Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Soolety of Petroleum Engineers

SPE 28709
A Multi-Phase Mud Filtrate Invasion and Wellbore Filter Cake
Formation Model
Faruk

Civan,

U. of Oklahoma

SPE Member

Copyright

1SS4, Scciety of Petroleum

Engineers,

This psper was prepared for preeanlsfion

Inc.

St the SPE International

Petroleum

Conference

& Exhibition of Mexico held in Veracruz,

Mexico, 10-13

October

1994

This paper wes selected for presentation by sn SPE Pmgrsm Committee following review of information contsined in sn abstract submined by the author(s). Contents of the paper,
as presentsd, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to corretiton by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect
any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papws presented et SPE meetings are aubjact to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society
Of Petroleum Engineers. Permission to copy is reslriied to an abstract of not mere than 3tM words. Illuatratione may not be copied, The abstract should cmtain conspicuous acknowledgment
of where and by whom the paper is presented, Write Librarian, SPE, P,O, Sox 833s36, Richardson, TX 750SMS36,
U.S.A. Telex 1S3245 SPEUT.

ABSTRACT
Mathematical modeling for prediction of the distribution and tilng of
mud filtrates in the reservoir formation surrounding a well being drilled
and the filter cake build-up and ita effect on the mud filtrate invasion
into the formation, es well aa the resulting formation damage effects is
presented. The model can simulate the single aod two-phase flow
situations in the formation with water or oil based drilling mud cases.
External
------

srt;cl*
r--

;a.;n
-.
-~.u

A,.w
b
--

AU- -..1.,

-.4..,4

as cl+-.

,..L..

-- =-.J p=,,- Ui 1UL=l-=

:..:&

-.:--

lluuauuu

and its effect on the formation damage by particle migration and


retention is considered. An application involving radial flow is given.
-.. -..-* .
.-. .
Lma moael B a usenu rooi far accurate interpretation of oit-mud-fiuid
system saturationa and resistivit y profdes which are essential for the
development of eftlcient well-log interpretation.
INTRODUCTION
Estimation of the extent of mud fdtrate invasion and distribution within
the near wellbore formation during drilling operations is essential for
accurate well-log interpretation (Civan and Engler). This process is
complicated by the formation of a mud falter cake and its effect on
invasion by reducing the fdtrate volume and the migration of fme
particles into the porou3 formation. Sirmdttneously, the properties of
the fluid phases in porous medi~ such as density and viscosity, vary as
a result of mixing and interactions of reservoir fluids with the mud
fdtrate and fme pzuticles.
In spite of many experimental studies of the invasion of mud
fdtrstes in laboratory cores, there have been only a few reported
attempts to mathematically model the problem. Clark sod Barbs? have
developed a three-parameter empirical model for accurate correlation of
dynamic fluid 10SSdata. Jiao and Sharma3 proposed a simple model
based on a power law relationship between the fdb-ation rate aod the
shear stress at the cake surface. Donaldson and Chernoglszov4 have
developed a single-phase leaky-piston model using experimentally
derived dispersion caet%cient and mud filtrate invasion rate. Civan and
Englert have improved the Donaldson and Cbernoglazov model and

399

provided so accurate solution method for radial flow using the


dimensionless farm of the model for convenience in computation and
scahig.
Chase and Williss aad Smiles and Kirby6 have presented
compressible filter cakes without particle intrusion models. Corspcioglu
and Abbou#, and Abboud have developed models for comprewible
falter cakes allowing particle penetration. Llu and Civan 910have
considered the effect of the falter cake and formation damage on mud
fdtrate and mud fimes
invmirm
fi Sfiple
and tw~-nhase
_____
~-. =-... .thid
. . . . .avstem.
.= .- .
.
In this study, an improved formulation of the muki-sptzies and
two-phase fluid transport in deforming porous med~ derivation of
,.A--. :LL -..A :--- --AL1bUUpJGS*IUK aim Mwq.xcasIulG

--1-- - 4-,- -.:.ti _- .,.L-... -. ,


tam muums WIU3 aaa wlmout Pamcle

invasion, aod an application involving radial flow filtercake and mud


fdtrste invasion are presented.
MULTI-SPECIE?+ AND TWO-PHASE FLUID TRANSPORT IN
DEFORMING POROUS MEDIA
A porous material saturated by water and oil phases is viewed as having
three phsse~ namely the poruus matrix forming the solid phase, and the
water and oil phases, denoted by s, w, and o, respectively. l%~e
phases may contain certain types of species that may migrate and
undergo some rate processe3 in porous media. The equations governing
the transport pracesse3 are presented in the following.
Mass and Momentum Balances
The mass balances of the water, oil, and solid phaaee are given by the
following equation:
i3qE,PJ

+ v (P3q = +$

;t=w@a

(1)

t is the time and V o ia the dhrgence


operator. p, is the phase
density. @ is the net rate of the mass of phase 4 added per unit
volume of phase t in the pore space. q is the fractional vohune
occupied by the @phase in the bulk porous media.

Therefore,
~Pu

[2)

V.* -1
=,.
t

If $ denotes the porosity of the porous media and St is the saturation,


i.e. fraction of the pore volume occupied by the@ phase, the following
expressions can be written for the solid and the fluid phases,
respectively

and
. ..

(4)

~, = w,
The fluid phase saturations add up to one
~~,=1
1

For dissolved species, it is more convenient to use molar concentration


defined by
c~ = pa /MA

(13)

pA is the intrinsic density of particle A. Thus, including the carrier fluid


in the flowing phase, the following can be written:
(a
~a
AM

~ is the volumetric flux of the@ phase which can be expressed in


terms of the velocity of the @ phase according to the following
equation
(6)

u, = Etv,
Thus, for the solid phase, Eq. 6 becomes

(8)

The species A mass balance equations for the water, oil, and solid
phases are given by
aa(c~~
;

+ v (P#J
t = w~~

and

+ v 1~ =

(1s)

rnAt denotes the rate of species A added per unit volume of the ~
phase. 7A, denotes the diffusive mass flux of species A in the ~
phase given by modifying the expression given by Olson and Litton
for multiphsse flow:
(16)

-E++)+%ml

When an irreducible fluid saturation, Sc, exists in porous media, Eq.


