanyareathatis,ormaybe,affectedbyanemergencyoradisasterand

18 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

makearrangementsfortheadequatecareandprotectionofthosepersons,livestock,
animalsandpersonalproperty

authorizetheentryintoanybuildingoronanyland,withoutwarrant,byanypersonin
thecourseofimplementinganemergencyplanorprogramorifotherwiseconsideredby
theministertobenecessarytoprevent,respondto,oralleviatetheeffectsofan
emergencyordisaster

causethedemolitionorremovalofanytrees,structuresorcropsifthedemolitionor
removalisconsideredbytheministertobenecessaryorappropriateinorderto
prevent,respondtooralleviatetheeffectsofanemergencyordisaster

constructworksconsideredbytheministertobenecessaryorappropriatetoprevent,
respondtooralleviatetheeffectsofanemergencyordisaster

procure,fixpricesfor,orrationfood,clothing,fuel,equipment,medicalsuppliesor
otheressentialsuppliesandtheuseofanyproperty,services,resourcesorequipment
forthedurationofthestateofemergency

Ifastateoflocalemergencyhasbeendeclared,theMinistermayorderalocalauthoritytorefrainor
desistfromexercisinganyoneormoreofthepowers.Aprovincialdeclarationofastateofemergency
supersedesanylocaldeclarationswithintheboundariesoftheprovincialdeclaration.
Thelocalauthoritymay,within60daysafterdeclaringastateoflocalemergency,bybylawratifiedby
theministerresponsiblefortheadministrationoftheCommunityCharter,butwithoutobtainingthe
approvaloftheelectorsortheassentoftheelectors,borrowanymoneynecessarytopayexpenses
causedbytheemergency.
Itisimportanttorememberthatadeclarationisnotrequiredforthefollowing:

Toimplementpartoralloftheemergencyplan(excludingaccesstotheemergencypowers)

TogainliabilityprotectionundertheEmergencyProgramAct

ToaccessrecoveryofresponsecostsasdescribedintheFinancialAssistanceGuide

ToqualifyfordisasterfinancialassistanceundertheEmergencyProgramAct

DetailedguidelinesforDeclaringaStateofLocalEmergencyareavailableonthePEPwebsite.

6.0 Evacuations
Orderinganevacuationofallorpartofanemergencyareaisaveryseriousstepandrequiresdetailed
planning.InBC,theEmergencyProgramAct,Section12,permitstheheadofalocalauthoritytodeclare

19 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

astateoflocalemergency,andthatallowsthelocalauthoritytoorderanevacuationshoulditbe
absolutelynecessary.Undersection9(1)oftheEmergencyProgramAct,theSolicitorGeneralis
authorizedtodeclareaprovincialstateofemergency.Underaprovincialdeclaration,theSolicitor
Generalhastheauthoritytoorderevacuationsasdeemednecessary.
Thereareseveralagenciesandjurisdictionsthathavelegalauthoritytocloseareasandorder
evacuationsundervariousstatutes:FireServicesAct,WildfireAct,HealthAct,EnvironmentEmergency
Act,andtheMinesAct.Currently,thereisnofederallegislationthataddressesevacuationsofpeople
livingonFirstNationreserves.Provinciallegislationdoesnotapplytoreserveland.TreatyFirstNations,
however,maybeconsideredalocalauthorityunderprovinciallegislationdependingonthetreaty
agreement.
Therearetwotypesofevacuations:atacticalevacuationandanevacuationunderastateoflocal
emergency.Atacticalevacuationallowsforimminentactionwherethethreatpresentswithlittleorno
warning,suchasthosecarriedoutbytheOfficeoftheFireCommissionerortheWildfireManagement
Branch.Withanevacuationunderadeclarationofstateoflocalemergency,thepopulationisrequired
toevacuatetheareaimmediatelyinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofaformalwrittendocument.
Examplesofthistypeofeventmayincludeforecastedflood,stormsurgeorapproachingwildfires.

6.1 EvacuationStages
Whenitisdeterminedthatanevacuationisrequired,thewarningmustbetimelyandaccurate.While
themainconcernisthepreservationoflife,thosedisplacedfromtheirhomesorbusinessesmaybe
experiencinginconvenience,anxiety,andfear.Severalagenciesandjurisdictionshavethelegal
authoritytocloseareasandorderevacuation.Regardlessofwhoordersanevacuation,these
OperationalGuidelinesfollowtheprovincialstandardofathreestagedevacuationprocess.
Theevacuationprocedurenormallyfollowsthesethreestages:
STAGE1EvacuationAlert.Authoritieswillalertthepopulationatriskofthepotentialneedfor
evacuationandhighlightthenatureofthethreat.Becauseofthedangerofpossiblelossoflife,
theyshouldbepreparedtoevacuatethearea.TheEvacuationAlertmayallowforthe
populationatrisktobeginanorderlypreparationtoleavetheaffectedareavoluntarily,withina
specifiedperiod;however,therealityofthesituationmayrequireimmediateactionwithvery
shortnotice.Anevacuationalertdoesnotrequireadeclarationofastateoflocalemergency.
STAGE2EvacuationOrder.Thepopulationatriskisorderedtoimmediatelyevacuatethearea
specifiedinaformalwrittenorder.Astatementmustbeincludedinallbulletins,pamphlets,
warningsandordersthatmakesitverycleartoallthat,whiletheevacuationorderisineffect,
theareainquestionwillhavecontrolledaccessandthatapassmayberequiredtoregain
access.

20 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

STAGE3EvacuationRescind.Anevacuationorderoralertisrescindedwhenitisdetermined
tobesafeforresidentstoreturnhome.Anevacuationordermaybereinstatedifthethreat
returns.

