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2, APRIL 2012

699

Bi-Voltage Autotransformer-Based

Electrical Systems in Railways

Eduardo Pilo, Member, IEEE, Luis Rouco, Member, IEEE, Antonio Fernndez, and

Lars Abrahamsson, Member, IEEE

representing bi-voltage autotransformer-based systems (such as

2 25 kV ac, 2 15 kV ac) as if they were monovoltage systems.

This model can be used for symmetrical (such as 2 25-kV 50-Hz

systems) and unsymmetrical (such as 12/24-kV 25-Hz systems)

configurations. It is based on two simplifying hypotheses that

establish relationships between currents and voltages in the positive and negative phases. These hypotheses are discussed and the

accuracy of the model is evaluated by comparing the results with

a detailed conventional model of power-supply systems.

Index TermsPower system modeling, rail transportation

power system.

I. INTRODUCTION

RADITIONALLY, dc systems have been extensively used

in electrified railways. However, the advances in power

electronics since the 1950s made the later development of commercial high-speed railways possible in the 1980s that extended

the use of ac power-supply systems. High-speed lines involved

higher power consumptions, becoming very convenient in using

higher voltages.

However, the success of the high-speed railways led to electrical capacity saturation in some intensively used high-speed

corridors. Therefore, a newer system of using autotransformers

(AT) (in this paper, it will be referred to as bi-voltage system)

was specifically designed for lines with these high-power

requirements. In a few words, with this system, the catenary

is fed with a higher voltage which is reduced by autotransformers placed along the catenary [1], [2]. By raising the

feeding voltage, this system reduces the necessary current for

transporting the power needed by rolling stock.

More recently, the same principle has been used to implement bivoltage dc systems [3], [4], where power-electronic converters are used instead of autotransformers (see Fig. 3). SNCF

has been testing the system in a 14-km 3-MW demonstration

Manuscript received March 05, 2011; revised June 19, 2011; accepted October 23, 2011. Date of current version March 28, 2012. Paper no. TPWRD00185-2011.

E. Pilo, L. Rouco, and A. Fernndez are with the Instituto de Investigacin

Tecnolgica (IIT), ETSI de Ingeniera ICAI, Univ. Pont. Comillas de Madrid,

Madrid 28015, Spain (e-mail: eduardo.pilo@iit.upcomillas.es; luis.rouco@iit.

upcomillas.es; antonio.fernandez@iit.upcomillas.es).

L. Abrahamsson is with the School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm SE-100 44, Sweden (e-mail: lars.abrahamsson@ee.kth.se).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2011.2179814

study. The proposed model could eventually also be used for

these dc systems.

Bi-voltage catenaries are two-phase lines. Mainly because of

the magnetic coupling, both phases have to be considered simultaneously in calculations. Furthermore, autotransformers mesh

the circuit and, thus, link voltages and currents in both phases.

For that reason, the analysis of bi-voltages circuits is normally

more complicated since the entiree circuit has to be solved to

determine its behavior. In some cases, this is a major concern,

especially when circuit analysis techniques are combined with

other techniques to formulate multidisciplinary problems (i.e.,

optimization problems).

This paper presents an equivalent model that allows representing bi-voltage systems as if they were monovoltage systems.

To do so, linear relationships are identified between voltages and

current of both phases. Then, one of the phases can be eliminated and the equivalent monovoltage model is obtained.

The resulting equivalent monovoltage model of bi-voltage

systems drastically reduces the number of buses and makes the

topology radial. In addition, linearity is conserved and the superposition principle (and all other liner circuit theorems) can

be used in the resulting model.

Without loss of generality, in this paper, it has been assumed

that each section of the electrified railway is fed only from one

substation. This hypothesis is actually true when railways are

fed from a three-phase grid, which is the most common situation. However, the principle of superposition enables also using

this model to the other cases.

The proposed model was originally designed to be included

in an optimization model to determine the topology of the

power-supply system (substation location, catenary selection,

autotransformer location, etc.) [5]. Since this model was formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem, technical

restrictions, such as voltages drops, had to be evaluated in a

simple, linear manner. Since that work, it has been widely used

for other applications requiring a simplified representation of

the power-supply system.