6 should be written for the flowing phase ax
i7, = *S, - S)vt

-l

(7)

a, = (1 - *)V,

e&

(12)

where MA is the molecular weight of the species A. For particulate


species, volume fraction defined by the following expression is
preferable to account for the porosity alteration by the volume of
particle deposition
.- ..
(14)
au = p&lpA

(3)

6, =1-*

= P, ; 4 = W,o,s

(9)

A = 1~,...~

where
B ~ is the coefficient of dkperaion of species A in the ~
phase, k is the Boltzmann constan~ and T is temperature. The first term
represents the diffusive transport by concentration gradient and the
second term by the gradient of the potential interaction energy, ~~ ,
For particulate speci~ of relatively large &es the first term in Eq. 16
may be neglected. When particles am subjected to uniform interaction
potential field then the second term drops out.
The jump mass balance equations form the basis of the boundary
conditions for Eqs. 1 and 9. Simplifying the expressions given by
SMtery2, these are given, respectively, by:

[P&

- U) . tf] = r:

(17)

in wlich p~ is the mass concentration of spcies A in the @ phase.


In some cases, the mass fraction of species A in the ~ phase defined
by the following expression is preferable
(18)
Wu . P& lP#

(lo)

Therefore,
~wa

= 1 ; ~ . W,o,s

In Eqs. 17 and 18, the superscript 6 denotes a quantity associated with


the dividing surke whicin is moving at a m~scopic
veiocity of iF.
E is the unit vector normal to the dividing surface. F, and FM are
the rates of addition of mass of the P phase and the mass of species
Aintbe@phase.
[...] denotes a jump in a quantity across a dividing surf=, i.e.

(11)

and

400

L.J=(...)-

(19)

(28)

(...)-

where the signs + and - indicate the post and fore sides, respectively, of
t~ dw:dtig sl_~acg..
In deforming porous mexia the volumetric flux of the fluid relative to
the moving solid matrix is given by Darcys law as:

Eis the permeability


~ phase.

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 28709

v,

is the

1$ is the relative permeability of the


sensor.
kinematic viscosl~,given by
(21)

mu1
-.

(29)

In eqs. 28 and 29, ~enotes a convention for multiplication in series


and~ 6 (T, P, p*: AL 1,2, .... m) are the independent variables, such
as tempemture, pressure, and mass concentrations of various species A.
For one species A in a liquid phase (1rompert et al?)
p = p~a(T

,@ is the total potential of the liquid

fJiV3!D

by (Smiles and Kirby)

- T>

(30)

+ p(p - P> + y(w~ - WJ]

(22)
where g is the gravitational acceleration, gz is the potential of fluid due
to gravity, z is the positive upward distance measured from a reference,
S2 is the overburden potential which is the work of a vertical
displacement due to the addition of liquid into porous mand v (c)
is the liquid-content-dependent potential or simply the negative of the
--
effec$iw5 stress diie ti
&e iritterarfkms ef
&e Aqiirl Wit&he pum
surface.
The capillary pressure is given by

Pe=Pe

where pOis the density value at a reference condition (T@pd we,) and
a, & f are some empirical coefficients.
Neglecting the effect of
pressure for a liquid phase, the Flory equation can be expressed as, for
one species A io the liquid phase

where p(wA) is an empirical relationship in the form of a truncated


power series given by:

(23)

-P=

(31)

P = P.(~)P(~A)

k-1
p(wA)

(m)

a,w:

V*

For a watedoil system, assuming V,= o


(24)

i7=uv+s70

Eqs. 20, 22, 23, and 24 can be manipulated to express the volumetric
flux of the water phase by (Civao*3):

where ~ are some empirical coefficients and (k - 1) is the order of the


polynomial.
The capillary pressure for an oillwater system is defined acceding
b

P. = JwYcawmM.%ql
~w =Fa+
{

>#w3w-5JAPdtv2
ew

where J (SW)is the empirical Lcverett J-function, and y and 8 are the
surface tension and the contact angle which vary by tempemture and
species A concentration. The permeability and porosity of porous media
vary by formation damage.
The relative permeabiities are usually given by empirical
relationships of the saturation W

in which
Ap=pW-pe

(33)

- SJ

(26)

Kd = KJS#
(2?)

Fluid Properties
Assuming separability, the density and viscosity of the fluid phases can
be expressed by the following state equations

401

= O,w#uisW~w<(l

SJ

(34)

In Eqs. 33 and 34, S= and S= reprewnt the connate water and residual
oil saturations which vary as a result of the packing of particles during
formation damage. The values of these quantities am Iarg= for onkred
packing of particles.
-g
of particles and smaller for &smdemd

They can be correlated with permeability. For a given ~,


however,
they decrease by inmasin g ~btity
or porosity. For example, as
shown by Collinsls, the connate water aatumdon decreases linearly with

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTER CAKE FORMATION MODEL

increasing logarithmic permeability in sandstones.

Au = -

Interfam Particle Tranefer


In a multiphase fluid system flowing through porous media, interface
-.-:-1-..-./? --- ---..ptuuelc u W81G1 Vau u-u

L.....,--

tl..:A CI..:A ..-.4 --1:.4 ei..:_l :-.--c----

UGLWWU

llULU-1

lUIU

6UU

8UUU-llUIU

kdp~c~
+ k&p#~

-cd

- kdp~r,

- ~b)

SPE 28709

(40)

+ k-@P&

U3ualuuta.

