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Census of India 2011 KERALA SERIES-33 PART XII-A DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK PALAKKAD VILLAGE AND TOWN

Census of India 2011

KERALA

SERIES-33

PART XII-A

DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK

PALAKKAD

VILLAGE AND TOWN DIRECTORY

PART XII-A DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK PALAKKAD VILLAGE AND TOWN DIRECTORY DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS KERALA
DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS KERALA
DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS KERALA
DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS

DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS

KERALA

DIRECTORATE OF CENSUS OPERATIONS KERALA
2

2

CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 SERIES-33 KERALA PART XII-A DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK Village and Town Directory

CENSUS OF INDIA 2011

SERIES-33

KERALA

PART XII-A

DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK

Village and Town Directory

PALAKKAD

KERALA PART XII-A DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK Village and Town Directory PALAKKAD Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala

Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala

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MOTIF

MOTIF Bharathapuzha Palakkad is supposed to have derived its name from the Pala tree (Alsteria Scholaris)

Bharathapuzha

Palakkad is supposed to have derived its name from the Pala tree (Alsteria Scholaris) and kadu (forest). Palakkad, due to its geographical position, has a strategic role in Kerala. Before the commissioning of Konkan Railway along the Western coast, Palakkad was the gateway to Kerala from the country. The 32 to 40 km gap in the 960 Km Western Ghats functions as an inlet for northeast monsoon and dry winds. NH 47, a major artillery of Kerala, passes through this Ghat section. The whole area is said to have been once covered by pala trees. Palakkad, the largest producer of rice is known as the granary of Kerala. As many as eight rivers originate from the Palakkad hills. Among the rivers include Bharathapuzha, the longest river in the state. The hilly district has 136257 hectares of reserve forest including Silent Valley. The district which lies at the foot of the colossal Western Ghats has only midland and highland areas. Palakkad had witnessed sev- eral alien invasions that had left indelible impressions on the history of Kerala. The Palakkad Fort of Hyder Ali speaks volumes of Mysore invasions and the advent of the Britishers to the region.

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CONTENTS

 

Pages

1. Foreword

 

7

2. Preface

9

3. Acknowledgements

 

11

4. History and scope of the District Census Handbook

 

13

5. Brief history of the district

15

6. Analytical Note

 

18

Village and Town Directory Brief Note on Village and Town Directory

 

127

7.

Section I - Village Directory

 

(a)

List of Villages merged in towns and outgrowths at 2011 Census

 

(b)

Taluk Maps

(c)

Alphabetical list of Villages along with location code 2001 and 2011

 

(d)

Taluk wise Village Directory

 

(e)

Appendices to Village Directory

 

Appendix

I

:

:

:

:

:

Summary showing total number of villages having Educational,

204

 

Medical and other amenities in villages - Taluk level Villages by number of Primary Schools

207

 

Appendix I A Appendix I B

Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools

207

Appendix I C

Villages with different sources of drinking water facilities available

207

Appendix II

Villages with 5,000 and above population which do not have one or more amenities available

208

Appendix

III

:

:

Land utilization data in respect of Census towns

211

Appendix

IV

Taluk wise list of inhabited villages where no amenity other

211

 

than drinking water facility

is available

 

Appendix

V

:

Summary showing number of Villages not having Scheduled Caste population

212

Appendix VI

:

212

Appendix VII A :

Summary showing number of Villages not having Scheduled Tribe population List of villages according to the proportion of the Scheduled Castes to the total population by range

213

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Pages

 

Appendix VII B :

Appendix VIII :

List of villages according to the proportion of the Scheduled Tribes to the total population by ranges

217

Number of villages under each Gram Panchayat (Taluk wise)

221

8.

Section II - Town Directory

 
 

(a)

Town Directory Statement I

-

Status and Growth History

234

(b)

Town Directory Statement II

-

Physical aspects and location of towns, 2009

237

(c)

Town Directory Statement III

-

Civic and other amenities, 2009

239

(d)

Town Directory Statement IV

-

Medical Facilities, 2009

242

(e)

Town Directory Statement V

-

Educational, Recreational and cultural

244

 

facilities,2009

 

(f)

Town Directory Statement VI

-

Industry and banking, 2009

248

(g)

Town Directory Statement VII

-

Civic and other amenities in slums, 2009

249

(h)

Appendix to Town Directory

-

Towns showing their outgrowth with population

267

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FOREWORD

The District Census Handbook (DCHB) is an important publication of the Census Organization since 1951. It contains both Census and non Census data of urban and rural areas for each District. The Census data provide information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics of population at the lowest administrative unit i.e. of each Village and Town and ward of the District. The Primary Census Abstract (PCA) part of this publication contains Census data including data on household amenities collected during 1 st .phase of the Census i.e. House Listing and Housing Census. The non Census data presented in the DCHB is in the form of Village Directory and Town Directory contain information on various infrastructure facilities available in the village and town viz; education, medical, drinking water, communication and transport, post and telegraph, electricity, banking, and other miscellaneous facilities. Later on, the Telegraph Services were closed by the Government of India on 15 th July, 2013. The data of DCHB are of considerable importance in the context of planning and development at the grass-root level.

2. In the 1961 Census, DCHB provided a descriptive account of the District, Administrative statistics,

Census tables and Village and Town Directory including Primary Census Abstract. This pattern was changed in 1971 Census and the DCHB was published in three parts: Part-A related to Village and Town Directory, Part-B to Village and Town PCA and Part-C comprised analytical report, administrative statistics, District Census tables and certain analytical tables based on PCA and amenity data in respect of Villages. The 1981 Census DCHB was published in two parts: Part-A contained Village and Town Directory and Part-B the PCA of Village and Town including the SCs and STs PCA up to Tahsil/Town levels. New features along with restructuring of the formats of Village and Town Directory were added. In Village Directory, all amenities except electricity were brought together and if any amenity was not available in the referent Village, the distance in broad ranges from the nearest place having such an amenity, was given.

3. The pattern of 1981 Census was followed by and large for the DCHB of 1991 Census except the

format of PCA. It was restructured. Nine-fold industrial classification of main workers was given against the four-fold industrial classification presented in the 1981 Census. In addition, sex wise population in 0- 6 age group was included in the PCA for the first time with a view to enable the data users to compile more realistic literacy rate as all children below 7 years of age had been treated as illiterate at the time of 1991 Census. One of the important innovations in the 1991 Census was the Community Development Block (CD Block) level presentation of Village Directory and PCA data instead of the traditional Tahsil/Taluk/PS level presentation.

4. As regards DCHB of 2001 Census, the scope of Village Directory was improved by including some

other amenities like banking, recreational and cultural facilities, newspapers & magazines and most important commodity manufactured in a Village in addition to prescribed facilities of earlier Censuses. In Town Directory, the statement on Slums was modified and its coverage was enlarged by including details on all slums instead of notified slums .

5. The scope and coverage of Village Directory of 2011 DCHB has been widened by including a number

of new amenities in addition to those of 2001. These newly added amenities are: Pre-Primary School, Engineering College, Medical College, Management Institute, Polytechnic, Non-formal Training Centre, Special School for Disabled, Community Health Centre, Veterinary Hospital, Mobile Health Clinic, Medical Practitioner with MBBS Degree, Medical Practitioner with no degree, Traditional Practitioner and faith Healer, Medicine Shop, Community Toilet, Rural Sanitary Mart or Sanitary Hardware Outlet in the Village, Community Bio- gas, Sub Post Office, Village Pin Code, Public Call Office, Mobile Phone Coverage, Internet

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Cafes/ Common Service Centre, Private Courier Facility, Auto/Modified Autos, Taxis and Vans, Tractors, Cycle-pulled Rickshaws, Carts driven by Animals, Village connected to National Highway, State Highway, Major District Road, and Other District Road, Availability of Water Bounded Macadam Roads in Village, ATM, Self-Help Group, Public Distribution System(PDS) Shop, Mandis/Regular Market, Weekly Haat, Agricultural Marketing Society, Nutritional Centers (ICDS), Anganwadi Centre, ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist), Sports Field, Public Library, Public Reading Room, Assembly Polling station, Birth & Death Registration Office. In the Town Directory, seven Statements containing the details and the data of each Town have been presented viz.; (i)-Status and Growth History of Towns,(ii)- Physical Aspects and Location of Towns, (iii)-Civic and other Amenities, (iv)-Medical Facilities, (v)-Educational, Recreational & Cultural Facilities, (vi)- Industry & Banking, and (vii)- Civic & other amenities in Slums respectively. Taluk wise data of Village Directory and Village PCA have been presented in DCHB of 2011 Census as presented in earlier Census.

6. The data of DCHB 2011 Census have been presented in two parts, Part-A contains Village and Town

Directory and Part-B contains Village and Town wise Primary Census Abstract. Both the Parts have been published in separate volumes in 2011 Census.

7. The Village and Town level amenities data have been collected, compiled and computerized

under the supervision of Dr.V.M. Gopala Menon, IAS, Director of Census Operations, Kerala. The task of Planning, Designing and Co-ordination of this publication was carried out by Dr. Pratibha Kumari, Assistant Registrar General (SS) under the guidance & supervision of Dr. R.C.Sethi, Ex-Addl. RGI and Shri Deepak Rastogi present Addl.RGI. Shri A.P. Singh, Deputy Registrar General, (Map) provided the technical guidance in the preparation of maps. Shri A.K. Arora, Joint Director of Data Processing Division under the overall supervision of Shri M.S.Thapa, Addl. Director (EDP) provided full cooperation in preparation of record structure for digitization and validity checking of Village and Town Directory data and the programme for the generation of Village Directory and Town Directory including various analytical inset tables as well as Primary Census Abstract (PCA). The work of preparation of DCHB, 2011 Census has been monitored in the Social Studies Division. I am thankful to all of them and others who have contributed to bring out this publication in time.

New Delhi Dated: - 16-06-2014.

8

(Dr. C.Chandramouli) Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.

PREFACE

District Census Hand Book is a unique publication brought out un-interruptedly by the Census Organization since 1951 Census. The publication is widely used by Administrators, Planners, Demographers, Research Scholars and other data users. It contains village-wise and town-wise demographic and socio- economic characteristics of the district along with the status of availability of civic amenities, infrastructural facilities etc.

In earlier censuses, District Census Handbooks were published in single volume with two parts. Part-A of DCHB contained Village and Town Directory and Part -B contained Village and Town Primary Census Abstract data for each district. But this time, it is published in two volumes separately for Part-A and Part-B of each district without changing the nomenclature of DCHB of 2001. This volume contains the Village and Town Directory .

From 2001 Census onwards, the software designed/created by the Data Processing Division of the Office of the Registrar General, India has been used for generation of tables. It reduced considerably the time taken for preparation of the District Census Handbooks. District Census Handbooks are published in Electronic form (pdf files) for the first time during the current Census.

I express my deep gratitude to Dr. C. Chandramouli, Registrar General and Census Commissioner,

India, for his encouragement and valuable guidance for completion of this volume within the timeframe.

I thank Shri Deepak Rastogi, Additional Registrar General (C&T), Shri A.P. Singh, Deputy Registrar General

(Map), Dr. Pratibha Kumari, Assistant Registrar General (SS) of Office of the Registrar General, India for their guidance at each step in the preparation of DCHB. Special thanks are due to Shri M.S. Thapa, Additional Director (EDP), Shri Anil Kumar Arora, Joint Director (EDP) and Shri Anurag Gupta, DPA (EDP). Without their untiring efforts and support, we could not have completed the District Census Handbooks within this time. They were always willing to listen to our requests and find solution for the problems we faced.

All Departments of the State Government co-operated in giving data for inclusion in the publication.

I thank the District Collectors, Tahsildars of every Taluk and Secretaries of Municipal Corporations and

Municipalities in the State who painstakingly collected and furnished all the information needed by us. I also thank all the Departments of the State Government who co-operated with us in giving the data, especially, Directorate of Public Instruction, Forest Department, Rural Development Commissionerate, Industries Department, Economics & Statistics Department, Tourism Department and State Planning Board.

I am very much thankful to Dr. V. M. Gopala Menon, Ex. Director of Census Operations, Kerala for

his support and valuable guidance for drafting this volume. In the beginning, non census data for District Census Handbook were collected under the guidance of Smt. P. Girija, then Joint Director of Census Operations. Information for preparation of analytical notes and all data other than Census data were prepared and scrutinized under the guidance of Shri Francis. K. Manuel, Deputy Director, Shri P. P. Joy, Deputy Director and Smt. L. Ajitha, Asst. Director. Shri A.K. Raman, Statistical Investigator, Gr.I (Retd.) and Smt. Biji.C.R., Statistical Investigator, Gr.I did a great job of putting all the details together and checking them. My sincere thanks are due to them also. The Statistical Investigators Gr. I & II and Compilers who

assisted in the work also did a tremendous job. Digitized maps were used in the District Census Handbooks. This has improved the quality of the maps. I thank Shri K. Selvam, Senior Geographer and Shri K. Shasikanth, Senior Draughtsman who helped in expediting the work. I am thankful to Shri A. N. Rajeev, Deputy Director, Shri A. Sri Raghu, Asst. Director and Smt. P. Lakshmikutty, Asst. Director and their team in Census

9

Section for the efforts taken for finalization of the Primary Census Abstract (PCA). My thanks are due to Smt. L. Ajitha, Shri K. Gireesh Kumar, Smt. P. Lakshmikutty, Shri Aswani Kumar. P. M., Shri Shailendra . A. and Shri K. Gnanaprakasam, Assistant Directors for preparation of DCHB Volumes . My sincere thanks are also due to Shri Francis. K. Manuel, Deputy Director who was in charge of Data Centre, under whose guidance and supervision, the data entry of Village Directory and Town Directory could be completed timely. I am grateful to Shri Jose. T. Varghese, Deputy Director under whose guidance and supervision this publication has been finalised. The effort of many persons have gone into the preparation and publishing of this volume. I take this opportunity to record my gratitude to all of them.

