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Math 234

February 16

I. Compute dy/dx by implicit differentiation


1. y 2 = x
Answer:
2y(dy/dx) = 1
(dy/dx) = 1/(2y)
2. y 2 = x2 + x
Answer:
2y(dy/dx) = 2x + 1
(dy/dx) = (2x + 1)/(2y)
3. y 2 + y = x + 6
Answer:
2y(dy/dx) + (dy/dx) = 1
(dy/dx)(2y + 1) = 1
(dy/dx) = 1/(2y + 1)
4. x2 + y 2 = 25
Answer:
2x + 2y(dy/dx)
(dy/dx)(2y)
(dy/dx)
(dy/dx)

=
=
=
=

0
2x
2x/(2y)
x/y

5. y 2 + 3y = x2 + 3x + 5
Answer:
2y(dy/dx) + 3(dy/dx) = 2x + 3
(dy/dx)(2y + 3) = 2x + 3
(dy/dx) = (2x + 3)/(2y + 3)
6. yx = x + 5
Answer:

(dy/dx)x + y = 1
(dy/dx)x = 1 y
(dy/dx) = (1 y)/x

7. yx = x2
Answer:

((dy/dx)x + y)/(2 xy)


(dy/dx)x + y
(dy/dx)x
(dy/dx)

=
=
=
=

2x

4x xy

4x xy y

4 xy y/x

=
=
=
=

0
0
y
y/x

8. 1/(xy) = 5
Answer:
((dy/dx)x + y)/(xy)2
(dy/dx)x + y
(dy/dx)x
(dy/dx)
9. y 3 x = x2 + 2
Answer:
3y 2 (dy/dx)x + y 3 = 2x
3y 2 (dy/dx)x = 2x y 3
(dy/dx) = (2x y 3 )/(3xy 2 )
10. (3x + y)4 = x
Answer:
4(3x + y)3 (3 + (dy/dx))
12(3x + y)3 + 4(3x + y)3 (dy/dx)
4(3x + y)3 (dy/dx)
(dy/dx)
p
11. y 3 (x2 + 1) = xy + (x + y)3 + 5
Answer:

=
=
=
=

1
1
1 12(3x + y)3
(1 12(3x + y)3 )/(4(3x + y)3 )

3y 2 (dy/dx)(x2 + 1) +y 3 2x
p
= (y + x(dy/dx) + 3(x + y)2 (1 + (dy/dx)))/(2 xy + (x + y)3 + 5)
3y 2 (dy/dx)(x2 + 1) +y 3 2x
p
3
= (y + 3(x + y)2 )/(2 xy + (x
p+ y) + 5)+
2
+(x + 3(x + y) )(dy/dx))/(2 xy + (x + y)3 + 5)
p
xy + (x + y)3 + 5)
3y 2 (dy/dx)(x2 + 1) (x + 3(x + y)2 )(dy/dx))/(2
p
= (y + 3(x + y)2 )/(2 xy + (x + y)3 + 5) y 3 2x
p
(dy/dx)(3y 2 (x2 + 1) (x + 3(x + y)2 ))/(2p xy + (x + y)3 + 5))
= (y + 3(x + y)2 )/(2 xy + (x + y)3 + 5) y 3 2x
(dy/dx)
=

12.

(y+3(x+y)2 )/(2

xy+(x+y)3 +5)y 3 2x

(3y 2 (x2 +1)(x+3(x+y)2 ))/(2

xy+(x+y)3 +5))

yx + x3 = y 2 (x + 1)2 + 5
Answer:

((dy/dx)x + y)/(2 xy) + 3x2

((dy/dx)x)/(2 xy) 2y(dy/dx)(x + 1)2

(dy/dx)(x/(2 xy) 2y(x + 1)2 )


(dy/dx)

13. (x2 y + y 3 x)/(x2 + 1) = 4 y 2 + x + 1


Answer:

= 2y(dy/dx)(x + 1)2 + y 2 2(x + 1)

= y 2 2(x + 1) 3x2 y/(2 xy)

= y 2 2(x + 1) 3x2 y/(2 xy)

(y 2 2(x+1)3x2 y/(2 xy))

=
(x/(2 xy)2y(x+1)2 )


[(x2 y + y 3 x)0 (x2 + 1)
=
2
2
[(2xy + x (dy/dx) + 3y x+
=
2
x2 (dy/dx)(x2 + 1)/(x2 + 1)
+
2
+[(2xy + 3y x
=
2
2
2
x (dy/dx)(xp+ 1)/(x + 1)2
= 1/(4 4 (y 2 + x + 1)3 )

(x2 y + y 3 x)(x2 + p
1)0 ]/(x2 + 1)2
(2y(dy/dx)
+ 1)/(4 4 (y 2 + x +1)3 )

y 3 /(2 x))(x2 + 1)
(x2 y + y 3 x)2x]/(x2 + 1)2
p
(2y(dy/dx) + 1)/(4 4 (y 2 + x + 1)3 )

2
2
+y 3 /(2 x))(xp
+ 1) (x2 y + y 3 x)(2x)]/(x
+ 1)2
p
(y(dy/dx))/(2 4 p
(y 2 + x + 1)3 ) + 1/(4 4 (y 2 + x + 1)3 )
(y(dy/dx))/(2 4 (y 2 + x + 1)3 )

[(2xy + 3y2 x + y 3 /(2 x))(x2 + 1)