The driving force for particle traosfer between two fluid phases is
the nettability of the fluid phases relative to the wettabllity of the
particles. Particles prefer to be in the phase that wets them. But
mixed-wet particles tend to remain on the interface where they are most
stable (Ivanov et al.l~. In the region involving the interface between
wetting and nonwetting phases, it can be postulated that particles A in
a weaker nettability phase 1 first move to the interface and then they
migrate from the interface to a stronger nettability phas&2 according to
the following consecutive processes

The fust term on the right of Eq. 40 represents the rate of surface
particle release by mlloidal forces. pm is the mass concentration
(mass/bulk volume) of the particles on the pore surface in contact with
the @ phase wetting fluid. ~ and c ~. are the brine concentration
and the critical brine concentration as defined by Khilar aad Foglerlg.
&is the surface pat.icle release rate constant given by

ktid

c#cW

(41)

kd =Oothcrwfw
The second term repments the surface particle erosion rate by
hydrodynamic forces. ~ and ~. are the shear stress and the critical
shear stress necessary for particle mobilization accordiig to Orueabeck
and Colliism. ~ isthe surfaceparticle erosion rate constant given by
kati
kd =0

Therefore, the following power law rate expressions can be proposed

A@:

(36)

AJ&

A>fi

*, =

AJ(+s,f2J, t = 12

Othcrwe

kd=o

(37)

P~P&

(43)

otherwise

PA. is a criti~ con=~ation


above which ~wsition CSIIOCCIU.me
forth term represents the particle capture rate by plug-type capture of
particles at the pore throats. When a pore throat is plugged, them, the
particles begin to accumulate behind the plug to fill the pore space. ~
is the pore-throat particle capture rate constant given by:

(38)

kx~
In Bqs. 35-38, AA1and k~, are some rate constantq (SAand &
empirical exponents of intensities; and t~l, tA12,and tM are
delays due to the inertia of the respective traosfer processes.
of particle transfer can be expressed per unit volume of the
according to the following expremion:

(42)

Tinethird term represents the sdxe particie deposition by concentntian


gradient according to Oruesbeck and Collinsx. & is the surface
particle deposition rate constant given by
ka~

= AA@

?t>~u

@r d, /d, < (d, /$).


(44)

are some
the time
The rate
@phase

kH = O Otk~
(WdJO is ~ critic~we
throa to particlediametersize necessary for
pore throat blocking to occur due to jammin g process given by the
following expression:

(39)

A review of a variety of expressions for particle fransfer between the


.. .
soua porous matrix and fiuids in the pore space, reported in the
literature, are presented elsewhere by Civan17>1*. These can be
generalized in one equation expressing the net rate of particle transfer
from the @ fluid phase to the solid matrix per unit bulk volume of
perous media as following:

402

in which pA, u, and p are the saturation weighted average mass


concentration, flux, aad viscosity, respectively, and A, B, and C are
some empirical constants. 4.45 is a dimensionless, generalization of
the expressions given originally by Civan 21and later applied by Chang
criteria.
and Civan* as a -pore throat plumimz
.

SPE 28709

FARUK CIVAN

Formation Damage Model


As stated by clvan:~, a formation damage modei is nothing more than
a mathematical relationship between permeability, porosity, and texture
during the alteration of the struchne of porous media by various factors
involving the physical, chemical, and mechanical pmcesse in porous
media. For porous media undergoing structural cbangea, such a
relationship is dynamic in nature. Because of the complexity of the
mechanisms of the governing prwxsses, such a relationship is usually
obtained in the form of empirical correlations. A variety of models
reported in the literature have been reviewed by Civan*71*
and Nolen et
al.m.
An important issue in dealing with formation damage is that a
formation can have a zero permeability but a nonzem porosity. Thus,
a realistic dynamic formation damage model should include the
coordination number or a measure of interconnectivity of pores and
tortuosity to incorporate the pore geometry and texture.
Realizing this fact, Ohen and CivanfiX have introduced a flow
efficiency factor to modify the Kozeny-Carrnan K -$ equation. Chang
and Civan-,
and Llu and Civan910mimplemented different forms of
this factor. Amaefule et al.= lumped these concepts in terms of the flow
units and developed several correlations for static porous materials of a
variety of types.
In general, the texture alteration can be expressed in terms of the
variation of the pore throat size distribution. The fraction of pore throats
that are open is given by (Chang and Civao~:
(46)

(47)
where w is the fraction of the fine pore throats.
Another importaot point is the fwt that ge~ wax, asphaltene, and
@
typSS Of pXeCipihteS Cm form SOfteXand StiCkieXparticles that
can seal off the pore throats to prevent any flow through them.
Whereas, the packing of hard granular particles such as sand behind the
pme throats may permit some leak off. Therefore, Civa33lU*and Llu
~d Civm9,10m have mo~ed
the Kozeny-Cammo Wllfin
fm thii
Ohen ~d Cimn, Chang ~d Civana3,
affect. Although Civan 17.1..21,
and Liu and Civan9.10mintroduced these concepts in some simplified
forms, a genemlized dynamic permeability-porosity-texture relationship
U.w..r
.uO.
. ...-.
*.*
IAAW
v
k
is ~hfi .
mmf av.;l.hla
e . -e...
...
W..,,
b 06 P&
separable, the following form of a general relationship can be proposed
.

assumed for each variable with some empirically determined parametaw


. . ..
~1 and &. Sti is the specific pore surhce expressed per umt bulk
volume. z is tortuosity. Z is the caxdination number dated to fP.
For porous media undergoing en alteration by pticle deposition
the following expression derived in Appendix A is proposed

m9

(49)

=4+ -(* - *,)]+(1- $)(OW


/49;p

in which nl and nz are some empirical values.