This paper is organized as follows. Section II introduces the

feeding systems used in railway power-supply systems. Section III describes previous models used in the literature to analyze bi-voltage systems. In Section IV, the proposed equivalent

model is presented and justified. Section V presents two study

cases used to analyze the accuracy of the proposed model. Finally, Section VI presents the conclusions of this paper.

700

is the cell where the considered train is located. The transmission cells are those which are in the section between the substation and the first autotransformer of the cell of the train. Finally,

downwards cells are those which are located further away from

the substation than the cell of the train.

III. CONVENTIONAL MODELS OF BI-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS

A. Base Magnitudes

Even if there are other power-supply systems, monovoltage

and bi-voltage systems are probably the most popular ones. As

shown in Fig. 1, in monovoltage systems, the conductors are

directly set to the voltage used to feed the trains. In other words,

of the overhead line is the same as the

the voltage level

used to feed the train.

voltage level

On the other hand, a bi-voltage system is derived from the

is set between

substation so that: 1) a higher voltage

is used to feed

feeding conductors and 2) a lower voltage

the trains. To ensure a proper power flow between both voltage

levels, autotransformers are distributed along the catenary (see

Fig. 2). Typical values for the distance between autotransformers are from 8 to 15 km. As normal, the central conductor

used to feed the train

is grounded, and the voltage level

is normally called positive voltage.

As mentioned in the introduction, the same principle can be

adapted to dc lines by using electronic power converters instead

of autotransformers (see Fig. 3).

In this paper, the adjective symmetrical is used when

. The 2 25-kV system used in many new

lines is a typical symmetrical bi-voltage AT-based system [6].

SEPTAs autotransformer system is a very illustrating example

of an asymmetrical bi-voltage system in which 12/24-kV

autotransformers [7] are used (see Fig. 4).

Also, the term cell refers to the portion of catenary located

between two consecutive autotransformers. The cell of the train

For simplicity, the per-unit system has been used in this paper.

In order to set up the base magnitudes, the circuit can be divided

into three zones based on their nominal voltage: 1) high-voltage

zone (transmission or distribution network); 2) positive zone;

has to be chosen and

and 3) negative zone. The base power

is common to all of the zones. (A typical value is 10 MVA.) Furthermore, base voltages have to be selected for the three zones. If

base voltages are exactly the voltages of every zone in a scenario

without any kind of load, transformation ratios take values of 1

and 1. Base impedance and base currents can be determined

from the base power and voltage of each zone.

Although conversion from real scalar magnitudes to per-unit

scalar magnitudes is trivial, some matrix magnitudes may involve different bases at the same time, in a similar way as

(1)

where

and

are the positive and negative voltages, and

are the positive and negative currents,

and

are the

and

positive and negative self-impedances, and, finally,

are the positive and negative mutual impedances, respectively.

Bold letters are used to refer to phasorial magnitudes in contrast

to normal letters used for scalar magnitudes.

In (2), per-unit voltages and currents are introduced to rewrite

(1)

(2)

where lowercase letters refer to per-unit magnitudes,

and

are the positive and negative base voltages, and

and

are the positive and negative base currents.

Once all of the base currents have been expressed as a func, (3) and (4)

tion of base voltages and apparent power

701

system and for the current-voltage relation

(3)

(4)

cuit [13]. Equations (5) and (6) are used to make this transformation

when symmetrical bi-voltage systems are considered,

and

are normally identical. In this situation, positive

and

are

and negative phases will be balanced only if

similar, which is usually true if similar physical conductors have

been used in both phases.

