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What is Krathwol's affective domain taxonomy?

Krathwohl's affective domain taxonomy is perhaps the best known of any of the affective
taxonomies. "The taxonomy is ordered according to the principle of internalization.
Internalization refers to the process whereby a person's affect toward an object passes from a
general awareness level to a point where the affect is 'internalized' and consistently guides or
controls the person's behavior (Seels & Glasgow, 1990, p. 28)."

How is the taxonomy presented?


The taxonomy is presented in five stages:
Receiving describes the stage of being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas,
material, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them. Examples include: to differentiate, to
accept, to listen (for), to respond to.
Responding describes the second stage of the taxonomy and refers to a committment in some
small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them.
Examples are: to comply with, to follow, to commend, to volunteer, to spend leisure time in, to
acclaim.
Valuing means being willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or
phenomena. Examples include: to increase measured proficiency in, to relinquish, to subsidize,
to support, to debate.
Organization is the fourth stage of Krathwohls taxonomy and involves relating the new value
to those one already holds and bringing it into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy.
Examples are: to discuss, to theorize, to formulate, to balance, to examine.
Characterization by value or value set means acting consistently in accordance with the values
the individual has internalized. Examples include: to revise, to require, to be rated high in the
value, to avoid, to resist, to manage, to resolve.

Krathwohl's Taxonomy of the Affective Domain


Level

Receiving

Responding

Valuing

Organization

Affective Domain
Definition

Example

Being aware of or attending to Person would listen to a


something in the environment lecture or presentation about
a structural model related to
human behavior.
The individual would answer
questions about the model or
Showing some new behaviors
might rewrite lecture notes the
as a result of experience
next day.

Showing some definite


involvement or commitment

The individual might begin to


think how education may be
modified to take advantage of
some of the concepts
presented in the model and
perhaps generate a set of
lessons using some of the
concepts presented.

This is the level at which a


Integrating a new value into
person would begin to make
one's general set of values,
long-range commitments to
giving it some ranking among
arranging his or her
one's general priorities
instruction and assessment
relative to the model.
Acting consistently with the
new value

At this highest level, a person


would be firmly committed to
Characterization
utilizing the model to develop,
by Value
select, or arrange instruction
and would become known for
that action.
Adapted from: Krathwohl, D., Bloom, B., & Masia, B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational
objectives. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay.

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Bloom's Taxonomy: The Affective Domain

The affective domain is one of three domains in Bloom's Taxonomy, with the other two being the
cognitive and psychomotor (Bloom, et al., 1956). For an overview of the three domains, see the
introduction.
The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal
with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and
attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex:

Category

Example and Key Words (verbs)

Receiving Phenomena: Awareness,


willingness to hear, selected attention.

Examples: Listen to others with respect.


Listen for and remember the name of newly
introduced people.
Key Words: acknowledge, asks, attentive,
courteous, dutiful, follows, gives, listens,

understands
Responds to Phenomena: Active participation
on the part of the learners. Attend and react to a
particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes
may emphasize compliance in responding,
willingness to respond, or satisfaction in
responding (motivation).

Examples: Participates in class discussions.


Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals,
concepts, models, etc. in order to fully
understand them. Know the safety rules and
practice them.
Key Words: answers, assists, aids,
complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps,
labels, performs, presents, tells

Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches


to a particular object, phenomenon, or
behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance
to the more complex state of commitment.
Valuing is based on the internalization of a set
of specified values, while clues to these values
are expressed in the learner's overt behavior
and are often identifiable.

Examples: Demonstrates belief in the


democratic process. Is sensitive towards
individual and cultural differences (value
diversity). Shows the ability to solve
problems. Proposes a plan to social
improvement and follows through with
commitment. Informs management on
matters that one feels strongly about.
Key Words: appreciates, cherish, treasure,
demonstrates, initiates, invites, joins,
justifies, proposes, respect, shares

Organization: Organizes values into priorities


by contrasting different values, resolving
conflicts between them, and creating an unique
value system. The emphasis is on comparing,
relating, and synthesizing values.

