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SPE 28709

A Multi-Phase Mud Filtrate Invasion and Wellbore Filter Cake

Formation Model

Faruk

Civan,

U. of Oklahoma

SPE Member

Copyright

Engineers,

Inc.

Petroleum

Conference

Mexico, 10-13

October

1994

This paper wes selected for presentation by sn SPE Pmgrsm Committee following review of information contsined in sn abstract submined by the author(s). Contents of the paper,

as presentsd, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to corretiton by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect

any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papws presented et SPE meetings are aubjact to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society

Of Petroleum Engineers. Permission to copy is reslriied to an abstract of not mere than 3tM words. Illuatratione may not be copied, The abstract should cmtain conspicuous acknowledgment

of where and by whom the paper is presented, Write Librarian, SPE, P,O, Sox 833s36, Richardson, TX 750SMS36,

U.S.A. Telex 1S3245 SPEUT.

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modeling for prediction of the distribution and tilng of

mud filtrates in the reservoir formation surrounding a well being drilled

and the filter cake build-up and ita effect on the mud filtrate invasion

into the formation, es well aa the resulting formation damage effects is

presented. The model can simulate the single aod two-phase flow

situations in the formation with water or oil based drilling mud cases.

External

------

srt;cl*

r--

;a.;n

-.

-~.u

A,.w

b

--

AU- -..1.,

-.4..,4

as cl+-.

,..L..

:..:&

-.:--

lluuauuu

retention is considered. An application involving radial flow is given.

-.. -..-* .

.-. .

Lma moael B a usenu rooi far accurate interpretation of oit-mud-fiuid

system saturationa and resistivit y profdes which are essential for the

development of eftlcient well-log interpretation.

INTRODUCTION

Estimation of the extent of mud fdtrate invasion and distribution within

the near wellbore formation during drilling operations is essential for

accurate well-log interpretation (Civan and Engler). This process is

complicated by the formation of a mud falter cake and its effect on

invasion by reducing the fdtrate volume and the migration of fme

particles into the porou3 formation. Sirmdttneously, the properties of

the fluid phases in porous medi~ such as density and viscosity, vary as

a result of mixing and interactions of reservoir fluids with the mud

fdtrate and fme pzuticles.

In spite of many experimental studies of the invasion of mud

fdtrstes in laboratory cores, there have been only a few reported

attempts to mathematically model the problem. Clark sod Barbs? have

developed a three-parameter empirical model for accurate correlation of

dynamic fluid 10SSdata. Jiao and Sharma3 proposed a simple model

based on a power law relationship between the fdb-ation rate aod the

shear stress at the cake surface. Donaldson and Chernoglszov4 have

developed a single-phase leaky-piston model using experimentally

derived dispersion caet%cient and mud filtrate invasion rate. Civan and

Englert have improved the Donaldson and Cbernoglazov model and

399

dimensionless farm of the model for convenience in computation and

scahig.

Chase and Williss aad Smiles and Kirby6 have presented

compressible filter cakes without particle intrusion models. Corspcioglu

and Abbou#, and Abboud have developed models for comprewible

falter cakes allowing particle penetration. Llu and Civan 910have

considered the effect of the falter cake and formation damage on mud

fdtrate and mud fimes

invmirm

fi Sfiple

and tw~-nhase

_____

~-. =-... .thid

. . . . .avstem.

.= .- .

.

In this study, an improved formulation of the muki-sptzies and

two-phase fluid transport in deforming porous med~ derivation of

,.A--. :LL -..A :--- --AL1bUUpJGS*IUK aim Mwq.xcasIulG

tam muums WIU3 aaa wlmout Pamcle

fdtrste invasion are presented.

MULTI-SPECIE?+ AND TWO-PHASE FLUID TRANSPORT IN

DEFORMING POROUS MEDIA

A porous material saturated by water and oil phases is viewed as having

three phsse~ namely the poruus matrix forming the solid phase, and the

water and oil phases, denoted by s, w, and o, respectively. l%~e

phases may contain certain types of species that may migrate and

undergo some rate processe3 in porous media. The equations governing

the transport pracesse3 are presented in the following.

Mass and Momentum Balances

The mass balances of the water, oil, and solid phaaee are given by the

following equation:

i3qE,PJ

+ v (P3q = +$

;t=w@a

(1)

operator. p, is the phase

density. @ is the net rate of the mass of phase 4 added per unit

volume of phase t in the pore space. q is the fractional vohune

occupied by the @phase in the bulk porous media.

Therefore,

~Pu

[2)

V.* -1

=,.

t

i.e. fraction of the pore volume occupied by the@ phase, the following

expressions can be written for the solid and the fluid phases,

respectively

and

. ..

