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Swinburne University of Technology

Sarawak Campus
MEE40001
THERMODYNAMICS 2
Lab No. 1
HEAT CONDUCTION
Name: MOAZ AHMED
Student ID: 4315103
Lecturer: Dr. Chong Kok Hing

Tutorial: Monday 10:30

Contents
AIM .......................................................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 1
THEORY ................................................................................................................................................... 1
EQUIPMENT SET UP ................................................................................................................................ 2
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................. 3
EQUIPMENT DATA .................................................................................................................................. 3
RESULTS .................................................................................................................................................. 3
DISCUSSION............................................................................................................................................. 5
CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................................... 5
APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................................ 6
Sample Calculation.............................................................................................................................. 6
Experimental: .................................................................................................................................. 6
Theoretical: ..................................................................................................................................... 6
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................ 7

AIM

To measure the temperature at different points for steady-state conduction of heat


through a composite plane wall.
To determine the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for the flow of heat through a
combination of various materials in a series thermal network.

INTRODUCTION
The second law of thermodynamics states that heat transfer occurs in the direction of the
body at a lower temperature that is heat flows from high temperature to low temperature.
Heat conduction is a mode of heat transfer in which energy is dissipated by the collision of
adjacent vibrating molecules and transferred along the whole system. The other modes of
heat transfer are convection, which is the combination of conduction and flow heat
transfer, and radiation, which is the emittance of heat in the form of photons requiring no
medium for transference. In real life, it is common that all three mode of heat transfers
occur simultaneously.
In this experiment, we will place a stainless steel section sandwiched between two brass
sections and record temperature readings at various points throughout the apparatus.
Heat transfer is assumed to be occurring in one direction to make the calculations
relatively easier. However, in reality heat transfer usually occurs in three dimensions.

THEORY

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EQUIPMENT SET UP
1) The HT 11 linear heat conduction accessory is located alongside with HT10XC heat
transfer service on an appropriate bench.
2) Thermal paste was applied on both surfaces of the stainless steel and clamped between
the upper and lower sections of the composite brass.
3) The eight thermocouples were connected to the HT11 and the labels had to match the
labels (T1 T8) on the sockets.
4) The voltage control potentiometer was to be minimum and we switched the selector to
manual. Then connect the heater lead to from HT11 to the socket output2 at the rear of
the service unit.

5) Ensuring the cold water supply is connected to the inlet of the pressure regulator valve on
HT11.
6) Making sure of the outlet of the cooling water is directed to a proper drain sink.
7) Assuring the service unit is connected to a power source.

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1) Switch on the front mains switch.
2) Set the selector switch to manual.
3) Tum on the cooling water and adjust the flow control valve to give approximately
1.5liters per min.
4) Set the heater voltage to 9 volts.
5) Allow the HT11 to stabilize for 1 hour.
6) When the temperatures are stable the result are recorded in the table.
7) Repeat the testing from step 4 to step 6 by setting the Heater Voltage to 12 volts
and record the data as appropriate.

EQUIPMENT DATA
Distance between thermocouple T 1 and the hot face,

Xhot = 0.0375 m

Distance between hot face and cold face,

Xint = 0.030 m

Distance between the cold face and thermocouple T8,

Cold = 0.0375 m

Diameter of the bar,

D = 0.025m

Distance between each thermocouple is 0.015m.


Distance between thermocouple T3 and T6 and the end face is 0.0075m
Conductivity of the Brass section is approximately 121 W/moC
Conductivity of the Stainless steel section is approximately 25 W/moC

RESULTS
Heated
section
high
temp.
T1 (oC)
64.2
93.8

Heated
section
mid
temp.
T2 (oC)
62.3
90.8

Heated
section
low
temp.
T3 (oC)
60.7
88.1

Cooled
section
high
temp.
T6 (oC)
31.5
34.5

Cooled
section
mid
temp.
T7 (oC)
30.5
32.6

Cooled
section
cold
temp.
T8 (oC)
29.6
30.8

Heater
Voltage
V
(V)
9
12

Heater
Current
I
(A)
0.92
1.23

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Experiment section (V)


Heat power

Q (W)

Cross sectional area

A (m2)

Temperature difference
across composite wall

[T]
(oC)

Resistance to heat flow

[R]

Overall heat Transfer


Coefficient

[U]

Cross sectional area

2
4

[T]
(oC)

Resistance to heat
flow

[R]

Overall heat
Transfer Coefficient

[U]

8.28

14.76

0.000491

0.000491

34.6

63.0

0.00205

0.00210

487.39

477.16

T1-T8
1 8

( )

Q
(W)
A
(m2)

Temperature
difference across
composite wall

12

VI

Theoretical section (V)


Heat power

(1 8 )

12

8.28

14.76

0.000491

0.000491

30.5

53.3

0.00182

0.00182

549.5

549.5

VI

2
4

= + +

TEMPERATURE VS DISTANCE FROM T1


9V

12 V

100
TEMPERATURE (OC)

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

DISTANCE FROM T1 (m)

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DISCUSSION
Error =

Uexperiment Utheoritical
Utheoritical

100%

Section

Uexperiment

Utheoretical

Error

9V
12 V

487.39
477.16

549.5
549.5

11.30 %
13.16 %

Within experimental limits, the error obtained is low enough to prove the experimental
values equal the theoretical values. The possible sources of error were the heat loss taking
place through the apparatus by radiation, the steady state not being achieved when the
readings were recorded, loosely clamped sections causing air to be trapped within and heat
transfer occurring in more than one direction.
The gradient for the stainless steel section for 9 V is 966.67 oC/m and for 12 V is 1766.67
o
C/m. The gradients for both the voltages had to be equal theoretically. The possible cause
of discrepancy could be the variable conductivity of the stainless steel section with
increasing temperature. Heat flow decreases in the stainless steel section as it has lower
conductivity and higher resistance to heat flow.
The variance of the heater power causes the heat flow to increase with increasing power.
The rate of radiation also increases with increasing the power.

CONCLUSION
The objective of the experiment was accomplished and the understanding of the
conductance of heat through a section made up of different types of materials was
achieved. The errors obtained in the experiment were few and did not hinder the results
significantly. The experiment can be improved by reducing air flow to prevent convection,
recording the readings after a longer period of time, utilizing insulation to prevent three
dimensional heat loss and tightly clamping the material to prevent trapping air. In
conclusion, the experiment provided a real time simulation to the theoretical aspects of
heat conduction.

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APPENDIX
Sample Calculation
Experimental:

At power = 9V
Q = VI = 9 0.92 = 8.28
A=

2
4

(0.025)2
4

= 0.000491 m2

18 = 64.2 29.6 = 34.6


=

U=

1 8

34.6

8.28
)
4.90104

= 0.00205

=
= 487.39
0.00205

Theoretical:

At power = 9V
Q = VI = 8.28
A=

2
4

T18 =
1

(0.025)2
4

QR
A

= 0.000491 m2

8.28 1.81x103
4.90104

= 30.5

R = = + + = 0.00182 m2 / w
1

U = = 1.82x103 = 549.5

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REFERENCES

engel, Y. (2007). Heat and mass transfer. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Incropera, F. and DeWitt, D. (2002). Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer. New York:
J. Wiley.

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