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Practice Questions for the DNA Replication and Repair Presentation

February 27, 2009


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)
During the process of DNA replication, primase uses the following DNA sequence as a template to make a primer
5'-GATTCAAGTAGTC-3'
Which of the following is the correct primer sequence synthesized using this template?
1)
_______

A)
5'-GAUUCAAGUAGUC-3'
B)
5'-GATTCAAGTAGTC-3'
C)
5'-CTAAGTTCATCAG-3'
D)
5'-CUAAGUUCAUCAG-3'
E)
5'-GACUACUUGAAUC-3'
2)
In human beings the inherited autosomal recessive disease xeroderma pigmentosum is the result of a defect in the
2)
_______
SOS repair

A)

B)
Repair of ultraviolet light damaged DNA
C)
Repair of alkylated DNA
D)
Mismatch repair
3)
Which of the following deaminates to uracil?

3)
_______
A

A)

B)
B
C)
C
D)
D
E)
E
4)
What is the primary function of primosomes?
4)
_______

A)
To add the 5'-methyl cap to pre-mRNA
B)
To prevent binding of the ribosome to the mRNA molecule
C)
To facilitate the splicing process
D)
To initiate the process of translation
E)
To create RNA primers for DNA replication
5)
What event(s) can cause a cytosine to become a thymine in the genome?
5)
_______
deamination only
depurination

A)
B)

C)
methylation of cytosine followed by deamination

D)
exposure to UV light
E)
methylation only
6)
A scientist in the year 2350 is advising the NASA genetic engineering department concerning its attempt to engineer
humans who can better survive the harsh climate of a planet that has high levels of ultraviolet (UV) light. The NASA
engineers want to incorporate a group of genes that will allow epidermal cells to produce a light absorbing pigment. Of
the following genetic manipulations, which would be most advantageous in cells in a UV-rich environment?
6)
_______

A)
Altering a theoretical human equivalent of the bacterial RecA protein in the cells to decrease RecA activity
B)
Removing intron DNA from the engineered genes
C)
Producing genes with a low thymidine content
D)
Introducing the engineered genes in an overlapping fashion into the human genome
7)
Which DNA repair mechanism is primarily responsible for correcting apurinic or apyrimidinic sites?
7)
_______

A)
Mismatch repair pathway
B)
Uracil glycosylase
C)
AP endonuclease
D)
Homologous recombination
E)
Only DNA ligase
8)
The name of the strand that is being copied in the direction of the advancing replication fork and is synthesized almost
continuously
8)
_______
Lagging strand
Okazaki strand

A)
B)

Sense strand
Antisense strand
Leading strand

C)
D)
E)

9)
In mammalian cells, DNA polymerase is responsible for the
9)
_______

A)
Removal of RNA primers
B)
Elongation of the leading strand
C)
Elongation of the lagging strand
D)
Synthesiss of RNA primers
E)
Replication of mitochondrial DNA
10)
Mutations in homologs of bacterial MutS and MutL in humans cause
10)
______
Bloom's Syndrome

A)

B)
Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer
C)
Fanconi's anemia
D)
Xeroderma pigmentosum
E)
Ataxia telangiectasia
11)
Okazaki fragments are
11)
______

A)
RNA prmers which are required for DNA polymerase I to initiate synthesis of a complimentary strand of DNA on the
parent template strand
B)

Short stretches of DNA which are joined to form the lagging strand of replicating DNA molecule
C)
Precursor oligonucleotide fragments which are ligated together to form the leading strand of the replicating DNA
molecule
D)
DNA hydrolytic fragments revealed as a sign of apoptosis
E)
Oligonucleotides which are used to fill the gaps formed after excision of RNA primers
12)
In the DNA polymerase reaction, incoming nucleotides are covalently bonded to the ___________ end of the growing
DNA chain. Each successive nucleotide is linked to the growing chain by a _______________ bond.
12)
______
5', hydrogen
5', phosphoester
3', hydrogen