The porosity varies by mechanical defonnatinn of porous materiel
by the effective stress:
*,
~

= -c& - 4rJ,fJ4r94e-4,
(50)

4-I-HPU811U
by swelling (Chino and Knappn, LkI and Chnn,

Civan et al.~:

(51)

and by net deposition and erosion inside the porous medi~ A$P(E!q.40).
Therefore, the instantaneous porosity is given by

where & is the critical particle dkrneter given by Eq. 51 and ~ and
& are the lower and upper boundary values of the pore size range, and
f(x) is the pore throat size distribution function usually expressed as a
weighted linear sum of the pore size distribution functions, f,(x) and
fz(x), of the fine and coarse fractions as:

-.,

Determination of the Model Parameter


The equations presented in the previous section contains many
parameters whose values depend on the .fluidj rock, and particle
W*
in a complicated, coupled manner. Direct measummeit of all
the pheaomenological pametem
is a near to impossible task,
Therefore, Civao et al.n, Ohen and Civanti, Millan-Arcia and Civan31,
Chang and Chn-,
and Liu end Civan 9.1M, Civen1718,
Oadiyar and
Civan32, as well as Wilhite et al.= and VMal et al.~ have maorted to
indii
methods of inking
the values of such pammeters by history
matching of some experimental data Although Orueabeck end Collinsm,
Amaufele et SL, Sharma and Yortsosw, Khilar aud Foglerg, and Oupta
and CivanW offered some analytical expressions and/or direct
measurement methods, these apply 0331yto ex&mely simplified models
having only a few model parameters. For complicated models, history
matching appears the best choice in lack of a better method. However,
h- . ..--&L .Vuluw
...1..-- -A-.
... ..-.*US
...3.+
.puuus+
. . . .3...+
.... --..6
auuuL +2.-...
!uG uUyuGuwu
UL
UJGpluul=w
WEU u
satisfactory history matching is accomplished. As a practical approach,
Ohen and Civans have proposed to measure the values of the
parameters which cao be detmmined directly and then resort to hietmy
matchine~ for
nn
ti.
..- the
- remainine
--
_ =-----

@)

(52)

4 =4, - (A4,+ A4m+ fWp)

~-e

y~eg~

~t_~

nhmrved
-..

that the uniqueness of the parameter values can be achieved when the
number of the data sets for the same reck-fluid-particle system
As a simplifkd approach, a power law function, & (Q=

~ &pi, is

403

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTER CAKE F4)RMATION MODEL

FILTER CAKE MODELS


The equations governing the compressible falter cakes with and without
particle invasion are presented in the following
Cornp.msib!e Fi!!r cake ti.th I%rt.k!e Em&or!
The mass balance equations for the filter cake, the flowing phase
containing ~
particles, and the fme particles in the flowing phase,
neglecting the diffusive transpor6 are given, respectively, by
a~%ps)

(53)

+ v (p#,) = #@A

~~w~ +v

(P&J

= @U=

- RA

iq = qv, - v,) = t7t - e,v, =

- k(EJv;lw,

SPE 28709

(61)

,,-A__
m.
*
g?**.I G.
-+ . mRk!ia!!y lkver%i~
WA.I., mmwmg
ruitkie htidoii
Averaging Eqs. 53-55 and incorporating Eqs. 56-58 accding to the
procedure given in Appendix B results in the following simplified
compressible fWer cake model:
A

(62)

(5s)

where RAdenotes the mass rate of smaller particles deposited from the
flowing phase to the solid matrix inside the falter cake given by Eq. 40.
The simplifkd jump mass balance equation, associated with Eqs.
53-55 are given, respectively, by, at the filter cakdmud sluny interface
(64)
[P#,

- ~

fit]=

r:=

R:

(56)

When the solid and flowing phase densities, p, and pe are assumed
constan~ and the effect of p$icle transfer rate on the flowing phase
mass balance is negligible, R s O, Eqs. 62 and 63 simplify to the
followings, respectively:

where RAois the net mass rate of larger particles deposited born the
mud slurry over the filter cake surface given by surface deposition and
----emsi(lii &XOIS of Bq. 46.
The overall mass balance of particles for the filtercake is given by
the following by genemlizing the ~uation given by Abboud? -

jbA4#
=i(wq-d
0

&.fio*&~ *~

f~c=y*e

(59)

h=. 64, !Knwweq remainsthe same.


When the filtercake is assumed incompressible, ~ = ~, aud ~
= &eEqs. 65, 66, and 64 simplify to the following, respectively

imdime.

The equation of motion given by Chase and Wdliss for deformiug


fdtercake matrix can be written as following

E,w, -e,w, +v?, +qp, -p~=o


where

(60)

?, is the shear stress tensor for the solid matrix.


The volume flux of the flowing phase relative to the solid matrix
is given by {Smiles and Kirb~):

(68)

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 28709

e#l~~d

@JAJ#@&

- t)] -

- 2r~Pti~d
. ~.

Da

pl - (4LJ%Id = - (L+ (rw1Wiilbum

~[i:

i:

addition to the above equations (&p. 62-69), the following overall


mass balance of particles for the filtercake can also be facilitated

In

.i(f%@#~r=P
0

j(P#Jm(%P
0

jcp&~rW
r=

+
(70)

+ ~q@Odf

RADIAL FLOW MODEL FOR MUD FILTRATE JNVASION


A.ND ~_.~.R
CA_K1.EOEi_M_ATION
In this section, the general model equations developed in the previous
section are simplified and applied for simulation of mud filtrate invasion
and fflter cake formation in radial flow. The fluids and the porous
media are assumed incom~ible.
As depicted in Fig. 1, it is aaaumed
that the filtercake formed at the wellbore allows for only the mud filtrate
invasion into the porous media Initially the porous media contains oil.
A water baaed mud filtrate invasion initiates a two-phase flow problem
in the near well bore porous media Also any adaorptionldesorption and
chemical reaction processes are omitted.
Simplifbd Model
The aqueous phase mass balance in rdial
MS.
1 and 4 as:

r.

flow can be obtained fbm

Radially Averaged Filter Cake Model Without Particle Invasion


In this case, there is no particle migration and deposition inside the filter
cak~ that is p~ = O and RA = O. Therefore, Eqs. 62 and 63 simplify
to the following forms of the compressible cake
@qvsr!

