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Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol.

1)

AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS


. Duct

(Types)

.. Duct

5-3

(Shapes of Air Duct)

.. Flexible Connection

5-3

Flexible Duct

5-3

.. Vertical Duct and Horization Duct

5-4

.. Supply Air Duct Return Air Duct and Outdoor Air Duct

5-4

.. Duct Layout

5-5

. Duct System

(Classification)

. Duct

5-6

(Duct Construction)

5-8

..

(Ductwork Materials)

.. Duct Seal

5-12
5-13

.. Duct

(External Insulation)

.. Duct

(Internal Insulation)

5-16
5-16

.. Access Doors

5-17

.. Duct Test Holes

5-18

.. Duct fittings

5-18

. Duct Support

Hanger

5-19

. Duct Properties

5-20

.. Duct Heat Gain

Duct Heat Loss

5-20

.. Aspect Ratio

21

..

(Sound Control)

..

5-22

(Duct leakage)

5-24

.. SMACNA Ductwork Testing


. Duct

5-25

(Sizing)

.. Duct

5-25

(Sizing)

5-26

..

(Friction Losses in Duct)

.. Head and Pressure

5-28

.. Friction Chart

(Pressure Drop)

5-31

.. Calculation for Duct Static Pressure Loss by Formula


. Duct

5-28

(Duct Design)

.. Design

5-33
5-37

(information)

5-37

.. Duct Design Criteria

5-39

.. Design Procedure

5-39

. Fire Damper

5-41

.. Fire Compartment

5-41

.. Fire Damper

5-42

.. Fire damper

5-43

. Control Dampers
.. (

5-44

) Two Position Duty

5-48

.. ( ) Capacity Control Duty

5-51

.. () Mixing duty

5-54

. Flexible Connection

Flexible Duct

5-10

.. Air pattern
.. Diffuser

5-56
(Air Diffusers)

.. Diffuser
..

(Air Outlet)

.. Plenum Slot Diffuser


. Duct cleaning

www.acmv.org

5-60

Characteristic Length

5-62
(Noise Level)

5-62
5-63
5-63

5-0

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

- Air Distribution System


Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System
Mechanical Ventilation

(fresh air)

(exhaust air)
duct System
Duct velocity
velocity

duct

Duct

(velocity)

(pressure drop)

(noise)

(vibration)

(velocity)
duct
duct
Duct
Area(A)
(round) duct
(rectangular)duct
[square feet(ft2)

IP

SI

[Square meters(m )]
Duct

(volume flow

rate)

(flow)
per Second(CMS)
(Metric)
www.acmv.org

IP

Cubic Feet per Minute(CFM)


Duct velocity

IP

SI

Cubic Meters

Feet per Minute(FPM)

SI

Meters per Sec (m/s)


5-1

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Velocity

Velocity Pressure

Where:

VP = Velocity Pressure, inches of water (inch wg)


V = Velocity, feet per minute (FPM)

Frictional Losses
duct

(fluid viscosity)

duct
(pressure losses)

turbulence flow

(fr

Frictional Losses

Dynamic Losses
Elbow reducer transformation

duct fitting

(area)

(direction)
flow disturbances

Loss

Dynamic

(pressure losses)

Duct Terms

(duct terms)

Main Duct (Trunk)


F

F
m

Branch ducts
B

Duct fittings
Main duct(trunk

duct fitting (t

Air Distribution Devices

www.acmv.org

air distribution devices

5-2

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

. Duct

(Types)

.. Duct (Shapes of Air Duct)


Duct

Duct

(Round)

() Airflow Characteristics

() Air Con duct

Duct

insulation
() Flexible duct

Oval duct

(space saver)

() insulation

(Rectangular)
Duct

(flexible duct)

Insulated

flexible

()

duct

()

() Metal duct
(installation)
(labor cost)

() Airflow
(pressure
drop)
()

(sharp

bend)
Round Duct

Oval Duct

Round duct
(automatic

spiral)

(oval duct)

(round)duct
(galvanized steel sheet)

(duct length)
width, A)

Oval duct

Minor Axis (duct depth, B)

Conditioning (ASHRAE)

Major Axis(duct

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National

Association(SMACNA)

- Oval duct
.. Flexible Connection

- Round duct
Flexible Duct

Fan
fan

(vibration) duct
duct

(vibration)
www.acmv.org

- Round duct

(transmission)

fexible connection
diffuser

ceiling

Duct
(isolation)
5-3

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

metal duct

diffuser

flexible connector

flexible duct

material

(flame retardant fabric)

(flame spread rating)


(smoke developed rating)

N .255 ST

E84

()

()

NEPA
Flexible connection

(air tight)

flexible duct

.. Vertical Duct and Horization Duct


duct
duct

(vertical)
(horization)duct

.. Supply Air Duct Return Air Duct and Outdoor Air Duct
duct
S

y Air Duct
(s

supply air duct

Positive pressure duct


R

Air Duct
(r

return air duct

Negative pressure duct


O

Air Duct
(outdoor)

E h

outdoor air duct

Air Duct
exhaust air

Duct

(Size)
Duct

(Sheet Thickness)
(size)

(sheet thickness)

Ventilation Duct
Maximum Size of Duct
460 mm
461 mm

Sheet Metal Thickness (

0.56 mm (gauge)
1070 mm

0.71 mm

1070 mm

1530 mm

0.91 mm

1531 mm

2150 mm

1.22 mm

2151 mm
www.acmv.org

1.22 mm
5-4

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Air Conditioning Duct


Maximum Size of Duct

Sheet Metal Thickness(

300 mm

0.46 mm

301 mm

760 mm

0.56 mm

761 mm

1400 mm

0.71 mm

1401 mm

2150 mm

0.91 mm

2151mm

1.22 mm
(round) duct

Round Duct

(material thickness)

Nominal Diameter

(G.I Sheet Thickness)

205 mm

0.6 mm (gauge)

205 mm

760 mm

0.8 mm

760 mm

1020 mm

1.0 mm

1020 mm

1525 mm

Round duct

1.2 mm
elbow

center radius

2m

.5

Vertical duct

duct support

- Flexible duct

- Flexible duct

.. Duct Layout
Duct layout
Duct layout

ymm

Main duct

Duct

VAV system

(design pat)

(duct looping

Duct fitting

layout

(exposed) duct
(appearance)

- Spide
www.acmv.org

structure

- Trunk and Branch

5-5

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

- Perimeter Loop

. Duct System

- Radial

(Classification)

Duct system

(velocity)

(Pressure)

duct

system
(velocity)

L w V

System

System

Comfort air conditioning


()

(2500 feet per minute)


1200 FPM(feet per minute)

Supply air velocity

h Velocity Duct

supply air velocity


L w V

Sy

2200 FPM

2500 FPM

- Round duct

h V

Sy

- Rectangular duct

(pressure)
(total pressure)
Duct System Class

(Pressure)

Low pressure (Class I)

(Velocity)