(4)

~, = w,

The fluid phase saturations add up to one

~~,=1

1

defined by

c~ = pa /MA

(13)

in the flowing phase, the following can be written:

(a

~a

AM

terms of the velocity of the @ phase according to the following

equation

(6)

u, = Etv,

Thus, for the solid phase, Eq. 6 becomes

(8)

The species A mass balance equations for the water, oil, and solid

phases are given by

aa(c~~

;

+ v (P#J

t = w~~

and

+ v 1~ =

(1s)

rnAt denotes the rate of species A added per unit volume of the ~

phase. 7A, denotes the diffusive mass flux of species A in the ~

phase given by modifying the expression given by Olson and Litton

for multiphsse flow:

(16)

-E++)+%ml

6 should be written for the flowing phase ax

i7, = *S, - S)vt

-l

(7)

a, = (1 - *)V,

e&

(12)

species, volume fraction defined by the following expression is

preferable to account for the porosity alteration by the volume of

particle deposition

.- ..

(14)

au = p&lpA

(3)

6, =1-*

= P, ; 4 = W,o,s

(9)

A = 1~,...~

where

B ~ is the coefficient of dkperaion of species A in the ~

phase, k is the Boltzmann constan~ and T is temperature. The first term

represents the diffusive transport by concentration gradient and the

second term by the gradient of the potential interaction energy, ~~ ,

For particulate speci~ of relatively large &es the first term in Eq. 16

may be neglected. When particles am subjected to uniform interaction

potential field then the second term drops out.

The jump mass balance equations form the basis of the boundary

conditions for Eqs. 1 and 9. Simplifying the expressions given by

SMtery2, these are given, respectively, by:

[P&

- U) . tf] = r:

(17)

In some cases, the mass fraction of species A in the ~ phase defined

by the following expression is preferable

(18)

Wu . P& lP#

(lo)

Therefore,

~wa

= 1 ; ~ . W,o,s

the dividing surke whicin is moving at a m~scopic

veiocity of iF.

E is the unit vector normal to the dividing surface. F, and FM are

the rates of addition of mass of the P phase and the mass of species

Aintbe@phase.

[...] denotes a jump in a quantity across a dividing surf=, i.e.

(11)

and

400

L.J=(...)-

(19)

(28)

(...)-

where the signs + and - indicate the post and fore sides, respectively, of

t~ dw:dtig sl_~acg..

In deforming porous mexia the volumetric flux of the fluid relative to

the moving solid matrix is given by Darcys law as:

~ phase.

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 28709

v,

is the

sensor.

kinematic viscosl~,given by

(21)

mu1

-.

(29)

and~ 6 (T, P, p*: AL 1,2, .... m) are the independent variables, such

as tempemture, pressure, and mass concentrations of various species A.

For one species A in a liquid phase (1rompert et al?)

p = p~a(T

fJiV3!D

- T>

(30)

(22)

where g is the gravitational acceleration, gz is the potential of fluid due

to gravity, z is the positive upward distance measured from a reference,

S2 is the overburden potential which is the work of a vertical

displacement due to the addition of liquid into porous mand v (c)

is the liquid-content-dependent potential or simply the negative of the

--

effec$iw5 stress diie ti

&e iritterarfkms ef

&e Aqiirl Wit&he pum

surface.

The capillary pressure is given by

Pe=Pe

where pOis the density value at a reference condition (T@pd we,) and

a, & f are some empirical coefficients.

Neglecting the effect of

pressure for a liquid phase, the Flory equation can be expressed as, for

one species A io the liquid phase

power series given by:

(23)

-P=

(31)

P = P.(~)P(~A)

k-1

p(wA)

(m)

a,w:

V*

(24)

i7=uv+s70

Eqs. 20, 22, 23, and 24 can be manipulated to express the volumetric

flux of the water phase by (Civao*3):

polynomial.

The capillary pressure for an oillwater system is defined acceding

b

P. = JwYcawmM.%ql

~w =Fa+

{

>#w3w-5JAPdtv2

ew

where J (SW)is the empirical Lcverett J-function, and y and 8 are the

surface tension and the contact angle which vary by tempemture and

species A concentration. The permeability and porosity of porous media

vary by formation damage.

The relative permeabiities are usually given by empirical

relationships of the saturation W

in which

Ap=pW-pe

(33)

- SJ

(26)

Kd = KJS#

(2?)

Fluid Properties

Assuming separability, the density and viscosity of the fluid phases can

be expressed by the following state equations

401

= O,w#uisW~w<(l

SJ

(34)

In Eqs. 33 and 34, S= and S= reprewnt the connate water and residual

oil saturations which vary as a result of the packing of particles during

formation damage. The values of these quantities am Iarg= for onkred

packing of particles.