Thiruvananthapuram

14.12.2015

N.RAVICHANDRAN Joint Director of Census Operations, Kerala

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Name of Officers engaged Shri Francis K Manuel Shri Jose T. Varghese Shri P.P. Joy Smt. L. Ajitha

Shri

K. Gnanaprakasam

Deputy Director Deputy Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Assistant Director

Compilation , checking of Data and Preparation of CRC

Smt. Saritha Jalal Smt.Anumol. M. Smt. Biji. C.R. Smt. Jane Jos Smt. K. Sheela

Smt.S.Geethamony Compiler

Compiler

Smt. Rajni Jose

Smt.Shalma.T. Compiler Smt.Rihana.M. Compiler

Smt.Remya.D.S. Compiler

Shri. A.K. Raman

Statistical Investigator Gr.I Statistical Investigator Gr.I Statistical Investigator Gr.I

Statistical Investigator Gr.II Senior Supervisor

Statistical Investigator Gr.I (Retd.) Statistical Investigator Gr.I (Retd.) Statistical Investigator Gr.II(Retd.) Statistical Investigator Gr.II(Retd.) Senior Consultant

Shri.R.Chandrachoodan Smt. B. Valsala Kumari Smt. B. Prasanna Kumari Smt. Smitha Gopinath Data Processing

Shri

N.Jayakumar(Late)

Data

Processing Assistant

Shri

B.Madhu Kumar

Data

Processing Assistant

Shri Sajithraj.K

Data Entry Operator,

Grade B

Shri.Sreekumar.K

Data Entry Operator, Grade B

Mapping

Shri

K. Selvam

Senior Geographer

Shri

N.Venu Nair

Senior Draughtsman

Shri

Shashikanth

Senior Draughtsman

Shri

S.K.Sajeesh

Senior Draughtsman

11

ORGI- Data Processing Division Shri Jaspal SIngh Lamba

Shri

Shri Mukesh Kumar Mahawar

Anurag Gupta

Deputy Director

Ms. Usha

Assistant Director

DPA Grade A DPA Grade A

Ms. Shagufta Nasreen Bhat Ms. Shashi Seth

DPA Grade A Sr. Supervisor

Shri

Khem Verma Jadon

Sr. Consultant

Shri

Yashwant Singh

Jr. Consultant

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HISTORY AND SCOPE OF THE DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK

The need of data at the grass root level for the administrative and planning purposes at sub micro level as well as academic studies prompted the innovation of District Census Handbook. District Census Handbook is a unique publication from the Census organization which provides most authentic details of census and non-census information from village and town level to district level. The District Census Handbook was firstly introduced during the 1951 Census. It contains both census and non census data of urban as well as rural areas for each district. The census data contain several demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the lowest administrative unit i.e. of each village and town and ward of the district. The non census data comprise of data on availability of various civic amenities and infrastructural facilities etc. at the town and village level which constitute Village Directory and Town Directory part of the DCHB. The data of DCHB are of considerable importance in the context of planning and development at grass-root level.

In 1961 census DCHB provided a descriptive account of the district, administrative statistics, census tables and village and town directory including Primary Census Abstract. This pattern was changed in 1971 Census and the DCHB was published in three parts: Part-A related to village and town directory, Part-B to village and town PCA and Part-C comprised analytical report, administrative statistics, district census tables and certain analytical tables based on PCA and amenity data in respect of villages. The 1981 census DCHB was published in two parts: Part-A contained village and town directory and Part-B the PCA of village and town including the SCs and STs PCA up to tahsil/town levels. New features along with restructuring of the formats of village and town directory were added into it. In Village Directory, all amenities except electricity were brought together and if any amenity was not available in the referent village, the distance in broad ranges from the nearest place having such an amenity, was given.

The pattern of 1981 census was followed by and large for the DCHB of 1991 Census except the format of PCA. It was restructured. Nine-fold industrial classification of main workers was given against the four-fold industrial classification presented in the 1981 census. In addition, sex wise population in 0-6 age group was included in the PCA for the first time with a view to enable the data users to compile more realistic literacy rate as all children below 7 years of age had been treated as illiterate at the time of 1991 census. One of the important innovations in the 1991 Census was the Community Development Block (CD Block) level presentation of village directory and PCA data instead of the traditional tahsil/taluk/PS level presentation.

As regards DCHB of 2001 Census, the scope of Village Directory was improved by including some other amenities like banking, recreational and cultural facilities, newspapers & magazines and most important commodity manufactured in a village in addition to prescribed facilities of earlier censuses. In Town Directory, the statement on Slums was modified and its coverage was enlarged by including details on all slums instead of notified slums .

The scope and coverage of V illage Directory of 2011 DCHB has been widened by including a number of new amenities in addition to those of 2001. In the Town Directory, seven Statements containing the details and the data of each town have been presented viz.; (i)-Status and Growth History of towns, (ii)- Physical Aspects and Location of Towns, (iii)-

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Civic and other Amenities, (iv)-Medical Facilities, (v)-Educational, Recreational & Cultural Facilities, (vi)- Industry & Banking, and (vii)- Civic & other amenities in Slums respectively. Taluk wise data of V i llage Directory and V illage PCA have been presented in DCHB of 2011 Census as presented in earlier Censuses. The data of DCHB 2011 Census have been presented in two parts, Part-A contains Village and Town Directory and Part-B contains Village and Town wise Primary Census Abstract. Both the Parts have been published in separate volumes in 2011 Census.

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BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DISTRICT

Palakkad District came into existence as an administrative unit on the 1st January, 1957. The ancient history of the District is closely associated with the mythical hero Lord Parasurama, said to have created Kerala and divided it into 64 gramams. According to William Logan, the author of the Malabar Manual , the Pallava dynasty of Kanchi might have invaded Malabar in the second or third century. One of their head- quarters was a place called Palakkada which could be the present day Palakkad. Malabar had been invaded by many of the ancient rulers. For centuries it was ruled by Perumals having powerful Utayavars under them to hold authority in their respective territories. After the rule of Perumals, the country was divided among these chieftains. The Valluva Konathiri (ruler of Valluvanad), the ruler of Vangunad (Kollangode Rajas) and Sekhari Varma, Rajas of Palakkad were the prominent rulers of those Perumals, the last being Cheraman perumal. The emergence of royal dynasties and principalities in this tract came only after the break-up of Perumal s empire. Of these Nadumpurayur Swaroopam and Tarur Swaroopam, Kollangode kingdom, Valluvanad and Kavalappara are important. A brief outline of these principalities are given in the following paragraphs.

The earliest dynasty which is believed to have ruled the area falling in this District was the Nedumpurayur Swaroopam. Palakkad Rajas who were supposed to be descendents of this Swaroopam had their original seat in Athavanad amsom (Ponnani Taluk), but later they exchanged their lands with Azhuvancheri Thamprakkal and established their headquarters in Akathethara Village of Palakkad Taluk. Palakkad Rajas, who are considered as offsprings of Namboothiri Brahmins and Kshatriya women, also owned the titles Vadakke Naikkans and Thekke Naikkans . However, very little is known about the activi- ties of these Rajas. An earliest account available is the encounter of the forces of Palakkad Rajas with the help of Ernad, Valluvanad and Perumpadappu forces, against the forces of Kongu Rulers, who were insti- gated by Rashtrakutas. However, the Army of Nedumpurayur won the onslaught of the Kongapada. To commemorate this victory a unique festival, known as Kongapada, is conducted every year in the month of Kumbham in Bhagavathi Temple of Chittur. Consequent on the dissolution of Chera Empire, small princi- palities emerged in the political scene of Kerala and Utayavars or Naduvazhis became independent rulers. Nedumpurayurnad latter became Taravur or Tarur Swaroopam which had its seat at Tarur Village of Alathur Taluk about 40 km. south-west of Palakkad. The place is known as Edam and the members of the royal house called Achans. As there were no male members in Tarur Swaroopam, Princesses had to take their partners from the Perumpadappu Swaroopam (Cochin Royal house).

This matrimonial relationship later necessitated Tarur Swaroopam to support Perumpadappu in their fight against Zamorins of Calicut. Palakkad Rajas were always subjected to military and political pres- sures from the Zamorins and it was on their request that Haider Ali invaded South Malabar in 1756. When the British supremacy was established, Palakkad Rajas were pensioned off by the East India Company.

Besides this, a small kingdom in this tract was the Kollangode Kingdom, extending over eight Villages, in and around Kollangode, which was later absorbed by the Zamorin. The Rajas of Kollangode also became a pensioner of the English East India Company.

The Valluvanad Kingdom (known as Vattabhakashani in Sanskrit and also as Orangottur Swaroopam) was founded by one Rajasekhara who lived in the 10 th century A.D., with its capital at Valluvanagram i.e. Angadipuram (in Perinthalmanna Taluk of Malappuram District). The kingdom extended over to Perinthalmanna, Mannarkad and Ottappalam Taluks. According to earlier tradition, Chera emperors presided over the Mamamkam festival which was held once in 12 years i.e. a Vyazhavattam. The presidency of Valluva Konathiri in Mamamkam festival caused envy among other rulers of Kerala, particularly the Zamorin. This resulted in constant conflicts between the two and ultimately Zamorin succeeded in evacuating Valluva Konathiri from Thirunavaya and declared himself as the Rakshapurusha or Protector of Mamamkam. During the time of Mysore invasion, the territory of Valuvanadu Raja was confined to Attappady Valley and portion of Ottappalam Taluk. At the time of Tippu s invasion he sought asylum in Travancore, and later when

15

Malabar was ceded by the British, he entered into an agreement with the East India Company and became

a pensioner.

Kavalappara was a small territory, owned by a Nair Chief, known as Kavalappara Muppil Nair with some allegiance both to Cochin Raja and Zamorin. The East India Company eventually settled the claims of Kavalappara Chief by paying him Malikhana in return for his allegiance to the Company.

Palakkad being an upcountry, had little contacts with the western countries. The major intervention

in the affairs of Palakkad Raja was from the Zamorins of Calicut. His expansionist policies resulted in a

series of conflicts. The annexation of Naduvattom (which formed part of the territory of Palakkad Raja) in 1756-57 compelled Komu Achan, the Raja of Palakkad, to seek the help of the king of Mysore. The Mysorean ruler deputed Hyder Ali, who was the Faujdar of Dindigal to help Palakkad Raja but he had to leave for Seringapatam.

In his place his brother-in-law Mukudam Ali led the forces and the combined army put the Calicut forces to flight. The Zamorin had to give Rs.12 lakhs as War Indemnity. Haider ascended the throne of Mysore in 1761 but his conquests were confined to Central Malabar Region. After Haider s death, Tippu occupied his father s throne in November 1783. The English Army under Col. Fullerton captured Palakkad Fort and Zamorin was entrusted with the administrative control over the region. But Tippu s forces soon re- occupied the fort and extended his territory to almost all the south of Malabar. In November 1789 Tippu decided to invade Travancore and moved his forces via. Palakkad, his southern Headquarters. But the conquest had to be suspended due to the onslaught of monsoon. Knowing the marching of the British forces to Seringapatam, Tippu decided to withdraw his forces from Kerala and left via. Coimbatore in May 1790. Soon Cochin declared their allegiance to the British. The British forces under Col. Stuart besieged Palakkad fort on the 22nd September, 1790. By Seringapatam treaties signed on the 22nd February and the 1st March 1792, Tippu formally ceded Malabar to the British.

The British Government decided to revamp the administration of the newly ceded areas and for

that purpose a Commission known as Joint Commissioners appointed to inspect into the State and condition of the previous Malabar and submitted the report on the 14 th October 1793. Primarily the claims

of the local Rajas and chieftains were settled by the Commission which included Rajas of Palakkad, Konathiri

and Kavalappara Nair. On the 21 st May 1800 Malabar became part of the Madras Presidency under the

administration of Principal Collector stationed at Calicut.

Even though the District could achieve significant progress in various fields under British Administration, the period also witnessed some of the violent disturbances known as Mappila riots . Those outbreaks also took place in various parts of the then Valluvanad, Palakkad and Ponnani Taluks, major portions of which now form Palakkad District. According to Malabar District Gazetteer, the Mappila outbreaks may be attributed to three main causes - poverty, agrarian discontent and fanaticism.

The formation of Congress organization in 1910 in Malabar paved the way for the national movement

in the District. The first National Conference in the State was held at Palakkad on the 4 th and the 5 th May

1916 under the Presidentship of Annie Beasant. Malabar District conference held at Ottappalam on the 23 rd April 1921, was an important turning point in the political movement of the country. The police

excesses could not suppress the national awakening of the freedom loving people. Two publications,

Mathrubhumi (started by K.P. Kesava Menon and other Congressmen) and Al-Amin (under the editorship

of Mohammed Abdul Rahiman) which were released in 1923 and 1924 respectively fostered the spirit of

nationalism. Their impact on the masses deserves special mention. A movement for the tenancy reform was started in Malabar during the same period under the leadership of Mannath Krishan Nair, K.P. Raman Menon, G. Sankaran Nair and others. Ultimately it lead to the passing of the Malabar Tenancy Act of 1930. Many freedom fighters boycotted Simon Commission (1928) and participated in the Salt Sathyagraha (1930) and Civil Disobedience Movement. The emergence of Communist party in 1939 had its effects and influence

16

among the working classes. The active participation of the people in the freedom struggle carried on till the achievement of Indian Independence on the 15 th August, 1947.

As per the State Reorganization Act on 1st November 1956, Kerala State was formed comprising of Malabar District (Excluding Laccadive and Minicoy Islands) and Kasaragod Taluk of South Kanara District of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin State (excluding Thovala, Agastheeswaram, Kalkulam, Vilavancode and Shenkottah Taluks). With the enactment, Kasaragod Taluk of South Kanara District was made part of the new Malabar District. On the 1 st January 1957, Malabar District was trifurcated into three Districts viz. Kannur, Kozhikode and Palakkad. Palakkad District thus formed consisted of old Valluvanad Taluk, Palakkad Taluk and portion of Ponnani Taluk of Malabar District and Chittur Taluk of erstwhile Travancore-Cochin State. On the same date, the Valluvanad Taluk was bifurcated into Perinthalmanna and Ottappalam Taluks. The old Palakkad Taluk was trifurcated into Palakkad, Alathur and portion of Chittur Taluk. The present Chittur Taluk thus covers the Chittur Taluk of erstwhile Travancore-Cochin State and 14 Villages of old Palakkad Taluk of the erstwhile Malabar District. The old Ponnani Taluk of Malabar District was also trifurcated to form Ponnani, Chavakkad and portion of Tirur Taluk. Of these, Palakkad District was formed comprising of 6 Taluks viz. Perinthalmanna, Ponnani, Ottappalam, Palakkad, Alathur and Chittur. Consequent on the formation of Malappuram District on the 6 th June 1969, the boundaries of Palakkad District underwent some additional changes. Mannarkad Taluk was newly formed comprising of 19 re-organised Villages of the erstwhile Perinthalmanna Taluk. Parudur Village of Tirur Taluk was transferred to Ottappalam Taluk. Ponnani Taluk which was part of Palakkad District was transferred to Malappuram District. Palakkad District was thus left with 5 Taluks viz. Ottappalam, Mannarkad, Palakkad, Alathur and Chittur. After 1971 Census there were no major changes in the District. The changes were confined to the re-naming of 3 Villages viz. Attappady-I, Attappady-II and Attappady-III of Mannarkad Taluk as Agali, Pudur and Sholayur respectively and addition of Silent Valley Reserve Forest of Karuvarakundu Village of Ernad Taluk to the newly renamed Pudur Village of Mannarkad Taluk.The changes in jurisdiction effected during 1981-1991 are given in the District Census Handbook of Palakkad District, 1991.