A)
B)
C)

D)
3', phosphoanhydride
E)
3', phosphoester
13)
To start a complementary DNA synthesis on a parent strand, DNA polymerase requires a primer which is
13)
______

A)
an enzyme which initiates DNA synthesis
B)
protein complex enabling DNA polymerase to access parent DNA strands
C)
single nucleotide with a free hydroxyl group at 3'-position
D)
short DNA oligonucleotide synthesized on the parent strand
E)
short RNA oligonucleotide synthesized on the parent strand
14)
During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication occurs?
14)
______

A)

G2 Phase
Mitosis
S Phase
G1 Phase
Prophase

B)
C)
D)
E)

15)
There are many genetic components to the development of cancer. Some of these involve the enzymes involved in DNA
metabolism. In one such disease, Bloom's syndrome, patients have a dramatically increased risk of cancer. It has been
proposed that the genetic defect is in a helicase. The function of a helicase in the cell is to
15)
______

A)
allow single strands of DNA to form a duplex
B)
ligate DNA aftr mismatches are removed
C)
unwind DNA creating single strands
D)
alter the activity of DNA polymerase
E)
degrade proteins that staabilize the DN duplex
16)
The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously at the replication fork because
16)
______

A)
the lagging strand template is discontinuous.
B)
DNA polymerase always falls off the template DNA every ten nucleotides
or so. C)
DNA polymerase removes the last few nucleotides synthesized whenever
it stops.
D)
DNA polymerase can polymerize nucleotides only in the 5'-to-3' direction.
17)
The enzyme uracil glycosylase is necessary in order to
17)
______

A)
Remove a uracil base from DNA
B)
add thedeoxyribose to form deoxynucleotides
C)
Reseal nicks in a DNA molecule
D)
Convert cytosine to uracil
E)
Form thymine dimers
18)
AP repair acts on nucleotides that
18)
______

A)
Underwent methylation
B)
Were crosslinked by UV light
C)
Lost their base
D)
Underwent deamination
E)
Are located in a displacement loop
19)
DNA replication is
19)
______
semi-conservative.
liberal.
dispersive.
conservative.
irregular.
20)
DNA replication
20)
______

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

A)
is not edited once polymerization has occurred.
B)
is conservative.
C)
requires a type of RNA polymerase.
D)
is partially regulated by promoter/terminator sites.
E)
proceeds by making two continuous strands.
21)
Topoisomerase enzymes are important in the replication of DNA because they
21)
______

A)
anneal Okazaki fragments
B)
"proofread" newly synthesized DNA
C)
degrade histone proteins
D)
synthesize the RNA primer fragments
E)
relax supercoiled DNA
22)

In this diagram of the process of DNA replication at a replication fork, the strand labeled B is the
22)
______
lagging strand
RNA primer
leading strand
Okazaki fragment
template strand
23)

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

The enzyme that synthesizes short stretches of ribonucleic acid (about 10 nucleotides in length) that are complementary
and antiparallel to the DNA template is called
23)
______
Helicase
Topoisomerase

A)
B)

C)
Single-strand binding protein
D)
Primase
E)
Ligase
24)
What is the one clinical feature shared by disorders caused by defects in DNA repair mechanisms?
24)
______

A)
Autosomal recessive inheritance
B)
Skeletal and limb abnormalities
C)
Short stature
D)
Mental retardation and development delay
E)
Increased risk of cancer
25)
_______________ join DNA fragments to the lagging strand.
25)
______
Ligases
Helicases
Centromeres
Telomeres

A)
B)
C)
D)

E)
Antiparallel strands

26)
Proofreading is preformed by the _______________________ (activity) of DNA polymerase?
26)
______

A)

ligase
oxidoreductase
exonuclease
polymerase
kinase
1)
E
B
D
E
C
C
C
E
E
B
B
E
E
C
C
D

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)

B)
C)
D)
E)

A
C
A
C
E
C
D
E
A
C

18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)