Examples: Recognizes the need for balance


between freedom and responsible behavior.
Explains the role of systematic planning in
solving problems. Accepts professional
ethical standards. Creates a life plan in
harmony with abilities, interests, and
beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet
the needs of the organization, family, and
self.
Key Words: compares, relates, synthesizes

Internalizes Values (characterization): Has a


value system that controls their behavior. The
behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable,
and most important characteristic of the
learner. Instructional objectives are concerned
with the student's general patterns of
adjustment (personal, social, emotional).

Examples: Shows self-reliance when


working independently. Cooperates in group
activities (displays teamwork). Uses an
objective approach in problem solving.
Displays a professional commitment to
ethical practice on a daily basis. Revises
judgments and changes behavior in light of
new evidence. Values people for what they
are, not how they look.
Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays,
influences, modifies, performs, qualifies,
questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies

Next Steps

Introduction

The Three Domains of Learning

Revised Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain

Original Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Process and Levels of Knowledge Matrix

SOLO Taxonomy

Affective Domain

Psychomotor Domain

Learning Strategies: Using Bloom's Taxonomy

References

Bloom, B.S. (Ed.). Engelhart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill, W.H., Krathwohl, D.R. (1956). Taxonomy
of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co
Inc.

Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., Masia, B.B. (1973). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the
Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay
Co., Inc.

Notes
Updated January 12, 2015. Created June 5, 1999.
Find out more about me (copyright, APA formatting, etc).~ A Big Dog, Little Dog and Knowledge Jump Production ~ Email me at donclark@nwlink.com
~ by Donald Clark

Krathwol et al.'s Taxonomy of the Affective Domain


Citation: Huitt, W. (2001, April). Krathwol et al.'s taxonomy of the affective domain. Educational Psychology
Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from
http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/affect/affdom.html

Return to: The Affective System | Educational Psyc: Courses | Home |

The following is adapted from: Krathwohl, D., Bloom, B., & Masia, B. (1956). Taxonomy of
educational objectives. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay.
The taxonomy was developed to organize levels of commitment. As such it could just as properly
be discussed as a regulatory system issue in the model being presented here.
Affective Domain
Level

Receiving

Definition

Being aware of or attending


to something in the
environment

Example

Person would listen to a


lecture or presentation about
a structural model related to
human behavior.

The individual would answer


questions about the model or
Responding Showing some new behaviors
might rewrite lecture notes
as a result of experience
the next day.

Valuing

The individual might begin to


think how education may be
modified to take advantage
Showing some definite
of some of the concepts
involvement or commitment
presented in the model and
perhaps generate a set of
lessons using some of the
concepts presented.

Organization Integrating a new value into

one's general set of values,


giving it some ranking
among one's general
priorities

Acting consistently with the


Characteriza new value
tion by Value

This is the level at which a


person would begin to make
long-range commitments to
arranging his or her
instruction and assessment
relative to the model.

At this highest level, a person


would be firmly committed to
utilizing the model to
develop, select, or arrange
instruction and would
become known for that
action.

Return to:

The Affective System

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eLearning snippets
A wiki page >

An Atomic Krathwohl's taxonomy


Meme wiki
Krathwohl's taxonomy is a model that describes how individual's process
Why this and internalize learning objects on an affective or emotional level.
wiki?

About
Atomic
Meme

There are 5 levels to the taxonomy.