17

(i) PHYSICAL FEATURES

Natural Region

ANALYTICAL NOTE

The Natural Regions of the State is based on the regional classifications designed by the Census Organisation. According to the classification, the whole Country is divided into 4 Macro Regions viz., (i) the Northern Mountains, (ii) the Great Plains, (iii) the Decan Plateau and (iv) the Coastal Plains and Islands. Kerala belongs to the 4th Macro Region The Coastal Plains and Islands , which is again divided into 4 Meso Regions. Of the 4 Meso Regions Kerala falls under the Western Coastal Region which covers the Coastal tract from Maharashtra to Kerala State. The Meso Region is further divided into 6 Micro Regions. The entire Kerala falls into such three Micro Regions viz., (i) North Kerala Coast, (ii) Central Kerala Coast and (iii) South Kerala Coast. Palakkad District falls in the Central Kerala Coast. Each Micro Region is further divided into Sub-Micro Regions on the basis of topography, geology, soils, climate and natural vegetation. Thus Palakkad consists of four such Sub-Micro Regions viz. (i) Pattambi Undulating Plain (ii) Mannarkad-Palakkad Forested Hills (iii) Palakkad Gap and (iv) Chittur Forested Hills. The regional divisions constituting Palakkad District is depicted in the following Chart:

18

REGIONAL DIVISIONS OF KERALA PALAKKAD DISTRICT

INDIA

REGIONAL DIVISIONS OF KERALA PALAKKAD DISTRICT INDIA Macro Region 1 2 3 ii. The Great Plains

Macro Region

1
1
2
2
DIVISIONS OF KERALA PALAKKAD DISTRICT INDIA Macro Region 1 2 3 ii. The Great Plains iii.
3
3

ii. The Great Plains

iii. The Deccan Plateau

4
4

i. The Northern Mountains

iv. The Coastal Plains & Islands

The Northern Mountains iv. The Coastal Plains & Islands Meso Region 4.4 The Islands 4.1 4.2

Meso Region

4.4
4.4

The Islands

4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2
4 3
4 3
Plains & Islands Meso Region 4.4 The Islands 4.1 4.2 4 3 Western Coastal Region Eastern

Western Coastal

Region

Eastern Coastal Region

Gujarath Coastal

Plains

Region Eastern Coastal Region Gujarath Coastal Plains Micro Region 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4
Micro Region 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 Maharashtra Goa Coast Karnataka North Central South
Micro Region
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
Maharashtra
Goa Coast
Karnataka
North
Central
South
Littoral
Coast
Kerala
Kerala
Kerala
Coast
Coast
Coast

Palakkad Sub.

Micro Region

4.2.4.3
4.2.4.3

4.2.4.1Coast Coast Coast Palakkad Sub. Micro Region 4.2.4.3 Palakkad Gap 4.2.4.2 4.2.4.4 Pattambi Undulating Plain

Palakkad Gap

4.2.4.2
4.2.4.2
4.2.4.4
4.2.4.4

Pattambi

Undulating

Plain

Mannarkad

Palakkad

Forested Hills

Chittur

Forested

Hills

19

Location and size

Presently Palakkad is the largest District in Kerala. Situated at the foot of the Western Ghats, this is the gateway to Kerala from North. It is bounded on the east by the Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu, on the north and the north-west by Malappuram District and on the South by Thrissur District.

It lies between 10º 20' and 11º 14' north latitude and between 76º 20' and 76º 54' east longitudes.

The District is divided into two natural divisions viz. Midland and Highland based on the physical features. The Midland region consists of valleys and plains. The eastern region of this District has high mountains, extensive ravines and dense forests. The Western Ghat mountain ranges dominate the District. The entire area lies either in the Midland 8080 metres or in the Highland (above 80 metres). Land slopes up from West to North and North-East to South. The altitude varies between 15 metres in the west and 2500 metres in the north-east which contain high mountain peaks, long spurs, extensive dense forests and tangled jungles. While Ottappalam Taluk lies completely in the Midland region, all other Taluks in the District lie in the Midland and Highland regions. The Western Ghat has an average altitude of 1538 metres with two peaks (viz. Angida and Karimala) of more than 1900 metres. The continuity of the majestic Western Ghats stretching over 100 km. is broken at Palakkad, known as Palakkad gap, with a width of 32 km. On the two sides of the gap, giant Nilgiris and Anamala are situated. The climate of the District is greatly effected by this gap as it enables the north-east winds to blow right up to the coast throughout the breadth of the gap. The plains are so fertile and productive that the District is considered the granary of Kerala.

Area

The area of Palakkad District 4480 sq.km. Palakkad is one among the five Districts in Kerala not having a sea coast.

Palakkad District accounts for 11.21 per cent of the total area of the State. It ranks the first among the Districts in area.

Physiography

(i) Pattambi Undulating Plain

This region lies in the extreme Western portion of Ottappalam Taluk. It makes its boundaries with Malappuram Undulating Plain in the North, Palakkad gap in the east, Trichur Plain in the South and Malappuram coast in the West.

height

This region with knolls and isolated hills here and there slopes towards the West. The maximum (191 m.) is recorded in the Western portion of Vilayur Village in its Eastern end and the minimum

height

(78 m.) in the Chalissery Village.

(ii) Mannarkad - Palakkad Forested Hills

This region comprising of part of Mannarkad and Palakkad Taluks, is bounded by Tamil Nadu in the North and the East, Palakkad gap in the South and Nilambur Forested Hills in the West.

This table-land is the continuation of the neighbouring Coimbatore plateau and it generally slopes towards the South and the West. The North-East portion of this region slopes towards the east which influences the flow of the Bhavani river towards the east. This forested hills has steep slope on the Western and the Southern sides. The scarpment found in the Southern side has waterfalls and rapids from where the Palakkad gap begins. The maximum height (2383 m.) of this region lies at its northern tip in Pudur Village of Mannarkad Taluk and its minimum height (309 m.) lies at its Southern portion in the Malampuzha-I Village. However, the region has the average height between 1300 m. and 1400 m. This region also forms the catchment area of the Thuthapuzha, a tributary of the Bharathapuzha. There is a

20

predominance of semi ever green forest (covered mainly by teaks, sandalwood and bamboo). Malampuzha Reservoir is located in its Southern extremity and its waters irrigate vast areas of Palakkad District.

(iii) Palakkad Gap

This region comprising of part of Ottappalam, Mannarkad, Chittur and Alathur Taluks is bounded by Mannarkad-Palakkad Forested Hills in the North, Tamil Nadu in the East, Chittur Forested Hills in the South and Pattambi Undulating Plain in the West.

(394

m.) is located in the central portion of this region and the minimum height (61 m.) is located in the western portion of Keralassery Village of Palakkad Taluk.

The Palakkad gap has the average width of 30 km. This region is mainly drained by the Bharathapuzha and its tributaries viz. the Kalpathipuzha, the Walayar River, the Koraiyar River etc. The Thoothapuzha also drains the region and joins the Bharathapuzha at its down course. This region has a number of isolated residual hills. In the central part of this region a residual hill Anangamalai (394 m.) separated from the mountain chains, is located at Ambalappara-I Village of Ottappalam Taluk.

This region is an undulating upland with an average height of 1500 m. The maximum height

(iv) Chittur Forested Hills

This region comprises of part of Chittur and Alathur Taluks. It lies in the Southern portion of this District and it is bounded by the Palakkad gap in the North, Tamil Nadu in the East and Kodasserry Forested Hills in the South and the West.

This is the continuation of the Western Ghats lying in the South of the Palakkad gap with a steep ascend. It slopes towards the South. However, some mountain peaks soar high here and there. The maxi- mum height (1586 m.) lies in the Northern part of the Nelliampathy Reserve Forest and the minimum height (459 m.) is found in the Southern border of the Parambikulam Reserve Forest which has an average height of around 1100 m. In its Northern section scarpments occur where waterfalls and rapids are seen. The southern section has reservoirs and in its southern tip there is a ridge which separates the District from Thrissur District. This region has the semi ever green forests. Dense shrubs also found in the Northern and the central parts of this region. There are many coffee and orange estates in this sub-micro region.

Mountains

The mountains in the District are part of the Western Ghat ranging from 914 to 2132.70 metres. It makes an ideal fortress on the eastern side of the District. Anginda is the highest peak (2383 m.) followed by Karimala (1998 m.), Nellikotta or Padagiri (1585 m.) and Karimala Gopuram (1440 m.) Other important peaks with an average height of 1220 metres are Kalladicode, Vellachimudi, Valiyavana ridge, Myanmudi, Valvachan, Malankunnu, Kavyali, Vembakavala and Pannimudi, while those with an average height of 940 metres are Sheruneli, Valiyalavana and Thottivare. Besides all these mountains, the plains are scattered with several hills also.

Drainage

(i) The Bharathapuzha

This is the most important river in the District as well as the longest in the State with its tributaries flow through the District and ultimately falls in the Lakshadweep sea at Ponnani. This river originates from Anamalai hills at about 610 m. above the mean sea level. It is also known as the Ponnani River or Nila Nadi . The river sprawls through Pollachi Taluk of Tamil Nadu before entering in Palakkad District. The main river passes through Palakkad and Ottappalam Taluks and finally it falls into the sea at Ponnani in Malappuram District. The main tributaries are Kalpathy or (Korayar), Kannadi or Chittur puzha or Amravathi, Gayathri (Kollangode or Cheerakuzhi) and Thootha puzha (Pilanthol river). All these rivers are formed by a number of streams. Kalpathypuzha originates from the place called Chenthamarakulam in hills North of Walayar formed by four streams viz. Korayar, Varattar, Walayar and Malampuzha. Korayar and Varattar both take

21

their origin in Anamalai Hills and flows westwards before it is joined by Walayar near Thampalam. This combined river is known as Korayar, flowing again in the same direction, till it is joined by Malampuzha stream at about 5 km. down Malampuzha dam.

(ii) The Kannadi River

It is also known as Chitturpuzha or Amravathi River which flows through Chittur and Thathamangalam and is combined with Palar, Aliyar and Uppar, before it joins the Bharathapuzha at Parli and the combined river flows westward.

(iii) The Gayathripuzha

This river originates from Anamalai Hills and after traversing through Kollengode, Nenmara, Alathur, Wadakkancherry and Pazhayannur joins the Bharathapuzha at Mayannur. This tributary has five main sub tributaries. They are Mangalam River, Ayalurpuzha, Vandazhipuzha, Meenkarapuzha and Chulliyar.

(iv) The Thoothapuzha

The Thoothapuzha, otherwise known as, Pilanthol River, starts from the Silent Valley Hills and joins the main river about two kilometres of Pallipuram Railway Station. The important streams which feed this tributary are Kunthipuzha, Kanhirapuzha, Ambankadavu and Thuppanadipuzha.

(v) The Bhavani River

It originates from the Kunda Mountains in Nilgiri and it flows circuituously about 18 km. through the Attappady Valley and returns to the shadow of Nilgiri mountains taking North Eastern direction. The catch- ment area of the river in Kerala is 352 sq.km. yielding an annual run off of 27,000 million cubic feet of water. Out of the rivers of Kerala, the Bhavani River is one among the three rivers which flow to the Bay of Bengal.

(vi) The Siruvani River

The Siruvani River flows into the deep and legendary lake called Muthikulam at an elevation of about 1219 m. above the mean sea level. A diversion canal constructed here takes water to Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu State for drinking purpose. A project financed by the Government of Tamil Nadu has been implemented at this place by the Government of Kerala for providing drinking water to Coimbatore.

Backwaters, Canals and Springs

There are no backwaters or lakes or navigable canals in the District. However, there are a few springs of mythological origin. They include Thenari Thirtham (earlier known as Rameswaram Thirtham) situated in Elappully Village of Palakkad Taluk, which is believed to have been created by Lord Sree Rama by an arrow shot into the ground for obtaining Ganga water to expiate the sin committed by Lekshmana. It is said that the water level of this spring remains almost at the same level in all seasons. There is a small tank known Bhramakundam in the tail end of this spring which is believed to have been created by Bhrama to offer sacrifices. In addition to these, two small springs by name Govinda Thirtham and Sitakunda in Thenmala Hills of Chittur Taluk and a natural perennial spring in a large cave in Alathur Hills are also noteworthy. Tanks As for Tanks, there are a large number of them all over the District used for drinking, bathing and irrigation purposes. No statistics are available about underground water resources of the District. Climate The climate of the District is tropical and is unique due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap. Accord- ing to Logan, Malabar experiences uniformity of temperature and uniform rainfall and it is generally appli- cable to Palakkad District also. The District has a tropical climate with an oppressive hot season and plentiful seasonal rainfall. Summer begins from February onwards and temperature rises steadily upto the end of May. The South-West Monsoon follows the summer and lasts till September. During this season Palakkad District gets abundant rainfall. Because of the influence of the Palakkad Gap, the District experiences heavy

22

departure

departure

departure

departure

Normal

Normal

Normal

Normal

Actual

Actual

Actual

Actual

%

%

%

%

rainfall and winds during the North-East monsoon season. The period from December to February is gener- ally dry in the District. As per the meteorological observatory records of Palakkad District March and April are the hottest months, the maximum temperature going above 39ºC. A striking peculiarity of the District is that the District had to face the hot wind which blows through the Palakkad Gap from the burning plains of Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu, which dries up every greenary of the region. Alathur, Parli, Palakkad, Pattambi, Ottappalam, Cherpulassery, Mannarkad and Chittur are the rain gauge stations. There is fluctua- tion in the rainfall over the years.

The following Tables give a clear picture of the rainfall pattern for the District and the State.

Actual and Normal Rainfall (mm) with percentage departures from normal rainfall

from July to June of each year

State/District

2007-2008

2008-2009

2009-2010

2010-2011

Kerala State

3428.4

3097.1

10.7

2333.3

3097.1

-24.7

3068.7

3097.1

-0.9

3259.8

3016.8

8.1

Palakkad District

3075.9

2472.1

24.4

1666.6

2472.1

-32.6

2735.4

2472.1

10.7

2649.5

2368.9

11.8

Source: Agricultural Statistics for the years 2007-08, 08-09, 09-10 and 10-11 published by Department of Economics & Statistics, Govt. of Kerala

It is clear that Palakkad District had received less rainfall than the normal rainfall during the period 2008- 09 . During 2009-2010, the District received rainfall which was 10.7 per cent more than the normal. During the period 2007-08, Palakkad District has actually received 24.4%more rainfall than the State average.During 2010 11 received less rainfall than 2009-10. It is 11.8 % more than the normal rainfall.

On analysis of the above data, it is seen that the District had received rainfall less than that of the

State. The District had received the highest rainfall 3076 as against the normal rainfall of 2472 mm. in the

3097

mm.

year 2007-08. The corresponding figure for the State was 3428 mm. as against the normal rainfall of

Monthly Rainfall of the District (In mm) during 2007-2010

Month/ Annual

2007-2008

2008-2009

2009-2010

2010-2011

1

2

3

4

5

July

1032.6

359

985

508.4

August

478

214.1

262.3

267.2

September

507.3

241.9

250.6

180

October

310.3

364.1

176.1

397.9

November

32.6

8.6

248.7

279.8

December

19.2

0.1

14.8

24

January

0

0

1.9

0.9

February

26.6

0

0

61.1

March

153.9

0

10.8

17.4

April

28.6

58

130.8

125.8

May

41.2

138.8

109.1

68.9

June

445.6

282

545.3

718.1

Annual

3075.9

1666.6

2735.4

2649.5

Source: Agricultural Statistics for the years 2007-08, 08-09, 09-10 and 10-11 published by Department of Economics & Statistics

23

A cursory glance of the monthly rainfall data shows that Palakkad District had received maximum rainfall during June and July in 2007, June 2010 and July 2009 . Generally the months of June and July have recorded high rainfall. The maximum rainfall (1032.6 mm.) was recorded in the month of July, 2007. The period from December to February is generally dry in the District.