3 in-wg

y 0 m/

y 0 m/

5 mw
Medium Pressure (Class II)

6 in wg
5 mw

High Pressure (Class III)

12 in wg
5< 25 m w

Duct
()

static

Velocity > 10 m/s

(air velocitiy)
duct
duct

www.acmv.org

5-6

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

()

(air velocity)

(pressure drop)

fan

(power consumption)
()

(operation cost)

(air velocitiy)
(noise attenuator or silencer)

(recommended air velocity)

Recommended Maximum Duct Velocities for Low Velocity Systems (FPM)


m m

Duct Velocity) feet per minute(FPM)


Controlling Factor
Noise Generation

(Application)

Controlling Factor Duct Friction


Main Ducts

Branch Ducts

Main Ducts

Supply

Return

Supply

Return

600

1000

800

600

600

1000

1500

1300

1200

1000

1200

2000

1500

1600

1200

800

1300

1100

1000

800

1500

2000

1500

1600

1200

Average Stores Cafeterias

1800

2000

1500

1600

1200

Industrial

2500

3000

1800

2200

1500

Residences
Apartments, Hotel Bedrooms
Hospital Bedrooms
Private Offices, Directors
Rooms, Libraries
Theatres Auditoriums
General Offices, High Class
Restaurants, High Class Stores,
Banks

From Carrier Air System Design Manual

(air velocity)

(residences)

3 m/s

5 m/s

(theatres)

4 m/s

6.5 m/s

7.5 m/s

10 m/s

(restaurants) canteen
duct

(air velocity)

Main duct

(allowable air velocity)

Branche duct

(allowable air velocity)


www.acmv.org

(allowable air velocity)

5 m/s

8 m/s

4 m/s

6 m/s

30 m/s
5-7

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Duct system
SMACNA

industry
HVAC Duct System Design Manual

supply air fan


v

duct

exhuast air fan

duct

duct

Negative Pressure

Duct system

(air velocity)
Coil

Duct

(reference)

duct

duct

velocitiy)

ASHRAE Handbook

1000 fpm(5.08m/s)

(filter)
000

m 5.24m/

(duct strength)

duct

(air

(deflection)

(leakage)

(pressure)

(velocity)
(noise)

(vibration)

(friction loss)

(velocity)
Duct System
Sheets reinforcements seals
duct

joints

duct

element

- Duct system

www.acmv.org

(Duct Construction)

5-8

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

()

(standards)

SMACNA duct

construction standards 2005


()

ASHRAE standard

local codes

()

(support)

()

Welding

grinding

()

Double-wall and lining

()

()

(material types)

()

Sh

Duct Construction Manuals:


()

SMACNAHVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible (Third Edition)

()

SMACNAFibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards (Fifth Edition)

()

SMACNARectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standard (First Edition)

()

SMACNARound Industrial Duct Construction Standard (First Edition)

()

SMACNAThermoplastic Duct (PVC) Construction Manual (First Edition)


Duct

(toilets)

Return air duct

supply air stream


Supply air duct

return air duct

(ceiling space)
plenum

return air

air

(ceiling and the side-walls)


(plastering)

(painting)

rigid duct

steel aluminium glass-fibre batt mineral wool


v

Duct

duct lining

m
glass fibre batt

stream

Masonry duct

mineral wool

air

erosion of fibres
Duct

bracket
connection material
www.acmv.org

(supported
(metal)

hanger
Duct covering duct lining

flexible

- m
5-9

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(combustible material)
(

(methods)

surface flame spread rating

(class 1)

(flame spread rating)


lining material

class zero

duct

class zero

( )

duct
Ventilation ductwork

terminal unit

ventilation grilles air diffuser

flexible connection

(2 m)

(thermal movements)
flexible joint

250 mm

Flexible joint

('not

easily ignitable')

British Standard BS 476: Part 5

Duct

opening
Air duct

stiffening

air duct support

fitting

plenum

reinforcing and access opening

Institution of Heating and Ventilating Engineers(IHVE) guide books


duct

( joints

seam

ASHRAE Handbook,
SMACNA Manuals
(construction standards)

..

(Ductwork Materials)

S
V

(applications) Galvanized steel sheets


ASTM A90, A525, and A52

24"

Breechings flues

stacks

(carbon steel)

stacks

(carbon steel)

ASTM A569
24"

Breechings flues
ASTM A569

m
m

y h

ASTM B209

S
h

fume hood exhaust

304 304L 316 or 316L

Stacks
stainless steel sheets

ASTM A167
www.acmv.org

5-10

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems


SHEET METAL GAUGES
Sheet

Sheet

Thickness

Metal

Remarks

Inches

Gauge

Metal

Thickness Inches

Remarks

Gauge

0.3125

19

0.0437

0.2810

20

0.0375

0.2650

21

0.0343

0.2500

22

0.0312

0.2340

23

0.0280

0.2187

24

0.0250

0.2030

25

0.0218

0.1875

26

0.0187

0.1720

27

0.0170

0.1560

28

0.0156

10

0.1400

29

0.0140

11

0.1250

30

0.0125

12

0.1090

31

0.0109

13

0.0937

32

0.0100

14

0.0780

33

0.0093

15

0.0700

34

0.0085

16

0.0625

SMACNA

35

0.0078

17

0.0560

Ductwork

36

0.0070

18

0.0500

Construction

Welded
Ductwork
Only

Duct

SMACNA
Ductwork
Construction

Gauges Not
Permitted
for
Ductwork
Construction

(Duct Material)

UL (Underwriters Laboratory) standard


Class 0

()
()

( zero flame spread)

(zero smoke developed)

Iron galvanized steel aluminum concrete masonry clay tile


Class 1

()
( m

25

()

50

()

50)

Fiberglass many flexible ducts


Class 2

()
( m

00)

.. Duct Seal
Duct Seal
Ductwork and plenum
www.acmv.org

(leakage)
seale
5-11

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

ASHRAE Minimum Duct Seal Level


Duct Type
Duct Location

Supply
2

. w. .

> 2 in. w.c.

Exhaust

Return

Outdoors

Unconditioned Spaces

Conditioned Spaces

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 and ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 Ductwork Seal Classes
Seal Level
Seal Class A
Seal Class B
Seal Class C

Sealing Requirements *
All transverse joints and longitudinal seams, and duct wall penetrations.
Pressure-sensitive tape shall not be used as the primary sealant.
All transverse joints and longitudinal seams. Pressure-sensitive tape shall not
be used as the primary sealant.
All transverse joints only

Sealing Ductwork (ASHRAE Standard 90.1) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc. (www.ASHRAE.org)

SMACNA Ductwork Seal Classes

Seal Class

Applicable Static Pressure Construction Class

4" WC and higher

3" WC

2" WC

1/2" WC and higher for all ductwork upstream of VAV terminal units

Sealants and Adhesives


W

s v
(outside

(Underground

solvent based

(resistant to weather

(ultraviolet rays
SMACNA Recommended Ductwork Seal Classes

SMACNA Pressure Class (in. WC)


1/2

10

Supply Ductwork
Outdoors

Unconditioned Space

Conditioned Space

www.acmv.org

5-12

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Return Ductwork
Outdoors

Unconditioned Space

Conditioned Space

Exhaust Ductwork
Outdoors

Unconditioned Space

Conditioned Space

SMACNA-HVAC Ductwork Seal Classes

()

Seal Class A: 25 percent total system leakage (all transverse joints, longitudinal seams,
and duct penetrations).