-g

of particles and smaller for &smdemd

however,

they decrease by inmasin g ~btity

or porosity. For example, as

shown by Collinsls, the connate water aatumdon decreases linearly with

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTER CAKE FORMATION MODEL

Au = -

In a multiphase fluid system flowing through porous media, interface

-.-:-1-..-./? --- ---..ptuuelc u W81G1 Vau u-u

L.....,--

UGLWWU

llULU-1

lUIU

6UU

8UUU-llUIU

kdp~c~

+ k&p#~

-cd

- kdp~r,

- ~b)

SPE 28709

(40)

+ k-@P&

U3ualuuta.

The driving force for particle traosfer between two fluid phases is

the nettability of the fluid phases relative to the wettabllity of the

particles. Particles prefer to be in the phase that wets them. But

mixed-wet particles tend to remain on the interface where they are most

stable (Ivanov et al.l~. In the region involving the interface between

wetting and nonwetting phases, it can be postulated that particles A in

a weaker nettability phase 1 first move to the interface and then they

migrate from the interface to a stronger nettability phas&2 according to

the following consecutive processes

The fust term on the right of Eq. 40 represents the rate of surface

particle release by mlloidal forces. pm is the mass concentration

(mass/bulk volume) of the particles on the pore surface in contact with

the @ phase wetting fluid. ~ and c ~. are the brine concentration

and the critical brine concentration as defined by Khilar aad Foglerlg.

&is the surface pat.icle release rate constant given by

ktid

c#cW

(41)

kd =Oothcrwfw

The second term repments the surface particle erosion rate by

hydrodynamic forces. ~ and ~. are the shear stress and the critical

shear stress necessary for particle mobilization accordiig to Orueabeck

and Colliism. ~ isthe surfaceparticle erosion rate constant given by

kati

kd =0

A@:

(36)

AJ&

A>fi

*, =

AJ(+s,f2J, t = 12

Othcrwe

kd=o

(37)

P~P&

(43)

otherwise

above which ~wsition CSIIOCCIU.me

forth term represents the particle capture rate by plug-type capture of

particles at the pore throats. When a pore throat is plugged, them, the

particles begin to accumulate behind the plug to fill the pore space. ~

is the pore-throat particle capture rate constant given by:

(38)

kx~

In Bqs. 35-38, AA1and k~, are some rate constantq (SAand &

empirical exponents of intensities; and t~l, tA12,and tM are

delays due to the inertia of the respective traosfer processes.

of particle transfer can be expressed per unit volume of the

according to the following expremion:

(42)

gradient according to Oruesbeck and Collinsx. & is the surface

particle deposition rate constant given by

ka~

= AA@

?t>~u

(44)

are some

the time

The rate

@phase

kH = O Otk~

(WdJO is ~ critic~we

throa to particlediametersize necessary for

pore throat blocking to occur due to jammin g process given by the

following expression:

(39)

.. .

soua porous matrix and fiuids in the pore space, reported in the

literature, are presented elsewhere by Civan17>1*. These can be

generalized in one equation expressing the net rate of particle transfer

from the @ fluid phase to the solid matrix per unit bulk volume of

perous media as following:

402

concentration, flux, aad viscosity, respectively, and A, B, and C are

some empirical constants. 4.45 is a dimensionless, generalization of

the expressions given originally by Civan 21and later applied by Chang

criteria.

and Civan* as a -pore throat plumimz

.

SPE 28709

FARUK CIVAN

As stated by clvan:~, a formation damage modei is nothing more than

a mathematical relationship between permeability, porosity, and texture

during the alteration of the struchne of porous media by various factors

involving the physical, chemical, and mechanical pmcesse in porous

media. For porous media undergoing structural cbangea, such a

relationship is dynamic in nature. Because of the complexity of the

mechanisms of the governing prwxsses, such a relationship is usually

obtained in the form of empirical correlations. A variety of models

reported in the literature have been reviewed by Civan*71*

and Nolen et

al.m.

An important issue in dealing with formation damage is that a

formation can have a zero permeability but a nonzem porosity. Thus,

a realistic dynamic formation damage model should include the

coordination number or a measure of interconnectivity of pores and

tortuosity to incorporate the pore geometry and texture.

Realizing this fact, Ohen and CivanfiX have introduced a flow

efficiency factor to modify the Kozeny-Carrnan K -$ equation. Chang

and Civan-,

and Llu and Civan910mimplemented different forms of

this factor. Amaefule et al.= lumped these concepts in terms of the flow

units and developed several correlations for static porous materials of a

variety of types.

In general, the texture alteration can be expressed in terms of the

variation of the pore throat size distribution. The fraction of pore throats

that are open is given by (Chang and Civao~:

(46)

(47)

where w is the fraction of the fine pore throats.

Another importaot point is the fwt that ge~ wax, asphaltene, and

@

typSS Of pXeCipihteS Cm form SOfteXand StiCkieXparticles that

can seal off the pore throats to prevent any flow through them.