Forests

The woods of the District can be classified as temperate forests, tropical wet evergreen forests (shola), tropical moist deciduous forests. Of these temperate forests are seen in the Silent Valley and in some blocks of Attappady reserves at an elevation of 1500 metres. The shola forests, characterised by the great luxuriance of vegetation having lofty trees of 46 metres often with plank buttresses at the base and shrubby undergrowth are found in higher areas of Attappady valley. The tropical moist deciduous forests grow in the plains upto 500 metres on westerly or southerly slopes of Chanet Nair Reserve, Puliampulli Reserve and the Kumrid slopes in Attappady block I and II. The main varieties of trees found in these forests are teak, rosewood, venteak, poomaruthu or matti. The tropical dry deciduous forests can be seen in the Walayar reserves also.

In Palakkad District, there are Five Forest Divisions - Mannarkad, Silent Valley National Park (Wild life), Palakkad, Parambikulam Wild life and Nemmara. According to Kerala Forest Statistics, 1614.055 Ha was under reserve/vested forests in 1994 in the District. The area under forest cover in this district has de- creased to 1524.96 Ha in 2008.

Social Forestry

This division covers the entire revenue district of Palakkad which has 13 blocks and 4 municipalities. The division head quarters is located at Palakkad. This division has 3 ranges viz. Palakkad, Mannarkad and Agali.

Flora and Fauna

The presence and influence of the mountainous eastern border cause the seasonal rainfall and moderate temperature in the District. The major portion of the District comes under the midland region of the District and is put to cultivation. The area under forest comes to about 33 per cent of the total geographi- cal area of the District having an extent of 146700 hectares of forest and it includes various kinds of trees and plants, among which the dominant trees are Eppothi (Macaranga indica), Mavu (Mangifera), Parangimavu (Anacardium occidentale), Pilavu (Jack tree), Elavu (Cieba pentandra), Ezhilampala (Astonica scholaris), Urakkam Thoongi (Eulerslobium saman), Mullumurukku (Eriythrina indica) and Aranamaram (Polyalthia longifolia). Intermingling with these trees are other plants like Osboekia Ostandra, Cantana, Sculeata etc. rubber and plantations are also common and the midland region is merged with the hilly forests.

No animal can be mentioned as peculiar to this District. Elephants can be seen in almost all parts of seen sometimes in the thick forests. Sambar and spotter deers are also seen in large numbers. Nilgiri langur, bonnet monkey, slender loris, jungle cat, different type of mongoose, jackals, squirrels, hares etc. are all found in the forest areas. The birds are well represented by jungle crow, king crow, Myna, wood peckers, sunbird, king fishers, sky-lark, fly catchers, parrots, peacocks, pigeons etc. Among reptiles, poison- ous and non-poisonous snakes are common in the District.

The Silent Valley area 40 km. from Mannarkad Town, has the credit of being a rain forest, very rare in the world. It is spread over an area of about 9000 hectares and the thick forest is rich in rare species of plants and animals.

Minerals and Mining

The land of the District is classified as undulating region (western part of the plateau), gorge region (central part of the land) and plain (at the foot of the ghats). The high mountainous areas made up of Archaean rocks contains gneiss, charnockites and dykes. The Archaean group of biolite granite gneiss

24

consists of quartz and felspar with large amount of biotite (black mica). Hornblende-biotite gneiss is found near Thathamangalam of Chittur Taluk and near Walayar railway station of Palakkad Taluk and gray granite gneiss (with biolite) is seen in the Mangalam dam site area and in the Sholayar valley. Gray Porphyritic gneiss is seen within Meenakshipuram and Calc granulite pocket in the Upper Sholayar area. Charnockites formed by the presence of hypersthene, bluish gray quartz and felspar etc. are seen in Palakkad Taluk, Mangalam dam site area, Walayar, Oorukumbamatty and Athikod. The dolerite dyke with ophitic texture, containing basic of intermediate felspars together with orthopyroxenes is seen in Mangalam dam site area. A dyke composed of felspar, hornblende and abundant magnetite is seen at south of Pandalar hills north of Mannarkad. Pegmatite is seen mostly in Chittur Taluk. Laterite is seen in the plains at the bottom of ghats. Low grade iron ore is found at Kollengode, Mannarkad and Muthalamada. Limestone deposits are seen in Chittur and Kozhinjampara areas. Muscovite mica is reported to be present in Sholayur Village. Large quan- tity of limestone deposits is found in Walayar forest area where the Malabar Cement Factory is producing large quantity of cement. Kankar limestone deposits are seen in Valiavallampathy, Ozhalapathy, Eruthempathy along the Varattar river near Attappady and limestone at Vannamadai area. A low quantity of monazite, limelite, epidote and a few grains of heavy minerals in the tributaries of the Siruvani river in Attappady are also found in the District.

Tenancy

The important land tenures prevailing in that District before the enactment of the Kerala Land Reform Act, 1963, were Jenman, Inam, Anubhogam, Adima, Kanam, Kanam-Kuzhikanam, Kuzhikanam, Cus- tomary, Verumpattam, Kudiyiruppu, Separate Kudiyiruppu, Cultivating Verumpattom, Ulkudi, Protected Ulkudi etc. The Land Reform Act which was a landmark in the history of agrarian reforms of the country and the State and the subsequent amendments in 1966, 1969, 1971 and 1972 helped the tenants to become owners of tenancy land. A number of landless agricultural labourers became holders of land. Based on the Land Reform Act and subsequent amendments the implementation of ceiling on holding and distribution of surplus land came into force from early 1970. The ceiling area had been fixed as 5 standard acres in the case of an adult unmarried person or a family consisting of a single surviving member and 10 acres for a family consisting of two or more members. A family was not allowed to hold more than 20 acres in any case. Certain plantations were exempted from ceiling limits. The surplus lands were taken over by the govern- ment and distributed to landless poor, preference being given to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. A notable impact of these reforms was the reduction in the number of landless agricultural households and the elimination of absentee landlordism.

Soils

Pattambi Undulating Plain

Major portion is having alluvium bed. In its northern portion it has lateritic and charnockite bed. The soil of this region is alluvium and laterite. The soils technically classified as fluvents-tropepts-orthents.

Mannarkad- Palakkad Forested Hills

Major portion of this region has brown hydromorphic soil, red loam and forest loam soils. Techni- cally the soils are classified as Udalfs-tropepts and Ustalfs-orthents.

The Palakkad Gap

This region has laterite black and riverine alluvium soils. It has a small area under Usterts-tropepts and a large area under Orthents-tropepts.

Chittur Forested Hills

Charnockite bed occur in this region except a small patch in its eastern tip which has unclassified granite. The soil is laterite and shallow black, brown alluvial soil. It is technically classified as Orthents-

25

tropepts and Udalfs-tropepts.

Peaty (Kari) soil is found only in Thirthala firka of Ottappalam Taluk. Laterite is seen in the major

land

along the western boundaries of Palakkad and Alathur Taluks and along the southern boundary of Chittur Taluk. Black soil is seen mostly in the eastern sector of Chittur Taluk and a small part of Palakkad Taluk.

portion of all Taluks. Forest soil is confined to Mannarkad and Ottappalam Taluks, the narrow strip of

Land and Land Use Patterns

According to Agricultural Statistics for 2010-11, the data on land use pattern of the District reveals that, Palakkad district has an area of about 4476 sq.km. It accounts for 11.5 percentage of the total area of the State (38863 Sq Kms). Forest occupies around 30.44 per cent. Land under non-agricultural use which was 9.8 per cent in 1997-98 has decreased to 9.25 per cent in 2010-11. The net cropped area has marginally declined from 2120.56 Sq Kms to 1968.18 Sq Kms. There is an increase in the area under current fallow from 14415 Sq Kms in 2000-01 to 17048 Sq Kms and the fallow other than current fallow is from 85.87 Sq Kms in 2000-01 to 128.37 Sq Kms. in 2010-11.

Classification of Area on the basis of Land Utilisation

Sl.No.

Type of Land

Area in Sq. kms.

1 Total Geographical Area

4475.84

2 Forest area

1362.57

3 Land put to non agricultural use

414.1

4 Barren&Uncultivable Land

27.56

5 Land Under misc.tree crops

10.23

6 Cultivable waste

240.33

7 Fallow other than current fallow

128.37

8 Current fallow

170.48

9 Still Water

150.2

10 Social Forestry

3.82

11 Net area sown

1968.18

12 Area sown more than once

1066.43

13 Total cropped Area

3034.61

Source: Directorate of Economics& Statistics,govt of kerala; Agricultural statistics,2010-11

The Village-wise land-use data (viz. forest, irrigated land, unirrigated land, culturable waste and area not available for cultivation) as made available by the Local Authorities are presented in Village Directory.

Agriculture

Palakkad District is called the rice bowl of Kerala. Out of a total area of 447584 hectares, the net area sown was 196818 hectares during 2010-11 which formed 43.97 per cent of the total area. During 2010- 01, the net area sown has decreased from 48.31 percent which was during 2000-01.

Paddy is the prominent crop in the District. Area under the crop was 118701 hectares during 2000- 01.During 2009-10, the area decreased to 100522 hectares, under paddy cultivation. The area under sugar- cane was 2653 hectares during 1998-99.During 2009-10, sugar crops have covered area of 2966 hectares. In the case of Pepper, there is a tremendous increase in area covered. From 4733 hectares during 1998-99, increase of area during 2009-10 has been estimated as 5758 ha under Pepper. Major portion of the cultivable land is used for raising food crops. All the food crops have reduced to 193647 hectares during 1998-99. Coconut, Groundnut, Cotton, Sugarcane and Cashew are some of major cash crops in the District. The

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important crops raised, their extent, production and productivity during the year 2010-11 are given below:

Important Crops with Area during 2010-11

Crops

Area covered ( in hectares)

1

2

Paddy Pulses Sugar Crops Pepper Ginger Turmeric Cardamom Areacanut Tamarind Vanilla Cloves Nutmeg Jack Mango Banana Plantain Pineapple Pappaya Other Fresh Fruits Cashew Coconut Tapioca Sweet Potatoes Vegetables Tobacco Rubber Total

87511

2378

2422

5465

1256

515

2754

9683

4193

18

7

231

5871

7788

14232

8655

174

524

1174

2914

57094

2475

52

8263

0

36430

262079

Source: "Agricultural Statistics,2010-11" published by Dept. of Economics & Statistics"

During 2010-11, Paddy was cultivated in 87511 hectares of land producing 218155 tonnes of Rice against the State production of 910713 tonnes. The contribution of the District towards Paddy production is 44.5 per cent of the State production. The District has been fortunate in having the greatest proportion of wetlands in which Paddy cultivation is foremost and again Palakkad District gives the highest output of Paddy when compared with the other Districts of Kerala. The District is endowed with a number of water resources though rainfall is comparatively less in the District. Coconut plantation covers larger area of 57186 ha. in the district.,Arecanut & Rubber plantation also occupies area of 10202ha,35559ha respectively. Plantains (including Bananas) are grown in plenty everywhere in the District. The production of Plantains including Banana comes to 80068 tonnes as against 731650 tonnes in the State.

The Intensive Agricultural Development Programme, popularly known as the Package Programme, was started in the District in 1962-63 in five community development blocks. The programme was imple- mented in stages in the whole District except Attappady Tribal Block. The introduction of high yielding varieties of Paddy Seeds has considerably augmented the production of Paddy.

The following Table gives the extent of area in hectares and season-wise production of Rice during the period 2000-2011.

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Season-wise production of Rice during the period 2000-2011

Autumn

Winter

Summer

Total

Year

Area

Production

Area

Production

Area

Production

Area

Production

(in ha.)

(in tonnes)

(in ha.)

(in tonnes)

(in ha.)

(in tonnes)

(in ha.)

(in tonnes)

2000-01

58580

125079

52521

112598

7600

24496

118701

262173

2001-02

57462

129463

51104

119346

7338

20493

115904

269302

2002-03

57583

117326

53203

112229

5124

14371

115910

243926

2003-04

52811

114479

48353

68413

3967

6551

105131

189443

2004-05

54409

126966

56200

132403

420

749

111029

260118

2005-06

49411

112132

64190

153728

318

774

113919

266634

2006-07

44443

100669

58675

151829

6090

17605

109208

270103

2007-08

47083

108300

46004

118856

6086

17088

99173

244244

2008-09

45659

111561

42388

105045

8143

23537

96190

240143

2009-10

45200

112866

49056

136538

6266

16827

100522

266231

2010-11

38648

96030

43364

106825

5499

15300

87511

218155

Source: Satistics for Planning, 2005 & 2009 and Agricultural Statistics for the years 2007-08, 08-09, 09-10 and 10-11 Department of Economics & Statistics, Govt. of Kerala

The season-wise data relating to the production of Paddy during the last decade reveals that the maximum production was in the autumn season. However on close observation it is seen that the produc- tion of Paddy during autumn and winter were more or less equal while the production in summer is of course less. There is a general trend of reduction of area under paddy cultivation during the decade. The reason for reduction in area may be due to the replacement of paddy by remunerative crops, high cost of paddy cultivation and filling up of area for construction purposes.

The Intensive Paddy Development Unit Programme or the Ela Programme was sanctioned for the District in 1971. The T and V Programme were introduced in the District in 1982. The existing Ela Units were discontinued and Sub-Divisional Agriculture Units and Agriculture Development Offices started func- tioning. The programme is attaining good momentum in the District. Special Units for sugarcane develop- ment and cashew development also are functioning.

There are a number of Agricultural Institutions like the Agricultural Research Station, Soil Testing Laboratory, Farmers Training Centre at Pattambi and Agricultural Engineering Workshop at Malampuzha. There is an Orange and Vegetable Farm having a total area of 325 hectares at Nelliampathy. Coffee, carda- mom and mango are cultivated in the area. The fruit processing unit in this farm is noted for its squashes, jam and jellies. The Integrated Seed Development Farm at Eruthempathy is mainly intended for diversified green manure seeds, sugarcane, cotton and groundnut. The Central Orchard and the Soil Testing Laboratory at Pattambi and the Horticultural Development Farm at Malampuzha are some other institutions for the development of agriculture. To ensure availability of quality seeds to the vegetable farmers, the Kerala Horticulture Development Programme has set up a seed processing plant at Alathur with an installed capacity of processing of 1.50 tonnes of seed per hour. In addition to these, another Seed Farm in the District is at Ananganadi. The seed farms produce adequate quantities of foundation seeds of Paddy to meet the requirements of registered growers for multiplication and distribution. Training centres such as RATTC, Malampuzha and F.T.C, Alathur started functioning for imparting training to Agricultural Officers and farm- ers respectively. A special rice production programme with financial assistance of Rs.20 crores is being implemented from 1994-95 for boosting paddy production.

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Palakkad District is blessed with a good number of minor and major irrigation projects to provide irrigation facilities which make agriculture very prosperous. Sugarcane, another important crop, is largely cultivated in Chittur Taluk. Rubber is cultivated in Mannarkad Taluk.