- r:)]=

tic%

(76)

(69)

+ %@t%)~
.

(m

(71)
subject to the following condkions

m)

Sw = S:(r), rvsr <COJ= O

(79)
When the solid and flowing phase densities, p, and p~ are assumed
constant Eqs. 71 and 72 simplify to the following compressible cake
equations:
pad/& [=~r~ - r~] = 2r=R~,

(73)

(80)

Sw = S:(r), r-q M

me Sat!ntims

mtidy tdle fd!mving Gonddtb:

s + se = 1.0

(81)

The aqueous phase volumeti

flux is given by
(82)

When the fdtercake is assumed incompressible, i.e. ~, = e, and Et =


~ then Eqs. 73 and 74 simplify to:
p8#rC @ = R&

The total volumetric flux is given by:


U=uw+ue=

(75)

flh/ @~*)

(83)

The aqueous phase and oil phase dissolved species A mass balance are
given by simplifying Eq. 9 as:

and

405

A MULTI-PHASE MUD ~LTRATE iN-VASiON ~-D w%LL BORE Fiii~BR CAKE FORMATiON NKXX3ii

.
w~ a/w
r..

Uw=(%)h J=o,

t>o

(94)

Sw = s:(x),

C>o

(m

(84)

rwsr<qa

Jw 4 = W4

and A = l,&.
X=1,

subject to the following condkions:


Wu =wfir),

rWs

(w

t=O

r<_,

(%)
~u=(~cw~~,r=rw

(86)

t>O

u
Wu =w&(r),

r-q

=Uw+ge=

9*

(m

I @**)

(m

t>O

:(W%J
++ - XY:[(l- X)-%M]= o,
w

The mass fractions satisfy tbe following condition:


0<%
ZWM=l.O,
A

t=w,

t>o,

<1,

(98)

@t=tv,o&A=l,~_.

(88)

WA4=w&(x), osxsl,

t=o

(99)

t>o

(loo)

The total species flux is given by:


nu = Uewti - @8D#wu

(89)

1*

~M=(q%&

,X=o,

wM=w&(x),

x=l

in which tbe dispersion coefficient is given by, neglecting the molecular


diffusion:
(90)

D& = auf /($SJ # = w, O

,t>o

where a and ~ are some empirical constants.


The solution domain extends from the well bore to tie infinity, XW
by
S r <00. To avoid the uncertainty and mom to be introdu~
representing

be

infinity

bjj a Siiffkikii*j

kmg

fiie

CWWe,

(101)

(102)

&e

follmving transformation is considered


x=

(103)

(91)

1 - (r /rJ-w

Eq. 91 maps tbe semi-infinite domain into a unit size ftite domain.
Consequently, invoking Eq. 91, tbe model equations, Eqs. 77-90, are
expressed in tbe following forms:

~+%)
+* -# ~(1 - X)-%w]
= o,
0s%s1

(92)

(104)

Assuming an incompressible fikemake, tie inner radius is given


by (see Appendix C for derivation):

, t>()

&c
-=

S=s:(x), o<xsl,

r=o

(93)

&

Q141,tpM
- &$ - q
(1 - *,)pA

subject to tbe initial condition given by

406

(10s)

A solution of Eq. 112 with Eq. 92 yields the aqueous phase pressure and
saturation vs. the radial distance. Subsequently, Eq. 107 can be used to
determine the fdtrate invasion rate as a function of time.

(106)

re=OJ=O

Eqs. 77-106 are valid for constant or variable filtrate invasion rates. At
field operations, usually the mud pressure, P.ti, is maintained constantConsequently, the fdtrate invasion rate varies, and the foiiowing
additional equations are necessary to determine the variable filtrate
invasion rate. An integration of Darcys law, assuming incompressible
falter cake without particle invasion, and incompressible and constant
viscosity filtrate, leads to the following equation for the fdtrate invasion
flux or rate
,. *.
[lUI)

FINAL REMARKS
This parperpresented the generaa em]~tinn~
for -ml*~ .fil**c=
-l--
--. . ...~nv~c~fin
. ..L.u and
wellbore filter cake formation, and an application to radial flow. These
equations are non linear and strongly coupled. The numerical solution
with spec~lc data is reserved for future studies.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author gratefully acknowledges the support of the School of
Petro!~J~ ~~ C~!@~
E~@e~@
at f&erl.;
-f W-auwe.
~~l-3----u. .=~fi,
-..., v,

1.
On the other hand, the total flowing phase equation of continuity,
assuming incompressible fluids, is given by:

*/*+(1

/rp/*(n3)=0

2.

(108)

Neglecting any porosity alteration and substituting Eq. 7 iiom Civan13


for the total volumetric flux, into Eq. 108, and then integrating results
in the following equation for the pressure of the aqueous phase:

3.

4.
5.
6.
where ~ 1. is given by Eq.107.
Initially, the aqueous phase pressure is given by:

Pv = P;(r) , rwsr<-J=O

7.
(110)
8.

During the fdtrate invasion, the -pressure at a sufficiently long distance


does not chang~ i.e.

10.
Substituting Eq. 107 into Eq. 109, assuming a water base mud, and
applying Eq. 91 yields the following convenient fontx

11.
(112)

subject to:

12.
x=l

(113)

13.