1. Receiving: keeping an open mind and
1. differentiating among

A wiki page

2. accepting

Most recent
wiki pages

3. listening to

Reflections

2. Responding: committing in some way to an idea by


o complying with

Sitemap
o following

Join the
discussion

o recommending
o participating in
2

Valuing: actively participate in internalizing an idea, e.g., by


o developing proficiency in
o supporting

Comments?
Requests for wikis?

o debating
3

Organization: integrating a new value with those already held


o discuss

o theorize
o formulate
o balance
o examine
4

Characterization by value or value set: to act consistently with


internalized values

From an instructor's standpoint:


Foster receiving by getting the student's attention
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: ask, choose, describe, follow, give,
hold, identify, reply, select, use.
Foster responding by encouraging the student in participating on a voluntary
level
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: assist, conform, greet, help,
perform, present, read, select, tell, write.
Foster valuing by helping the student discuss the new idea and formulating
potential ways to use the idea
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: complete, explain, follow, form,
initiate, invite, join, justify, propose, share.
Foster organization by encourage the students by helping the student solve
problems using the new idea, integrating the new idea into a pre-existing
structure for solving problems
(comparing, relating, and synthesizing values)
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: adhere, alter, arrange, combine,
generalize, identify, integrate, modify, order, organize, prepare, relate,
synthesize.
Foster characterization by value or value set by encouraging the student to
transfer idea to daily life
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: act, display, influence, listen,
modify, perform, practice, propose, qualify, question, serve, solve, use,
verify.

References

Abilene Christian University (1990-2011). Learning Taxonomies. Retrieved


from
http://www.acu.edu/academics/adamscenter/course_design/taxonomy/instru
ctional/taxonomies.html#krathwohl
Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., and Masia, B.B. (1964). Taxonomy of
educational objectives: Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David
McKay Co.
Seels and Glasgow (1990). Exercises in instructional design. Columbus OH:
Merrill Publishing Company.
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Bloom's Taxonomy

Introduction

Cognitive Domain

Affective Domain

Psychomotor Domain

2000 Taxonomy

Instructional Strategies

Strengths

Criticism

References

About Me
Affective
Category / Example and Key Words (verbs)

Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention.


Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people.
Key Words: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects,
replies, uses.
Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular
phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction
in
responding (motivation).
Examples: Participates in class discussions. Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in
order to fully understand them. Know the safety rules and practices them.
Key Words: answers, assists, aids, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices,
presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.
Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from
simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of
specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable.
Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences
(value diversity). Shows the ability to solve problems. Proposes a plan to social improvement and follows through
with commitment. Informs management on matters that one feels strongly about.
Key Words: completes, demonstrates, differentiates, explains, follows,forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies,
proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.

Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them,
and creating an unique value system. The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values.
Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Accepts responsibility for
one's behavior. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accepts professional ethical standards.
Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of
the organization, family, and self.
Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes,
identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.
Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive,
consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned
with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional).
Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork).
Uses an objective approach in problem solving. Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily
basis. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Values people for what they are, not how
they look.
Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies,
questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies.
Return to Introduction
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Affective Domain
The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal
with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and
attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex:
Category

Examples

Key Words [Verbs]


Asks, chooses,
describes, follows,
Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, Listen to others with respect. Listen
gives, holds, identifies,
willingness to hear, selected
for and remember the name of
locates, names, points
attention.
newly introduced people.
to, selects, sits, erects,
replies, uses.
Responding to Phenomena: Active
Answers, assists, aids,
participation on the part of the
Participates in class discussions.
complies, conforms,
learners. Attends and reacts to a
Gives a presentation. Questions
discusses, greets,
particular phenomenon. Learning
new ideals, concepts, models, etc. helps, labels,
outcomes may emphasize
in order to fully understand them. performs, practices,
compliance in responding,
Know the safety rules and practices presents, reads, recites,
willingness to respond, or
them.
reports, selects, tells,
satisfaction in responding
writes.
(motivation).
Valuing: The worth or value a
Demonstrates belief in the
Completes,
person attaches to a particular object, democratic process. Is sensitive
demonstrates,
phenomenon, or behavior. This
towards individual and cultural
differentiates,
ranges from simple acceptance to the differences (value diversity).
explains, follows,
more complex state of commitment. Shows the ability to solve
forms, initiates,
Valuing is based on the
problems. Proposes a plan to social
invites, joins, justifies,
internalization of a set of specified improvement and follows through
proposes, reads,
values, while clues to these values with commitment. Informs
reports, selects, shares,
are expressed in the learner's overt management on matters that one
studies, works.
behavior and are often identifiable. feels strongly about.
Recognizes the need for balance
between freedom and responsible Adheres, alters,
behavior. Accepts responsibility for arranges, combines,
Organization: Organizes values into
one's behavior. Explains the role of compares, completes,
priorities by contrasting different
systematic planning in solving
defends, explains,
values, resolving conflicts between
problems. Accepts professional
formulates,
them, and creating a unique value
ethical standards. Creates a life
generalizes, identifies,
system. The emphasis is on
plan in harmony with abilities,
integrates, modifies,
comparing, relating, and
interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes
orders, organizes,
synthesizing values.
time effectively to meet the needs prepares, relates,
of the organization, family, and
synthesizes.
self.