6.2 EvacuationPlan
Evacuationplansarecomplexandvaryaccordingtothetypeofincidentandgeographicareainvolved.
AreasofhighriskorvulnerabilitythatareidentifiedthroughtheHRVAprocessshouldhavedetailed
plansthatarevalidatedthroughregularreviewsandexercisesinvolvingstaffwithresponsibilityfor
planningandconductingevacuations.TheOperationalGuidelinesforEvacuationsmanualisavailableto
assistlocalgovernmentplannersincreatingtheirevacuationplan.
Theresponsibilitiesofalocalauthorityintheeventofanevacuationinclude:

activatingtheevacuationplan

declaringastateoflocalemergency

developingeventspecificevacuationstrategies

preparingandauthorizingEvacuationAlertsandOrders

activatingEmergencySocialServices

providingconcise,consistentandaccurateinformationtothepublicandthemedia

ensuringseniorofficialshavebeenalertedandarebriefed

developingastrategytomanageconvergentvolunteers

trackingandrecordinginformationontheevacuation(e.g.,numbersevacuated)

trackingcostsandresources

closingroads

providingsecurityforevacuatedareas

securingorrelocatingessentialsuppliesandequipmentneededtosustainoperations
andmeetevacueeneeds.Considerationshouldinclude,butisnotlimitedto,the
following:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

food,water,clothing,bedsandbedding
medicalequipmentandsupplies
portablegeneratorsandlightingdevices
telecommunicationcapacityforfamilyreunificationandpublicinformation
gasanddieselfuel
sanitationservices
publicworksvehiclesandequipment
policeandfirefightingservices

21 |EmergencyResponse

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Emergency
Financial
Assistance

1.0 Introduction
Asmanylocalgovernmentsknowfirsthand,emergenciescanbeexpensive.Thecostofrespondingto
eventscanquicklyreachtensorhundredsofthousandsofdollars.Safeguardingthepublic,protecting
property,andimplementingotherresponseobjectivescanrequiresubstantialshorttermexpenditures
thatmaypresentfinancialchallenges.
UndertheBCEmergencyProgramActandtheCompensationandDisasterFinancialAssistance(C&
DFA)Regulation,localauthoritiescanreceivefinancialassistanceforeligibleemergencyresponsecosts
incurredduringanevent,andassistanceforsomepostdisasterrecoverycostsexpendedtorepairor
restorepublicworksandfacilitiesthatareessentialtotheiroperationaswellascostsassociatedwith
communityrecoveryactivitiessuchasthoseassociatedwitharesiliencecentre.Underthislegislation,
EMBCisauthorizedtoassistlocalauthoritieswitheligiblecostsforresponseandrecovery,providing
thereissufficientdocumentation.
TheNisgaaGovernmentandotherFirstNationsarealsoeligibleunderfederallegislationtoreceive
financialassistanceforeligibleresponseandrecoverycosts.ThroughanagreementwithIndianand
NorthernAffairsCanada,EMBCadministersDFAforFirstNationsinthesamemannerasforlocal
authorities.ThesameeligibilityanddocumentationrequirementsforDFAthatapplytolocalauthorities
alsoapplytoFirstNations.

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

2.0 OverviewofEligibleCosts
EMBChasdevelopedtheFinancialAssistanceforEmergencyResponseCostsAGuideforLocal
AuthoritiesandFirstNations(alsoreferredtoastheFinancialAssistanceGuide).Thisguideprovides
localauthoritiesandFirstNationswithinformationontheproceduresrequiredtomaximizeclaimsfor
financialassistancewiththecostsofbothresponseandrecovery.
Eligibleexpensespaidaredesignedtocoveronlyextraordinary,incrementalexpensesdirectly
attributabletotheemergencyevent.Theydonotencompassnormaloperatingexpenses,business
continuityactivitiesorexpendituresrequiredbyotherlegislation.
Thechartbelowsummarizestheratiosofprovincialfinancialassistanceavailableforeligiblelocal
authorityresponseandrecoverycosts:

ExpenseType

%ofEligibleCosts

LocalAuthorityResponse

100%

LocalAuthorityInfrastructureRecovery(ifDFAauthorized)

80%

BusinessInterruption

Noeligiblecosts

LocalAuthorityResponseCostslocalauthorityresponsemaybeginbeforeimpactifearly
informationwarnsofanimminentevent,andmaycontinueaslongastheeventisinprogressor
theimminentthreatexists.

o UndertheEPAct,theMinisterispermittedtoassistalocalauthoritywith100percent
ofeligibleresponsecosts.TheFinancialAssistanceGuideincludesamatrixofcommon
eligibleresponseexpendituresincluding:

sandbaggingandevacuationactivities

overtimecostsoflocalauthoritystaff

ESScostsfollowinganevacuationorder

costsassociatedwithfeedingEOCstaff

securitycosts

rentedequipmentneededduringresponse

Alocalauthoritywillnotreceiveassistanceforineligiblecosts,suchasbasesalariesorwagesfor
regularstaff,orexpenditureclaimsthatarenotsupportedbydocumentation.Thematrix
includesmoreinformationaboutineligibleexpenditures.

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Onlycostsactuallyincurredareeligible.Foregonerevenuesuchaswaiveddumpingfeesortime
takeninlieuofpaidovertimeisnoteligible.Forexpendituresthatarenotdescribedorare
ambiguous,localgovernmentsmustcontactEMBCforpriorauthorizationiftheyhavean
expectationofreimbursement.