407

REFERENCES
Chan, F. and T. Engler, Drilliig Mud Fdtrate Invasion Improved Model and Solution, Journal ojfPemh?n science
and k?hgineenng,
to appear.
Clark, P.E. and O. Barbat, The Analysis of Fluid-Loss Data,
SPE Paper No. 18971, Proc., SPE Joint Rocky Mountain
Regional/Law Permeability Reservoim Symposium and Exhibition,
Denver, CO, March 6-8, 1989, pp. 437-444.
Jiao, D. and M.M. Sharma, Mechanism of Cake Buildup in
Crossflow Filtration of Colloidal Suspensions, 1 CWoid and
Inte@ce Sci., Vol. 162, pp. 454-462 (1994).
Donaldson, E.C. and V. Chernoglazov, Drilling Mud Fluid
b;~,~fi MrxM, J. P~i. W. EZ-~.,Vd 1, NO. 1, pp. 3-i3 (i987j.
Chase, G.G. and M.S. Willis, Compressive Cake Filtration,
Chem. Eng.Sci., Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 1373-1381 (1992).
Smiles, D.E. and J.M. Kirby, Compressive Cake Filtration - A
Voi. w,
~Q ..u.
N- AT,
10 FP. 343i-3434
~Qmm@ , Wm. J%g. Se:.,
(1993).
Corapciogln, M.Y. and N.M. Abboud, Cake Filtration with
Particle Penetration at the Cake Surface, SPE Resemoir
Engineering,Voi. S*NO. 3; .~%3i7-326, ~gwt 1990.
Abbond, N.M., Formation of Filt& Cakes with Particle
Penetration at the Filter Septum, Particulate Science and
T.w.lmmhm.
a-uw-~,,

9.

(111)

Pv =P:,

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 28709

v.-.1
...

.
.1 .z . pp.

11<
121
JIJ-LJ1

11Q9*~
(17
.7).

LIU, X. and F. Civan, A Multi-Phase Mud Fiuid Infiltration aod


Filter Cake Formation Model, SPE paper 25215, Proc., SPE
International Symposium on Oiliield Chemistry, February 28March 3, 1993, New Orleans, LA, pp. 607-621.
Llu, X. and F. Clvan, Formation Damage and Skin Factors Due
to Filter Cake Formation and FMigration in the NearWellbore Region, SPE paper 27364, Proc., 1994 SPE Formation
Damage Control Synpsium, February 9-10,1994, Lafayette: LA,
pp. 2S9-274.
Olson, T.M. and G.M. Litton, Colloid Deposition in Porous
Me&a and an Evaluation of Bed-Me&i Cleaning Techniques,
Chapter Z pp. 14-25, in Transport aod Remediation of Subsurface
~
Sabatini, D.A. and R.C. Knox (E&.), ACS Symposium Series 491,
AMeri_ CheDli@l Society, W*b@On: DC (iW2),
Slattery, J.C., Interracial TransPort Phenomenx Springer-Verlag
New York Inc., NY (1990), 1159 pages.
Civan, F., A Them&idly Derived Transfer Function for Oil
Recovery From Fractured Reservoirs by Waterflooding, SPE

10

14:

15.
16.

17.

18.

19.
20.

21.

~~:

23.

24.

2s.

26.

27.

28.

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTER CAKE FORMATION MODEL

paper 27745, Proc., 1994 Improved Oil Recovery Symposium to


bebeid Aprii i7-2C, i994, Tuis& Oii, pp. W-88.
Tromoert.
R.A..
___r., --.., J.G, VeWm ad J.G. Blorn: Computing Bti
Transport in Porous Me&a with an Adaptive-Grid Method, Intl.
J. Numer.Metk Fluidr,Vol. 16, pp. 43-63 (1993).
Collins, E.R., Flow of Fluids Through Porous Materials, Penn
Well Publishing Co., Tulsa, OK, 270 pages.
Ivanov, I.B., P.A. Kralchevaky and A.D. Nikolov, Film and Lu
Tension Effects on the Attachment of Particles to an Interface, J.
Colfoidand Znte@ce Sci., Vol. 112, No. 1, pp. 97-107 (1986).
Chnm, F. Evaluation and Comparison of the Formation Damage
Models, SPE papa 23787, Proc., SPE International Symposium
-l-.-. m---Z--G-, n-L.-.*Z *- 4nM 1 .r-..-uon rormauon uamage eonum, reoruary ZO-AI, 1Y74 bamyeue,
LA, pp. 219-236.
Civan, F., predictability of Formation Damage An Assessment
Study and Genemlized Models, Final Report, U.S. DOE Contract
No. DE-AC22-90BC14658, April 1994.
Khilar, K.C. and H.S. Fogler, Water Sensitivity of Sandstones,
SPEJ,pp; 55-64, Febru~ 1983.
Gruesbeck, C. end R.E. Collins, Entrainment and Deposition of
Fine Particles in Porous Media, SPEI, pp. 847-856, December
1982.
Civan, F., A Generalized Model for Formation Damage by
Rock-Fluid Interactions and Particulate Processes, SPE Paper
21183, Roe., SPE 1990 Latio American Petmdeum Engineering
Conference, October 14-19, 1990, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 11
pages.
Damwe
Cb~e.~, -F.F..
-.---. of
-. Formation
_ ---
~. Due
-.
.- ., ad ~, C&LI, Modeline
to Physical and Chemical Interactions Between Fluids and
Reservoir Rocks, SPE paper 22856, Proc., 66th Annual Technical
P..c-
.Uuu
..An..k:k:.:..-e &t...e..d..k. .e D..-m . ...- n...:..
&uulGIGuw
CAUluluuu
U1 LUG CxWlc%y U1 rcuulcuul
JJuglocu a,
6-9, 1991, Dallas, TX.
October
Chang, F.F. and F. Civan, Pre&ctability of Formation Damage by
Modeling Chemical and Mechanical Processes, SPE paper 23793,
Proc., SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage
Control, Febmary 26-27, 1992, Lafayette, LA, pp. 293-312.
Nolen, G., J.O. Amaefule, D.G. Kersey, R. Ross and R. Rubio,
Roblems Associated with Permeability and V*Y Models from
Textural Prcprties of Unconsolidated Reservoir Rocks, SCA
9225 paper, 33rd Annual Symposium of SPWLA Society of Core
Analysts, Oklahoma City, OK, June 15-17, 1992.
Ohen, H.A. end F. Chtm, Siulation of Formation Damage in
Petroleum Reservoirs, SPEAdvancedTechnologySeries, Vol. 1,
No. 1, pp. 27-35, April 1993.
Ohen, H.A. and F. Clvan, predicting Skin Effects Due to
Fonmtion Damage by Frees Migration, SPE paper 21675, Proc.,
1991 SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City,
OK, April 7-9, 1991, pp. 399410.
LhJ, X. and F. Civan, Characterization and Prediction of
Fommtion Damage in Two-Phase Flow Systems, SPE paper
25429, Proc., SPE Production Operations Symposium, March 2123, 1993, Oklahoma City, OK, pp. 231-248.
Amaeftde, J.O., M. Altunbay, H. Ohen, D.G. Kersey and P. Lane,
Unit-Based Approach
for ~lcting
A Hydraulic @OW)
Formation Damage Profiles in Uncored Mends/W elk Using
Core/Log Data, SPE Paper No. 27365, presented at the SPE Intl.
Symposium on Formation Damage, Lafayette, LA, February 7-10,

408

29.