Category

Examples
Key Words [Verbs]
Shows self-reliance when working
Internalizing values
independently. Cooperates in
(characterization): Has a value
group activities (displays
Acts, discriminates,
system that controls their
teamwork). Uses an objective
displays, influences,
behavior. The behavior is pervasive,
approach in problem solving.
listens, modifies,
consistent, predictable, and most
Displays a professional
performs, practices,
importantly, characteristic of the
commitment to ethical practice on a proposes, qualifies,
learner. Instructional objectives are
daily basis. Revises judgments and questions, revises,
concerned with the student's general
changes behavior in light of new serves, solves, verifies.
patterns of adjustment (personal,
evidence. Values people for what
social, emotional).
they are, not how they look.

Krathwohl Taxonomy Affective Domain


Taksonomi domain afektif Krathwohl adalah mungkin yang paling dikenal dari setiap
taksonomi afektif. "Taksonomi adalah memerintahkan sesuai dengan prinsip
internalisasi. Internalisasi mengacu pada proses dimana seseorang berpengaruh
terhadap arah objek melewati dari tingkat kesadaran umum ke titik di mana
mempengaruhi adalah 'diinternalisasikan' dan konsisten panduan atau kontrol perilaku
seseorang (Seels & Glasgow, 1990, hal 28). "

Menerima sedang sadar atau sensitif terhadap keberadaan ide-ide tertentu, materi,
atau fenomena dan bersedia untuk mentoleransi mereka. Contohnya termasuk: untuk
membedakan, untuk menerima, untuk
mendengarkan (untuk), untuk menanggapi.

Menanggapi berkomitmen dalam


beberapa ukuran kecil untuk ide-ide, bahan,
atau fenomena yang terlibat dengan aktif
menanggapi mereka. Contohnya adalah:
untuk mematuhi, mengikuti, untuk memuji,
menjadi sukarelawan, untuk menghabiskan
waktu luang di, untuk pujian.

Menghargai bersedia dirasakan oleh orang lain sebagai ide-ide tertentu


menghargai, bahan, atau fenomena.Contohnya termasuk: untuk meningkatkan
kemahiran diukur dalam, melepaskan, untuk mensubsidi, untuk mendukung, untuk
berdebat.

Organisasi adalah untuk menghubungkan nilai untuk mereka yang sudah diadakan
dan membawanya ke sebuah filsafat yang harmonis dan konsisten secara
internal. Contohnya adalah: untuk membahas, untuk berteori, untuk merumuskan,
untuk keseimbangan, untuk memeriksa.

Karakterisasi dengan nilai atau menetapkan nilai adalah bertindak


konsisten sesuai dengan nilai-nilai ia telah diinternalisasi. Contohnya termasuk: untuk
merevisi, membutuhkan, untuk dinilai tinggi dalam nilai, untuk menghindari, untuk
melawan, untuk mengelola, untuk menyelesaikan.