When asymmetrical bi-voltage systems are considered, the

nominal negative voltage can be significantly higher than the

positive (see the example in Fig. 4). As a consequence, even

if similar physical conductors are used in the positive and the

and

may be

negative phases, per-unit self impedances

very different (see (3)) and, consequently, the system may be

quite unbalanced.

and

(5)

(6)

where

For all of the parts normally used in railway electrification

(catenary, transformers, etc.), the impedance matrix is always

. For that reason, when this transforsymmetrical

mation is used, (4) becomes

Two different kinds of models have been used for representing two-phase circuits: 1) phase models and 2) Fortescue

equivalent models.

In phase modes, both positive and negative phases are explicitly represented. In Fig. 5, the equivalent models of the main

parts of the circuit (high-voltage grid, substation, catenary, and

autotransformer) are represented [1], [8]. In equations and figures, the symbol refers to per-length unit magnitudes.

In this model, the catenary is represented as a set of mutually coupled equivalent conductors (typically positive, negative,

and ground, which can be represented explicitly or not). The

grid is represented by its Thevenin equivalent. In order to represent substation transformers and autotransformers, standard

three-windings and two-windings transformer models are considered, including the short-circuit impedance and neglecting

the magnetizing branch. Similar models have been considered

in [9][11]. A refinement of these models has been described in

[12].

In Fortescue equivalent models, the original circuit is transformed into a zero-sequence circuit and a positive-sequence cir-

(7)

In these cases, the equivalent zero-sequence and direct-sequence model are represented in Fig. 6.

Sometimes, positive and negative phases of the catenary are

and (7) becomes

designed to be balanced

(8)

In this case, positive- and zero-sequence circuits are uncoupled and the Fortescue-equivalent representation becomes very

useful because of its simplicity.

However, frequently phases are not balanced, especially in

unsymmetrical bi-voltage systems, where positive and negative

voltages are very different [see (3)].

C. Simplified One-Phase Model

Just like the model presented in this paper, the simplified

models use one of the aforementioned two-phases models and

reduce it by grouping or neglecting elements.

702

Fig. 8. Simplified behavior of a bi-voltage system.

Fortescue-equivalent model. As far as the catenary is concerned, both the positive and the negative phases are assumed

to be balanced and, thus, the zero-sequence and the direct-sequence circuits are supposed to be uncoupled. Based on this

hypothesis, the total impedance between the train and the

substation is calculated.

For a specific position of the train, the total impedance seen

by the train can be calculated and then transformed into phase

magnitudes as follows:

(9)

and

are, respectively, the total zero-sewhere

quence and direct-sequence impedances seen from the train.

and

can be calculated as

In the Fig. 6 example,

shown

cell in the positive and in the negative equivalent conductors has the same values and different sign.

Since typical short-circuit impedance is about 1%, autotransformers are supposed to be ideal. Therefore, there are

current flows only in the autotransformers that are immediately adjacent to the considered train.

It should be noted that currents flowing through ground conductors of the transmission cells (denoted as ) have not been

assumed to be zero.

B. Branch Currents

In the transmission cells, the voltage drops assumption can be

expressed as

(10)

(11)

where operator refers to the total impedance of two parallelconnected impedances.

Since there are no shunt branches in the positive-sequence circuit, it should be noted that the total direct-sequence impedance

depends linearly on the distance between the train and the

. On the other hand, the zero-sequence

substation

total impedance depends on the autotransformers located in

both sides from the train.

The aforementioned model is a useful and very elegant

method for obtaining a simplified representation of bi-voltage

systems. All of the elements of the circuits (transformer,

catenary, and autotransformers are accurately represented.

However, the model is quite complicated to use, especially

when calculating zero-sequence total impedance. In addition,

) may be

assuming that catenaries are balanced (and

too restrictive in many cases, and not assuming it complicates

the expressions even more due to zero-sequence and direct-sequence coupling.

IV. PROPOSED MONOVOLTAGE EQUIVALENT MODEL OF

BI-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS

(12)

Eliminating

be obtained:

(13)

where

(14)

In the transmission cells, the coefficient

expresses

the ratio between positive and negative currents. In many simplified models, both currents are assumed to be equal and, thus,

1. However, (14) shows the dependency toward the

catenary parameters: in quite balanced positive/negative systems, it tends to values similar to 1, while not in very unbalanced

systems (where currents tend to take the lowest impedance path,

either the positive or the negative).