CommunityRecoveryCostscommunityrecoveryrecognizesthatcommunitiesandindividuals
havearangeofrecoveryneedsandismostsuccessfulwhenconductedinacoordinated
manner.Communitydisasterrecoveryisarelativelynewconceptforlocalauthoritiesand
mechanismstosupportthequickandefficientactivationofcommunityrecoveryplanningis
required.
Communityrecoveryactivitiestakeplaceduringboththeresponseandrecoveryphasesofan
emergencyandtheamountsreimbursabletoalocalauthorityfallsbetween80%and100%.One
exampleofacommunityrecoveryexpensereimbursedat100%isaResilienceCentrewhere
activities,conductedduringthetransitionalperiodbetweenresponseandrecovery,contribute
totheeffectivecoordinationofassistancetoimpactedresidents.ResilienceCentrescan
decreaselongtermsocialandfiscalimpactstotheprovincebycoordinatingnongovernment
agenciestofillgapsanddisbursedonatedfundsandgoods.
ManycommunityrecoveryexpendituresmaynotbedescribedintheFinancialAssistance
Guidelines;therefore,localgovernmentsmustcontactEMBCforpriorauthorizationiftheyhave
anexpectationofreimbursement.

LocalAuthorityRecoveryCostslocalauthorityrecoveryinvolveseffortstoreturn
infrastructuretoitspredisastercondition.Localauthorityrecoveryappliestotherepairor
replacementofstructures,equipmentandmaterialsthatareessentialtothelocalauthoritys
functionsandoperations.
UndertheC&DFARegulation,theMinistermayassistlocalauthoritieswith80percentof
eligiblecostsrequiredtorepairorrestorepublicfacilitiesandreplacematerialsontheamount
ofacceptedclaimthatexceeds$1,000perevent.Toqualifyforsuchpayments,thelocal
authoritymustfollowadefinedsetofstepsinplanninganddocumentation,outlinedinthe
FinancialAssistanceGuide.
Localauthoritiesmayclaimrecoverycostsincurredtorepairand/orrestoretopredisaster
conditionanypublicfacilitiesormaterialsthatareessentialtolocalauthorityfunctionsand
operations.Alocalauthoritywillnotreceiveassistanceforrecoverycoststhatarenoteligible
undertheRegulation.Forexample,theProvincewillnotassistalocalauthoritywithstockpiling
suppliesorwithreplacingequipmentthatmayhavebeendamagedbyincidentsotherthanthe
event.

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Generaladministrativecostsassociatedwithindividualrecoveryprojectsmayqualifyfor
financialassistanceforamountsupto10percentofeligiblecostsincurred,asdeemed
appropriatebyEMBC.

BusinessInterruptionLossesdonotqualifyforfinancialassistanceunderBClegislation.This
includeslocalauthoritycostsandinterruptedrevenuesthatmaynotbeimmediatelyobvious,
includinglostincomefrompublicfacilitiesandlosttaxbase.Theselosstypesmayarisefrom
otherimpacts,suchaspublicworksandfacilitiesdamage.

3.0 LocalAuthorityResponseCosts
Responsemeasuresarethewidearrayofeffortsneededtosavelives,reducesuffering,safeguardpublic
health,protectpropertyandenvironment,andreduceeconomicandsocialimpacts.
Whenpreparingasuccessfulrequestforassistancewithresponseexpenditures,LocalAuthorities
shouldkeepinmindthefollowing:

Eligibilityresponsecostsmustbeeligible.Theprovinceappliesspecificprinciplesin
determiningeligibility.

EvidenceassistancewillonlybeapprovediftheLocalAuthorityprovidesproper
documentation.

Localgovernmentsmustdemonstratewithclearevidencethattheyincurredresponseexpendituresthat
areeligibleforfinancialassistance.TheonusofproofisontheLocalAuthority.Thereisanotherreason
formunicipalitiesandregionaldistrictstocarefullytracktheircostsinemergencyresponse.Local
AuthoritiesarepermittedunderSection17oftheEmergencyProgramActtoseekrecoveryofresponse
costsfrompersonsthatcauseemergencies.Tomakesuchaclaim,theLocalAuthoritywouldneeda
detailedaccountingofitsresponseexpenditures.

3.1 EligibilityofResponseCosts

Eligibilityisacriticalfactorinsuccessfulclaimsforlocalgovernmentresponseexpenditures.Eligibilityof
responsecostsisbasedonthefollowingfactors:

TypeofEventmostdisasterscausedbynaturalhazardsmaybeconsideredforfinancial
assistanceunderBClegislation,includingfloods,severewinterstorms,landslidesand
mudslides,andsomewildfiresituations.However,notallemergencieswillqualifyfor
financialassistance.

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EventSizeorMagnitudemostemergencyeventsthatalocalauthoritymayfacewillbe
smallinsizeandrequirerelativelylittleresponseeffort.Theprovincereservestherightto
refuseclaimsfromlocalauthorities.Minorfloodsorsnowstorms,forexample,wouldnot
automaticallytriggerprovincialassistanceforresponsecosts.

NatureofExpenditureonlyresponseexpensesandstafftimeoverandabovenormalday
todaycostsareeligibleforassistance.Eligibilitypertainstoresponsecostsforefforts
neededtopreservepublicsafetyrelatedtoaspecificevent.Thismeansthatothernon
eventobjectives,suchaspromotingtourismtoprotectthelocaleconomy,arenoteligible.
Ingeneral,alocalauthoritywillbeabletoclaimmostofthecostsinvolvedwithemergency
response,including:
o
o
o
o
o

sitecosts
EOCcosts
ESScosts
anycoststhatwereapprovedbyaprovincialExpenseAuthorizationForm
anycostsincurredonbehalfoftheProvinceandauthorizedbytheMinister