()

Seal Class B: 310 percent total system leakage (all transverse joints and longitudinal
seams).

()

Seal Class C: 520 percent total system leakage (all transverse joints).

()

Unsealed: 1040 percent total system leakage.

()

SMACNA recommended seal classes.

- Benefits of insulation and sealing ducts


Air Conditioning

duct

Ventilation

duct
duct

AC duct

MV duct

insulation

Mechanical
Air Conditioning duct

Mechanical ventilation duct

Duct

external insulation

duct

internal insulation
Air conditioning duct
Air conditioning duct
www.acmv.org

mechanical ventilation duct


(heat transfer)
5-13

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(internal insulation)

- Duct

- Fire rated duct


.. Duct

(External Insulation)

Insulation(vapor barrier)
mineral

wool

insulation

www.acmv.org

external insulation

fiber glass

material
(thermal conductivity)

0.0332 W/m2 K

5-14

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

(thermal conductivity
(insulation)
(mean temperature) 24C
25mm

(density)
supply duct return duct

32 kg/m

con

(thickness)
air c

exhaust duct

(non air conditioning area)


50mm

insulation
3

Air con

duct

return

insulation

exhaust air

supply air
25mm

Air

(non air conditioning area)

(air

conditioning area)
insulation
.. Duct

(Internal Insulation)
Internal insulation

(noise level)

insulation (vapor
main

(density) 140 kg/m3


()

rockwool material

Main duct

internal Insulation

rockwool

Duct

(0.46mm)

(aluminum shee

(perforated)
m

holes)

(total surface)

duct

m h

(perforation

- External Insulation duct


Duct

(construction)

(type)

(dimension)

SMACNA guide line


Sh

SMACNA

Duct and plenum insulation (Ref Singapore Standard SS 553:2009)


Minimum duct insulation R-values for cooling only supply ducts and return ducts
Duct Location

Duct location R-value (m2K/W)*

Exterior

1.06

Ventilated attic

1.41

Unvented attic above insulated ceiling

1.77

Unvented attic with roof insulation

1.06

Unconditioned space

1.06

Buried

1.06

www.acmv.org

5-15

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

.. Access Doors
Equipment

duct

damper

fire damper
access door

Access door

Access door

duct

insulation material

1.00mm

Access door
Duct

12mm

fire rating

door

(welding method)

neoprene rubber gasket

access door

(fire rating)

lock

(latch)

(galvanized)

vy

Access

(chromium)

- Oval Duct Access Door


Access door

- Access door

duct

Duct

Access door frame

(size)

(size)

access door

1200mm

duct

1200mm

300mm x 400mm

duct

450mm x 450mm

Automatic Damper or Fire Damper

450mm x 600mm

.. Duct Test Holes


Duct

(velocity)

(hole diameter)
40mm

5mm

(pressure)

(location)

25mm

braged

- Duct test holes

(dawing)
top screw braged

Bar

- Duct test hole

sheet metal

air flow

.. Duct fittings
duct

duct

duct fitting

duct fitting
www.acmv.org

5-16

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

() Elbows

()

Enlargements and contractions

() Converging or diverging tees and wyes

()

Means to reduce dynamic losses

() Entrances and exits

()

Turning angle, splitter vanes

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2001)

ASHRAE duct fitting database

fitting loss coefficients duct fitting

()

Fitting Types Elbows Mitered vanes

() Fitting Types Divided Flow Y-Branch

()

Mitered no vanes

() Reducing Y-Branch

()

Fitting Types Elbows Gored long radius

() Divided Flow Laterals

()

Fitting Types Elbows Gored Standard

() Divided Flow Laterals

()

Fitting Types Divided Flow Straight Tee

() Duct fitting -Branch

()

Fitting Types Divided Flow Conical Tee

() Duct fitting -Branch

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

- Duct fitting
. Duct Support

Hanger

Maximum ductwork hanger spacing


(a.) SMACNA minimum requirements
(1)

Horizontal: 8 to 10 feet maximum.

(2)

Vertical: One- or two-story intervals-12 to 24 feet.

www.acmv.org

5-17

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(horizontal) duct
hanger rod

Hanger rod

lock nut

Cross-Sectional Perimeter of Duct

Maximum Spacing Between Hanger


(Hanger

1.5 m

duct

1.6 m

2.4 m

2.5m

1.8 m

2.5 m

duct

1.2 m

(b.) Recommended
(1)

Horizontal ducts less than 4 square feet: 8 feet maximum.

(2)

Horizontal ducts 4 to 10 square feet: 6 feet maximum.

(3)

Horizontal ducts greater than 10 square feet: 4 feet maximum.

(4)

Vertical round ducts: 12 feet maximum.

(5)

Vertical rectangular ducts: 10 feet maximum.

Ductwork Support
Ductwork

(Type)

Maximum Hanger Spacing Feet

Horizontal Ducts Less than 4 Square Feet

Horizontal Ducts 4 to 10 Square Feet

Horizontal Ducts Greater than 10 Square Feet

Vertical Round Ducts

12

Vertical Rectangular Ducts

10
(vertical) duct

- Dcut hanger

continuous length

support

- Dcut support

First cost

(installation cost)
Operating

cost

system
www.acmv.org

Duct
(first cost)

(operating cost)
5-18

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

) Duct

(cool air)
(hot air)

( )

(heat)

duct

(heat loss )

Aspect ratio of the duct (duct

()

duct

aspect ratio)

duct

(friction rate)

() Fitting

(type)

. Duct Properties
.. Duct Heat Gain

Duct Heat Loss

Air con duct

air con

heat loss)

(duct heat gain)


Supply air

duct

duct

(duct

(temperature)

(heat)

(cooled air

)duct
(allowance)
supply air

(air

quantity)
Duct
duct

duct aspect ratio

duct aspect ratio

flow rate)

duct

(heat gain)

(velocity)

(air
(heat gain)

(heat loss)
(velocity)

duct
(duct heat gain)
(duct heat loss)

U value 0.12

insulation

(duct heat gain) %

.. Aspect Ratio

- Aspect Ratio 1.0

www.acmv.org

Aspect Ratio 4.0

duct

5-19

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Aspect ratio

duct

(long side)

h
aspect ratio

Aspect Ratio
(installation cost)

(operation cost)

Duct work

(first cost)

cost)

(installation

(material)

Duct c

Duct

capacity

duct system
Duct

(total pressure)

(size)

duct c

duct c

Duct Class

Max; Size of Duct(inch)

Semi Perimeter

6 - 17 1/2"

10 - 23

12 - 24

24 46

26 - 40

32 - 46

24 - 88

48 - 94

48 - 90

96 - 176

90 - 144

96 - 238

(gate

(capacity)
of

metal

duct

sheet)

duct

duct
Material

insulation

insulation
consultant

(area)

dust class

Aspect Ratio

Aspect Ratio

(friction loss)

- Small Aspect Ratio


..