In the cell of the train, the voltage drops assumption can be

expressed as

when a train is consuming power.

A. Assumptions

Two different assumptions have been used to simplify the

model (see Fig. 8) as follows.

(15)

where represents the relative position of the train in its cell

and takes values in the range

.

Eliminating

be obtained:

(16)

703

C. Bus Voltages

,

,

, and

Voltage drops in the impedances

(see Fig. 5) of the traction substation can be, respectively,

expressed as

where

(29)

(30)

(31)

(32)

(17)

Furthermore, currents

and

can be calculated

consumed by the train because

from the current

(18)

Thus, the total voltage drop from the equivalent grid to the

positive terminal of the substation can be calculated as

(33)

(19)

(20)

where

(21)

where

(34)

In the transmission cells, expressions of voltage drop along

the positive and negative conductors can, respectively, be obtained from (12)

(22)

(35)

(36)

with

(23)

(37)

By applying Kirchhoff law for currents in buses A and B (see

and expressing

and

as

Fig. 8), eliminating

(see (13))

a function of

(24)

(25)

where

(26)

(27)

where

The equivalent impedance of the catenary

can be

written as

(38)

It should be noted that this equivalent impedance: 1) depends

only on the line parameters of the catenary and, thus, 2) is independent of the separation between autotransformers.

In the cell of the train, the voltage drop between the first autotransformer AT1 and the train itself corresponds to the first part

of (15):

and

express the ratio between positive or negative currents, respectively, and the current consumed by the trains. In many simplified models, both currents are assumed to be half of the current

and

0.5). However,

of the train (giving

(26) and (27) show their dependency toward the catenary parameters: in quite balanced positive/negative systems, it tends to

values similar to 0.5, and not in very unbalanced systems (where

currents tend to take the lowest impedance path, either the positive or negative).

Finally, from (26) and (27), it can be established that

can be expressed as a function of

Voltage drop

and grouped into two terms: 1) the voltage drop that depends

only on the catenary parameters (in a similar way to (35)) and

2) the residue. The second term expresses the voltage drop due

to the distance between autotransformers. For that reason, the

second term is called AT equivalent impedance

(28)

(41)

(39)

(40)

704

Fig. 9. Voltage drops along the positive phase.

with

(42)

In the cell of the train, the voltage drop between the first and

second autotransformers corresponds to (15). If currents

and

are expressed as a function of

, the positive and

negative voltage drops can be expressed as

(43)

(44)

It should be noted that these voltage drops depend mainly

on the distance from the train to the previous autotransformer

and the equivalent impedance of the catenary

.

Finally, in the downward cells, there are no additional voltage

drops as both positive and negative currents are zero.

Fig. 9 shows the voltage drops along the positive phase in

bi-voltage systems.

takes place in the substation.

The initial voltage drop

Then, the voltage drop along the transmission cells has a con. This slope increases when

stant slope proportional to

the cell of the train is reached, due to current concentration.

and

The new slope includes the effect of the impedance

reaches its minimum value where the train is located. At the end

of the cell of the train, the voltage level recovers the value that

was considered from the

would have been reached if just

substation to the train position. Finally, in the downward cells,

there are not any additional voltage drops.

can be calFrom a practical point of view, the term

culated or approximated in different ways, depending on the required simulation accuracy as follows.

The impedance can be calculated using the complete expression defined in (42). However, to do so, the relative

position of the train has to be known.

If the dependency on the position of the trains has to be

eliminated, several options are available:

(it can be

Calculating an upper bound

occurs when the

proven that maximum value of

). Thus, the

train is in the middle of the cell

upper bound can be calculated as follows:

(45)

An average estimation can also be calculated by integrating (42) and the

(46)

Finally, if autotransformers are close enough to each

can even be neglected.

other, the term

As an example, Fig. 10 shows the proposed monovoltage

equivalent model obtained from the Fig. 5 case.