Referensi:
Krathwohl, DR, Bloom, BS, dan Masia, BB (1964) Taksonomi tujuan pendidikan:.
Buku Pegangan II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay Co
Seels dan Glasgow (1990) dalam desain instruksional
Latihan Columbus OH:.. Merrill Publishing Company.

http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/Resources2/krathstax.htm

Affective and Psychomotor Domains of Blooms Taxonomy


By
Arif Ibrahim PDT H/S Gorikote, Javed Iqbal PDT, AKU-IED, PDCN for EDIP Project
Presentation Flow
Session Learning Outcomes
Affective Domain
Levels of Affective Domains
Chart of Affective Domain
Psychomotor Domain
Levels of Psychomotor Domains
Chart of Psychomotor Domain
Session Learning Outcomes
By the end of this session C.Ps could be able;
Discuss the psychomotor and affective domain of Blooms taxonomy,
Differentiate between psychomotor and affective domain,
Replicate the action words of psychomotor and affective domains sublevel whilst
developing SLOs in their lesson plans
Affective Domain
The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal
with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and
attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex:
Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives,
the Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David
McKay Co., Inc.
Levels of Affective Domain
Receiving. The student passively attends to particular phenomena or stimuli [classroom
activities, textbook, music, etc. The teacher's concern is that the student's attention is focused.
Intended outcomes include the pupil's awareness that a thing exists. Sample objectives: listens
attentively, shows sensitivity to social problems. Behavioral terms: asks, chooses, identifies,
locates, points to, sits erect, etc.
2. Responding. The student actively participates. The pupil not only attends to the stimulus but
reacts in some way. Objectives: completes homework, obeys rules, participates in class
discussion, shows interest in subject, enjoys helping others, etc. Terms: answers, assists,
complies, discusses, helps, performs, practices, presents, reads, reports, writes, etc.
Cont.
3.Valuing. The worth a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. Ranges
from acceptance to commitment (e.g., assumes responsibility for the functioning of a group).
Attitudes and appreciation. Objectives: demonstrates belief in democratic processes, appreciates
the role of science in daily life, shows concern for others' welfare, demonstrates a problemsolving approach, etc. Terms: differentiates, explains, initiates, justifies, proposes, shares, etc
Cont.
4. Organization. Bringing together different values, resolving conflicts among them, and
starting to build an internally consistent value system--comparing, relating and synthesizing
values and developing a philosophy of life. Objectives: recognizes the need for balance between

freedom and responsibility in a democracy, understands the role of systematic planning in


solving problems, accepts responsibility for own behavior, etc. Terms: Arranges, combines,
compares, generalizes, integrates, modifies, organizes, synthesizes, etc.
5. Characterization by a Value or Value Complex. At this level, the person has held a value
system that has controlled his behavior for a sufficiently long time that a characteristic "life
style" has been developed. Behavior is pervasive, consistent and predictable. Objectives are
concerned with personal, social, and emotional adjustment: displays self reliance in working
independently, cooperates in group activities, maintains good health habits, etc.
Prepared by Dr. J.J.Applied Sciences Education Research Group, FSG, UiTM, Shah Alam
Web:http://www2.uitm.edu.my/drjj/
Cont.

Affective Domain Levels


Psychomotor Domain (physical - skills - 'do')
The Psychomotor Domain was ostensibly established to address skills development relating to
manual tasks and physical movement, however it also concerns and covers modern day business
and social skills such as communications and operation IT equipment, for example telephone and
keyboard skills, or public speaking.
http://www.businessballs.com/bloomstaxonomyoflearningdomains.htm
Psychomotor

Levels of Psychomotor
Dave's (1975):
Imitation Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low
quality. Example: Copying a work of art.
Manipulation Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions and practicing.
Example: Creating work on one's own, after taking lessons, or reading about it.
Precision Refining, becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent. Example: Working and
reworking something, so it will be just right.
Articulation Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony and internal consistency.
Example: Respond effectively to unexpected experiences. Revise treatment plant to adapt to
changes in patients condition.
Naturalization Having high level performance become natural, without needing to think
much about it. Examples: Construct a new theory. Create a new treatment approach.
Psychomotor Domain
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