Whereas, the packing of hard granular particles such as sand behind the

pme throats may permit some leak off. Therefore, Civa33lU*and Llu

~d Civm9,10m have mo~ed

the Kozeny-Cammo Wllfin

fm thii

Ohen ~d Cimn, Chang ~d Civana3,

affect. Although Civan 17.1..21,

and Liu and Civan9.10mintroduced these concepts in some simplified

forms, a genemlized dynamic permeability-porosity-texture relationship

U.w..r

.uO.

. ...-.

*.*

IAAW

v

k

is ~hfi .

mmf av.;l.hla

e . -e...

...

W..,,

b 06 P&

separable, the following form of a general relationship can be proposed

.

. . ..

~1 and &. Sti is the specific pore surhce expressed per umt bulk

volume. z is tortuosity. Z is the caxdination number dated to fP.

For porous media undergoing en alteration by pticle deposition

the following expression derived in Appendix A is proposed

m9

(49)

/49;p

The porosity varies by mechanical defonnatinn of porous materiel

by the effective stress:

*,

~

= -c& - 4rJ,fJ4r94e-4,

(50)

4-I-HPU811U

by swelling (Chino and Knappn, LkI and Chnn,

Civan et al.~:

(51)

and by net deposition and erosion inside the porous medi~ A$P(E!q.40).

Therefore, the instantaneous porosity is given by

where & is the critical particle dkrneter given by Eq. 51 and ~ and

& are the lower and upper boundary values of the pore size range, and

f(x) is the pore throat size distribution function usually expressed as a

weighted linear sum of the pore size distribution functions, f,(x) and

fz(x), of the fine and coarse fractions as:

-.,

The equations presented in the previous section contains many

parameters whose values depend on the .fluidj rock, and particle

W*

in a complicated, coupled manner. Direct measummeit of all

the pheaomenological pametem

is a near to impossible task,

Therefore, Civao et al.n, Ohen and Civanti, Millan-Arcia and Civan31,

Chang and Chn-,

and Liu end Civan 9.1M, Civen1718,

Oadiyar and

Civan32, as well as Wilhite et al.= and VMal et al.~ have maorted to

indii

methods of inking

the values of such pammeters by history

matching of some experimental data Although Orueabeck end Collinsm,

Amaufele et SL, Sharma and Yortsosw, Khilar aud Foglerg, and Oupta

and CivanW offered some analytical expressions and/or direct

measurement methods, these apply 0331yto ex&mely simplified models

having only a few model parameters. For complicated models, history

matching appears the best choice in lack of a better method. However,

h- . ..--&L .Vuluw

...1..-- -A-.

... ..-.*US

...3.+

.puuus+

. . . .3...+

.... --..6

auuuL +2.-...

!uG uUyuGuwu

UL

UJGpluul=w

WEU u

satisfactory history matching is accomplished. As a practical approach,

Ohen and Civans have proposed to measure the values of the

parameters which cao be detmmined directly and then resort to hietmy

matchine~ for

nn

ti.

..- the

- remainine

--

_ =-----

@)

(52)

~-e

y~eg~

~t_~

nhmrved

-..

that the uniqueness of the parameter values can be achieved when the

number of the data sets for the same reck-fluid-particle system

As a simplifkd approach, a power law function, & (Q=

~ &pi, is

403

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTER CAKE F4)RMATION MODEL

The equations governing the compressible falter cakes with and without

particle invasion are presented in the following

Cornp.msib!e Fi!!r cake ti.th I%rt.k!e Em&or!

The mass balance equations for the filter cake, the flowing phase

containing ~

particles, and the fme particles in the flowing phase,

neglecting the diffusive transpor6 are given, respectively, by

a~%ps)

(53)

+ v (p#,) = #@A

~~w~ +v

(P&J

= @U=

- RA

- k(EJv;lw,

SPE 28709

(61)

,,-A__

m.

*

g?**.I G.

-+ . mRk!ia!!y lkver%i~

WA.I., mmwmg

ruitkie htidoii

Averaging Eqs. 53-55 and incorporating Eqs. 56-58 accding to the

procedure given in Appendix B results in the following simplified

compressible fWer cake model:

A

(62)

(5s)

where RAdenotes the mass rate of smaller particles deposited from the

flowing phase to the solid matrix inside the falter cake given by Eq. 40.

The simplifkd jump mass balance equation, associated with Eqs.

53-55 are given, respectively, by, at the filter cakdmud sluny interface

(64)

[P#,

- ~

fit]=

r:=

R:

(56)

When the solid and flowing phase densities, p, and pe are assumed

constan~ and the effect of p$icle transfer rate on the flowing phase

mass balance is negligible, R s O, Eqs. 62 and 63 simplify to the

followings, respectively:

where RAois the net mass rate of larger particles deposited born the

mud slurry over the filter cake surface given by surface deposition and

----emsi(lii &XOIS of Bq. 46.