Thereareexceptions,however,anditisimportantthateachlocalauthorityunderstandthe
rulesofeligibilitythatapplytothenatureofresponseexpenditures.
Responseactivitiesmayincludeawiderangeofactions,dependingonthetypeofeventand
needforprotectiveaction.Examplesofeligiblecostsforresponseactionsatthesiteofan
emergencyare:
o

purchasingsandbagsandsand,andrentingbagfillingmachinesduringaflood

hiringtreeexpertstoremovedangeroustreesfollowingawildfireorwindstorm

hiringcontractsecuritycrewstopatrolevacuatedneighbourhoods

purchasingfoodandfuelforESSvolunteers

rentingprivatepropertyasastagingareaforheavyequipment

immediateandtemporaryrepairstopotablewaterlinesfollowinganearthquake

Inadditiontositerelatedcosts,responsecostscouldalsoincludesitesupportactionsthat
takeplaceattheEOCorotherfacility,includingtheseexamples:
o

rentingroomsandfurnitureforEOCfacilities

purchasingpaper,folders,labels,andotherofficesuppliesfortheEOC

rentingcomputers,printers,faxmachinesandotherofficeequipmentfortheEOC

servicechargesforconnectingtelephonesanddatalines

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

purchasingfoodandwaterforEOCpersonnel

contractchargesforpaidEOCpersonnel

overtimecostsforlocalauthoritystaffsupportingemergencyresponse

travelandaccommodationchargesforEOCpersonnel

contractedjanitorialandsecurityservicesfortheEOCandotherresponsefacilities

ContractandEquipmentRatestherearenoprovinciallimitsonwhatalocalauthoritymay
payforservicecontractsandequipmentrentalsduringresponse.However,therearelimits
ontherateseligibleforfinancialassistancefromtheprovince.
Contractorscomewithawiderangeoffees,dependingontheuniquenessoftheirskills.
Mostcontractorswillchargetheirstandardhourlyordailyratesforworkduring
emergencies.Theprovincewillonlyassistalocalauthoritywithequipmentrentalcostsup
totheratesacceptedbytheprovince.TheseratesarereadilyavailableintheBlueBook
EquipmentRentalRateGuide,includingvaluesforawiderangeofheavyequipment.

CompensationthroughOtherMeansifthelocalauthorityhasaccesstofundsfor
responseexpendituresthroughothermeans,theprovincemayreduceorforegopayment
totheLocalAuthority.Forexample,iftheLocalAuthorityseekslegalcompensationfroma
personwhocausedanemergencyundertheEmergencyProgramAct,theprovincewill
accountforsuchclaimsincalculatingtheamountofprovincialassistancetotheLocal
Authority.

3.2 ResponseClaimProcedures

Duringtheresponsephase,theLocalAuthorityshouldtakespecificstepstoseekassistancefromthe
provinceforresponseexpenditures.AttentiontodetailisimportanttoensureaccuracyoftheLocal
Authorityclaim.TheLocalAuthoritywillwanttomaximizetheirclaimamountbyincludingalleligible
expenses,andtoavoidtheinclusionofineligibleitemsthatmaysubstantiallydelaytheapproval
process.
ThestepsLocalAuthoritiesshouldfollowinseekingfinancialassistanceforresponsecostsare:
Step1DocumentRationaleforResponseExpendituresAsuccessfulrequestforfinancial
assistancemustincludeevidencethatsupportstheclaim.TheLocalAuthoritymustprovide
documentationthatverifiesseveralaspectsofeachcostitem:

costamountoftheitem

datethematerialsorservicewasused

evidenceofthepurposeofthegoodsorservices

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

proofthattheLocalAuthoritypaidthesupplierorcontractor

Mostoftheserequirementscanbemetbyprovidingclearreceiptsandinvoices,andreferencing
thesupportingdocumentation.TheLocalAuthorityshouldhaverecordedthepurposeand
rationaleforeachresponseexpenditureidentifiedinaclaimatthetimeofcommitment.
Step2PayInvoices.Priortoclaimingresponseexpenditures,theLocalAuthoritymustensure
thatallcontractors,personnel,andothersuppliershavebeenpaid.Sometipstokeepinmind
whenpayinginvoicesinclude:

requiresupplierstoidentifythenameoftheeventandnatureofgoodsorservices
suppliedontheirinvoice

stampeachinvoicewithGoodsandServicesReceivedandobtainasignaturefroma
LocalAuthorityrepresentativewhocanverifyreceipt

ensuretheincidentTasknumberandassociatedExpenditureAuthorizationForm
number,ifapplicable,areincludedatthetopofeachinvoice

verifysumscalculatedontheinvoiceandidentifyanyHSTcharges

contactthesuppliertoobtainanymissinginformationorsignatures

Step3CollectandOrganizeDocumentationAssemblealldocumentsrelatedtoresponse
expendituresandorganizethemforpresentationtoEMBC.Thisincludesmakingphotocopiesof
allpaidinvoicesandreceipts,aswellasdocumentingevidencethatthelocalauthoritypaidfor
thegoodsorservicesusedinresponse.
OrganizingtheseimportantdocumentshelpsEMBCquicklyfindandverifyclaims.Local
authoritiesmaywanttoconsiderorganizingexpenseitemsbydateincurred,byresponse
objective,orbytypeofgoodsorservices.Sometipsinclude:

ensuretherearenomissingreceipts,orexplaininabriefstatementwhyareceiptisnot
available.

obtainevidenceofpayment,suchasaphotocopyofachargeagainstthelocal
authoritysgeneralledger.

avoidjargon,spelloutacronymsandexplaintechnicalterms

Step4PrepareaResponseClaimWiththeevidencegatheredinStep3,thelocalauthority
preparesaresponseclaimforsubmittaltoEMBC.UsingtheResponseClaimSubmission
SpreadsheetintheFinancialAssistanceGuide,identifyeachexpenseitemforwhichthereis
documentation,andcalculatethesummaryinformationindicated.EMBCrecommendsthatlocal
authoritiesusespreadsheetapplicationsoftware(suchasMSExcel)withtheheadingsnotedin
thesampleprovidedunderFormsforResponse.