- Large Aspect Ration

(Sound Control)

()

(acceptable noise

criteria (NC))
()

()
()
www.acmv.org

(resultant sound level criteria)


(

v
5-20

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

()

(appropriate)

- Duct System Acoustics


Design guidelines for HVAC system noise in unoccupied spaces

(Room Types)
Private Residences

RC / NC
25-35

Hotels/Motels
Individual rooms or suites

25-35

Meeting/banquet rooms

25-35

Corridors, lobbies

35-45

Service/support areas

35-45

Office Buildings
Executive and private offices

25-35

Conference rooms

25-35

Teleconference rooms

< 25

Open-plan offices

< 40

- With sound masking


Corridors and lobbies
Hospitals and Clinics Private rooms

< 35
40-45
25-35

Wards

30-40

Operating rooms

25-35

Corridors and public areas

30-45

Performing Arts Spaces

Drama theaters

25

Music teaching studios

25

Music practice rooms


Schools
Classrooms
www.acmv.org

30-35
d
25-30
5-21

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Large lecture rooms

25-30

Large lecture rooms, without speech amplification

25

Laboratories (with Fume Hoods)


Testing/research, minimal speech communication

45-55

Research, extensive telephone use, speech communication

40-50

Group teaching

35-45

Church, Mosque, Synagogue


General assembly

25-35

With critical music programs c


Libraries

30-40

Courtrooms
Un-amplified speech

25-35

Amplified speech 30-40

30-40

Indoor Stadiums, Gymnasiums


Gymnasiums and natatoriumse

40-50

Large seating-capacity spaces with speech amplificatione 45-55

45-55

..

(Duct leakage)
(leakage)

ANSI SMACNA ASHRAE

standard
(Impact of Leakage )
(leakage
Energy Cost Example
Cost/year = [CFM x TP]/[8,520 x Eft] x Hours/Year x $/kwh
CFM

RPM

SP

VP

TP

BHP

Leakage

(Cu

(rev/min)

(in

(in

(in

(hp)

(%)

ft/min)

wg)

wg)

wg)

Extra

Increas

Oper/yr

Oper/yr

ed

(5/year)

(5/year)

Oper/yr
WO

20,000

530

1.50

0.39

1.89

6.68

5,600

21,000

557

1.65

0.43

2.08

7.73

6,481

881

15.7

10

22,000

583

1.82

0.47

2.29

8.89

7,452

1,852

33.3

15

23,000

610

1.98

0.52

2.50

10.16

8,515

2,915

52.1

20

24,000

636

2.16

0.56

2.72

11.54

9,675

4,075

73.0

30

26,000

689

2.54

0.66

3.20

14.68

12,301

6,701

120.0

www.acmv.org

5-22

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

(assumed
Electric rate $0.15/kWh

0.15

52 wk x 6 d/wk x 24 hr

7,488 hr

Fan/motor Efficiency

89

initial velocity

2,501

(Suggested Leakage Levels)


Leakage Levels

SMACNA Class 3

Test Pressure (in wg)

(CFM/100 sq ft)

0-1

3.0

1 -2

4.6

2-3

6.0

3-4

7.4

4-6

9.6

0.5

6-10

13.5

0.5

Leakage (%)

Annual Operational Costs

Cost/Year

system first year operating cost ($)

Qfan

system volume flow rate (cfm)

FTP

system total operating pressure (in wg)

Hours/Year

number of hours the system operates in one year $/kwh = cost of energy

Efficiency

fan/motor drive combined efficiency

8,520

conversion factor to kWh (kilowatt hours)

.. SMACNA Ductwork Testing


()

-4 W

()

()

pressure r

(test)

(1.5 X Pressure Rating)


W

4 W

w
pressure rating

(test)

(1.5 X Pressure Rating)

()

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-200

()

200

2004

static pressures +3" Water Gauge

y-

2006

static pressures +3" Water Gauge

w
y

y-

. Duct

(Sizing)
y

www.acmv.org

5-23

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

()

(space availability)

()

(space air diffusion)

()

(noise levels)

()

Duct

(duct leakage)

()

duct

(duct heat gain)


(duct heat loss)

()

(air balancing)

()

(fire and smoke


control)

()

(initial investment cost)

()

(system operating cost)

(discomfort)
S
(construction)
(terminal)
h

(leakage)

air

diffuser

h
y

system

loss

Ductwork Sizes
()

()

(smallest recomm

()

24

2 0

6 2

6 48

)
()

4:1

()

m m

mm

.. Duct
(

(Sizing)
) Pressurized Method

( ) Equal Friction Sizing Method(Constant Pressure Loss Method)


() Static Regain Method
() Total Pressure Method
( ) Velocity Reduction Method
( ) Constant Velocity Method
www.acmv.org

5-24

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

m h

() Velocity Reduction Method


() Equal Friction Method
() Static Regain Method
Pressurized Method
duct
duct

duct

(size)

Equal Friction Sizing Method (Constant Pressure Loss Method)


Equal friction

(method)

(flexibility)

Duct

(pressure loss)

duct
System

duct

1 Pascal (1Pa/m)

duct
Supply

Eq

extract duct system

Eq

ASHRAE

h
h

duct

(high and low limits for pressure loss per unit length)
(velocity)

duct

Eq

(pressure loss per unit length)

friction loss per unit of length

duct

1 Pascal( 1Pa/m)
( )

friction loss(1 pa/m)

(air flow rate)

Friction loss chart


()

(pressure loss)

duct

()

(size)

(section)
(duct section) elbow
duct

friction loss coefficient

duct
friction loss

fitting

friction loss

(size)
duct

(size)

System

Eq

www.acmv.org

(air balancing)

5-25

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Regain Sizing Method


S

duct

(equal friction method


S

(material)

terminal

(pressure loss)

branch duct section

duct

branch duct section


section

(pressure loss)

branch duct

(pressure loss)
duct

(section)

duct

(section)

(pressure losses)

duct section

(size)

duct

(section)

duct

duct

(size)
(p

iteration process
T

T
V

m h

m h

y Reduction Sizing Method


Velocity

reduction

duct

(air

velocity)

(velocity)
(noise)

Duct
(acceptable

(velocity)

velocity)

duct

duct

(round) duct

(size)

(rectangular) duct

(size)

(pressure losses)
(high noise level)

(velocity)

ASHRAE

SMACNA

yS

(noise level)
V

Constant velocity method


(tender)

S
duct

(specified)

(velocity)

duct

..

duct

(pressure losses)

(Friction Losses in Duct)