The overall mass balance of particles for the filtercake is given by

the following by genemlizing the ~uation given by Abboud? -

jbA4#

=i(wq-d

0

&.fio*&~ *~

f~c=y*e

(59)

When the filtercake is assumed incompressible, ~ = ~, aud ~

= &eEqs. 65, 66, and 64 simplify to the following, respectively

imdime.

fdtercake matrix can be written as following

where

(60)

The volume flux of the flowing phase relative to the solid matrix

is given by {Smiles and Kirb~):

(68)

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 28709

e#l~~d

@JAJ#@&

- t)] -

- 2r~Pti~d

. ~.

Da

~[i:

i:

mass balance of particles for the filtercake can also be facilitated

In

.i(f%@#~r=P

0

j(P#Jm(%P

0

jcp&~rW

r=

+

(70)

+ ~q@Odf

A.ND ~_.~.R

CA_K1.EOEi_M_ATION

In this section, the general model equations developed in the previous

section are simplified and applied for simulation of mud filtrate invasion

and fflter cake formation in radial flow. The fluids and the porous

media are assumed incom~ible.

As depicted in Fig. 1, it is aaaumed

that the filtercake formed at the wellbore allows for only the mud filtrate

invasion into the porous media Initially the porous media contains oil.

A water baaed mud filtrate invasion initiates a two-phase flow problem

in the near well bore porous media Also any adaorptionldesorption and

chemical reaction processes are omitted.

Simplifbd Model

The aqueous phase mass balance in rdial

MS.

1 and 4 as:

r.

In this case, there is no particle migration and deposition inside the filter

cak~ that is p~ = O and RA = O. Therefore, Eqs. 62 and 63 simplify

to the following forms of the compressible cake

@qvsr!

- r:)]=

tic%

(76)

(69)

+ %@t%)~

.

(m

(71)

subject to the following condkions

m)

(79)

When the solid and flowing phase densities, p, and p~ are assumed

constant Eqs. 71 and 72 simplify to the following compressible cake

equations:

pad/& [=~r~ - r~] = 2r=R~,

(73)

(80)

Sw = S:(r), r-q M

me Sat!ntims

s + se = 1.0

(81)

flux is given by

(82)

~ then Eqs. 73 and 74 simplify to:

p8#rC @ = R&

U=uw+ue=

(75)

flh/ @~*)

(83)

The aqueous phase and oil phase dissolved species A mass balance are

given by simplifying Eq. 9 as:

and

405

A MULTI-PHASE MUD ~LTRATE iN-VASiON ~-D w%LL BORE Fiii~BR CAKE FORMATiON NKXX3ii

.

w~ a/w

r..

Uw=(%)h J=o,

t>o

(94)

Sw = s:(x),

C>o

(m

(84)

rwsr<qa

Jw 4 = W4

and A = l,&.

X=1,

Wu =wfir),

rWs

(w

t=O

r<_,

(%)

~u=(~cw~~,r=rw

(86)

t>O

u

Wu =w&(r),

r-q

=Uw+ge=

9*

(m

I @**)

(m

t>O

:(W%J

++ - XY:[(l- X)-%M]= o,

w

0<%

ZWM=l.O,

A

t=w,

t>o,

<1,

(98)

@t=tv,o&A=l,~_.

(88)

WA4=w&(x), osxsl,

t=o

(99)

t>o

(loo)

nu = Uewti - @8D#wu

(89)

1*

~M=(q%&

,X=o,

wM=w&(x),

x=l

diffusion:

(90)

,t>o

The solution domain extends from the well bore to tie infinity, XW

by

S r <00. To avoid the uncertainty and mom to be introdu~

representing

be

infinity

bjj a Siiffkikii*j

kmg

fiie

CWWe,

(101)

(102)

&e

x=

(103)

(91)

1 - (r /rJ-w

Eq. 91 maps tbe semi-infinite domain into a unit size ftite domain.

Consequently, invoking Eq. 91, tbe model equations, Eqs. 77-90, are

expressed in tbe following forms:

~+%)

+* -# ~(1 - X)-%w]

= o,

0s%s1

(92)

(104)

by (see Appendix C for derivation):

, t>()

&c

-=

S=s:(x), o<xsl,

r=o

(93)

&

Q141,tpM

- &$ - q

(1 - *,)pA

406

(10s)

A solution of Eq. 112 with Eq. 92 yields the aqueous phase pressure and

saturation vs. the radial distance. Subsequently, Eq. 107 can be used to

determine the fdtrate invasion rate as a function of time.