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

EachLocalAuthorityisresponsibleforsubmittingitsownclaim.FirstNationsthathaveincurred
responseexpensesshouldsubmittheirindividualclaimstoEMBC,eveniftheyparticipatewitha
LocalAuthorityinresponse.LocalAuthoritiesarenotresponsibleforclaimingcostsincurredby
FirstNations,eveniftheyshareemergencyoperations.
WhereLocalAuthoritieshavechosentojointlyoperateasingleEOCthroughaunified
managementstructureorintegratedemergencyprogram,oneLocalAuthoritymaysubmita
singleclaimforreimbursementofemergencycoststoEMBConbehalfofalltheLocalAuthority
participants.EMBCwillreimbursethelocalauthoritythatsubmittedtheclaiminasinglesum,and
LocalAuthoritiesparticipatinginajointclaimmakemustmaketheirownarrangementsforthe
distributionoftheproceeds.
Step5SubmitCompletedResponseClaimInthefinalstepofclaimingresponsecosts,the
LocalAuthoritysendsthecompletedformsanddocumentationtoEMBCforprocessing.Response
claimsmustinclude:

SummarySheetincludeasummarysheetforcostsclaimedoneachsubmission.A
sampletemplateisprovidedunderFormsforResponseintheGuide

Invoicessubmitinvoicesforallgoodsandservicesbeingclaimed,withjustificationfor
whythepurchasewasessentialtotheincidentresponseandtheTaskNumber

ProofofPaymentincludefinancialreports(i.e.,generalledgerdetailorlistofexpenses
claimedcompletewithcopiesofpaidcheques[frontandback])thatverifyallinvoice
andpayrollcosts

HSTCalculationsclaimonlytheportionnotrecoverablebyHSTrebate

AccountsseparateaccountsmustbemaintainedforeachTaskNumberassigned

Mailandcourierpackagescanbelost.Retainacopyoftheclaimandallbackupdocuments.Be
suretoprovidethename,telephonenumber,andemailaddressofthepersoninthefinance
departmentwhocananswerquestionsabouttheclaim.

3.3 FinancingtheEmergencyProgram
ThegoalofdevelopinganEmergencyProgramthatmeetsoperationalrequirementscanbefinancially
challenging.TheorganizationwillneedtodeterminetheEmergencyProgramsrequirementsandthe
resourcesneededtomeetthem.
Training,exercising,programgrowthandfacilityimprovementsareongoingcostsassociatedwithawell
runEmergencyProgram.Fundingmustbestablefromyeartoyearbutalsoneedstobeflexibleenough

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

toaccommodateperiodicadjustments.Inadditiontoanoperatingbudget,acapitalimprovement
budgetshouldbedeveloped.
ConsiderationsforfundinganEmergencyPrograminclude:
Taxation
Mostjurisdictionsallowforthecostsofmaintainingemergencymanagementorganizations
throughdirecttaxationofitscitizens.Suchasecuredsourceoffundingallowsfortheoperation
andmaintenanceofanemergencyprogramscapacity,whichmayincludedailyoperating
expenses,salaries,equipment,training,exercises,andvolunteerrecognition.
Budgets
Whileeachorganizationwillhaveitsownbudgetprocess,allprogramswillneedtodevelop
capitalandoperatingbudgetsforthedevelopmentandongoingmanagementofthe
EmergencyProgram.
Thecapitalbudgetaddressesthefinancingandexpendituresrequiredtoacquire,construct,or
improvefixedassetssuchasland,buildings,andequipment.Theoperatingbudgetaddresses
thetotalrevenuesandexpendituresrequiredtomaintainanddeveloptheEmergencyProgram
onanannualbasis.
OperatingBudget:

Stafftimeandbenefits
Contractorcosts
Facilitymaintenancecosts
Trainingcosts
Conference/workshopattendance
Travelcosts
Supplies
Insurance
Telephonelines
InternetandcableTVcosts

CapitalBudget:

Facilityacquisition,renovation,expansion
Furniture
Majorofficeequipmentandcomputers
Backupgenerator

|EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Reservefunds:

CostsnoteligibleforreimbursementbyEMBC
Emergencyrepairstofacilities
Matchingfundsavailableforgrantopportunities

InkindandIndustrysupport
Partnershipscanbeaneffectivemeansofreducingcostsandpromotingintegratedemergency
management.Identifyandapproachpotentialpartnerswhomayhaveaninterestinaneffective
emergencyprogramtoincreasecommunityresiliency.

3.4 JointEmergencyPreparednessProgram
TheGovernmentofCanadaestablishedtheJointEmergencyPreparednessProgram(JEPP)asacost
sharingarrangementwiththeprovincesandterritoriestoenhancethenationalcapacitytorespondto
alltypesofemergencies.InBC,EMBCadministersJEPPonbehalfofPublicSafetyCanada.
JEPPisavailabletolocalgovernmentsandFirstNationsthroughanapplicationprocessandinorderto
beeligible,municipalities,regionaldistrictsandFirstNationsmusthavebothanemergencybylawin
placeandanoperationalemergencyplan.Jurisdictionsthathaveanemergencybylawinplace,butdo
nothaveanemergencyplan,areeligibletosubmitaJEPPapplicationtodevelopanemergencyplan.
JEPPfundsmaynotbeusedtofinanceactivitiesconsideredthenormalresponsibilityofalocal
governmentorFirstNationsauthority.
TobeeligibleforJEPPfunding,eachprojectapplicationmustinclude:
Clearobjectivesaimedatcommunitypreparednessorcriticalinfrastructureprotection
Measurableoutcomesandaprojectplan
Astatementabouthowthefederalfinancialcontributiontotheprojectwillberecognized
Astatementregardingprovincialorterritorialfinancialcommitmenttotheproject
Adescriptionofhowtheprojectwillbuildonexistingemergencypreparednessprograms
Thefederalcontributionforacceptedapplicationswillnormallynotexceed50percentoftotalproject
costs.Thiscontributionbecomespayableonlyaftertheprojecthasbeencompletedandtheinvoicesfor
costsincurredhavebeenpaidandsubmittedforreimbursementbytheprovincialandterritorial
governments.