Friction loss

fluid viscosity

v
m m

F
www.acmv.org

5-26

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Eq

m h

F
() Duct

(size)

() Duct

(velocity)

friction loss

(interior surface roughness)

()

(Air flow rate)

() Duct

(length)

friction loss

friction loss

friction loss

.. Head and Pressure


m
("Head" is the height of a fluid co m

w.

w
q

He
m

(cloum liquid)

Hea

5 meter of water cloum(WC)


q

Air pressure 1 Pound per Square Inch (PSI) = 51.71 millimeter of mercury( mmHg )
51.71 mm of mercury (mmHg)

y-W

h Eq

(pressure drop
y-W

h Eq

pipe

d
(f

fully developed flow

Darcy and Colebrook Equations


Duct

(pipe)

fluid

(pressure drop)

www.acmv.org

5-27

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

f
(

Fluid

laminar flow

Reynolds

()

(Reynolds numbers less than 2000) Friction factor


( )

Fluid

turbulent flow

Reynolds number

friction factor

(Reynolds number)

Reynolds

(duct surface roughness)

joint

Friction factor

(duct

surface

roughness)

noncircular duct

(Reynolds number)
hydraulic

diameter

laminar flow

hydraulic diameter

Duct (Noncircular Duct)

hy

m
hy

square

rectangular duct

roun

Rectangular Duct
R

www.acmv.org

Flow

resistance

round duct

5-28

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Flat Oval Duct


A = major axis of flat oval duct (mm)
a = minor axis of flat oval duct (mm)
P = perimeter of flat oval duct (mm)

Friction

R y
h

hy

Hydraulic diameter(D)

m
m

(Graph)

Reynolds Number(dimensionless)

Duct

(turbulent or laminar)
Reynolds Number

()

Reynolds Number

Laminar flow

(Laminar

if Re < 2300)
Reynolds Number

()

()

Transient flow

(Transient for 2300 < Re < 4000)


Reynolds Number

()

Turbulent flow

(Turbulent if Re > 4000)


.. F

S R E

(Pressure Drop)

friction ch

()

Friction losses ( Pa/ m)

()

Air Quantity (Liter per Second)

()

Velocity (m/s)

()

()

Friction losses ( Pa/m)

0.1 Pa/m
5
()

mm

00

/m

0.

/m

/m

Air Quantity (Liter per Second)


L/

(vertical li

20

200 000 L/

()

Velocity (m/s)

()

Round Duct Diamaeter (mm)

www.acmv.org

5-29

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

25 000

(
(maximum f

/m

()

round duct

total f

(air quantity

25 000

(air quantity
25 000

- ASHRAE friction chart


25,000 CHM x 1000 Liter per meter cube = 25,000,000 Liter per hour/ 3600
m m F

/m

6 44 L/

6 44 L/
/m
m

50mm

v
S R E

www.acmv.org

y
mm

0.2 m/
v

y
5-30

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

v
vel

0.2 m/

recommend duct

50mm
v

y m
Comfort Systems

Type of Duct

Industrial Systems

m/s

ftm

m/s

Main ducts

4-7

780 - 1380

8 - 12

Main branch ducts

3-5

590 - 985

Branch ducts

1-3

200 - 590

High Speed Systems


m/s

ftm

1575 - 2360

10 - 18

1670 - 3540

5-8

985 - 1575

6 - 12

1180 - 2360

3-5

590 - 985

5-8

985 - 1575

(outlets

(inlets

(velocit

(unacceptable noise)
(air flow rate) 8 000

00mm

450mm

(frictioin losses - Pa/m)

Air Flow Rate 18,000 CMH

Liter per Second

Air Flow Rate 18,000 CMH = 5,000 L/s

Rectangular d

450mm

808mm

00mm

Eq v

Rectangular

Eq

800
(air quantitie) 5,000 L/s

800mm R

(frictioin losses - Pa/m)

/m

Friction Loss Estimate


1.5 X System Length (ft./100) X Friction Rate (in.W.G./100 ft.).
..

Where

yF m
L

(Formula)

Ref: 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Equation No:11

De =

Circular Equivalent of Rectangular duct for equal length

Q =

Air flow rate (L/sec)


2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34,

Eq

(air flow rate)


S R E

S
(air flow rate)

V
/

0.001
www.acmv.org

5-31

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

A = (3.14 x De2 /4

roun

round duct d m

Rectangular duct

(formula)

circular eq v

()

Ref: 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Equation No:25

(velocity) velocity Pressure

(formula)

Ref: 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Equation No:09

Rv

= Velocity Pressure ()

= Fluid mean Velocity (m/s)


m

mm)

Ref: 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Equation No: 24

Ref: 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Table No: 01

absolute roughness factor

2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals

Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Table No: 01


() Reynolds number
Ref: 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Equation No:23

Re = Reynolds number
Dh = Hydraulic Diameter (mm)
V = Velocity (m/s)
www.acmv.org

5-32

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

() Pressure Drop
Ref: 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Equation No:21

()

or

Ref: 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter 34, Equation No:19

Dh

1.204 kg/m2

(for air)

= Hydraulic Diameter, mm

= Velocity (m/s)

If

()
For Ducting,
For Fittings,

internet a

d w

http://www.acmv.org/lecture/file/Duct_Static_Loss_calculation.xls
A. Ductwork Sizing Criteria Table (Ductwork Size Criteria)
Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

System

Friction Rate

Velocity

Velocity

Type

in.W.G./100

ft./min.

ft./min.

Comments/Reasons

ft.
General Air Handling Systems
Low
Pressure

0.10 (0.15)

----

Ducts
Medium
Pressure

0.20 (0.25)

----

Ducts
High
Pressure
Ducts
www.acmv.org

0.40 (0.45)

----

1,500
1,800
2,000
2,500
2,500
3,500

When CFM > 6,000 velocity governs;when CFM


< 6,000 friction rate governs; applicable for
supply, return, exhaust, and outside air systems
When CFM > 6,000 velocity governs; when CFM
< 6,000 friction rate governs; applicable for
supply systems only
When CFM > 5,000 velocity governs; when CFM
< 5,000 friction rate governs; applicable for
supply systems only
5-33

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)


Transfer Air
Ducts
Outside Air
Shafts

0.030.05

----

1,000

0.050.10

----

1,000

Gravity
Relief Air

When CFM > 3,200 velocity governs; when CFM


< 3,200 friction rate governs
When CFM > 1,200 velocity governs; when CFM
< 1,200 friction rate governs
When CFM > 3,200 velocity governs; when CFM

0.030.05

----

1,000

< 3,200 friction rate governs

Shafts
General Exhaust and Special Exhaust Systems
General
Exhaust

0.10 (0.15)

----

Ducts
Toilet
Exhaust

0.10 (0.15)

----

Ducts

1,500
1,800
1,500
1,800

Kitchen
Hood
Exhaust

When CFM > 6,000 velocity governs; When


CFM < 6,000 friction rate governs
When CFM > 6,000 velocity governs; When
CFM < 6,000 friction rate governs
2003 IMC: 1,500 FPM min.; 2006 IMC: 500 FPM

----

1,500

2,200

0.10 (0.15)

1,500

2,200

min.; NFPA 96-2004: 500 FPM min.