Irrigation

Optimal utilization of the water resources through appropriate conservation and management measures assumes critical importance in sustaining life supporting systems. The demand for water is mainly domestic, agriculture, prevention of saltwater intrusion and for the generation of electricity. In each plan, priority in allocation was given for the development of major and medium irrigation projects. Rice is the major crop benefitted through irrigation infrastructure. Even in the case of this crop, the incremental yield, which the irrigation support could bring, is not sufficient. With the fast changes taking place in the farm front of Kerala, with considerable reduction in the area under rice cultivation, now requires alignment in the distribution systems. Future requirements are for irrigating perennial crops.

Palakkad District is blessed with irrigation facilities. Dams have been constructed across almost all the important tributaries of the Bharathapuzha to provide irrigation facilities to the District. Six out of the ten completed irrigation projects of Kerala are in Palakkad District. They are Walayar, Malampuzha, Cheerakuzhi, Gayathri (Meenkara, Chulliar), Mangalam and Pothundy. The total command area of all these completed projects is 77,306 hectares. In addition to this, two major irrigation projects viz. Chitturpuzha and Kanhirapuzha are also there. Kanhirapuzha project was completed. It covers 7266 ha net area as against 16348 ha.gross area. The total command area of these projects is 54,200 hectares. As a part of the new strategy, re-investigation has been taken place in respect of projects concerned long back. Bridge-cum- regulator at Thrithala has been completed.

Malampuzha Dam

The Malampuzha Irrigation Project is the first large-scale irrigation system attempted in Kerala State. The project consists of a dam constructed across the river Malampuzha, a tributary of Bharathapuzha and network of canal system to irrigate an area of 21,245 hectares. The dam is straight gravity type of masonry with an earthen saddle. The length of masonry portion 1626.71 m and the earthen portion is 222.20 m. The capacity of the reservoir is 226 mm3 at Full Reservoir Level (FRL) + 115.06 m and a water-spread area of 22 sq.km. The maximum height of the masonry dam is 38.10 m (125 feet). There is a network of two canal systems that serve the dam s reservoir of 42,090 hectares. The canal systems serve to irrigate farm land while the reservoir provides drinking water for Palakkad Municipality and 6 adjacent panchayaths. During summer, if scarcity of water is too high, Irrigation Department lifts the shutters of the dam so that the water supply wells in Bharathappuzha are refilled, thus enabling water supply to Parali, Mankara, Lakkidi, Ottapalam, Mannanur, Shornur, Ongallur, Pattambi, Thrithala, etc.

Kanhirapuzha Project

Kanhirapuzha Irrigation project in Palakkad district comprises of a storage reservoir of 70 Mm 3 capacity. There is an earth cum masonry dam 2128 m long across Kanhirapuzha river and right and left bank canal systems to irrigate a culturable command area of 9713 Ha spread over Mannarkkad, Ottappalam and Palakkad Taluk of Palakkad District.The Kanhirapuzha River is a tributary of Thuthapuzha, which is a tributary of Bharatapuzha. The catchment area of the river upto the Dam site is 70 Sq.Km., which is entirely in Kerala state. The head works are located 13 Km. from Mannarkkad and 43 Km. from Palakkad.The project was started in 1961 and partially commissioned in 1980.State Fisheries Department is engaged in fish culture in the reservoir. The District Tourism Promotion council has taken up development of a garden with facilities for boating at the toe of the dam for tapping of tourism .

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Walayar Project

The Walayar dam is built across the River Walayar, a tributary of the Bharathapuzha. Its catchment area is about 105 sq.km. Water storing capacity is 650 mcft. The main canal is 12 km. long and distributary canal 66 km. long. The area benefited is 3850 hectares. This was started in 1953, partially commissioned in 1956 and completed in 1964.

Gayathri Project (Meenkara-Chulliar Dam)

It is situated in Chittur Taluk and consists of two storage reservoirs viz., Meenkara and Chulliar Dam across the Chulliar River. Meenkara has an area of 90.6 sq.km. and Chulliar 27.8 sq.km. Both these rivers are tributaries of the Bharathapuzha. There is a network of canal system with a total command area of 10930 hectares of land in Chittur Taluk. The first stage of the project viz., dam across Meenkara River with canals, was sanctioned in 1956 and opened for irrigation in 1960. The total cost of the project was Rs.220 lakhs.

Mangalam Project

The Mangalam Dam is constructed across the Cherukunnapuzha, a tributary of the Mangalam River, which has a catchment area of 49 sq.km. The storage capacity is 25.34 mcft. The right bank canal of 21.5 km. length irrigates 1720 hectares and left bank canal with a length of 24 km. irrigates, 1720 hectares. It is situated in Alathur Taluk. The project has been completed.

Pothundy Dam

It is situated in Chittur Taluk and built across the tributaries of the Ayalur River (sub-tributary of the Bharathapuzha) viz. Meenchadipuzha and Padipuzha. It has a catchment area of 23 sq.km. and storage capacity of 165 mcft. The net area irrigated is 5460 hectares. The project was started in 1958.

Chitturpuzha Project

The Chitturpuzha Project envisages extension of irrigation facilities to an additional area of 9200 hectares by remodeling and reconstructing, wherever necessary, of the four command areas in Chitturpuzha and the existing canal system. The command areas are at Moolathara, Thembaramadakku, Kunnakattupathy and Narnee. The total command area is 32,400 hectares.

Under revamping and consolidation of old irrigation projects, many projects were implemented under revamping programme in the District.

Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry activities play a crucial role in socio-economic transformation of rural areas especially in generating employment and income to the weaker sections of the population. The preserva- tion and development of the cattle wealth and poultry are also significant to production of major livestock product of nutritional standard. Generally rearing cattle and poultry farming are the allied occupations of agricultural workers.The animal power also constitutes the principle source of manure for agriculture.

Animal Husbandry Department is vested with animal health programme in the District by making available timely veterinary assistance and attends to the welfare of the animal in the District. Animal health has been well taken care of by the department by establishing a network of veterinary institutions at different levels to provide veterinary aid in the District. The following Table gives a clear picture of Institutions under Animal Husbandry Department in the District.

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Institutions under Animal Husbandry Department Palakkad as on 31.03.2010

Sl.No

Institution

Numbers

1 District Veterenary Centre

1

2 Veterenary Hospital

15

3 Veterenary Dispensary

79

4 Veterenary Poly Clinic

4

5 Regional Artificial Insementation Centre

3

6 Mobile Veterenary Dispensary

1

Total

103

Source:" Report on Integrated Sample Survey, 2010-11 " published by the Directorate of Animal Husbandry, Thiruvananthapuram

The Intensive Cattle Development Programme (ICDP) covers the entire District. The State Head- quarters of the Rinder Pest Eradication Programme is situated at Palakkad. Seven Border Check Posts have been installed to protect cattle from this disease. Govt. Goat Factory at Naikerpady has a capacity to rear 150 goats.

The Livestock Population in the District as per the Quinquennial Censuses of 2003 &2007are as follows:

Livestock population in the year 2007

Sr.No.

Category

Numbers

1

2

3

 

Livestock

1

Cattle

215095

2

Bufallow

6871

3

Sheep

131

4

Goats

101829

5

Others

1842

Total

325768

Poultry

6

Fowls

1359276

7

Ducks

38469

8

Others

27343

Total

1425088

Source: Livestock Census 2007 published by Directorate of Animal Husbandry, Thiruvananthapuram.

According to the Livestock Census 2007, Total Livestock Population in the District has declined by 19.03 per cent in 2007 from 2003 livestock census.There is exceedingly high increase in the poultry popula- tion which accounted for an increase of 12 per cent in 2007 from 2003 census.

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Poultry is popular mainly in Alathur, Sreekrishnapuram, Pattambi and Ottappalam Development Blocks. Palakkad, Mannarkad, Alathur and Pattambi Blocks are leading in rearing improved varieties of birds. There is a Regional Poultry Farm at Malampuzha, which supplies birds for implementing various schemes of the Animal Husbandry Department and Community Development Blocks.

Dairy Development

Milk Marketing continues to be largely under private sector. Only 18 per cent of the total milk produced in the State is handled by the organised cooperative sector. Farmer s household consumption accounts for 25 per cent and the balance is handled by the unorganized sector. However, with the inception of Operation Flood Programme, the organised sector under the cooperative fold started giving lead for the market trends of milk in Kerala. Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (KCMMF), better known as Milma , supported by the three regional unions has emerged as the single largest dealer of milk in Kerala with a wide network of 2300 cooperatives actively engaged in procurement and its distribution. The milk processing capacity of the Federation was 1.38 lakh litres at the time of inception in 1983. It increased to 5.89 lakhs litres per day by the end of 1998-99. In addition Milma has installed a milk power plant with a capacity of 10 MT/day. Besides marketing support, the Federation also provides extension support, input delivery service and health cover.

Extension support for Dairy Development, Fodder Development Programmes, Advisory Service, Quality Control Measures, Training of farmers etc. are the major activities coming under the purview of Dairy Development. The Department is undertaking activities such as promotion of indigenous milk prod- uct units and assisting the co-operatives for making them economically viable. The development programmes are operated through 2945 dairy co-operatives including 2300 Anand pattern societies functioning under KCMMF.

In Kerala, where the production of milk is concentrated in the small farm sector and ultimate supply is dependent as seasonal factors, maintaining uninterrupted supply particularly during lean period is diffi- cult. The federation is thus forced to bring in milk from the neighbouring states. The periods August- September and January-May are considered to be lean periods when the internal supplies used to shrink.

Record of performance of the Dairy under Palakkad Co-operative Milk Federation

Total Capacity: 1 lakh litre per day

Year

Procurement

Sales

(litres)

(litres)

1

2

3

2005

396.1

193.6

2006

397.13

214.03

2007

243.87

223.41

Total

1037.1

631.04

Dairy Co-operatives functioning in the District. The Dairy Co-operatives are assisted

in the purchase of modern milk testing equipments, milk cans, chemicals for testing and sanitation, setting up of cattle feed mixing units, building for small collection cum office rooms, purchase of furniture, work- ing capital, managerial subsidy for secretaries, purchase and sale of fodder etc.

Practically oriented training for scientific cattle rearing practices; Milk Product Manufacture, Qual- ity Control, Fodder Production, Dairy Co-operative management etc. are imparted to the farmers at the Dairy Training Centre at Alathur.

The 200 MT/day capacity cattle feed plant at Malampuzha is under the management of the Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation. There is a Bull Station and Fodder Farm at Dhoni, under the control of Kerala Livestock Development Board.

The Malabar Regional Co-operative Milk Producers Union runs a 40,000 litre capacity Dairy at Kalleppully and 10000 litre capacity Chilling Plant at Agali.

There are 140

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Pisciculture

Though there is no coastline in this District; there are many ponds, tanks and also major, medium and minor irrigation projects having a very large water spread area. Therefore there is scope for the devel- opment of Inland Fisheries. A Fish Farmer s Development Agency was set up with its Headquarters at Meenkara in 1976. They aim at bringing about 200 hectares of area under Pisciculture by educating the

farmers on the rearing of fish and subsidizing the expenditure incidental to fish farming. In the absence of coastline, Inland Fishing is resorted to. There was 2652 Ffshermen population in the District during 1999-

2000.

Industry

Palakkad is traditionally agriculture based. It is all set to be the industrial capital of the State. The Department of Industries and Commerce has identified Kanjikode belt, connecting Palakkad and Coimbatore as an area for industrial development. The excellent infrastructure facilities like NH-47, trunk railway line, nearby airport at Cochin, Calicut and Coimbatore, cheap availability of land and labour, cheap power and water etc. are the main attractions to industrialists.

The Industries Department acquired about 130 acres in Pudussery West Village in 1960 s for an Industrial Development Area. It is here that Indian Telephone Industries (ITI), Tata Phone, Hendez Electron- ics, Carbarandum, 66 KV sub station are situated. Later the department acquired about 500 odd acres of land in Pudussery Central Village for a new industrial development area.

Out of 12448 registered working factories in the State, 1220 units were registered in Palakkad District in 1990. It formed 9.8 per cent of total registered working factories in the State in 1990. The provi- sional figure for 1999 indicates that within about 10 years, the number of registered working factories in the District has increased to 2004. It is 10.9 per cent of Total Number of Registered Factories in the State in 1999. The increase is marginal. The Total employment in these factories was 24442 as on 31-3-1998. There were 17293 Small Scale Industrial units (as on 31-3-2000) in the District. We can see a successive increase in the number of Small Scale Units in the District. There were a total of 589 large and medium industrial units functioning in Kerala (as on 31.3.2001) of which 75 units were functioning in Palakkad District which con- sisted of 2 central sector units, 2 State Sector units, 2 in the Co-operative Sector, 6 in the Joint Sector (Including 2 Sick Units) and 63 in the Private Sector. Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation (KSIDC) assisted 65 Private Sector Units and 1 Public Sector Unit. The following Table gives clear picture of the Industrial Units in Palakkad District.

Ottappalam in Palakkad District is the centre of Matche and Veneer Industry. Shornur has a Govern- ment Press and an Industrial Estate. The first wind farm in the State with an installed capacity of 2.00 MW for generating electricity from wind has been installed in Kanjikode. Formation of first Private-Public Sector Collaboration (JVC) in Industrial Park Development (Western India Kinfra Ltd.) at Palakkad is an achievement of KINFRA in industrial development.

Industries Statistics

 

Category

Palakkad

Kerala

 

SC

1244

7992

ST

119

1589

No. of SSI/MSME promoted by

General

12625

196820

Total

13574

205987

Women

3186

52294

Total Investments (in lakhs)

87763.21

1083168.92

Employment generated (Nos)

61283

1021162

Source: Panchayath Statistics, Palakkad, DES, 2011

33

Details of Industrial Co-operative Societies

Category

Palakkad

Kerala

 

SC

49

449

Industrial co-operative societies registered during 2011-12

ST

14

93

General

65

1113

Total

168

2466

 

Women

40

811

SC

9

134

Total No. of working societies 31.03.2012

ST

2

16

General

18

265

Total

38

582

 

Women

8

167

Source: Panchayath Statistics, Palakkad, DES, 2011

Transport

The District has a good network of roads. Two National Highways are passing through the District. They are NH-47 and NH-213. The NH-47 which passes through the District has a length of about 67 kms. The NH-213 stretches from Palakkad to Kozhikode covering a distance of 141 km.

During the period 2005 and 2009 considerable increase in the case of length of State Highways has been recorded.

Besides the National Highway, there were about 431.039 km.of State Highways, 1564.65 km. of major District Roads, 436.910 km. of other District Roads and 42.390 km. of Village Roads under the control of Public Works Department (PWD) during the period 2000-2010.

The important State Highways in the District are:

1. Shorannur-Perinthalmanna Road

2. Calicut-Palakkad Road (via) Mannarkad

3. Thathamangalam-Chittur Road

4. Nattukal-Velamthavalam Road; and

5. Palakkad-Meenashipuram Road (via) Thathamangalam.

The main District Roads are:

1. Palakkad-Ponnani Raod

2. Palakkad-Chittur Road

3. Palakkad-Pollachi Road

4. Pudunagaram-Kollengode Road

5. Nemmara-Nelliyampathy Road

6. Karapara Road

7. Kaikatty-Pulayampara Road

8. Nemmara-Olipara Road

9. Mundappallur-Mangalam Road

10. Kollengode-Kunnissery Road; and

11. Kodungallur-Thripalur Road.

Besides, the above mentioned roads there are several Village Roads in the District.