(106)

re=OJ=O

Eqs. 77-106 are valid for constant or variable filtrate invasion rates. At

field operations, usually the mud pressure, P.ti, is maintained constantConsequently, the fdtrate invasion rate varies, and the foiiowing

additional equations are necessary to determine the variable filtrate

invasion rate. An integration of Darcys law, assuming incompressible

falter cake without particle invasion, and incompressible and constant

viscosity filtrate, leads to the following equation for the fdtrate invasion

flux or rate

,. *.

[lUI)

FINAL REMARKS

This parperpresented the generaa em]~tinn~

for -ml*~ .fil**c=

-l--

--. . ...~nv~c~fin

. ..L.u and

wellbore filter cake formation, and an application to radial flow. These

equations are non linear and strongly coupled. The numerical solution

with spec~lc data is reserved for future studies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author gratefully acknowledges the support of the School of

Petro!~J~ ~~ C~!@~

E~@e~@

at f&erl.;

-f W-auwe.

~~l-3----u. .=~fi,

-..., v,

1.

On the other hand, the total flowing phase equation of continuity,

assuming incompressible fluids, is given by:

*/*+(1

/rp/*(n3)=0

2.

(108)

for the total volumetric flux, into Eq. 108, and then integrating results

in the following equation for the pressure of the aqueous phase:

3.

4.

5.

6.

where ~ 1. is given by Eq.107.

Initially, the aqueous phase pressure is given by:

Pv = P;(r) , rwsr<-J=O

7.

(110)

8.

does not chang~ i.e.

10.

Substituting Eq. 107 into Eq. 109, assuming a water base mud, and

applying Eq. 91 yields the following convenient fontx

11.

(112)

subject to:

12.

x=l

(113)

13.

407

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and k?hgineenng,

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Penetration at the Filter Septum, Particulate Science and

T.w.lmmhm.

a-uw-~,,

9.

(111)

Pv =P:,

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 28709

v.-.1

...

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.1 .z . pp.

11<

121

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11Q9*~

(17

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~~:

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24.

2s.

26.

27.

28.

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTER CAKE FORMATION MODEL

bebeid Aprii i7-2C, i994, Tuis& Oii, pp. W-88.

Tromoert.

R.A..

___r., --.., J.G, VeWm ad J.G. Blorn: Computing Bti

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Chnm, F. Evaluation and Comparison of the Formation Damage

Models, SPE papa 23787, Proc., SPE International Symposium

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LA, pp. 219-236.

Civan, F., predictability of Formation Damage An Assessment

Study and Genemlized Models, Final Report, U.S. DOE Contract

No. DE-AC22-90BC14658, April 1994.

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SPEJ,pp; 55-64, Febru~ 1983.

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Rock-Fluid Interactions and Particulate Processes, SPE Paper

21183, Roe., SPE 1990 Latio American Petmdeum Engineering

Conference, October 14-19, 1990, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 11

pages.

Damwe

Cb~e.~, -F.F..

-.---. of

-. Formation

_ ---

~. Due

-.

.- ., ad ~, C&LI, Modeline

to Physical and Chemical Interactions Between Fluids and

Reservoir Rocks, SPE paper 22856, Proc., 66th Annual Technical

P..c-

.Uuu

..An..k:k:.:..-e &t...e..d..k. .e D..-m . ...- n...:..

&uulGIGuw

CAUluluuu

U1 LUG CxWlc%y U1 rcuulcuul

JJuglocu a,

6-9, 1991, Dallas, TX.

October

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Modeling Chemical and Mechanical Processes, SPE paper 23793,

Proc., SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage

Control, Febmary 26-27, 1992, Lafayette, LA, pp. 293-312.

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Roblems Associated with Permeability and V*Y Models from

Textural Prcprties of Unconsolidated Reservoir Rocks, SCA

9225 paper, 33rd Annual Symposium of SPWLA Society of Core

Analysts, Oklahoma City, OK, June 15-17, 1992.

Ohen, H.A. end F. Chtm, Siulation of Formation Damage in

Petroleum Reservoirs, SPEAdvancedTechnologySeries, Vol. 1,

No. 1, pp. 27-35, April 1993.

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Fonmtion Damage by Frees Migration, SPE paper 21675, Proc.,

1991 SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City,

OK, April 7-9, 1991, pp. 399410.

LhJ, X. and F. Civan, Characterization and Prediction of

Fommtion Damage in Two-Phase Flow Systems, SPE paper

25429, Proc., SPE Production Operations Symposium, March 2123, 1993, Oklahoma City, OK, pp. 231-248.

Amaeftde, J.O., M. Altunbay, H. Ohen, D.G. Kersey and P. Lane,

Unit-Based Approach

for ~lcting

A Hydraulic @OW)

Formation Damage Profiles in Uncored Mends/W elk Using

Core/Log Data, SPE Paper No. 27365, presented at the SPE Intl.