Ducts
Dishwasher
Exhaust
Ducts
Acid,
Ammonia,
and Solvent

Mains and risers 1,5003,000 FPM; Branches


0.50 (0.60)

1,000

3,000

----

3,000

4,000

----

250

----

and lateral 1,0002,000 FPM

Mains
Acid,
Ammonia,
and Solvent
Stacks
Silane
Ducts

Velocity across the neck of the cylinder or


cabinet window or access port

Louvers
Maximum velocity through free area; assuming
Intake

----

----

500

50% free areamax. velocity 250 FPM through


gross louver area

Exhaust or
Relief

Maximum velocity through free area; assuming


----

----

700

50% free areamax. velocity 350 FPM through


gross louver area

Notes:
(1) Maximum aspect ratio 4:1; unless space constraints dictate greater aspect ratios.
(2) Duct velocities should not exceed 1,500 FPM or noise will result.

www.acmv.org

5-34

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

. Duct

(Duct Design)

.. Design

(information)

(client requirements)

(supply air condition)

(space availability)

(installation cost)

(air friction loss)

Duct system configuration

(type)

duct layout

(noise level)

(duct heat transfer and airflow leakage)

(ambient conditions)

(material)

Duct insulation
Duct system layout

(codes and standards requirements)

Key design inputs

Design outputs
3

m /s)

Lm

/m

S h m

S h

&
h

L miting flow velocity (m/s)


Duct
()

()

(duct material)

duct
changes

in

(sudden
directions)
(pressure loss)

() Duct

turning vane
Angle of divergence

20
() Aspect ratio

()

()

Aspect ratio (
duct

Aspect ratio ()
() Duct

(vibration)

velocity)
()

duct
duct

duct
(noise)

(air

duct
(frictional

loss)

(duct

material)

www.acmv.org

5-35

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

- Transfer duct
Duct
(

Duct

y
(shape)

(strength)

(deformation)

dimensional stability
( )

(Leakage Control)
Positive pressure duct

(air loss)
Negative presure duct

leakage control
()

(Noise)
Duct

(noise generation)

transmission)

(noise

(noise)

()

(Exposure)
(weather)

(corrosive a m
contamination)

duct

(underground

(biological
basement)

(outdoor)
( )

exposure

Duct Support
Duct support
(position)

( )

alignment

duct support

Thermal Conductivity
Duct
t

duct

(heat

(heat gain)
(condensation)

h
(thermal

duct
conductivity)

Duct
(expericence)
www.acmv.org

5-36

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

(technical knowledge)

(good practices)

Duct

(workshop)

(fabricate)

Drawing

(site)

duct

(dimension)

internal dimension
(size)

duct

(dimemsion)

..
() Life-cycle cost(LCC)

duct

duct
()

Damper

duct

duct

(size)
(sound

(duct)

configuration

level)

VAV

box

(pressure)

(excess pressure)
Sound attenuation
()

(critical

path)

duct

(critical path)
(local

loss

duct fitting

equipment

coefficients)
(surplus

pressure)
()

Supply air

(volume flow rate)

duct heat gain

VAV system

(volume flow rate)


Fan

(discharge pressure)

diversity
critical path

.. Design Procedure
Air duct system

(supply volume flow rate)

(space air diffusion)

(supply outlets)

(return inlets)

cold air

(volume flow rate)

warm air

(volume flow rate)


air duct system
software

duct design
Computer-aided

duct

design

(precise calculation)

m m
air duct system

duct design

Design Procedure
()

Verify local codes & material availability

()

Preliminary duct layout

www.acmv.org

5-37

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

()

Divide into consecutive duct sections

()

Minimise local loss coefficients of duct fittings

()

Select duct sizing methods

()

Critical total pressure loss of tentative critical path

()

Size branch ducts & balance total pressure at junctions

()

Adjust supply flow rates according to duct heat gain

()

Resize duct sections, recalculate & balance parallel paths

() Check sound level & add necessary attenuation


design procedure
()

()

(client requirement)

(tender specification)

(local codes)

(material

availability)
()

duct layout

(preliminary)

(return inlets)

main ducts branch takeoffs

(duct)

air duct
()

fan

(supply outlets)

Duct layout

(space available)

(duct sections)
Duct

segment

()

critical path

critical

path
()

Critical path

duct fitting

()

Air duct system

characteristics

methods)

(sizing

space available noise energy use

maximum design air velocity

duct section
()

duct

duct system

cost

local loss coefficient

initial

critical path

duct

Critical path

(total pressure loss)

Air duct system

(total pressure loss)


()

Branch duct

Junction

duct fitting

component

total pressure loss


()

The supply volume flow rates

supply outlet

duct heat gain

(adjusted)
()
()

duct section
Duct section(paths)

(resizes)
(airborne sound level)

total pressure loss


(noise)

sound attenuator

www.acmv.org

5-38

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

. Fire Damper
.. Fire Compartment
Fire compartment

(zone)

Fire compartment

Fire compartment

- Fire compartment (

- Fire rated partitions contain fire damage to the compartment of fire origin.

duct

fire damper

Duct
Duct

fire damper
fire damper
blade

www.acmv.org

fusible link
fire damper

5-39

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(horizontal) duct
duct

(vertical)

horizontal fire damper (floor mounted)

vertical fire damper (duct

or wall mounted)
(horizontal) duct

vertically fire

damper

Fire

damper
(fire

resisting

rating)

v
(wall)
(compartment

floor)
(fire resisting rating)

- Fire damper
Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Buildings
Wall Mounted Fire Damper and Floor Mounted Fire Damper
Floor mounted fire damper
blade

bland
(spring)

- Horizontal fire damper Multiple Blade Wall mount or In line Duct Curtain Type

www.acmv.org

V and H

Floor mounted fire damper

Fusible Links

5-40

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

.. Fire Damper
F

(galvanized steel frame


fusible link

Fusible link
( 65 F
damper

dynamic damper

Fire Rating
Fire

r
Fire r

Access Door: F

Fire Damper Installation


Fire d m
-

fire-rated walls

Standard Fire Damper


Standard

Static Fire Damper

fire

damper

static

fire

damper

Fire

Mode

duct
.. Fire damper

- Fire damper
Dynamic Fire Damper
Dynamic fire damper

Fire Mode

Dynamic fire damper

duct
(moving air)

static fire damper


www.acmv.org

5-41

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

()

Type-A fire damper


Type-A fire damper
y

()

(low-pressure part of
2 w. .

Type-B fire damper


Type-B fire damper

Type-A fire damper

(free area)

( pressure drop)
()

Type-C fire damper (100% free area)


100% free area

Type-C fire damper

Medium-to-high air velocities (3,000 fpm)

W.