The extent of road maintained by PWD based on the surface of road in Palakkad District during the period 2004-2010 is given in the following Table.

The length of road with black topped surface was 1833.439km,with water bound mecadam was 41.94 km. and with other surface was 63.6 km. in the year 2005. It is seen that there was no concrete road in the District.

34

The entire District is extensively covered by the operation of buses of private and public sectors. The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation has a bus depot at Palakkad, a sub depot at Chittur and an operating centre at Mannarkad.

Motor Vehicles in the District during the period 2007-2010

Sl.No.

Category

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

1

2

3

4

5

1

Goods Vehicles

22537

24010

25481

2

Buses

10975

11255

11514

3

Cars and Station Wagons including Taxies and Jeeps

35754

41851

49247

4

Three Wheelers

25692

28464

32950

5

Two Wheelers

181102

199430

220758

6

Others Total

7248

7539

8298

283308

312549

348248

Source: Economic Review, State Planning Board

The Total number of vehicles in the State was 5397652 during 2009-2010, while in the District it was only 348248 which were only 6.45 percent. The percentage increase in number of motor vehicles during the period 2008-09 to 2009-10 was 10 per cent and 9 percent respectively in the District from the year 2007.

Railways

Palakkad District came under railway map as early as in 1861, when Kuttipuram-Pattambi line was opened for traffic on the 23rd September 1861. On the 14th April, 1862 Pattambi-Pudur line was opened while on the 2nd June 1902 Shorannur-Ernakulam line was opened.

The total railway route length in Kerala State as on 31.3.2001 under Palakkad Railway Division was 435.29 km. comprising of 429.87 km. of broad gauge lines and 5.42 km. of metre gauge lines. There were altogether 78 railway stations under the three routes controlled by Palakkad Division. Shornur and Palakkad are the two important railway junctions in the District. There is a Railway Divisional Headquarters at Olavakkode.

Electricity and Power

All the Villages in the District are electrified. There is no power generating project in the District. The energy required for the District is transmitted from other power generating projects of Kerala. The Silent Valley Hydroelectric Project, envisaged for construction across Kunthipuzha, did not materialise for ecological reasons. However, an alternative project to produce power, utilising the Silent Valley Waters at Kunthipuzha is under consideration.

Grama Panchayat

As per the recommendations of Shri Belawantha Rai Mehta Committee and the Administrative Implementation Committee headed by Shri E.M.S. Namboothiripad, the Kerala Panchayat Act, 1960 was passed with a view to promote development of democratic institutions and to secure greater measure of participation by the people in development plans and in Local Government Affairs by decentralization of power and functions. The Act came into effect on 1-1-1962. Accordingly, 922 Panchayats were formed comprising the entire rural areas of the State. At the time of 2011 Census there were 990 Panchayats in the State. One more Panchayat namely Mangalam Panchayat (Malappuram District) was formed later.At present 91 Gram Panchayats are exist in Palakkad district .

35

In course of time certain Panchayats were converted into Municipalities and big Panchayats were divided into smaller ones. The Kerala Panchayat Act, 1994 is enacted for planned rural development and to ensure people s participation in the increased development of local area based on 73rd Amendment of Indian Constitution. This Act was amended in 1995 and in 1999 and based on Recommendations of Decen- tralization Committee, First Finance Committee and Election Commission; basic changes were incorpo- rated in 105 Departments out of total of 285 Departments. The special feature of these amendments is that almost all administrative control of the State on Local Administration was done away with. In 2000 it was amended again and power for division of wards and reservation of wards, etc., were given to Election Commission. In 2001 the OMBUDSMAN Act was amended providing for only a single member.

As per the Act, three tiers of administration namely Grama Panchayat, Block Panchayat and District Panchayat were formed in each District of the State. A special feature of the Panchayat Raj is the formation of Gramasabha where the common people can participate in the decision making.

Jurisdiction of Grama Panchayat is usually a Village. However in certain cases more than one Village constitutes the area of the Panchayat. The Panchayat is divided into wards. Elections to the Panchayat are democratically conducted by the State Election Commission. Each ward of the Panchayat has an elected member. The tenure of the elected member is five years. From the members of the wards the President and Vice-President are elected. President is the head of the Grama Panchayat. For adminis-trative pur- poses a Grama Panchayat Secretary is appointed. He is a Government Employee.

Grama Panchayats play a very important role in the developmental activities of the Village. The Gramasabha is held at least four times in a year and developmental plans are discussed, finalized and implemented in the Gramasabha by the participation of people. Overall progress of the rural population has considerably increased, especially in the sphere of economy, education, culture and social activities, in the last few years. In Kerala the 9th Five Year Plan was introduced through a special scheme called Janakeeya Asuthranam (people s planning), which means grass root level planning by the people themselves. Through this scheme, power was decentralized up to the grass root level.

In order to give a meaningful direction to the progress of decentralization; a decision was taken by the State Government vide G.O. (Ms.) No. 10/96/ Plg. dated 30-7-1996 that the plan programmes should consist of schemes formulated and implemented by the Local Bodies within their area of responsibilities. Accordingly the funds, which the State Government received from Central Government for implementa- tion of various schemes under the five-year plan, are earmarked for Corporations, Municipalities, District Panchayats, Block Panchayats and Grama Panchayats. The funds are transferred to the Local Bodies in two components - The State Sponsored Schemes and Grant-in-Aid to Local Bodies. The former schemes are formulated by the Head of the Department at the State level and implemented by the Local Bodies. The second scheme is for various plans formulated by the Local Bodies themselves under the People s Grass- root level Planning Programme (Janakeeya Asuthranam).

The Grant-In-Aid to Local Bodies is given in three components-General Sector, SCP (Special Compo- nent Plan) and TSP (Tribal Sub Plan).

The General Sector out lay is allocated to the Urban Local Bodies and Three tier Panchayats on the basis of urban rural population in the respective areas. The provision for Urban Local Bodies is distributed among the Corporations and Municipalities according to their population.

The allotment for the Three tier Panchayaths was distributed to Grama Panchayats, Block Panchayats and District Panchayats in the ratio of 70:15:15 in the budget for 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10. The Plan Outlay is again distributed on the basis of population in each Local Body.

The provision under Special Component Plan (SCP) is distributed among Corporations, Municipali- ties and three tier Panchayats on the basis of Scheduled Caste population in each area. The share for each tier i.e. Grama Panchayats, Block Panchayats and District Panchayat was distributed in the ratio of 60:20:20.

36

in the budgets for 2007-08,2008-09 and 2009-10.

The share under TSP (Tribal Sub Plan) has also been divided among the Three tier Panchayats on the basis of Urban and Rural Scheduled Tribe Population. The share for the Three tier Panchayats i.e., Grama Panchayats, Block Panchayats and District Panchayat were in the ratio of 20:20:60, in the budget for 2007- 08 and in the budget 2008-09 the share for the Three tier Panchayaths had been divided in the ratio of 40:20:20 and in the budget for 2009-10 it was in the ratio of 50:20:30.

The following Table gives an account of Plan Assistance as Grant-In-Aid to Local Bodies during the years 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10

Plan Assistance as Grant-in-Aid to Local Bodies for development expenditure in Palakkad District during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10

Year

Name of Local Body

Grant-in Aid (Rs.in thousands)

General Sector

SCP

TSP

Total

1

2

3

4

5

6

2007-08

Grama Panchayat

598975

351513

34944

985432

Block Panchayat

121218

116306

14087

251611

District Panchayat

126183

116307

21160

263650

Municipality/Corporation

86068

40366

0

126434

Total

932444

624492

70191

1627127

2008-09

Grama Panchayat

659111

386666

38437

1084214

Block Panchayat

133389

127930

15494

276813

District Panchayat

138802

127938

23275

290015

Municipality/Corporation

94719

44402

0

139121

Total

1026021

686936

77206

1790163

2009-10

Grama Panchayat

725259

425323

42384

1192966

Block Panchayat

146777

140723

17042

304542

District Panchayat

152683

140732

25602

319017

Municipality/Corporation

104236

48698

0

152934

Total

1128955

755476

85028

1969459

Source: Department of Finance, Govt. of Kerala

Each District receives Plan Assistance for General Sector, SCP and TSP. Of these, the major allotment is for General Sector. Grama Panchayats receive the maximum assistance. During 2007-08, the total assis- tance received by the District Panchayat, Block Panchayats, Grama Panchayats and Municipalities in Thiruvananthapuram District amounted to Rs. 16271.27 lakhs. By 2009-2010, the total assistance had gone up to Rs. 19694.59 lakhs. However, in TSP there is a fallin allotment from Rs. 701.91 lakhs in 2007-08 to Rs. 850.28 lakhs in 2009-2010. The Municipalities had received considerable assistance under General Sector. They had not received any fund for TSP during 2007-2010. It is noticed that Grama Panchayats had received the maximum assistance in General Sector and SCP. The fund allocation reflects the importance of the Local Bodies in the implementation of IX Plan programme.

ii) CENSUS CONCEPTS

Building: A Building is generally a single structure on the ground. Usually a structure will have four walls and a roof. Sometimes it is made up of more than one component unit which are used or likely to be used as dwellings (residences) or establishments such as shops, business houses, offices, factories, workshops, work sheds, Schools, places of entertainment, places of worship, godowns, stores etc. It is also possible that building which have component units may be used for a combination of purposes such as shop-cum-residence, workshop-cum-residence, office-cum-residence etc. But in some areas, the very

37

nature of construction of houses is such that there may not be any wall. Such is the case of conical structures where entrance is also provided but they may not have any walls. Therefore, such of the conical structures are also treated as separate buildings.

Pucca houses: Houses, the walls and roof of which are made of permanent materials. The material of walls can be any one from the following, namely, Stones (duly packed with lime or cement mortar), G.I/ metal/ asbestos sheets, Burnt bricks, Cement bricks, Concrete. Roof may be made of from any one of the following materials, namely, Machine-made tiles, Cement tiles, Burnt bricks, Cement bricks, Stone, Slate, G.I/Metal/Asbestos sheets, Concrete. Such houses are treated as Pucca house.

Kutcha houses: Houses in which both walls and roof are made of materials, which have to be replaced frequently. Walls may be made from any one of the following temporary materials namely, grass, Unburnt bricks, bamboos, mud, grass, reeds, thatch, plastic /polythene, loosed packed stone, etc. Such houses are treated as Kutcha house.

Dwelling Room: A room is treated as a dwelling room if it has walls with a doorway and a roof and should be wide and long enough for a person to sleep in, i.e. it should have a length of not less than 2 meters and a breadth of at least 1.5 meters and a height of 2 meters. A dwelling room would include living room, bedroom, dining room, drawing room, study room, servant s room and other habitable rooms. Kitchen, bathroom, latrine, store room, passageway and verandah which are not normally usable for living are not considered as dwelling rooms. A room, used for multipurpose such as sleeping, sitting, dining, storing, cooking, etc., is regarded as a dwelling room. In a situation where a census house is used as a shop or office. etc., and the household also stays in it then the room is not considered as a dwelling room. But if a garage or servant quarter is used by a servant and if she/ he also lives in it as a separate household then this has been considered as a dwelling room available to the servant s household. Tent or conical shaped hut if used for living by any household is also considered as dwelling room. A dwelling room, which is shared by more than one household, has not been counted for any of them. If two households have a dwelling room each but in addition also share a common dwelling room, then the common room has not been counted for either of the households.

Census House : A census house is a building or part of a building used or recognized as a separate unit because of having a separate main entrance from the road or common courtyard or staircase, etc. It may be occupied or vacant. It may be used for residential or non- residential purpose or both. If a building has a number of Flats or Blocks/Wings, which are independent of one another having separate entrances of their own from the road or a common staircase or a common courtyard leading to a main gate, these are considered as a separate Census house.

Village: The basic unit for rural areas is the revenue village, which has definite surveyed boundaries. The revenue village may comprise of one or more hamlets but the entire village is treated as one unit for presentation of data. In unsurveyed areas, like villages within forest areas, each habitation area with locally recognized boundaries is treated as one village.

Rural-Urban area: The data in the census are presented separately for rural and urban areas. The unit of classification in this regard is town for urban areas and village for rural areas. The urban area comprises two types of towns viz; statutory towns and Census towns. In the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area adopted is as follows:

(a) Statutory Towns : All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town

area committee, etc are known as statutory towns.

(b) Census Towns: All other places satisfying the following three criteria simultaneously are treated as

Census Towns.

38

i)

A minimum population of 5,000;

ii) At least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and

iii) A density of population of at least 400 per sq. km. (1,000 per sq. mile)

For identification of places which would qualify to be classified as urban all villages, which, as per the 2001 Census had a population of 4,000 and above, a population density of 400 persons per sq. km. and having at least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural activity were consid- ered. To work out the proportion of male working population referred to above against b) (ii), the data relating to main workers were taken into account. In addition the above stated towns, urban areas also constitutes of OGs which are the parts of UAs.

Urban Agglomeration : An Urban Agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths (OGs) or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without urban outgrowths of such towns. In some cases, railway colonies, university campuses, port areas, military camps etc; may come up near a statutory town outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town. Each such individual area by itself may not satisfy the minimum population limit to qualify it to be treated as an independent urban unit but may qualify to be clubbed with the exiting town as their continuous urban spread (i.e., an Out Growth). Each such town together with its outgrowth(s) is treated as an integrated urban area and is designated as an urban agglom- eration . For the purpose of delineation of Urban Agglomerations during Census of India 2011, following criteria has been adopted:

The core town or at least one of the constituent towns of an urban agglomeration should necessar- ily be a statutory town; and

The total population of an Urban Agglomeration (i.e. all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 Census. In varying local conditions, there were similar other combina- tions which have been treated as urban agglomerations satisfying the basic condition of contiguity.

Out Growth (OG): The outgrowth is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block and clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of waste water etc., educational institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks etc and physically contiguous with the core town of the UA.

City: Towns with population of 100,000 and above are called cities.

Household: A household is usually a group of persons who normally live together and take their meals from a common kitchen unless the exigencies of work prevent any of them from doing so. Persons in

a household may be related or unrelated or a mix of both. However, if a group of unrelated persons live in

a census house but do not take their meals from the common kitchen, then they are not constituent of a common household. Each such person was to be treated as a separate household. The important link in finding out whether it was a household or not was a common kitchen/common cooking. There may be one member households, two member households or multi-member households.

Institutional Household: A group of unrelated persons who live in an institution and take their meals from a common kitchen is called an Institutional Household. Examples of Institutional Households are boarding houses, messes, hostels, hotels, rescue homes, observation homes, beggars homes, jails, ashrams, old age homes, children homes, orphanages, etc. To make the definition more clearly perceptible to the enumerators at the Census 2011, it was specifically mentioned that this category or households would cover only those households where a group of unrelated persons live in an institution and share a common kitchen.

39

houses but live in the

open or roadside, pavements, in hume pipes, under flyovers and staircases, or in the open in places of worship, mandaps, railway platforms, etc., are treated as Houseless Households.