D. Scenarios With Several Trains

When several trains are fed from one substation, the superposition principle can be used to calculate voltages in the electric

circuit (see Fig. 11).

It has been previously established that voltages in the downward cells do not depend on the autotransformer distance, position, or technical characteristics (see (43)). Thus, the voltage

at a train can be calculated by superposing the effect of all

705

Fig. 14. Proposed monovoltage equivalent model (several trains, same cell).

Fig. 12. Superposition of different trains voltage drops.

TABLE I

MODEL PARAMETERS OF THE CATENARY

cells).

For a train , the coupling with other trains of the same cell

can be neglected and all of the calculations done as if was

the only train in C.

In addition, if the dependency upon the position of the trains

has to be eliminated, the aforementioned assumptions (using the

upper bound, using the average value, or even neglecting the

) can also be considered.

terms

V. EXAMPLE

the trains. As can be observed in Fig. 12, the voltage drop due

depends on all of the trains sharing the cell

to the term

A. Description

(47)

is the distance between the train and the substawhere

refers to the current of train , is the total number

tion,

is the AT equivaof trains fed by the substation,

lent impedance

of train t, is the set of trains sharing

is the relative position of the train in its cell

the cell, and

(as defined in (15)).

Equation (47) corresponds to the equivalent circuits represented in Fig. 13 (when there is, at most, 1 train per cell) and

Fig. 14 (when there are several trains sharing a cell).

From a practical point of view, the total voltage drop due to

can be calculated or approximated in different

the terms

ways, depending on the required simulation accuracy:

Use the complete expression defined in (47). However, to

do so, the position of all trains of the cell has to be known.

and the min function.)

( is needed to calculate

perform voltage and current analysis in two different scenarios:

1) a case with only 1 train (scenario A) and 2) a case with several

trains (scenario B). These currents and voltages are compared

to the results obtained with the simulation tool SILVIA, which

implements a conventional two-phase model [14] used as the

reference. The models used in this tool to represent catenary are

actually an implementation of well-validated Electromagnetic

Transients Program (EMTP) models for overhead lines, as they

are described in [15].

The base power used for all sectors is 10 MVA. The base

voltages are 27.5 kV for the positive and negative zones and

220 kV for the high-voltage side of the substation.

The studied case is a 50-km-long bi-voltage section. The series impedance matrix per length unit (expressed in per units per

meter) of the catenary is

and catenary

coefficients calculated from (26)(38) for this catenary. Table II

shows the nominal characteristics of the substation transformer.

Table III shows the nominal characteristics of the autotransformers, which are located every 10 km.

706

TABLE II

NOMINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER

TABLE III

NOMINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AUTOTRANSFORMERS

B. Scenario A

In scenario A, only 1 train has been considered, located 35 km

from the substation and consuming 20 MW 2 MVAr (which

corresponds to a double train composition).

Fig. 15 shows the topology of the two-phase circuit that is

used as the reference. (bus names have been chosen for coherency with scenario B). Fig. 16 shows the equivalent monovoltage model of the same section.

In order to analyze the accuracy of the assumption, there are

current circulations only in the autotransformers adjacent to the

train, positive phase currents have been calculated by: 1) using

,

the complete two-phase model and 2) using coefficients

,

, and

(see Fig. 17).

As described in Fig. 7, all of the autotransformers are connected in parallel and, thus, have a current loop. As expected,

currents calculated with the proposed model are slightly different than the reference currents, especially in the autotransformers located closer to the cell of the train. The difference

between both models has been found to be lower than 6% of the

current supplied to the train.

Fig. 18 compares the voltages along the positive bus voltages obtained with the reference model and the proposed model

terms). This analysis intends to estimate how the differences found in current distributions impact

voltage calculation.

The analysis of voltages shows that voltage profiles obtained

with the reference model and the proposed model are almost

, voltage errors are lower

identical. When neglecting

than 0.9%, whereas with the complete model, voltage errors are

lower than 0.11%.