Type-C fire damper

. Control Dampers
(air volume)

(air flow)

Control Damper (VCD)

Volume

Volume damper

Damper (VCD)

Volume Control

Manual or balancing dampers

motor operated

dampers
Damper Characteristics

Opposed blade

Bala

mixing

modulating

2-

position control applications

Parallel blade: Two-position applications (open/closed).

2000 F
0.15" W.G

200

500 F / q.
Damper

(air flow)
(control)

Damper

(rectangular)

(oval)
(round)

(round)

duct

damper

(oval)

damper

(rectangular) damper
Blade

HVAC

()

()

damper

galvanized steel

aluminium

(outdoor
damper

extruded
air

intake)

(aluminium)
(industrial facilities)

www.acmv.org

(stainless steel)

5-42

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Airfoil dampers
- Figure 3-28 Triple V and Airfoil dampers
(frame)

blade

Damper

(shaft)

(bearing)
(friction)
(control)

(valve)

(control)

damper

Valve

damper

(selection principle)
Damper

control

valve

(stable)

accurate

Damper blade
() Flat, one-piece(single metal sheet) blade
() Single skin blade with a triple-v-groove shape
() Double- skin air foil-shaped blade
(-)

Triple

airfoil

blade

Damper

F1 (

(frame depth)
depth

)
Blade width

(flat) blade

frame

(round) duct

(oval) duct
blade) damper

F2 (

blade

(single

damper blade

(rectangular) damper
Air foil

damper

blade

Air foil
(pressure drop)

Triple V groove blade


1500 FPM

(velocity) 2000 FPM


Blade

(overlap)

(tight closure)
www.acmv.org

5-43

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Blade

(edge)

compressible

(leakage)

sealing

strip

sealing strip

silicon rubber

v y

Silicon rubber
Seal

damper
(fully

(fully open)

closed)

(performance)

(frame)

blade

seal

Damper
(standard leakage)
(249 Pa

50

damper

Air foil blade


6

50 CFM

low leakage damper


damper

10CFM

HVAC System

shut off damper

leakage) damper

(low

24
2 CFM

damper

(2 CFM per square foot at 1 inch wg)


(reading)

controlled variable

control

(le
Damper

(minimum leakage)

Standard 90.1-2004

Ultra-low leak damper

Low leak damper

Cooling load

system

Blade

ANSI/ ASHRAE/ IESNA

ultra-low leak damper

(linkage)

(-)

blade

(linkage)

damper

(linkage)

(
(pressure drop)

)
(corrosion)

damper
damper
(seal)

Blade

Damper
Damper
m
www.acmv.org

actuator

(maintenance)
damper
(oversized)
5-44

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Actuator

damper
actuator

Damper

damper

actuator

damper

(linkage)
damper

Blade

damper

blade
()

multiple blade damper

parallel blade

Parallel

blade

Multiple blade damper

opposed blade

operation

(-)

blade

(same

direction)

()

Opposed blade operation

blade

blade

damper

(operating characteristic)

Blade

(single blade) damper


parallel

(operating characteristic)

opposed blade damper

Actuator

damper operator

damper motor

(fully open)

damper actuator
(power)

- Figure 3-31 Fans in Parallel


Modulating
(

damper

- Centrifugal Fan with Inlet Vane damper

damper

small

Lower leakage damper

increment

modulate

seal

(friction)

(friction)

damper

motor

(damper

parallel blade damper


(opposed blade damper
Actuator

torque

foot)

www.acmv.org

torque

actuator)
actuator

)
h-

Damper

h-

Damper

(1 square

h-

5-45

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

(friction)

actuator

minimum 20inch-lb

8 inch-lbs per square foot of damper area

damper

damper

operation(NO)

(set up)

(fail)

minimum torque
actuator

Normally open

power

damper

Coil

(flow)

freezing

hazardous waste

system

N m

damper

isolation

Normally Open(NO)

Damper

damper

damper

application
(

Two position only


(fully open/fully closed) position
two position

Fan

(out door air intake)


( )

isolation

(shut-off)

Capacity control duty


capacity
damper

()

damper

control

VAV discharge

air balancing damper

Mixing duty
Economizer damper

.. (

) Two Position Duty


Fan system

duct
Outdoor air intake fan intake
F

damper

damper

fan

(position)
(wind pressure)

stack effect
fan

intake)

discharge

damper

(out door air

supply air fan

interlock

coil

(freezing)
h
(heating energy cost)
damper

motorized damper

gravity damper
Back Draft Damper(BDD)

barometric damper
Gravity damper

motorized damper

Gravity damper
Non Return Damper(NRD)
actuator(motor)
(fight seal)

damper

Supply
(return)

www.acmv.org

Gravity

5-46

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Exhaust fan

back draft damper

fan
fan

exhaust air

fan discharge point

- Figure 3-33 Installed Characteristic Curves of Parallel blade dampers


(air pressure)

damper
exhaust system

make up air
gravity damper

motorized damper

gravity damper
(-)

motorized damper

fan

damper

(isolate)

fan

Variable Air Volume (VAV) application


high

load

low load

fan

fan

shut-off
fan

damper

fan

Parallel pumping system

check valve

motorized damper
damper
www.acmv.org

5-47

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Fan

damper

fan

fan

w
fan

wheel

fan
fan

direction
m

- Figure 3-35 Two Parallel blade Triple V dampers From Different Manufacturers

- Figure 3-36 Two Opposed blade Triple V dampers From Different Manufacturers
Fan

damper

fan

(pressure)

application

gravity back draft damper


(pressure)

F
gravity damper

Back draft damper


www.acmv.org

plenum

fan discharge

Fan
5-48

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

(velocity)

back draft damper

heavy duty

damper
Two position

parallel blade damper

opposed blade damper

Two position

damper
(fully open)

(fully close position)

damper

performance
Parallel blade damper

Damper
damper

actuator
parallel damper

opposed blade damper


HVAC

designer

two

position

actuator

application

(vendor)

(contractor)
Two

position

damper

two position damper


Two

position

modulate

damper

(size)

(leakage)
(pressure drop)

(energy)
Shut off damper

duct

. ( ) Capacity Control Duty


Air system
terminal
duct

(air flow)

Volumer control damper

branch duct
flow)

selection

diffuser

(pressure)

static damper

(adjust
Static damper

(air flow)

balancing damper

grille
)

(design air
Volume control damper
actuator
Volume control damper
(fully

(h
blade

single skin damper

open

position)

Volume control damper

single
duct

damper
O
www.acmv.org

5-49

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

VAV System
style

fan

capacity

inlet guide vane


inlet guide vane

control

damper

discharge damper

fan

(-)

inlet

(inlet)

Fan

damper blade

Damper
(

Damper

- h

(entering air)

Damper

fan
direction

wheel

wheel direction

air volume

unload

fan

inlet guide vane


(air flow)

fan

wheel

(maximum capcity)

(pressure)

Discharge damper

paraller pump

Discharge damper

check valve
fan

(fan pressure)