Houseless household : Households who do not live in buildings or census

Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe

Article 341 of the Constitution of India provides that the President may, with respect to any State or Union Territory, specify the Castes, Races or Tribes or parts of or groups within Castes, Races or Tribes which shall for the purposes of the Constitution be deemed to be Scheduled Castes in relation to that State or Union Territory. Article 342 similarly provides for specification of Tribes or Tribal Communities or parts of or groups within Tribes or Tribal Communities which are to be deemed for the purposes of the Constitution to be Scheduled Tribes in relation to the various States and Union Territories. In pursuance of these provisions, the list of Scheduled Castes and / or Scheduled Tribes are notified for each State and Union Territory and are valid only within the jurisdiction of that State or Union Territory and not outside.

It is important to mention here that under the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950, no person who professed a religion different from Hinduism was deemed to be a member of a Scheduled Caste in addition to every member of the Ramdasi, Kabirpanthi, Majhabi or Sikligar Caste resident in Punjab or Patiala and East Punjab States Union were in relation to that State whether they professed the Hindu or the Sikh religion. Subsequently, in September 1956, by an amendment, the Presidential Order of 1950 and in all subsequent Presidential Orders relating to Scheduled Castes, the Hindu and the Sikh Religions were placed on the same footing with regard to the specification of Scheduled Castes. Later on, as per the amendment made in the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order 1990, the Hindu, the Sikh and the Buddhist were placed on the same footing with regard to the recognition of the Scheduled Castes. A member of Scheduled Tribe may belong to any religion. However a person will be reckoned as belonging to Scheduled Tribe only if the name of the Tribe appears in the list of Scheduled Tribes applicable to the State.

The lists containing the names of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes applicable for Census of India 2011 in the State are given as follows:

Scheduled castes

1. Adi Andhra

2. Adi Dravida

3. Adi Karnataka

4. Ajila

5. Arunthathiyar

6. Ayyanavar

7. Baira

8. Bakuda

9. Bathada

10. Bharathar (other than Parathar), Paravan

11. Chakkiliyan

12. Chamar, Muchi

13. Chandala

14. Cheruman

15. Domban

16. Gosangi

17. Hasla

18. Holeya

40

19.

Kadaiyan

20.

Kakkalan, Kakkan

21.

Kalladi

22.

Kanakkan, Padanna, Padannan

23.

Kavara(other than Telugu speaking or Tamil speaking Balija, Kavarai, Gavara,

24.

Gavarai, Gavara Naidu, Balija Naidu, Gajalu Balija or ValaiChetty) Koosa

25.

Kootan, Koodan

26.

Kudumban

27.

Kuravan, Sidhanar, Kuravar, Kurava, Sidhana

28.

Maila

29.

Malayan [in the areas comprising the Malabar district as specified by sub-

30.

section(2) of section 5 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 (37 of 1956)]* Mannan, Pathiyan, Perumannan, Vannan, Velan

31.

Moger (other than Mogeyar)

32

Mundala

33.

Nalakeyava

34.

Nalkadaya

35.

Nayadi

36.

Pallan

37.

Palluvan

38.

Pambada

39.

Panan

40.

Paraiyan, Parayan, Sambavar, Sambavan, Sambava, Paraya, Paraiya, Parayar

41.

Pulayan, Cheramar, Pulaya, Pulayar, Cherama, Cheraman, Wayanad Pulayan,Wayanadan Pulayan, Matha, Matha Pulayan

42.

Puthirai Vannan

43.

Raneyar

44.

Samagara

45.

Samban

46.

Semman, Chemman, Chemmar

47.

Thandan (excluding Ezhuvas andThiyyas who are known as Thandan in the erstwhile Cochin and Malabar areas) and (Carpenters who are knownas

Thachan, in the erstwhile Cochin and

Travancore State)

48.

Thoti

49.

Vallon

50.

Valluvan

51.

Vetan

52.

Vettuvan, Pulaya Vettuvan(in the areas of erstwhile Cochin State only)

53.

Nerian

* Malabar district comprised of Kannur (earlier Cannanore), Kozhikode, Malappuram, Kasargod, Wayanad, Trissur districts and Palakkad (earlier Palaghat) district excluding Chittur taluk

41

Scheduled Tribes

1.

Adiyan

2.

Arandan, Aranadan

3.

Eravallan

4.

Hill Pulaya, Mala Pulayan, Kurumba Pulayan, Karavazhi Pulayan, Pamba Pulaya

5.

Irular, Irulan

6.

Kadar, Wayanad Kadar

7.

Kanikaran, Kanikkar

8.

Kattunayakan

9.

Kochuvelan

10.

Koraga

11.

Kudiya, Melakudi

12.

Kurichchan, Kurichiyan

13.

Kurumans, Mullu Kuruman, Mulla Kuruman, Mala Kuruman

14.

Kurumbas, Kurumbar, Kurumban

15

Maha Malasar

16.

Malai Arayan, Mala Arayan

17

Malai Pandaram

18

Malai Vedan, Malavedan

19.

Malakkuravan

20

Malasar

21.

Malayan, Nattu Malayan, Konga Malayan (excluding the areas comprising

the

Kasargode, Cannanore, Wayanad and Kozhikode districts)

22.

Malayarayar

23.

Mannan

24.

Muthuvan, Mudugar, Muduvan

25.

Palleyan, Palliyan, Palliyar, Paliyan

26.

Paniyan

27.

Ulladan, Ullatan

28

Uraly

29.

Mala Vettuvan( in Kasargode and Kannur districts)

30.

Ten Kurumban, Jenu Kurumban

31.

Thachanadan, Thachanadan Moopan

32.

Cholanaickan

33.

Mavilan

34.

Karimpalan

35.

Vetta Kuruman

36

Mala Panickar

Language and Mother tongue

As per the census concept, each language is a group of mother tongues. The census questionnaire collects information on the mother tongue of each person and mother tongue is defined as the language spoken in childhood by the person s mother to the person. If the mother died in infancy, the language mainly spoken in the person s home in childhood will be the mother tongue. In the case of infants and deaf mutes, the language usually spoken by the mother is considered as mother tongue. It is not necessary

42

that the language spoken as mother tongue should have a script. The mother tongues returned by the respondents in census are classified and grouped under appropriate languages according to their linguistic characteristics.

Literate

A person aged 7 years and above who can both read and write with understanding in any language is

taken as literate. A person who can only read but cannot write is not literate. It is not necessary that to be considered as literate, a person should have received any formal education or passed any minimum educational standard. Literacy could also have been achieved through adult literacy classes or through any non-formal educational system. People who are blind and can read in Braille are treated as literates.

Literacy rate

Literacy rate of the population is defined as The percentage of literates in the age group seven years and above. For different age groups, the percentage of literates in that age group gives the literacy rate.

Educational level

The highest level of education a person has completed.

Work

Work is defined as participation in any economically productive activity with or without compensation, wages or profit. Such participation may be physical and/or mental in nature. Work involves not only actual work but also includes effective supervision and direction of work. It even includes part time help or unpaid work on farm, family enterprise or in any other economic activity. All persons engaged in work as defined above are workers. Persons who are engaged in cultivation or milk production even solely for domestic consumption are also treated as workers.

Reference period for determining a person as worker and non-worker is one year preceding the date of enumeration.

Main worker

A person who has worked for major part of the reference period (i.e. six months or more during the

last one year preceding the date of enumeration) in any economically productive activity is termed as Main worker .

Marginal worker

A person who worked for less than six months of the reference period (i.e. in the last one year

preceding the date of enumeration) in any economic activity is termed as Marginal worker .

Non - worker

A person who has not worked at all in any economically productive activity during the reference

period (i.e. last one year preceding the date of enumeration) is termed as Non worker .

Cultivator

For purposes of the Census a person is classified as cultivator if he or she is engaged in cultivation on land owned or held from government or held from private persons or institutions for payment in money, kind or share. Cultivation includes effective supervision or direction in cultivation.

A person who has given out her/his land to another person or persons or institution(s) for cultivation

for money, kind or share of crop and who does not even supervise or direct cultivation in exchange of land,

43

is not treated as cultivator. Similarly, a person working on another person s land for wages in cash or kind or a combination of both (agricultural labourer) is not treated as cultivator.

Cultivation involves ploughing, sowing, harvesting and production of cereals and millet crops such as wheat, paddy, jowar, bajra, ragi, etc., and other crops such as sugarcane, tobacco, ground-nuts, tapioca, etc., and pulses, raw jute and kindred fiber crop, cotton, cinchona and other medicinal plants, fruit growing, vegetable growing or keeping orchards or groves, etc. Cultivation does not include the following plantation crops tea, coffee, rubber, coconut and betelnuts (areca).

Agricultural labourer

A person who works on another person s land for wages in money or kind or share is regarded as an

agricultural labourer. She/he has no risk in the cultivation, but merely works on another person s land for wages. An agricultural labourer has no right of lease or contract on land on which she/he works.

Household industry worker

Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by the head of the household herself/him- self and or by the members of the household at home or within the village in rural areas and only within the precincts of the house where the household lives in urban areas.

The larger proportion of workers in household industry should consist of members of the household including the head. The industry should not be run on the scale of a registered factory which would qualify or has to be registered under the Indian Factories Act and should be engaged in manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs of goods.

It does not include professions such as a pleader, Doctor, Musician, Dancer, Waterman, Astrologer,

Dhobi, Barber, etc. or merely trade or business, even if such professions, trade or services are run at home

by members of the household.

Other worker

A person who has been engaged in some economic activity during the reference period but not as a

cultivator or agricultural labourer or in Household Industry is termed as a Other Worker (OW) . The type of workers that come under this category of OW include all government servants, municipal employees, teachers, factory workers, plantation workers, those engaged in trade, commerce, business, transport, banking, mining, construction, political or social work, priests, entertainment artists, etc. In effect, all

those workers other than cultivators or agricultural labourers or household industry workers, are Other Workers .

Work participation rate

Percentage of workers (main + marginal) to total population.

Population density

Population density is the number of persons inhabited per square kilometre of the area.

Age

Age is measured in terms of the completed number of years.

Sex ratio

Number of females per 1000 males in a population.

44

iii)

NON-CENSUS CONCEPTS

Concepts used in VD and TD of DCHB:

1. Educational Amenities:- The type of different educational facilities available in the village is given in numbers. Both Government and private educational facilities / institutions are considered for this- purpose. If there are composite schools like Middle schools with Primary classes, or Secondary schools with middle classes, these are included in the number of Primary and Middle schools respectively. For example, if in a village there are two Primary schools and one Middle school with primary classes, the number of Primary schools in the village are given as three and that of Middle school as one even though there may be only three educational institutions. So also in case of Secondary schools. For better understanding, the distinctiveness of different types of schools is depicted hereunder:

1.1

Pre-primary (PP): Now-a-days the children are sent to schools at a very early stage. Lot of pre- primary schools, private schools in particular have come up in villages and towns. These may or may not be recognized by the competent authorities. Even many Secondary schools have classes starting from preprimary level. Pre-primary classes include Nursery, K.G., Pre-basic, Play school, etc.

1.2

Primary School (P): Schools providing education from Standard 1 and upward up to and inclusive of Standard V are classified as Primary Schools.

1.3

Middle School (M): Schools providing education from Standard VI and upward up to and inclusive of Standard VIII are classified as Middle Schools. A School with Class 1 to VIII is treated as two units, i.e. one Primary School and one Middle School.

1.4

Secondary School (S): Schools providing education from Standard IX and upwards up to and inclusive of Standard X are classified as Secondary Schools. A composite school with 1 to X standard is treated as three separate units and counted separately under the categories of Primary School, Middle School and Secondary School.

1.5

Senior Secondary School (SS): Schools and colleges that provide education for Standards XI and XII and first and second year of the Pre-University Course fall under this category. There are Senior Secondary Schools with Standard I and upwards up to Standard XII.

1.6.

Degree College:

(i)

Arts/Science/Commerce: These are all educational institutions that provide post-PUC level

education leading to University degree/diploma in any subject or combination of subjects and also post-graduate levels of education. The college offering courses in Arts, Science or Commerce either separately or in combination are covered under this category.

(ii)

Engineering College (E): It is a graduate/post-graduate degree college providing Bachelor of

Engineering (BE) or Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech.) or post-graduate engineering degrees like M.Tech.

(iii)

Medical Colleges: These are graduate/post-graduate degree colleges providing MBBS or

equivalent degree in alternative medicine like Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy etc. or post-

graduate medical degrees like M.D or equivalent in the above branches of medicine.

1.7.

Management College/ Institute (MI): It offers courses like Diploma in Management, Post-Graduate Diploma in Management, Masters of Business Administration (MBA) and specializations in different disciplines of Management like Marketing, Human Resources Development (HRD) etc.

45

1.8.

Polytechnic (Pt): An Institution providing certificate/diploma (not equivalent to degree) in any technical subject like engineering, vocational courses like embroidery, fashion designing etc. It may be both Government and Private.

1.9. Vocational School/ITI: It is a vocational training institute imparting trainings in specific fields acquiring necessary skill, which will make the trainees employable or create them opportunities of self-employment. Trainings offered by Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) fall under this category.

1.10. Non-formal Education/Training Centre (NFTC): Non-vocational education centers, established by the Central and State Governments provide educational facilities to the interested persons irrespective of educational qualification, and age. These education centers are open to all.

1.11. Special School for Disabled: There are Government and Government recognized institutions/ organizations engaged for providing education to different groups of disabled persons.

2. Medical Facilities:

2.1 Hospital-Allopathic and Hospital-Alternative medicine: A hospital is an Institution, where sick or injured are given medical or surgical care. Bed strength differs from hospital to hospital ranging from 31 to 500 depending upon whether these are sub-district, sub-divisional or district hospitals. If there is hospitals providing facilities under different systems of medicines such as, Allopathy, Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathy etc., these details are given separately.

Allopathy: The system of medical practice, which treats disease by the use of remedies

(a)

which produce effects different from those produced by the disease under treatment.

(b) Ayurveda:

theory of Pancha Mahabhootas (Five elements) of which all the objects and living bodies are composed of. The combination of these five elements are represented in the form of Tridosha:

Vata, Pitta and Kapha. These three doshas are physiological entities of living beings. Ayurveda developed into eight distinct specialities, i.e., Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Eye and ENT, Surgery, Toxicology, Geriatrics and Science of virility. Two types of treatments, Preventive and Curative, are given in Ayurveda.

(c) Unani: Treatment of Unani consists of three components, namely, preventive, promotive and

Ayurveda means Science of life . The philosophy of Ayurveda is based on the

curative. Unani system of medicine has been found to be efficacious in conditions like Rheumatic Artharitis. Jaundice, Filarisis, Eczema, Sinusitis and Bronchial Asthma. For the prevention of the disease and promotion of health, the Unani System emphasizes six essentials: pure air, food and

water, physical movement and rest, psychic movement and rest, sleep and wakefulness and retention of useful materials and evacuation of waste materials from the body.

(d) Homoeopathy: Treatment in Homoeopathy, which is holistic in nature, focuses on an

individual s response to a specific environment. Homoeopathic medicines are prepared mainly

from natural substances such as plant products, minerals and animal sources. Homoeopathic medicines do not have any toxic, poisonous or side effects. Homoeopathic treatment is economical as well and has a very broad public acceptance.