10 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

4.0 LocalAuthorityRecoveryCosts
DisasterFinancialAssistanceProgram(DFA)isadministeredbytheMinistryofPublicSafetyandSolicitor
General,throughEMBC,undertheauthorityoftheCompensationandDisasterFinancialAssistance
Regulation.DFAisafundingprogramthatprovidesfinancialassistancetoassistindividualsand
communitiesintheirrecoveryfromnaturaldisasters,whichhaveresultedinuninsurablepropertyand
infrastructuredamage.Typicallythesedisastersinvolveoverlandflooding,butotherformsofnatural
disasterssuchaslandslidesmaybeincluded.

Financialassistanceisavailabletothoseimpactedbydisasterasfollows:

Homeownersandresidentialtenants

Smallbusinesses

Farmoperations

Charitablevolunteerandnonprofitorganizations

Localgovernment

DFAisintendedtoeasefinancialhardshipswhenthecostofdamageexceedswhatindividualsand
communitiesmightreasonablybeexpectedtobearontheirown.DFAisnotaninsuranceprogram,
ratheritisintendedtoprovideahelpinghandtoindividualswhoaretryingtoreturntheirlivestoa
preeventcondition.Theprogramdoesnotprovidefullcompensationforalldamagesandlosses,but
addressesthelossofessentialitems.
Eligibilityforfinancialassistancewithrecoverycostsdoesnotdependonadeclarationofastateof
emergencyeitherbytheprovinceorbythelocalauthority.Itdoes,however,requiretheauthorization
oftheMinister.
Dependingonthenatureofthethreat,anemergencymaydirectlyimpactlocalauthoritybuildings,
improvements,structures,dams,pipelines,equipment,materialsandotherpublicworksorfacilities
thatarecriticaltolocalauthorityoperations.Effortstorepairorreplacesuchitemsareincludedinthe
recoveryeffort.
Localgovernmentsareeligibleforfinancialassistancewithcoststoreplaceessentialmaterialsand
rebuildorreplaceessentialpublicinfrastructurestotheconditiontheywereinbeforethedisasteras
follows:

Eligiblelocalauthoritymaterialsequipmentandmaterialsessentialtothefunctionsand
operationofthelocalauthorityincluding,withoutlimitation,essentialofficeand
institutionalfurnishings.

11 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Eligiblelocalauthoritystructureastructurethatisessentialtothefunctionsand
operationsofthelocalauthorityincluding,withoutlimitation,governmentandpublic
buildings,policestations,firestations,andstructuresessentialtotheoperationofpublic
recreationalfacilitiessuchasparks.

Eligiblepublicworksstreets,roads,bridges,dams,breakwaters,wharves,dikes,levees,
drainagefacilities,floodcontrolandirrigationsystemsandpubliclyownedsewerandwater
utilities.

Publicfacilityaneligiblelocalauthoritystructureoranyoneoftheeligiblepublicworks.

Actionstakentorepairorreplacedamagedfacilitiescanbecostlyandtimeconsuming,andmayrequire
majorprojectsoverseveralphasesofeffort.Someofthemoreexpensivetasksrequiredinfacilityrepair
includehiringexpertsto:

assessdamage

cleanupandremovedebris

prepareprojectplansandengineeringdrawings

repairdamagedfacilities

replaceessentialcomponents

testfacilitiespriortooperation

Theremayalsobesignificantadministrativecostsassociatedwithanemergencyevent,including
managerialandstafftimetodevelopprojectstorepairpublicfacilitiesandworks,topreparerecovery
plans,andtoalerttheprovincetotheneedforfinancialassistance.Alocalauthoritythatiseligiblefor
assistancemustsubmitarecoveryplantoEMBCdetailingthevariousprojectsitintendstoundertake
forcleanupandrestoration.Alocalauthorityshouldacknowledgethetimerequiredfortheseimportant
administrativeeffortsanddedicatetheappropriatepersonnel.
Theseandotherrelatedrecoveryexpendituresmaybeeligibleforfinancialassistanceunderthe
regulation.ApplicationsforDFAmustbesubmittedtoEMBCwithin90daysofthedatethatDFAwas
authorized.

4.1 EligibilityofRecoveryCosts
WhenaneventisdeclaredeligibleforDFA,EMBCisauthorizedtohelplocalauthoritiesrebuildand
restorecommunitiesafteranemergencyordisaster.Localauthoritiesmayonlyclaimrecoverycosts
thatareeligible.Eligibilityofrecoverycostsaredeterminedbasedonthreefactors:

12 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Ownership.Alocalauthoritymayonlyreceiveassistanceforrecoverycostsrelatedtopublic
facilitiesandmaterialsthatitownsandforwhichitcandemonstrateownership.In
summary,therearetwocategoriestoconsider:
o

Eligiblereconstructionorreplacementofstructures,equipment,andmaterialsfor
whichthereisproofoflocalauthorityownership,includinganytitles,rights,or
privilegesassignedbywayofaleaseorpermit.

NotEligiblefacilitiesandmaterialsthatarenotowneddirectlybythelocalauthority,
orwherethelocalauthoritycanprovidenoproofofownership,title,right,orprivilege
assignedbywayofleaseorpermit.