30.

31.

32.

SPE 28709

1994, 16 pages.
-,-. - n > m .,

-_ mm
--- -/? ml---.-11:---J r?:--K.M. mnapp, rJIeCL
m
uity
aweumg
anu
rum
Miwgation on Formation Permeability, SPE Paper 16235, Pmt.,
SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, OK
31W, pp. 475-483.
Civan, F., R.M. Knapp, and H.A. Ohen, Alteration of
Pesmeabiity by Fii Particle Recesses, J. PetroleumScience
and Engineering,Vol. 3, Nos. Ml, pp. 65-79, Oct. 1989.
MiJlan-ArviW E. and F. Civan, Characterization of Formation
Damage by Particulate processes, J. Cknudian Petroleum
Technology,Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 27.-33, March 1992.
Gadiyar, B. and F. Civan, Acidtion
Jnduced Formation
I?--L---.-1
-->
lfi_A_l:__
@A..A:
f! c!DU ---
*1AM
n--_-age
- J+JCIUUHIWA
am
muucuug
muoIr+
ar = papa
z JWJU,
uvao, r. ano

1994 SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, held


Feb. 9-10, M94, Lafayette, LA, pp. 549-560.
W~te,
G.P., D.W. Green, J.L. Thiele, C.S. MCCOO1and
K.B.Mertes, Gelled Polymer Systems for Permeability
Modification in Petroleum Reservoirs, Final Report, Con&act No.
DE-FG07-89 ID12846, U.S. Department of Energy, Bartlesville,
OK, September 1991.
Vitthal, S., M.M. Sharma and K. Sepehnmori, A OneDimensional Formation Damage Simulator for Damage Due to
Fms Migration, SPE Paper No. 17146, Rec., SPE Formation
Damage Control Symposium, Bakersfield, CA, February 8-9,
1988, pp. 29-42.
Arm&de, J.O., D.G. Kersey, D.L. Norman and P.M. Shannon,
Advances in Formation Damage Assessment and Control
S!rateties
- : CJM Pa== No. 88-39-6S, Proc., 39th Annual
Technical Meeting of Petroleum Society of CIM and Canadian
Gas Processors Association, June 12-16, 1988, Calgary, Alberta,
Proc.,

33.

34,

35.

1 L -. -
I u yugG*.

36.
37.

Sharma, M.M. and Y.C. Yortsos, Fines Migration in Porous


Meda, AfChE J., Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 1654-1662, 1987.
Gupta, A. and F. Chmn, Temperature Sensitivity of Formation
Damage in Petroleum Reservoirs, SPE paper 27368, Roe., 1994
SPE Formation Damage Control Sy&msium, February 9-10,1994,
Lafayette, LA, pp. 301-328.

APPENDIX A
K -$- f# Relationship
The effect of particle deposition mechanisms on permeability can be
analyzed by considering pluggable and nonpluggable paths according to
Gruesbeck and Collinsm. The total cross-sectional are% A, of porous
meda can be separated into two parts (Chn]):
(1) The area &
containing pluggable paths in which plug-type deposition and pom
filling occurs, and (2) the are% &, containing nonplugging paths in
which nonplugging surface deposition occurs. Thus, by definition
A= AP+AW

(A-1)

Similarly, the volumetic flow rate, q, can be separated into the flow
rates, qP and qw, passing through the pluggable and nonpluggable paths,
respectively. Then,
q=q,

+q*

(A-2)

11

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 28709

The values indicated by the superscript o denote some reference


values such as the values taken at the initial conditions. nl and n2 are
some permeability reduction indices. In Eqs. A-13 and 14, I$Pand $=
denote the mean porosity of the pluggable and nonpluggable paths
defined, respectively, by

(A-3)

q=Au

(A+

q, = App

4, =
Substituting
u = ffi,

~4WdtI

(A-15)

A-3 - A-5, Eq. A-2 yields

MS.

(A-6)

+ f#w

fP and fw denote the fraction of the cross-sectional area containing


pluggable and nonpluggable pathways, given by:

~= A,/ A&

fw=l-fv

Osf~wsl

(A-7)

fP is a characteristic parameter of the porous medium and the frees of


critical size. The pore size distribution of the porous medium, and the
particle size distribution of the frees detemnine the value of f. (Chang
and Civan -).
Applying the Darcy law, the total volumetric flux aud the
volumetric fluxes through the pluggable and nonpluggable paths can be
expressed, respectively, as:
(A-8)

u=(K/p#-@/ar)

F(Q) is the pore size distribution function and $= is the critical porosity
below which particle plugging occurs. The mean porosity of the porous
media is given by

$ =+, ++- =

jmki$
o

Substituting E@. A-13 and 14 into Eq. A-12 yields the following
expression for porous media undergoing an alteration by patticle
deposition
(A-18)

J$=(K,

/pJ

(A-9)

(-*/a)p

D- J:.lL.

nuuullly

~ and ~
represent the permeabilities of the pluggable and
nonpluggable fhctions of the core.
Assuming that there is
interconnectivity and hydraulic communication between plugging and
nonpluggiog paths, the pressure gradients in both paths sre equal, i.e.,
(-*/a),