Symposium on Formation Damage, Lafayette, LA, February 7-10,

408

29.

30.

31.

32.

SPE 28709

1994, 16 pages.

-,-. - n > m .,

-_ mm

--- -/? ml---.-11:---J r?:--K.M. mnapp, rJIeCL

m

uity

aweumg

anu

rum

Miwgation on Formation Permeability, SPE Paper 16235, Pmt.,

SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, OK

31W, pp. 475-483.

Civan, F., R.M. Knapp, and H.A. Ohen, Alteration of

Pesmeabiity by Fii Particle Recesses, J. PetroleumScience

and Engineering,Vol. 3, Nos. Ml, pp. 65-79, Oct. 1989.

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Damage by Particulate processes, J. Cknudian Petroleum

Technology,Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 27.-33, March 1992.

Gadiyar, B. and F. Civan, Acidtion

Jnduced Formation

I?--L---.-1

-->

lfi_A_l:__

@A..A:

f! c!DU ---

*1AM

n--_-age

- J+JCIUUHIWA

am

muucuug

muoIr+

ar = papa

z JWJU,

uvao, r. ano

Feb. 9-10, M94, Lafayette, LA, pp. 549-560.

W~te,

G.P., D.W. Green, J.L. Thiele, C.S. MCCOO1and

K.B.Mertes, Gelled Polymer Systems for Permeability

Modification in Petroleum Reservoirs, Final Report, Con&act No.

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OK, September 1991.

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Fms Migration, SPE Paper No. 17146, Rec., SPE Formation

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Technical Meeting of Petroleum Society of CIM and Canadian

Gas Processors Association, June 12-16, 1988, Calgary, Alberta,

Proc.,

33.

34,

35.

1 L -. -

I u yugG*.

36.

37.

Meda, AfChE J., Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 1654-1662, 1987.

Gupta, A. and F. Chmn, Temperature Sensitivity of Formation

Damage in Petroleum Reservoirs, SPE paper 27368, Roe., 1994

SPE Formation Damage Control Sy&msium, February 9-10,1994,

Lafayette, LA, pp. 301-328.

APPENDIX A

K -$- f# Relationship

The effect of particle deposition mechanisms on permeability can be

analyzed by considering pluggable and nonpluggable paths according to

Gruesbeck and Collinsm. The total cross-sectional are% A, of porous

meda can be separated into two parts (Chn]):

(1) The area &

containing pluggable paths in which plug-type deposition and pom

filling occurs, and (2) the are% &, containing nonplugging paths in

which nonplugging surface deposition occurs. Thus, by definition

A= AP+AW

(A-1)

Similarly, the volumetic flow rate, q, can be separated into the flow

rates, qP and qw, passing through the pluggable and nonpluggable paths,

respectively. Then,

q=q,

+q*

(A-2)

11

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 28709

values such as the values taken at the initial conditions. nl and n2 are

some permeability reduction indices. In Eqs. A-13 and 14, I$Pand $=

denote the mean porosity of the pluggable and nonpluggable paths

defined, respectively, by

(A-3)

q=Au

(A+

q, = App

4, =

Substituting

u = ffi,

~4WdtI

(A-15)

MS.

(A-6)

+ f#w

pluggable and nonpluggable pathways, given by:

~= A,/ A&

fw=l-fv

Osf~wsl

(A-7)

critical size. The pore size distribution of the porous medium, and the

particle size distribution of the frees detemnine the value of f. (Chang

and Civan -).

Applying the Darcy law, the total volumetric flux aud the

volumetric fluxes through the pluggable and nonpluggable paths can be

expressed, respectively, as:

(A-8)

u=(K/p#-@/ar)

F(Q) is the pore size distribution function and $= is the critical porosity

below which particle plugging occurs. The mean porosity of the porous

media is given by

$ =+, ++- =

jmki$

o

Substituting E@. A-13 and 14 into Eq. A-12 yields the following

expression for porous media undergoing an alteration by patticle

deposition

(A-18)

J$=(K,

/pJ

(A-9)

(-*/a)p

D- J:.lL.

nuuullly

~ and ~

represent the permeabilities of the pluggable and

nonpluggable fhctions of the core.

Assuming that there is

interconnectivity and hydraulic communication between plugging and

nonpluggiog paths, the pressure gradients in both paths sre equal, i.e.,

(-*/a),

(-a/

a)w

=(-*/a)

(A-n)

K = ~p~; + twl~

lX14._

J! Uwa

@.L.

