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In what follows are shown different types of contracts used in

maritime transport.
Most of them have the same structure. They usually have two parts:
the first one has the boxes where the data of the contract parties are
shown, the second one, the clauses that/which govern the contracts.
Among the main model contracts we will point out/note/mention, on
the one hand, the charter parties, which are used for large shipments
in which a single shipper and a single charterer intervene/take part.
On the other hand, contracts under a bill of lading, which are often
used in liner shipping. In this case several shippers and consignees
share the same ship and route, a bill of lading being issued in each
case.
Charter Party
In this type of contract for the carriage of goods, the loading and
unloading expenses are paid by the shipper in accordance with the
following clauses:
F.I. (Free In).
F.O. (Free Out).
F.I.O. (Free In and Out).
F.I.O.S. (Free In and Out and Stowed).
F.I.L.O. (Free In Liner Out).
L.I.F.O. (Liner In Free Out).
F.I.O.S.T. (Free In and Out Stowed and Trimmed).
F.I.O.S.T.L.S.D. (Free In and Out Stowed, Trimmed, Lashed, Secured
and Dunnaged)
Liner: stowing and unstowing operations are paid / the labour to stow
and unstow the cargo is paid by the ship or shipowner. It is the most
common situation/case in container transport.
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The contract begins when the master informs the charterer that the
ship is in the arranged/agreed place and ready to be loaded. This is
done by the issuing/tendering of the Notice of Readiness. This notice
will indicate the starting point in the agreed dates for the loading of
the vessel / the commencement of laytime (laytime or laydays).

The stay of the ship in port, or the laydays/laytime, for loading starts
when the Notice of Readiness is accepted.

Later, the port authority issues the Statement of Facts. It shows the
ships date and time of arrival at the port, date of issue of the NOR,
dates of commencement and completion of loading operations and
the ships departure date, in chronological order. This document
allows for a calculation of the laytime, and, if applicable, of
demurrage.
In laytime calculation the following terms are used:
Running Days
Working Days (WD): 24-hour period from 00.00 to 00.00, even though
work is not carried out 24 hours. Sundays included in those ports in
which by local law or practice, work is normally carried out.
Working day of 24 hours: 24-hour period even if it spans over two
days.
Sundays and Holidays Excepted (SHEX)
Sundays and Holidays Included (SHINC)
Weather Permitting (WP)
Weather Working Days (WWD):
Weather Working Days of 24 Consecutive Hours

Types of Charter parties


Charter parties are divided according to their contract terms:
demise/bareboat charter, i.e., without crew, voyage charter and time
charter.
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The Bareboat Charter Party states that the shipowner leases his entire
vessel to a charterer for the use of the vessel for a certain period of
time in exchange for a freight. The charterer becomes the temporal
shipowner carrying out the nautical (steering, manouevring) and
economic (the commercial exploitation of the ship) management
(Revised up to this point)

Voyage Charter Party


Type of contract where the shipowner leases the charterer vessel his
vessel to a charterer (error en el original espaol: buque AL
fletador) for the period of time of the voyage for her comercial
explotation in exchange for a freight; In the clause 4 of the type form
is specified that the payment of the freight can be made in
advance depending on the intaken quantity, or after the shipment,
depending on the delivered quantity.
Both parts, shipowner and charterer, in addition to the obligations
that they commit to when they sign the contract, that is, the former
to deliver the goods to its destination and the latter to pay the freight
agreed, they have to achieve other obligations. In the one hand, the
shipowner have to guarantee the ship seaworthiness, specifying that
fulfil the required security conditions in order to carry goods
(cargoworthiness); it is also this person the one who is responsible for
the loading, stowage, unloading and shipment of the goods. For his
part, charterer is responsible for provide the shipowner with the
------? at the time and the place agreed.
Just as in other contracts, many of this policies include a clause by
which is possible to brake the agreement in diferents modalities
This contract is usually use for the bulk, general or liquid cargo
transport.

Time Charter Party


The ship is disposed for the charterer by the shipowner for a specified
period of time in exchange of a price. Differently from hiring contract,
the nautical business is carried out by the shipowner, whereas the
charterer assumes the commercial part for cargo trading. The
contract starts when the ship is disposed by the shipowner on datet
and time agreed. This delivery will be done:
A.P.S. (Upon Arrival at Pilot Station)
T.I.P. (Upon taking the inbound pilot)
D.O.P. (Upon Dropping the outbound Pilot)
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