VAV box
(air flow)

stabl

control

Discharge damper

fan

performance

Discharge damper

VAV system

discharge damper
Damper performance

()

()

Manufacturer

()

Damper relative size

()

Damper situation

Manufacturer
Damper
blade

()

(design)

seal

(material)

damper

(linkage)
(performance)

Damper Relative Size


Damper

(size)

duct

(size)

damper
damper

wall opening

(performance)

duct

duct

damper

damper

damper
flow characteristic

damper

(performance)
()

Damper Situation
Duct

device
direction

www.acmv.org

damper

d
direction

damper
damper
5-50

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

performance

- Figure 3-37 Effect of Inlet Louver on an Opposed blade damper Characteristic


(-)

opposed blade damper

performance

Capacity control (throttling) application

damper

position

pressure drop across the damper


Damper throttling

(air flow rate)

duct system
(frictional

losses)

(frictional losses)
rate)

Fan

curve

Two way valve

Throttling application

linear
( pressure

(total pressure drop)

Opposed blade damper

throttling application

pressure drop across the damper

fan

hydronic system

damper

system

characteristic

volume flow rate

parallel blade damper

characteristic
drop)

(pressure)

(air flow

opposed blade damper

linear
total system pressure drop
down steam

throttling application
(-)

parallel blade damper

(air steam direction)

(deflect the air steam)


(down stream)

ymm

elbow

down steam
duct fitting

(pressure drop)
(down

stream)

diffuser

outlet throw patterm


www.acmv.org

5-51

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

- Air flow through parallel

- Air flow opposed dampers

- (3-38) Flow Pattern through opppsed dampers and parallel Damper


(air outlet)

diffuser

neck

diffuser

opposed blade damper


Throttling application
hydronic system

damper

control valve

(pressure drop)
Damper
(pressure

(size)

drop)

controllability

Damper

(size

(pressure drop)
.. () Mixing duty
(air steam)
(out door air)

damper

return air

opposed blade damper

throttling

(mixing)
mixing application
mixing

throttling

parallel blade damper


air

stream
www.acmv.org

5-52

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Parallel blade damper


throttling

(air steam)

(deflect)

mixing

(-)

m
O

air stream

(air steam)

(deflect
m

m
(-

- Various Mixing Box Arrangements


(air steam)
S

(air steam)
Duct

www.acmv.org

(outdoor air
5-53

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

temperature)

return air temperature


S
Ventilation system effectiveness

Damper

damper schedule

Damper Identification Tag

Blade type

Location

Velocity Pressure Drop

Damper Type

Fail Position

Damper Size & Quantity

Actuator identification Tag

Duct Size

Actuator type & quantity

Arrangement

Mounting

. Air Distribution Devices


Diffuser

register

grille

(air

distribution devices)
Primary Air
Primary air

(supply outlet)

Total Air
Total Air

primary air
Cooling

entrained room air


(supply outlet)

..

www.acmv.org

5-54

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

-
Throw
Th w

(outlet face

y
(air outlet

-)
v
50
Th w

m 0.25 m/
m

- S

w
w

v
v

v . Th w

50 0. 5 m/

00 0.50 m/

h w

v w

(Plan view)

- Space air diffusion with overhead cooling


www.acmv.org

5-55

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

- O

h w

Drop
-
m y
y

Spread
v
h

Surface Effect
(supply air velocity)
(moving air mass)
v
www.acmv.org

w
5-56

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

Occupied Zone

.8 m

m v

- Spread and Throw

- Active and inactive sections

(Pressure Drop)
m

. w. .
(air flow

(air outlet)

(pressure loss)
y

- Space air diffusion with overhead heating

- Upward deflection
www.acmv.org

- Sidewall application
5-57

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

- Ceiling diffuser free space mounting

- Sidewall outlet free space mounting

- Ceiling diffuser
.. Diffuser

(Air Diffusers)
air

- Slot diffuser

con

system

(air

outlet)

) Grilles and Registers


Louver

(air

outlet)

(intake)

(square)
face size

neck size

(adjustable louvers)
deflection

(stationary louvers)

single

grille
grille

horizontal

Grille

double deflection
vertical
v

register
( )Linear Bar Grille
grille

www.acmv.org

linear

bar

grille

5-58

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

()Linear Slot Diffuser


Linear Slot Diffuser
Slot

( in. [13 mm])


(1 inch [25 mm])

diffuser

Slot

()

( in. [19 mm])

()

Linear slot

(ceiling)

Round ceiling diffuser

Square ceiling diffuser

Louvered face diffuser

Round plaque diffuser

Square plaque diffuser

Perforated ceiling diffuser

Plenum slot diffuser

Light troffer diffuser

Round Twist Diffuser

- Diffuser

Linear

bar grille[6mm]

- Return grille

spacing

- Linear slot
diffuser

- Double deflection supply grille

- Return grille

Industrial Ventilation

Industrial supply grille


www.acmv.org

Drum louver

Nozzle
5-59

Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation System (Vol. 1)

Industrial return grille

Security grille

Slot diffusers

light troffer diffusers

throws

(low air volumes)


VAV

.. Diffuser

applications

Characteristic Length
Characteristic length for various diffuser types

Diffuser Type

Characteristic Length, L

High Sidewall Grille

Distance to wall perpendicular to jet

Circular Ceiling

Diffuser Distance to closest wall or intersecting air jet

Sill Grille

Length of room in the direction of the jet flow

Ceiling Slot Diffuser

Distance to wall or midplane between outlets

Light Troffer Diffusers

Distance to midplane between outlets, plus


distance from ceiling to top of occupied zone

Perforated, Louvered Ceiling Diffusers


..

Distance to wall or midplane between outlets

(Air Outlet)

(Noise Level)

(air outlet)

(noise level)

Noise Criteria (NC)

sound pressure value based on an industry standard 10 dB default for room absorption.
(air outlet)

(noise level)

(air outlet)

(air

outlet)

ASHRAE recommended NC level values


Diffuser
24 in. x 24 in. module [610 mm x 610 mm], 380 cfm [180 L/s], 700 fpm [3.6 m/s] neck velocity
DiffuserType

NC Level

DiffuserType

NC Level

()

Square Cone

17

()

Perforated Curved Vane

28

()

Square Plaque

18

()

Louvered Face

31

()

Round Cone

22

()

Perforated Face Deflector

33

()

Modular Core

26

()

Perforated Neck Deflector

37

.. Plenum Slot Diffuser


1 in. slot, 4 ft [1.2 m], 270 cfm [127 L/s], 8 in. [203 mm] neck, 800 fpm [4.1 m/s] neck velocity
DiffuserType

NC Level

DiffuserType

NC Level

()

Linear Slot

31

()

Linear IceTong

39

()

Linear Fixed Curved

36

()

Linear Wiper Blade

46

www.acmv.org

5-60

Chapter-5 Air Distribution Systems

. Duct cleaning
Duct

duct

(duct cleaning)

- Duct

-End-

www.acmv.org

5-61