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The second type of managerial roles is informational roles.

Informational roles
changed dramatically as technology improved and it is a role that required managers to obtain
and transmit information (Behl, 2009). This role is performed to make sure that the manager
provides required information to all concerned in order to coordinate different tasks for
archiving the common targets (Ghuman, 2010). The first informational role is that of monitor
evaluates others performance and takes corrective action to enhance that performance (Behl,
2009). As a monitor, the manager also pays attention to the changes in the environment
within and outside of the company that may affect individual and organizational performance
(Ghuman, 2010). Although managers at higher level of the organization are more likely to
monitor external environment threats than middle-level or first-line managers, monitoring
occurs at every levels of management (Management Levels, n.d.).
The manager is also a disseminator of information, who transmits relevant
information back to employees in the workplace (Griffin, 2016). Besides informing
employees about the changes that will affect them and the organization, a disseminator also
communicate with employees about the companys vision and purpose (Behl, 2009).
Information was disseminated by managers at each level to those below them (Management
Levels, n.d.). A spokesperson formally transmits information to external environment
(Griffin, 2016). For example, a spokesperson transmits information from advertising
companys goods and services to notifying outsiders about the direction, achievements and
future plans of the organization (Management Levels, n.d.). In this roles, managers express
their views as industry experts while supervisors communicate as department experts
(Ghuman, 2010). Furthermore, routine information can be given by managers from any level
of the organization (Behl, 2009). For example, a middle-level manager may give a news
release to local newspaper, whereas a supervisor may give a talk at a community meeting.
The third type of managerial roles is decisional roles. In this roles, managers are
required to make different forms of decisions based on the hierarchical position and the
assigned responsibilities (Ghuman, 2010). Managers also required to plan strategy and utilise
resources in order to achieve the organization goals effectively (Ghuman, 2010). The first
decisional roles that performed by managers is the entrepreneur role. This role involves the
initiation change and managers are constantly caring about the future and how to get there
(Daft, 2008). Managers require to allocate resources to innovate goods and services or to
expand business (Management Levels, n.d.). Majority of the top-level managers hold this role
even though some middle-managers might be given the ability to make such decision (Behl,

2009). Next is disturbance handler who involves in resolving conflicts between subordinates
and managers (Daft, 2008). Managers at all levels take this role as they are responsible in
correcting unanticipated problems facing by the organization (Behl, 2009).
The third decisional role is resource allocator who involves in the distribution of
resources (Griffin, 2016). As a resource allocator, manager also involves in the allocation of
people, time, equipment, budget and other resources in order to achieve the desire outcome
(Daft, 2008). For example, top managers are most likely to make large budget decisions
whereas middle-level managers may make more specific allocation (Management Levels,
n.d.). Finally, the forth decisional role is that of negotiator. The negotiators work with
suppliers or distributors to reach an agreement of products and services (Behl, 2009).
Furthermore, the managers also join the negotiations with other groups of organization as the
representative of the company (Griffin, 2016). For example, first-level managers may
negotiate with the employees on issues of salary and overtime whereas middle-level
managers will also negotiate with other managers on work such as preferred prices from
supplies and distributors (Behl, 2009). Moreover, for top-level managers will negotiate on
larger issues such as company contracts and labour contracts (Behl, 2009).

Behl, R. (2009). Information Technology for Management. West Patel Nagar, New
Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited.
Daft, R. L. (2008). New Ara of Management. Manson, OH: Thomson Higher
Ghuman, K. (2010). Management: Concepts, Practice & Cases. West Patel Nagar,
New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Griffin, R. W. (2016). Management (12 ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Management Levels. (n.d.). Retrieved from