2.2 Community Health Centre (CHC): Community Health Centres are designed to provide referral health care for cases from PHC and those in need of specialist health care approaching the CHC directly. 4 PHCs are included under each CHC thus catering approximately 80,000 populations in tribal/hilly areas and 1, 20,000 populations for plain areas. CHC is a 30- bedded hospital providing specialist care in Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Surgery and Paediatrics.

2.3 Primary Health Centre (PHC): A Primary Health Centre is the first contact point between a village community and the Government medical officer. A PHC covers a population of 20,000 in hilly,

46

tribal or difficult areas and 30,000 populations in plain areas with 4-6 indoor/observation beds. It

acts as a referral unit for 6 sub-centres.

It has a medical officer and para medical staff.

2.4 Primary Health Sub- Centre (PHS): A Primary Health Sub-centre is the first contact point between the primary health care system and the community. As per the population norms, one PHS is established for every 5,000 population in plain areas and 3,000 population in hilly/ tribal/ desert areas. Each PHS has a sanctioned strength of one male and one female heath worker.

2.5 Maternity and Child Welfare Centre (MCW): It provides pre-natal and post-natal services for both mother and child. The services include regular check-up of pregnant women, giving folic tablets, counseling, delivery, immunization of children with check-up etc.

2.6 TB Clinic (TBC): The diagnosis and treatment of TB are functions of the general health services and hence it is a part and parcel of Primary Health Care. Specialized units such as the District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC) act as referral centres. TB clinics are established by the Government of India under the National Tuberculosis Control Programme and implemented through a network of DTC. The DTC is the nodal point for TB control activities in the district and it also functions as a specialized referral centre. The functions of sub-district level Tuberculosis Unit (TU) are implementation, monitoring and supervision of TB control activities in its designated geographical areas.

2.7 Health Centre: Clinic where medicine and medical supplies are dispensed. It has no in-patient facility. A clinic (or an outpatient clinic) is a small private or public health facility that is devoted to the care of outpatients, often in a community, in contrast to larger hospitals, which also treat inpatients.

2.8 Dispensary: Place where patients are treated and medicines provided but with no in-patient facility. Immunizations, MCH Services and sometimes pathological tests are carried out here. It may be of allopathic or any alternative medicine.

2.9 Veterinary Hospital: Mostly run by the State Government or local body for treatment and preventive measures against diseases of domestic animals like cows, buffaloes etc in rural areas.

2.10 Mobile Health Clinic: These are Mobile vans well equipped with a range of health services to villages located far away from the CHCs, PHCs or any public health sources. The vans visit villages on designated days to deliver the health care services. The services generally offered are OPD, ante-natal and post-natal, B.P. examination, X-ray, ECG, Immunization, First Aid etc.

2.11 Family Welfare Centre: Check-up and counseling is provided to the pregnant and married women regarding small family norm and devices for having a small family. Temporary and permanent contraceptive devices are provided here.

2.12 Nursing Home: A nursing home is a long term care facility licensed by the state that offers 24-hour room and board and health care services including basic and skilled nursing care, rehabilitation and a full range of other therapies., treatments and programs to old and sick people. The difference between a hospital and a nursing home is that a nursing home gives importance to convalescence from a disease while a hospital gives medical treatment for the disease.

2.13 Medicine Shop: A shop which sells drugs and medicines of any system of medicine viz. allopathic, homeopathic, ayurvedic or unani medicines, is considered as a medicine shop. Sometimes some shops and Paan shops also keep ordinary medicines, like Crocin, Burnol etc. These shops are not taken as medicine shops.

3. Drinking water: The following are the main source of drinking water facility (ies) available in the village.

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3.1 Tap Water-treated: This source of drinking water refers to a source of drinking water which is provided to the villagers through pipes within their premises or to the villagers through common taps (public taps/community water points) by the Government departments, local bodies, panchayats, public or private estate agencies, etc. after treatment. Such a source is treated as Tap water from treated source .

3.2 Tap Water-un-treated: If the villagers are drawing drinking water through pipes either directly from a well or bore well or after pumping the well or tube well water, or the water is supplied through pipes to the households of the village or through public taps without treatment. Such a source is treated as Tap water from un-treated source .

3.3 Covered Well (CW): A well that is (1) covered on sides from run-off water (i.e., excess water from rain, snowmelt or other sources flows over the land) through a wall lining or casting that is raised above ground level on a platform that diverts spilled water away from the well and (2) covered so that bird droppings and animals cannot fall down the hole. It is considered as covered well.

3.4 Un-covered Well (UW): A well which is (1) un-covered on sides from runoff water, (2) un-covered from bird droppings and animals; or (3) both.

3.5 Hand Pump (HP): Hand pump means where ground water is taken out manually by operating a hand pump.

3.6 Tube Well / Borehole (TW): Tube well denotes the ground water source from where ground water is taken out through electrical or diesel pump. Spring, River/Canal, Tank/Pond/Lake are self explanatory.

4. Community Toilet Complex : Community Toilet may be constructed and maintained by Grama Panchayats or Private NGOs like Sulabh Sauchalaya or likes.

5. Rural Sanitary Mart or Sanitary Hardware Outlet (RSM): It is an outlet dealing with the materials, hardware and designs required for the construction of not only sanitary latrines but other sanitary facilities such as compost pit, washing platform and other sanitation and hygiene accessories required for individuals, households and the environment in the rural areas.

6. Community bio-gas or recycle of waste for productive use: Many of the solid wastes having economic values but put for disposal can be recycled for reuse. For example, food, cow dung, leaves, vegetable, paper, wood, plastics, old cloth etc. However, some of the wastes are not recyclable. These are carbon paper, thermo coal etc. When recyclable solid wastes is subjected to decomposition, bio-gas could be produced under favourable conditions. These systems of recycling may be there at the village level organized by Gram Panchayats with technical support from Governments or non-government organi- zations.

7. Communication and transport Facilities:

7.1 Post Office (PO): Self-explanatory.

7.2 Sub-Post Office (SPO): Sub-post office includes Extra Departmental Post Offices and those providing franchise postal services and also part time services in lieu of some honorarium. The limited postal services include sale of stamps, receipt of letters and money orders and also distribution of letters.

7.3 Post & Telegraph Office (PTO): Telegraph office is set up by the Government to enable people to send or receive telegrams. If the phonogram facility is available (though the Telegraph office may not be equipped with Morse Code Transmitters), the village is considered to be having telegraph facility.

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7.4

Telephones (landlines): If the village is having the Public Call Office (PCO) either run by the Post Office or by individuals or by a private shop, then the village is considered to be having telephone facility.

7.5 Public Call Office (PCO)/Mobile PCO: Self explanatory.

7.6 Mobile Phone Coverage: Mobile phones are now very common particularly in urban areas. Some villages by virtue of being in close proximity to the urban areas also enjoy the benefits of the mobile phone services. Even if a few villagers avail the services of mobile phones, then the village is considered to be having access to mobile phone.

7.7 Internet Cafes/Common Service Centres (CSC): If the village is having the facility of Cyber Cafes or shops owned by private individuals providing the facility of surfing of the internet, then the village is considered to be having access to internet/cyber cafe facility. Government of India formulated the scheme of CSC with the vision of providing all government services in an integrated manner at the door step of the citizen at an affordable cost even in the remotest corners of the country through a combination of IT based as well as non-IT based services.

7.8 National Highway (NH): These are main highways running through the length and breadth of the country. Each NH is numbered like NH-1, NH-2 for easy identification.

7.9 State Highway (SH): These are roads of a state linking district headquarters and important cities within a State and connecting them with NHs or Highways of the neighbouring States.

7.10 Major District Roads (MDR): These are important roads within a district, serving areas of production and markets and connecting these with each other or with the main Highways.

7.11 Other District Roads (ODR): These are roads serving rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to market centres, taluk headquarters, block development head quarters or other main roads.

This

7.12 Village Road:The approach to village refers to the state of road etc., leading to the village.

is to see whether the village is approachable both in fair and foul weather, and whether it is inaccessible only for some time in the year.

7.13. Black-Topped (Pucca) Road (BTR): A road provided with a bituminous surfacing.

7.14 Gravel (Kuchha) Road (GR): A road constructed using well compacted crushed rock or gravel material (coarse sand, small stones), which is fairly resilient and does not become slippery when wet.

7.15 Water Bound Macadam (WBM): This is the road layer made of crushed or broken mixture of sand and rock fragments mechanically interlocked by rolling and voids filled with screening and binding material with the assistance of water.

7.16 Foot Path (FP): A trodden path for the use by pedestrians and in some cases bicycles. The Foot Paths are not suitable for vehicular traffic except bicycles in some cases. Most of the interior/ forest villages are connected by Foot Paths.

8. Banks and Credit Societies: -Banking facility means a place where a person can operate a bank account.

8.1 Commercial Bank (CB): These may be banks wholly owned by the Government of India or by Indian or Foreign Companies.

A co-operative bank is a financial entity which belongs to its

members, who are at the same time the owners and the customers of their bank. Cooperative banks are often created by persons belonging to the some local or professional community or

8.2 Cooperative Banks (Coop. B):

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sharing a common interest. These banks are registered under the Cooperative Societies Act. The cooperative banks are regulated by RBI and are covered by the Banking Regulations Act, 1949.

8.3 Agricultural Credit Society (ACS): Major objectives of the ACS are to supply agricultural credit to meet the requirements of funds for agricultural production, the distribution of essential consumer commodities, the provision of storage and marketing facilities and for light agricultural implements and machinery.

8.4 Non-Agricultural Credit Society (NCS): These societies include consumer cooperative societies and also credit cooperative societies of certain categories of persons like teachers, health workers, etc.

9. Miscellaneous Facilities:

9.1

Self-help Group (SHG): Self-Help Groups are groups of 10-25 women created by either NGOs or under the SGSY (Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana) for the purposes of meeting local credit needs. They are sometimes called Mahila Mandals in villages.

9. 2.

Public Distribution System (PDS) shop: The shops through which some essential commodities are sold by the government at subsidized rates. They may also be known as ration shops and control shops.

9.3.

Mandis/Regular Market: These are those clusters of shops with or without fixed premises which are open on at least six days a week and opens at least from morning hours to dusk.

9.4.

Weekly Haat: These are those clusters of shops with or without fixed premises which are open once a week.

9.5.

Agricultural Marketing Society: It is a common platform to analyse the issues among all the individuals and institutions in the field of agricultural marketing.

9.6.

Nutrition Centre: Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme set up by the Government of India with the objective of providing following package of services to the children under 6 years and pregnant and lactating mothers in villages such as; Immunization, Health Check-up, Referral Services, Pre-school Non- formal Education, Nutrition & Health Education.

9.7.

Anganwadi Centre: Each centre under the ICDS scheme is run by an Anganwadi Worker. One Anganwadi worker is appointed for specified population of the village. They are basically local women. They are assisted by Anganwadi helper. They provide pre-school non-formal education at the Centre and provide food to the children.

9.8.

Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA): ASHA is a health activist in the community who will create awareness on health and its social determinants and mobilize the community towards local health planning and increased utilization and accountability of the existing health services. She would be a promoter of good health practices. She will also provide a minimum package of curative care as appropriate and feasible for that level and make timely referrals. She will act as a motivator of different types of health related activities. Unlike ANM, she will not be involved in any clinical activities like immunization.

9.9.

Sports Club/Recreation Centre: Indoor and out-door games are arranged by the Club and activities like wrestling, Judo, Karate etc. are also done there.

9.10.

Cinema/Video Hall (CV): If regular cinema houses licensed by Government is available, then the town/village is considered to be having the facility of Cinema Hall. Video hall owners screen films in their own or hired premises.

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9.11.

Public Library: Books are kept there which can be accessed by the public on loan basis. These may be sponsored by Government or Local Body or Panchayat or any influential person. Free service or nominal charges are made for using the facility.

9.12. Public Reading Room: Here the public may read newspapers and magazines. sponsored by Government or Local Body or Panchayat or any influential person.

These may be

9.13. Newspaper Supply: The availability of the Newspaper(s) both in English or vernacular in the village is considered to having the said facility.

10. Availability of Electricity/Power. If power is actually available, whatever may be the form of its use, it is indicated affirmative. If the village is having electricity for domestic purposes and the residents are using the same for domestic use, then it is considered that domestic power supply is available. If the electricity authority has not given domestic supply to the households on their request and people are using unauthorized electricity either by stealthily or misuse the supply meant for agricultural or indus- trial purposes, then it is not considered as availability of electricity for domestic purposes. However, if the village goes out of power due to temporary technical problems such as, transformer failures, theft of electrical equipment, etc., it is considered that electricity is available. Supply of electricity is consid- ered available even when there is a temporary ban on new domestic connections. Connections to residential houses, bungalows, clubs, hostels and hospitals run on non-commercial basis, charitable, educational and religious institutions are included in the domestic category.

10.1 Power Supply for domestic use:This category includes electricity used only for domestic consumption.

10.2 Power supply for agricultural use: This category includes all electricity connections given to the farmers for conducting various agricultural activities including irrigation.

This category includes electricity connections given for

10.3 Power supply for commercial use:

workshops, industries etc. or for any commercial purposes.

10.4 Power supply for all uses: This category includes electricity connection is available for domestic use, agricultural use, and for any commercial purposes.

11. Land Use Pattern: The land use area of the villages is given in hectares. The land use pattern in the Village Directory conform to the pattern of classification of land use as recommended by the Ministry

The Ministry has recommended the maintenance of records of

of Agriculture, Government of India.

land use pattern under the 9 categories as indicated in the Village Directory.

12. System of drainage : Generally, by drainage system, we mean the network of mains and branches of underground conduits for the conveyance of sewerage to the point of disposal. Sewers that carry only household and industrial wastage are called separate sewers; those that carry storm water from roofs, streets and other surfaces are known as storm water drains, while those carrying both sewage and storm water are called combined sewers. However, in towns, which are not provided with such under- ground sewerage system, it is mentioned whether it has open drainage system. There may be possibil- ity of the town having both closed as well as open drainage systems.

13. Type of latrines: The data on various types of latrines both public and private together are collected. The three types of latrines considered here are, Pit Latrine, Flush/Pour Flush Latrine and Service Latrine.

(i)

Pit System: The latrines are attached to the pit that is dug into the ground for the reception of night soil, are reckoned as pit latrine.

(ii)

Flush/pour flush: A flush latrine uses a cistern or holding tank for flushing water and has a water seal, which is a U-shaped pipe, below the seat or squatting pan that prevents the passage of flies

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and odours. A pour flush latrine uses a water seal, but unlike a flush latrine, a pour flush latrine uses water poured by hand for flushing (no cistern is used).

(iii) Service: Type of latrine from where night soil is removed manually by scavengers. All other types of latrines are covered under Others category.

capacity of Storage system: There are various sources of water

14. Protected Water Supply- Source and

supply and its storage system in the town.

14.1 Service Reservoir: A service reservoir is a water storage container that holds clean water after it has been treated in a water plant, and before it is piped to the end users. These containers are covered, and are designed to keep the water safe from contamination. Their main purpose is to provide a buffer within the water supply system so that water supplies can be maintained across periods of varying demand.