TypeofItem.Eligiblerecoverycostspertaintorebuildingorrestoringpublicfacilities,
structuresandpublicworksorreplacingmaterialsthatareessentialtothefunctionsand
operationofthelocalauthority.Examplesinclude:
o

EligibleStructures
firestations
governmentandpublicbuildings
policestations
recreationalfacilities(e.g.,parks)

EligiblePublicWorks
breakwatersandwharves
bridges
drainagefacilities
sewerutilities
streetsandroads
waterutilities

EligibleMaterials
constructionorothermaterialsneededtorepairdamagewhennotusedfornormal
operations/work(proofofinventory/replenishment/consumption)
equipmentdamagedwhileundertakingeligibleresponseeffortsmaybeconsidered
asarecoverycost

13 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

officefurnishings
replacementoflocalauthoritymaterialsorstoresthathavebeendamagedor
destroyedinrespondingtoemergencyorinrepairingpublicfacilities
suppliesorinventoriesfromlocalgovernmentstores
o

NotEligible
recoverycostsforrepairing,rebuildingorreplacingpublicworksthatcannotbe
consideredessentialtothepublicwelfareincluding,withoutlimitation,nonpublic
roadsandbridgesorlandscaping.

TypeofAction.TheC&DFARegulationdescribesthetypesofrecoveryactionsforwhich
financialassistanceisavailable.Evenforstructuresthatwouldotherwisebeeligible,the
provincecanonlyassistwiththeseactions:
o

RestorationtoPreDisasterConditionrecoverycostsareeligiblewhenrepairingor
replacingfacilitiestoconditionsthatexistedbeforethedisaster.Thereisnoallowance
forbettermentunlessitisrequiredtomeetanewbuildingcodeorlaw.However,the
localauthoritymaychoosetoclaimforamountsthatwouldreturnafacilitytopre
disasterconditionsandpaythedifferencerequiredtoupgradecertainqualitiesofthe
replacementfacility.ThelocalauthorityshouldcoordinatewithEMBCpriortotaking
suchaction.

PreEmptiveProtectioneffortstoprotectlocalauthorityassetsfromdamageduring
aneventareeligible.Inotherwords,protectiveactionsareeligibleiftheyaretaken
immediatelybefore,during,orafteraneventtoreducelossesfromasingle,current
threat.

Noteligiblelosspreventionmeasuresdesignedtoprotectlocalauthorityassetsfroma
potentialfutureemergency.Also,thelocalauthoritycannotlinkseveraldisastrous
eventsinagivenyearorinotheryearsforthepurposesoftheirrecoveryclaim.

4.2 RecoveryClaimProcedures

AuthorityfortheprovincetoassistlocalauthoritieswithrecoverycostscomesfromtheC&DFA.The
provinceispermittedtoassistlocalauthoritieswithrecoverycostsundertwoconditions:1)costsmust
beeligibleunderthelegislation;and2)documentationmustaccompanyclaims.
Foreligiblerecoverycosts,theprovincemayassistthelocalauthoritybyproviding80percentofthe
totalacceptedclaimthatexceeds$1,000intotalrecoverycostsperevent.Underthisregulation,the

14 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

localauthoritymustobtainapprovalfromEMBCbeforesubmittingaclaim,andprovidespecific
documentswithaclaimforreimbursementofrecoverycosts.
Claimingrecoverycostsrequiresfivesteps:
Step1RequestDFA.AlocalauthorityshouldcontacttheirRegionalManagerassoonaspossible
afteradisastertorequestDFAandtoconfirmdetailsoftheprocessofclaimingrecoverycosts.
Followingsubmittalofthelocalauthorityrequest,theRegionalManagerwillcompleteaDFA
Situation,RecommendationandAuthorizationform,andforwardacopytotheEMBCRecovery
Office.TheEMBCRecoveryOfficewillthenseekDFAauthorizationand,uponapproval,notifythe
localauthoritythatitisauthorizedtoprepareandsubmitarecoveryclaim.
Step2CompleteandSubmitLocalGovernmentApplicationforDFAForm.Alocalauthority
completesaLocalGovernmentApplicationforDFAformandsubmitsittotheEMBCRecovery
Office.AfterreviewingtheLocalGovernmentApplicationforDFAformandverifyingthe
informationprovided,theRecoveryOfficewillprepareandforwardtothelocalauthoritya
notificationletter,requestingaRecoveryPlanandprovidingtherecommendedformat.
Step3CompleteandSubmitRecoveryPlanandDocumentation.Alocalauthorityprepares
theRecoveryPlanthataddressesrepairorreplacementofessentialmaterials,structuresand
publicworks.TheintentoftheRecoveryPlanistoprovideEMBCwithenoughdetailed
informationtoassesstheeligibleDFAcosts.EMBCwillthen:

ReviewtheRecoveryPlan

Contactthelocalauthorityifadditionalinformationisrequired

Recommendtheeligibilityofprojects

Updatetheplanindicatingwhichprojectsareeligibleorineligible

Notifylocalauthorityoffundinglevels

Step4CompleteandSubmitRecoveryClaimSubmissionandDocumentation.Followingthe
completionofrecoverywork,thelocalauthoritypreparesandsubmitsaRecoveryClaim
Submissiontoaccountforeachcostitem.EMBCrecommendsthatlocalauthoritiesuse
spreadsheetapplicationsoftwarewiththeheadingsnotedinthesampleformfromtheFinancial
AssistanceGuide.
Alocalauthorityprovidescopiesofallsupportdocumentationthatdemonstratesthecosts
involved,confirmslocalauthoritypaymentstosuppliers,andprovidesotherinformationrequired
tojustifytheclaim.Includecopiesofallpaidinvoicesandreceipts,withproofofpayment.Ensure
therearenomissingreceipts,orexplaininabriefstatementwhyareceiptisnotavailable.