C. Scenario B

In scenario B, a homogeneous train distribution, with trains

located every 9 km, has been considered (see Table IV). Fig. 19

shows the topology of the two-phase circuit that is used as the

reference. Fig. 20 shows the equivalent monovoltage model of

the same section.

As for scenario A, positive phase currents have been calculated by: 1) using the complete two-phase model and 2) assuming the simplified behavior (see Fig. 21).

707

TABLE IV

CURRENTS CONSUMED BY THE TRAINS (SCENARIO B)

The analysis of voltages shows that current estimation errors have a negligible impact in voltage calculations. With the

complete model, voltage errors are lower than 0.48%. When ne, voltage errors are lower than 0.8%.

glecting

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper has presented a simplified model for representing

bi-voltage systems (such as the 2 25-kV 50-Hz system) in a

similar way to simpler monovoltage systems (such as the 1

25-kV 50-Hz system). This model was originally designed to

be implemented in an optimization procedure to determine the

topology of the power-supply system. Since the optimization

was time-consuming, efficient models were required to evaluate

technical constraints, such as voltages drops in a simple, linear,

and accurate manner. Since then, the proposed model has been

shown to be faster and easier to implement than other models.

In addition, the proposed model makes bi-voltage systems

behavior more comprehensive than conventional two-phase

models. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative analysis can

be more easily performed, without sacrificing accuracy.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like thank Profs. E. Lobato and I. Egido

for their support in the preparation of this paper.

always lower than 2.3% of the current of one train. Compared

with scenario A, errors are significantly lower due to cancellations when summing errors with different signs.

Fig. 22 compares the voltages along the positive bus voltages

obtained with the reference model and the proposed model (with

terms).

and without

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industrial engineering and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid, Spain, in 1997 and 2003, respectively,

from Pontifical University, Comillas, Madrid, Spain,

in 2003.

His Ph.D. thesis was titled "Optimal design of the

electrification of high-speed railways" and was focused on modeling and simulating ac traction power

systems and optimizing their topology by using a

mixed-integer programing (MIP) formulation of the

problem. From 2003 to 2010, he was a Researcher in the Institute for Research

in Technology (IIT, ICAI) in the Railways Group (ASF) and in the Power

System Modeling Group (MAC). In this period, he was responsible for the

research projects related to traction power systems. Since 2003, he has been a

Lecturer of several degrees as well as master and doctorate courses. Since 2010,

focuses on the technology of power machinery and apparatus, and Associate

Professor in the Power Systems Department in ICAI.

Luis Rouco (M91) received the Ph.D. degree in industrial engineering from the Polytechnic University

of Madrid, Madrid, Spain, in 1990.

Currently, he is Full Professor of Electrical Engineering with the School of Engineering, Instituto de

Investigacin Tecnolgica (IIT), ETSI de Ingeniera

ICAI, Univ. Pont. Comillas de Madrid. He served

as Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering

from 1999 to 2005. He teaches undergraduate level

courses on electrical machines and graduate level

courses on power system analysis and power system

stability and control.

He has been Director of the Course on Power System Operation, jointly developed with Red Elctrica de Espaa from 2004 to 2007 and Director of the Master

on Electrical Technology jointly developed with Endesa from 2007 to 2011. He

develops his research activities at Instituto de Investigacin Tecnolgica (IIT).

He has supervised a number of research projects for public administrations, electric utilities, and other engineering and industrial companies. His areas of expertise are modeling, analysis, simulation and control of the steady state, as well as

dynamic and transient behavior of electric power systems.

with the Instituto de Investigacin Tecnolgica (IIT),

ETSI de Ingeniera ICAI, Univ. Pont. Comillas de

Madrid, Madrid, Spain, where he is also a Research

Fellow with the Institute for Research in Technology.

His research interests include traffic regulation systems, efficiency in railways operation, and optimal

design of signaling and railways capacity.

Sweden, in 1979. He received the M.Sc. degree in

engineering physics from the Lule University of

Technology, Lule, Sweden, in 2005, and is currently

pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electric power systems

at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm,

Sweden.

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