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How a text Works

When a literary work is created
Lesson 9, 10 developing rhetorics, poetics, very important in exam.
Potics rethoric
Share a technique, related to language
Ars- skill, ability, capability- skills to be developed
Politics, discouse, you are good at if you study rhetorics.
Rethorics gives you tools.
Norm and procedures for elaborating correctly oral and written texts.
Political propaganda, adds, has rhetorical diveces.
Expressivity is achieved in non lit or lit texts
Expressive text if you know rhetorics potics
Aims in saying good words, is opposed to saying the truth. We concentrate
in using good language, not saying the truth, which is the role of philosophy.

Syracuse, 5th century
Lawsuits, eloquence is important for persuading.
Beautiful words, presents itself like interesting- eloquence
Corax of Syracuse wrote a ctitique of rhetoric
Tisiax is the same as Corax?
Corax wrote it
Tisiax spread it to Greece
Origin of rhetoric
Art and exercise of eloquence in public, persuading in couts and assemblies.
Science of speaking, art of persuasive discurse, shows force of language.
Art word comes from ar technique
Capacity of achieving persuation- Aristotle

Quintillan- science for working and caring the faculty of speaking. Not
everybody is speaking well, they have less success in life.
Rhetoric The daughter of democracy. Rhetoric is imp, they use in order to
convice when they want to take power.
Man is the measure of all things, not gods
Truth is universal everlasting,
Real family system, idea of justice live forever or not?
The truth is just what persuades us. What the most people thing is
considered as the truth nowadays.
Rhetrorics taken to extreme, you must be very good in order to persuade.
Verisimilitude is more important than the truth.
Jack the ripper story, the one story thet looks the most verisimil.
PlatoNot fond of rhetoric, he criticised it a lot. Just for persuading people.
Aristotle said maybe it teaches the truth at some point.
Gorgias , Dialogos de Platon:
Keys of elocuence: Oratory- art of public speaking, oratorical style in texts.
Logic: reasoning conducted or assesed by strict
principles of validity (things that are always true)
If I am a human being I am mortal.
DIALECTIC- reach a conclusion through debate,
discussion, dialog.
If a text has the tree it has rhetoric.
Plato and the Rhetoric
Paella, tabasco
A good text must content good ideas but if I start to use rhetoric, too highly
rhetorical text, you spoil it, you no longer know if it is true or not what they
say. The content is the important one, ideas.
E.g. adds- it sells a good product, or just they say so?
Or possibly spread bad ideas through rhetoric.
Truth can be reached only by means of philosophy.
Aristotle recovered rhetoric

Maybe is not a discipline for reaching truth, he is interested in how rhetoric

is used to persuade. Speaker, qualities of the speaker, audience, the
Journalist persuading people. Politicians, adds.
Politics- democracy
Publicity- XX century on- consumption society
Why is advertisiong different from Classical Rhetoric?
Economic interest, linguistic economy, space, time is expensive, diverse
reality, different ( radio, printed, tv, cinema)
Multiple semiotic systems: verbal language(voice, lyrics), image, design,
1.Conjectural text:
Advertising texts are conjectural texts- dont know if it true or not.
2..Cristiano Ronaldo says it -it is true, not really.
3.. Fawn/praise the receiver, the adressee of the advert.
4.Use of amplification: exaggerating the good aspects of the product.
Ono adds
Audi add- precision
Leroy Merlin- conjectural text, amplificatio
Colgate conjectural text
Sidra el Gaitero- not know if its famous all over the world, praises the
adresee because she looks happy the girl.
Concision , precision
Redundance repeat the contect over and over again.
Redundance and ellipsis.
YES WE CAN Obama- 2008, repeats we can , yes we can do it, to change
Podemos en Espaa.
Political party new party.

Study of verbal Works which are fictional, imaginary, discourses/ aestethic,
aesthetic texts.
Theory of literature- is in charge of poetics
Poiei- greek means creation, lit is a way of creating things
Poet is like a small god giving life to fictitious texts, new words, meanings,
that can have effect on our reality.
When is it poetic text:
Meaning, new meanings for words,
Artistic discourse, lit, can create models of reality by the means of
imitation. We take facts of imitation from reality, nature. Creation of models
of reality, don Quixote.
Poetics today:
Lit today is not so prescriptive as modern poetics. (16, 17, 18 century lit
creators had to follow literary indication)
Theory of literature ( our concept of literature informs us when studying
literature, it is not prescriptive, we not follow it today this idea)
It is impossible to reduce literature and limit it with norms, because
literature is so vast today.
But we need to know the notions and methods useful for analysing literary
A priory theory of literature- t created before a writer writes literary work.
Poetics by Aristotels, Lope de Vega El arte Nuevo de hacer comedias.

A posteriory- t\ after edgar Allan Poe The Philosophy of composition,

explains how he wrote Raven, a poem, SEE.

Poetry manifestos
Metapoem or metaliterature- novel, about novels
Implicit poetics - Edgar Allan Poes book

Jaime Jill de Bidelmas poem