15 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

Timelinesallclaimsandinvoicesmustbesubmitted,atthelatest,within18monthsof
thedateEMBCprovidestherecoveryplanapprovalnotice.Ifprojectscannotbe
completedontime,aletteroutliningthereasonsforthedelaymustbesubmittedto
EMBCforapprovaltoextendtheprojectcompletiondate.

HSTisreimbursedfortheportionnotrecoverablebytheHSTrebate.Uponreceiving
theRecoveryClaimSubmissionandallsupportingdocumentation,EMBCwillreview
invoicesforeligibilityandconfirmproofofpayment,notifythelocalauthorityof
paymentapproval,andarrangeforpayment.

Step5ReceiveFinancialAssistanceonEligibleCosts.Inmostcases,thelocalauthorityshould
receivepaymentwithin60daysofreceiptbyEMBCofacompletedRecoveryClaimSubmission
andallsupportingdocumentation.

5.0 EOCFinanceandAdministration
SomelocalauthoritiesmayworkthroughanEOCinmanagingtheirfinancialrequirements,ratherthan
relyingonbusypersonnelatthesiteofanemergencyoronsupportpersonnelatheadquartersthatmay
bedistantfromtherequiredinformationsources.
Tobemosteffective,theFinance&Administration(F&A)SectionofanEOCshouldbeoperatingassoon
aspossibleinanemergencythatgenerateslocalauthorityresponsecosts.TheF&ASectionis
responsiblefortrackingcostinformation,andensuringaccuratedatamaketheirwayintodaily
summariesandeventtotals,andintosubsequentlocalauthorityrequestsforfinancialassistance.
Financialtrackingmeansmorethansimplybeingaccountabletothelocalauthoritytaxpayers.Itmay
meansignificantdollarsinresponseexpendituresarereturnedtothelocalgovernment.Ifmultiplelocal
authoritiesareworkingtogetherinacoordinatedresponse,eachrequiresseparatefinancialtracking
systemsforresponseclaims.
Evenifthelocalauthorityrequiresresourcesforwhichtheprovincewillnotprovideassistance,thelocal
authorityisusuallyexpectedtokeeptheirPolicyGroup(electedofficialsorsenioradministrators)
informedastocoststhattheorganizationmayberequiredtoabsorb.
FromtheperspectiveofanEOC,thelocalauthorityshouldundertakefouractivitiestoassistwithlater
claimsforresponsecosts.AllfouractivitiesinvolvedirectcommunicationwiththePREOCservingthe
localauthority:

16 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

ObtainTaskNumberalllocalgovernmentsengagedinanemergencyshouldrequestaTask
NumberfortrackingpurposesfromEMBC,eitherthroughtheEOCortheirRegionalManager.
Everysupplierandcontractor,allstaffmembersworkingovertime,andallvolunteersshould
recordandreferencetheTaskNumberintrackingtheirhoursandcosts.

SubmitExpenditureAuthorizationFormstoPREOCthereisroomforinterpretationofthe
provincialfinancialassistanceguidelinesunderthelegislation.Thisprovidestheflexibility
neededtoallowthelegislationtoworkasintendedthatis,tohelpthosemostinneed.Itisin
theinterestofeverylocalauthoritytocheckassumptionsabouttheresponsecoststheprovince
willconsidereligible,especiallywhendealingwithlargecostitems.
Toconfirmiftheprovincewillassistwithambiguous,extraordinary,orothereligibleresponse
expenses,theEOCmustsubmitanExpenditureAuthorizationForm(EAF)tothePREOCpriorto
anexpensebeingincurred.FinanceSectionpersonnelinanEOCareencouragedtocontacttheir
counterpartsinthePREOCtodiscusseligibilityandtherequirementsoftheEAF.
OnceanEAFhasbeenauthorizedbythePREOC,thelocalgovernmentisassuredtheprovince
willprovideassistancetotheamountspecified,aslongasthelocalgovernmentprovidesthe
properdocumentationwiththeclaim.Ifcircumstancesrequireanincreaseintheestimate,the
localgovernmentshouldprepareanaddendumtotheEAFandseekauthorizationthroughthe
PREOC.

PrepareDailyExpenseReportlocalauthoritydecisionmakerswillwanttomakeresponse
decisionswithfullknowledgeofthecumulativecoststodate.Likewise,thePREOCwillmonitor
localauthoritycostsforwhichtheprovincemaybeexpectedtoprovidefinancialassistance.To
accomplishsuchmonitoring,thelocalauthoritypreparesadailyexpensereportandsubmitsit
tothePREOC.
Thelocalauthorityshouldalsomaintainadailyovertimespreadsheettoestimateovertime
paymentsforlocalauthoritystaff.

SubmitResourceRequeststoPREOCunderBCERMS,thelocalauthorityisresponsiblefor
usinglocalresourcestofillimmediateneedstothegreatestextentpossible.Resourcesmean
materialgoods,equipment,orpersonnelrequiredtoassistresponseobjectives.

Iflocallyavailableresourcesareinsufficientforoperationalneeds,theLocalAuthoritymay
requestassistancethroughanotherLocalAuthorityorthroughthePREOC.SomeResource
RequestswillrequiretheLocalAuthoritytoinitiallypaythesupplier,althoughthePREOCmay
arrangefortheresources.ForsuchResourceRequestswithfinancialimpacts,theLocal
AuthorityshouldensurethepropercodesarenotedontheResourceRequestFormandonall
invoicestosupportaclaimforfinancialassistance.Thesecodesinclude:

17 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1

EmergencyManagementTrainingManual

TaskNumber

TheLocalAuthorityisresponsibleforensuringthateachResourceRequestFormincludes
thejustificationfortherequest,aswellasallotherpertinentinformation,includinga
signaturebytheEOCDirector.

18 |EmergencyFinancialAssistance

06/22/2011v1