(x2 y p
+ y 3 x)(2x)]/(x2 + 1)2
(dy/dx)[x2 (x2 + 1)/(x2 + 1)2 y/(2 4 (y 2 + x + 1)3 )]
p

3
= (4 4 (y 2 + x + 1)3 )1 [(2xy + 3y 2 x + 2yx )(x2 + 1)

(x2 y + y 3 x)(2x)]/(x2 + 1)2

(4 4 (y 2 +x+1)3 )1 [(2xy+3y 2 x+ 2yx )(x2 +1)(x2 y+y 3 x)2x](x2 +1)2

(dy/dx) =
4
2 2
2
2
2
3
[x (x +1)(x +1)

y/(2

(y +x+1) )]

14. ((x3 + xy + 5)2 + 3(x + 2)3 + 7)3 = 5xy


Answer:
3((x3 + xy + 5)2 + 3(x + 2)3 + 7)2
=
3
2
3
3((x + xy + 5) + 3(x + 2) + 7)2
+3((x3 + xy + 5)2 +
=
3
2
3
3((x + xy + 5) + 3(x + 2) + 7)2

[2(x3 + xy + 5)(3x2 + y + x(dy/dx)) + 6(x + 2)2 ]


5y + 5x(dy/dx)
2(x3 + xy + 5)x(dy/dx)+
3(x + 2)3 + 7)2 [2(x3 + xy + 5)(3x2 + y + 6(x + 2)2 ]
5y + 5x(dy/dx)
2(x3 + xy + 5)x(dy/dx)
5y + 5x(dy/dx)
3
2
= 3((x + xy + 5) + 3(x + 2)3 + 7)2 [2(x3 + xy + 5)(3x2 + y + 6(x + 2)2 ]
3 +xy+5)2 +3(x+2)3 +7)2 [2(x3 +xy+5)(3x2 +y+6(x+2)2 ]
(dy/dx) = 3((x3((x
3 +xy+5)2 +3(x+2)3 +7)2 2x(x3 +xy+5)5y+5x

II. An ice block used fro refrigeration is modeled as a cube of side s. The
block currently has volume 125,000 cm3 and is melting at the rate of 1,000
cm3 per hour.
a What is the current length of s of each side of the cube? At what rate
is s currently changing with respect to time t?
Answer:

s = 3 125000 = 50 The current length of the side is 50cm.


4

We want ds
|
dt s=50
We know dV
|
= 1000
dt s=50
Find an equation that relates the s and V : V = s3
V = s3
ds
dv
= 3s2
dt
dt
Plug in what we know:
(1000) = 3(50)2

ds
dt

Solve for what we want:


ds
= 1000/7500 = 10/75 = 2/15
dt
The side is melting at a rate of 2/15 cm per hour.

b What is the current rate of change of the surface. area S of the block
with respect to time? Answer:
|
We want dSA
dt s=50
ds
We know dt |s=50 = 2/15
Find an equation that relates the s and SA: SA = 6s2
SA = 6s2
SA
ds
= 12s
dt
dt
Plug in what we know:
SA
= 12(50)(2/15) = 4(10)(2) = 80
dt
III. When the price of a certain commodity is p dollars per unit, consumers
demand x hundred units of the commodity, where
x2 + 3px + p2 = 79
5

How fast is the demand x changing with respect to time when the price $5
per unit and is decreasing at the rate of 30 cents per month?
|
We want dx
dt p=5
dp
We know dt |p=5 = 0.3
An equation that relates the two: x2 + 3px + p2 = 79
x2 + 3px + p2 = 79
2x

dp
dx
dp
dx
+ 3 x + 3p + 2p = 0
dt
dt
dt
dt

Plug in what we know:


dx
dx
+ 3(0.3)x + 3(5) + 2(5)(0.3) = 0
dt
dt
2
2
We need x when p = 5 use x + 3px + p = 79
2x

x2 + 15x + 25 = 79
x2 + 15x 54 = 0
x = 18 or 3
We use x = 3 and get:
dx
dx
+ 3(0.3)x + 3(5) + 2(5)(0.3) = 0
dt
dt
dx
dx
2(3) + 3(0.3)3 + 3(5) + 2(5)(0.3) = 0
dt
dt
dx
dx
6 2.7 + 15 3 = 0
dt
dt
dx
21
= 5.7
dt
dx
= 5.7/21 0.27
dt
x is increasing 0.27 dollars per month.
2x

IV.A tiny spherical balloon is inserted into a clogged artery and is inflated at
the rate of 0.002 mm3 /min. How fast is the radius of the balloon growing
6

when the radius is R = 0.005 mm?


|
We want dR
dt R=0.005
We know dV
|
= 0.002
dt R=0.005
An equation that relates R and V : V = (4/3)R3
4R3
3
dV
dR
= 4R2
dt
dt
V =

Plug in what we know:


dR
dt
dR
0.002 = 0.001
dt

0.002 = 4(0.005)2

dR
= 0.001/ 0.0000318
dt
The radius is increasing at a rate of 3.18 x 105 mm per min.
V. A circular oil slick spreads in such a way that its radius is increasing at
the rate of 20 ft/hr. How fast is the area of the slick changing when the
radius is 200 feet?
|
We want dA
dt R=200
|
= 20
We know dR
dt R=200
An equation that relates R and A : A = R2
A = R2
dA
dR
= 2R
dt
dt
Plug in what we know:
dA
= 2(200)(20) = 8000 25132
dt
The area is increasing 25,132 ft3 per hour.