(-a/

ThUS, substituting ~S.

a)w

=(-*/a)

(A-n)

A-8, 9, and 10 into Eq. A-6 and applying Eq. A-

K = ~p~; + twl~

lX14._
J! Uwa

@.L.
Qua=

17_...4_._.
mquummla

Applying the mean value theorem, the area, A, average of a function,


f, is defined by

44

}=pwp
4

11 results in

APPENDIX B
A m..-mwlagm

(B-1)

Applying Leibnitzs rule for the derivative of Eq. B-1 with respect to
time, the following expression can be obtained

(A-12)

(B-2)
The following empirical equations can be used to correlate the
permeability-porosity relationships in the plugging and nonplugging
paths, respectively (Civanl):
q%

1 ~,) = (4; - *,P

Similarly, the following expression can also be obtained

(A-13)

Appiying the averaging rules given by Eqs. B-i through B-3 according
to Corapcioglu and Abboud7, and Abboud8, the partial differential falter
cake model can be simplified into an ordinary differential filter cake

(A-14)

409

12

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTBR CAKE FORMATION MODEL

model as shown in the following.


For radial flow, averaging Eq. 53 from the well bore to the
mudlcake interface yields:

SPE 28709

(B-12)

Similarly, averaging Eq. 54 results in:

(M)

(B-13)

in which & and & are the areas at the well bore and mudkake
interface radii, r= aud r., given, respectively, by

w)
in which the well bore radius, r. is find. Applying the jump mass
balance equation, Eq. 57, at the mud and well bore sides of the filter
cake yields, respectively:
(B-14)
The area element is given by:

Therefore, applying the averaging ndm, Eqs. B-1, 2, 3 on Eq. B4


..:-I,J.
yltzus.
u:=

(B-16)

(q,drc / &

and
(#Jw

- (fJ#)w = (PPJ-

- (P#O)-

(B-17)

in which the wellbore dlus, r., is fixed and assuming that the particles
cannot penetrate the well bore, the fdtrate flowing into the porous media
do not carry any particies, i.e. (~~mb = 0. Tnejump mass &danee
equation, Eq. 56, yields the following relationship at the mud side of the
ftiter cake
O=(P,)= [(%)= - #

+ %

(B-9)
(B-18)

in which the left side IS zero because there is no sohd matrix on the
mud side, and the macroscopic velocity of the matrix is given by:
~. B-17
(l%.).

Sil@ifkS

(P#J-

to:

(B-19)

Thus, the following expression is obtained liom Bqs. B-9 and B-10
(%%). = (#,)c *C / ~ - R&

Substituting Eqs. B-18 and 19 into Eq. B-13 yields the followiug
averaged expression for the flowing phase mass balance:

(B-11)

Substituting Eq. B-11 into Eq. B-8 yields the following expression for
the averaged falter cake solid matrix

410

13

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 287W

E, =

(B-20)

(c-2)

1-+,

The rate of net deposition of particles per unit area of the cake surface
is the difference between the deposition and the erosion rates; i.e.:
(c-3)

R~=r4-re
in which Ru&Gis negligible assuming that the flowing phase contains a
small amount of solid particles.
Similarly, averaging Eq. 55 yields

r~ is the rate of deposition of particles on a unit cake surface assumed


proportional to the mass flux of particles in the mud slurry
(C4)

r4 = k##M

r. is the rate of erosion of the particles off the cake surface


~ppm!!emiiy to the excess shear stress of the mud sltmy flowing over
the cake surface
re = k&

in which the well bore radks, rW,is fixed. The jump mass balance
equation, Eq. 58, can be written at the mud and well bore sides,
respectively, as:

(pA@~- (pA#)~
=(PAA),- (PAP),
- :.

(C-5)

- fu)

t,= is the critical shear stress necessary for mobilization of particles (k,
= O when q S ZC=). Thus, substituting Eqs. C-2 tiu@
C-5 ~to ~.
C-1 yields the following expression for the variation of the filter cake
radius:

(B-22)

&,
.
&

which, upon the substitution of Eqs. B-15 and 16 for U.d and u yields
/&

k/tcp~

- k&
Pp

- Trc)

(C4)

- %)

(B-23)
Assuming a theological model for drilling muds in the form of a power
law function of the shear rate ~, cis given by
? =-ky
(B-24)

which assumed RA= O at r = rW. Thus, substituting Eqs. B-23 and 24


into Eq. B-21 yields the following averaged fme particles mass balance
equation

(c-7)

where k and n are some empirical parameters.


Because an incompwible
cake witbout particle invasion is
considered, the cake permeability is constant. Ilms, an integration of
Darcys law yields the following relationship for the differential pressure
across the filtexcake

where & and h are the cake permeability and thickness, respectively.

APPENDIX C
Incompressible Filter Cake Model Without Partkle Invasion
Eq. 75 expresses the falter cake solid matrix mass balance as:

In terms of the cake porosity I&,E, is given by:

411

SPE 28709

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTER CAKE FORMATION MODEL

14
MU?

WELL

t
.

-Ww%.n.,

.
r

..
,,
,.,
,,
.
.-...
,, .. .
1. . . .

r um-ui L LULW

..
,.
~ .
.. . .

,.
.

.,

. .

.,

RESERVIORI
FORMATION

d
/?

Sk.

6
Figure
particle

2 -

rc

Filter

and

~.-(2L

cake

filtrate

u.

-k--

re

rw
in

a wellbore

with

invasion

.
Figure
filter

1 - Mud filtrate
cake
and porous

invasion

through

media

.
,
RESERVOIR
FORMATION

FILTER
CAKE

SLURRY
.
Figure
created
invasion

3 -

Filter
f racture

4 - Nonplugging
Figure
realization
in a core

cake
in a hydraulically
with
particle
and filtrate

412

and
(after

pluggin
Civan

paths
f 7)