Qua=

17_...4_._.

mquummla

f, is defined by

44

}=pwp

4

11 results in

APPENDIX B

A m..-mwlagm

(B-1)

Applying Leibnitzs rule for the derivative of Eq. B-1 with respect to

time, the following expression can be obtained

(A-12)

(B-2)

The following empirical equations can be used to correlate the

permeability-porosity relationships in the plugging and nonplugging

paths, respectively (Civanl):

q%

(A-13)

Appiying the averaging rules given by Eqs. B-i through B-3 according

to Corapcioglu and Abboud7, and Abboud8, the partial differential falter

cake model can be simplified into an ordinary differential filter cake

(A-14)

409

12

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTBR CAKE FORMATION MODEL

For radial flow, averaging Eq. 53 from the well bore to the

mudlcake interface yields:

SPE 28709

(B-12)

(M)

(B-13)

in which & and & are the areas at the well bore and mudkake

interface radii, r= aud r., given, respectively, by

w)

in which the well bore radius, r. is find. Applying the jump mass

balance equation, Eq. 57, at the mud and well bore sides of the filter

cake yields, respectively:

(B-14)

The area element is given by:

..:-I,J.

yltzus.

u:=

(B-16)

(q,drc / &

and

(#Jw

- (fJ#)w = (PPJ-

- (P#O)-

(B-17)

in which the wellbore dlus, r., is fixed and assuming that the particles

cannot penetrate the well bore, the fdtrate flowing into the porous media

do not carry any particies, i.e. (~~mb = 0. Tnejump mass &danee

equation, Eq. 56, yields the following relationship at the mud side of the

ftiter cake

O=(P,)= [(%)= - #

+ %

(B-9)

(B-18)

in which the left side IS zero because there is no sohd matrix on the

mud side, and the macroscopic velocity of the matrix is given by:

~. B-17

(l%.).

Sil@ifkS

(P#J-

to:

(B-19)

Thus, the following expression is obtained liom Bqs. B-9 and B-10

(%%). = (#,)c *C / ~ - R&

Substituting Eqs. B-18 and 19 into Eq. B-13 yields the followiug

averaged expression for the flowing phase mass balance:

(B-11)

Substituting Eq. B-11 into Eq. B-8 yields the following expression for

the averaged falter cake solid matrix

410

13

FARUK CIVAN

SPE 287W

E, =

(B-20)

(c-2)

1-+,

The rate of net deposition of particles per unit area of the cake surface

is the difference between the deposition and the erosion rates; i.e.:

(c-3)

R~=r4-re

in which Ru&Gis negligible assuming that the flowing phase contains a

small amount of solid particles.

Similarly, averaging Eq. 55 yields

proportional to the mass flux of particles in the mud slurry

(C4)

r4 = k##M

~ppm!!emiiy to the excess shear stress of the mud sltmy flowing over

the cake surface

re = k&

in which the well bore radks, rW,is fixed. The jump mass balance

equation, Eq. 58, can be written at the mud and well bore sides,

respectively, as:

(pA@~- (pA#)~

=(PAA),- (PAP),

- :.

(C-5)

- fu)

t,= is the critical shear stress necessary for mobilization of particles (k,

= O when q S ZC=). Thus, substituting Eqs. C-2 tiu@

C-5 ~to ~.

C-1 yields the following expression for the variation of the filter cake

radius:

(B-22)

&,

.

&

which, upon the substitution of Eqs. B-15 and 16 for U.d and u yields

/&

k/tcp~

- k&

Pp

- Trc)

(C4)

- %)

(B-23)

Assuming a theological model for drilling muds in the form of a power

law function of the shear rate ~, cis given by

? =-ky

(B-24)

into Eq. B-21 yields the following averaged fme particles mass balance

equation

(c-7)

Because an incompwible

cake witbout particle invasion is

considered, the cake permeability is constant. Ilms, an integration of

Darcys law yields the following relationship for the differential pressure

across the filtexcake

where & and h are the cake permeability and thickness, respectively.

APPENDIX C

Incompressible Filter Cake Model Without Partkle Invasion

Eq. 75 expresses the falter cake solid matrix mass balance as:

411

SPE 28709

A MULTI-PHASE MUD FILTRATE INVASION AND WELL BORE FILTER CAKE FORMATION MODEL

14

MU?

WELL

t

.

-Ww%.n.,

.

r

..

,,

,.,

,,

.

.-...

,, .. .

1. . . .

r um-ui L LULW

..

,.

~ .

.. . .

,.

.

.,

. .

.,

RESERVIORI

FORMATION

d

/?

Sk.

6

Figure

particle

2 -

rc

Filter

and

~.-(2L

cake

filtrate

u.

-k--

re

rw

in

a wellbore

with

invasion

.

Figure

filter

1 - Mud filtrate

cake

and porous

invasion

through

media

.

,

RESERVOIR

FORMATION

FILTER

CAKE

SLURRY

.

Figure

created

invasion

3 -

Filter

f racture

4 - Nonplugging

Figure

realization

in a core

cake

in a hydraulically

with

particle

and filtrate

412

and

(after

pluggin

Civan

paths

f 7)

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