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# Dr.

1

Spherical coordinate
r sin

z r cos

cos

x
x r sin cos
r sin

sin

y
y r sin sin
r sin
z r cos

L L x iL y

and

L x yp z zp y ,

L y zp x xp z ,

L z xp y yp x

x r sin cos
y r sin sin
z r cos

L x yp z z p y

r sin sin i

L y zp x xp z

r cos i

L z xp y yp x

r sin cos i

r cos i
z

r sin cos i
x

r sin sin i
y

where

and

r
2
2
2 1/2

x
x
1/2
1
x 2 y 2 z 2 .2x
2
x
sin cos
r
So:
r
x
sin cos ,
x
r

r
y
sin sin
y
r

r z
cos
z
r
4

we know that

cos

z
r

## by derivative both side with respect to x we get:

cos
z

x
x r

z
z x 2 y 2 z 2 1/2 1 z x 2 y 2 z 2 3/2 .2x
sin

x x x 2 y 2 z 2 1/2 x
2

sin

zx
zx

3/2
3
x
r
r3
r
r 2
cos cos

x
r

## From the diagram

tan

by derivative we get:

tan

tan

tan

y
x

Fl m l ,

l ml l

## The maximum value of

m is l
and the minimum value of m is -l

## Using the definition on L+ we get:

l
L Fl l , e i
i cot
Fl , 0

9

Separation of variables

Fl l , P Q
So

i cot

P Q 0

dP
dQ
Q
i cot P
0
d
d
dP i cot dQ

0
P d
Q d
1

Q P

1
cot

1
1 dP
i dQ

0
cot P d
Q d

constant k
10

The equation

dQ
k
Q d

rearranging:

dQ k
dQ

d
ik d
Q
i
Q
dQ
ik
Q ik d Q e

The equation

dP
1
1 dP
k 0
k cot d
cot P d
P
cos
By integration we get:
ln P k
d
sin

So
So

Fl l , sin e ik
k

11

## We know previously that: L z l m m

and L z i

lm

L z Fl l , l Fl l ,

So

l
Fl , l Fl l ,

(1)

, sin e ik
k

(2)

## Sub. Equ (2) into Equ (1) we get:

LHS

k ik
i
Fl , i
sin e i

k Fl l , l Fl l ,

ik Fl l ,

So k l

## The wave function Equ. (2) becomes: Fl , C l sin e il

l

12

Determination of C l
Fl l , d 1

Cl

2l
d

sin
sin d
0

C l 2 sin 2 l sin d
2

1

C l 2 1 x
2

dx 1

2 l

C l 4 1 x
2

0
1

a 1

1 x

b 1

Cl

2 l !

4
l

2l 1!

Cl

dt

dx 1

2 l

a 1 ! b 1 !

a b 1!

2l 1!
4

1
2l l !
13

## To get Fl l 1 we apply L on Fl l and so on.

l 2 l l 2 l Fl l 1
2l Fl l 1

l
L
F
Fl l 1 l
2l

we continue applying

L we get:

l 2 l l 2 3l 2 Fl l 2
4l 2 Fl l 2

L Fl l 1
Fl l 2

2 2l 1 Fl l 2
L
Fl l 1
2 2l 1

14

To write Fl

l 2

in term of Fl where

Fl l 2

Fl

l 1

L Fl l
:

2l

L
Fl l
2l

2 2l 1

L
Fl l 2

1
2 2l 2l 1

Fl l

## We can apply L on the above equation to get

Fl l 3

Continue applying

1
2 3 2l 2l 1 2l 2

Fl l

## L (s) times, we get:

15

Determination of L Fl l

We know that L e i i cot

and Fl l , C l e il sin l :

L
So Fl l

C l e
Let

So

i l 1

l
cot

sin

d
d
sin l f sin l
f f l sin l 1 cos
d
d
d
cos
sin l
f f l sin l
d
sin
d

sin l
l cot f
d

d
d

sin l
sin l f
l cot f
d
d

16

## Using the last previous relation in the Equ.

we get: where f sin l

L l
i l 1
Fl C l e

l
cot

sin

where:
sin l . sin 1 .sin
sin l 1 .

1
1

sin l 1

sin
d cos

17

d
d

l 1
l 1

1
cot

sin

sin

We get:

L
Applying

So the Eq.
becomes:
1
2l !
s!
2l s !

18

## The Condon-Shortley phase convention is not necessary in the definition of the

spherical harmonics, but including it simplifies the treatment of angular moment in
quantum mechanics. In particular, they are a consequence of the ladder operators

19

Determination of Fl m , :
Let m l s s l s

20

21

Example:
From equation

0
Fl , C l sin e il construct Y 0 and Y 11
l

l 1 Y 11 , C 1 sin e i
C1

2
sin
sin d d 1

22

23

24

25

Find Y 11 , and Y 10 ,

Y l m l , Pl m l Q
Y 11 , P11 Q
Lz Y 11 , 1 Y 11 ,
1
P1 Q P11 Q

P11

dQ
P11 Q
d

dQ
i d ln Q i a
Q
So Q A e i

2

i
i
e
.
e
d 1 A

1
2

1 i
So Q
e
2

1
1

P11 e i
2

1
1
i
e i i cot
P

e
0

2

e i
2

i dP11

1
i
cot P1 e 0
e
d

1
dP11
dP
cos d
cot P11 11
d
P1 sin

## ln P11 ln sin ln B P11 B sin

To find the constant B we use the normalization condition

2
sin
sin d 1
0

1 cos sin d 1
2

## Let x cos dx sin d

1

2l l !

1 x dx 1 2 B 2l 1! 1 B
2

So Y 11 ,

3
sin e i
8

3
4

l=0

l=1

l=2

l=3

29

H.W.:
(1) We define the raising operators as

L L x iL y
(a) Prove that

Lx

L L x iL y

and

L L
2

and

Ly

L L
2i

l m L 2x l m
(2)

and

l m Lx L y l m

and

Example:

Solution: