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14

New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

14

p.166
Since P(5, 12) is on the terminal side of , we have

Trigonometry (1)

x 5 and y 12
r

5 2 ( 12) 2 13

By definition, sin

pp.163 190
p.163

y
12

r
13

cos

x
5

r
13

tan

y
12

x
5

p.167

Quadrant

sin

cos

tan

(a) 65

(b) 200

III

(c)

140

II

(d) 325

IV

1.

1.

lies in quadrant II.

2.

(e)

380

(f)

50

IV

lies in quadrant IV.

3.

lies in quadrant III.

2.
(a)

tan 0

lies in quadrant I

(b)

sin 0

lies in quadrant III or IV .

(c)

cos 0.4

lies in quadrant I

(d)

tan

1
2

quadrant II or IV

or III .

or IV .

lies in
.

(e)

sin cos 0

lies in quadrant II

(f)

sin 0 and tan 0

lies in quadrant II .

or IV .

p.168
sin 323 0.602 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
(a)

4.

lies in quadrant I.

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148

(b)

sin 220 0.643 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(c)

tan 342 0.325 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(d)

tan 115 2.14 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(e)

cos( 293) 0.391 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(f)

sin( 52) 0.788 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(g)

cos( 219) 0.777 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(h)

tan( 126) 1.38 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

14

New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

4.

p.171

Coordinates of P

sin

cos

tan

(r, 0)

90

(0, r)

undefined

180

(r, 0)

270

(0, r)

undefined

360

(r, 0)

In quadrant IV, the sine ratio is negative.


Thus, sin sin.
The reference angle 360 330
30

5.
p.172

Quadrant

Reference angle

1.

70

70

2.

200

III

20

3.

105

II

75

4.

25

25

5.

290

IV

70

6.

390

30

7.

100

III

80

8.

240

II

60

330 lies in quadrant IV.

sin330 sin30
1

330 lies in quadrant IV.


In quadrant IV, the cosine ratio is positive.
Thus, cos cos.
The reference angle 360 330
30

6cos330 6cos30

3
6
2

6.

The reference angle 210 180


30

1 + sin210 1 sin30

60

sin120 sin60
3
2

1
2

1
2

p.182
1.
cos 0
90 or 270

240 lies in quadrant III.


In quadrant III, the cosine ratio is negative.
Thus, cos cos.

2.

The reference angle 240 180

sin 0.5
Since sin 0, may lie in either quadrant III or

60

210 lies in quadrant III.

The reference angle 180 120

2.

In quadrant III, the sine ratio is negative.


Thus, sin sin.

In quadrant II, the sine ratio is positive.


Thus, sin sin.

3 3

p.175
1.
120 lies in quadrant II.

quadrant IV.
Let be the reference angle of .

cos240 cos60
1

Then, sin 0.5

30
Locate the angle and its reference angle in each

3.

225 lies in quadrant III.

possible quadrant.

In quadrant III, the tangent ratio is positive.


Thus, tan tan.
The reference angle 225 180
45

tan225 tan45
1

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149

Trigonometry (1)
Hence, if lies in quadrant III,

Function

Maximum value

Minimum value

1.

4cosx

2.

sinx 2

3.

cos 2 x 1

quadrant IV.
Let be the reference angle of .

4.

3 sinx

Then, tan 1

5.

1
2

180 + 30 210
If lies in quadrant IV,

3.

360 30 330
210 or 330

tan 1
Since tan 0, may lie in either quadrant II or

6
cos x 2
2
3 sin x

45
Locate the angle and its reference angle in each

6.

possible quadrant.

pp.175 198
14.1 Since tan 0, lies in quadrant I or III.

p.175

As it is given that 180 270, must lie in


quadrant III where sin 0 and cos 0.

Hence, if lies in quadrant II,

P(4, 3) is a point on the terminal side of .


x 4, y 3

180 45 = 135
If lies in quadrant IV,

4.

360 45 315
135 or 315

cos

x2 y2

( 4) 2 ( 3) 2 5

By definition, sin

y
3

r
5

cos

x
4

r
5

2
2

since cos 0, may lie in either quadrant II or


14.2 Since cos 0 and 90 180,

quadrant III.
Let be the reference angle of .
Then, cos

p.176

lies in quadrant II.


Let P(3, y) be a point on the terminal side of , where

2
2

y 0.
We have x 3 and r 5.

45

Locate the angle and its reference angle in each

5 2 ( 3) 2 y 2
y 2 16

possible quadrant.

y4

sin

y
r

4
5

tan

y
4

x
3

Hence, if lies in quadrant II,

180 45= 135


If lies in quadrant III,

180 + 45 225
135 or 225

p.190

150

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14

New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

14.3 (a)

cos(180 ) tan(180 )

6 sin 8 cos 0

14.7 (a)

p.179

6 sin 8 cos
sin
4

cos
3
4
tan
3

cos ( tan )
sin

cos

cos

sin

(b)

p.184

126.9 or 306.9 (cor. to 1

2 sin(180 )
cos(360 )
2( sin )

cos
2 sin

cos
2 tan

d. p.)

tan 2 2 0
tan 2 2

(b)

tan

2 or

54.7,

125.3, 234.7 or 305.3

(cor. to 1 d. p.)
14.4

p.184

p.180

sin
2 sin 0
cos
sin 2 sin cos 0

1
( sin ) 4( cos )
tan
cos

( sin ) 4 cos
sin
cos 4 cos
3 cos

14.5 L.H.S.

sin(90 ) sin(180 )
tan(180 )

sin (1 2 cos ) 0

14.9

1
2

or 180 120 or

0, 120, 180 or 240

2 sin 2 3 cos 0
2(1 cos 2 ) 3 cos 0

p.184

2 2 cos 2 3 cos 0
2 cos 2 3 cos 2 0
(cos 2)(2 cos 1) 0

cos 2 (rejected) or cos

1
2

120 or 180 + 60
120 or 240

cos 2
R.H.S.

14.10 (i) & (ii)

sin(90 ) sin(180 )
cos 2
tan(180 )
5 cos 2
p.183

2
5

Hence, 113.57818 or 180 + 66.42182

113 .6 or 246.4 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

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cos

240
p.180

sin(180 (90 ) sin


tan
sin(90 ) sin

tan
cos sin

sin

cos
cos

cos sin

sin

cos

sin 0 or

14.6

tan 2 sin 0

14.8

tan(90 ) sin(180 ) 4 cos(180 )

151

p.192

Trigonometry (1)
14.11

P.197

(b)

To solve the equation, we draw a straight line


y 2 on the graph of
y 2 cos x 3 sin x .
From the graph, the straight line cuts the curve
at x 66 or 180.
Therefore, the solution is 66 or 180.

(a)

Draw the straight line y 3 on the graph.

pp.175 198

The straight line cuts the curve at x 72

(b)

and 252, so the equation of tanx 3 for


0 x 360 is 72 or 252.

Example 14.1T

Draw the straight line y 2 on the graph.

270 360, must lie in quadrant IV where sin 0 and

p.175

Since tan 0, lies in quadrant II or IV. As it is given that


cos 0. P(12, 5) is a point on the terminal side of .
x 12, y 5

The straight line cuts the curve at x 117


and 297, so the equation of tan x 2
for 0 x 360 is 117 or 297.

x2 y2

By definition, sin
14.12

p.198

cos

12 2 ( 5) 2 13

y
5

r
13
x 12

r
13

Example 14.2T

p.176

Since sin 0 and 180 270, lies in quadrant III.


Let P(x, 2) be a point on the terminal side of , where x 0.
We have y 2 and r 5.

(a)

5 2 x 2 (2) 2

x 2 21

Since the graph passes through (0, 2),

x 21 or

we have
2 a cos 0 b sin 0

cos

2 a (1) b (0)

a 2

Since the graph passes through (90, 3),

tan

we have
3 2 cos 90 b sin 90

3 2(0) b(1)

b3

21 (rejected)

x
r
21
5

y
2

x
21
2

21

Example 14.3T
(a)

152

p.179

tan(180 ) sin(90 )
tan cos
sin

(cos )
cos
sin

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

(b)

cos(180 )
cos
cos

cos

Example 14.6T

p.183

( 2 1) sin 2
2

sin

2 1

Hence, 55.93750 or 180 55.93750


Example 14.4T

55.9 or 124.1 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

p.180

Example 14.7T

sin(90 ) cos(90 ) 2 sin(180 ) cos


sin(180 (90 )) cos(180 (90 )) 2 sin

(a) cos
7 sin
sin(90 )[ cos(90 )] 2 sin cos
cos ( sin ) 2 sin cos
sin cos 2 sin cos
3 sin cos
Example 14.5T

p.180

1
sin( 270 )
L.H.S.
cos 2
tan (180 )

(b)

7 sin
sin
cos
sin
cos
tan

7 cos
7

7
1
1

135 or 315

1
4
cos 2

60, 120, 240 or 300

Example 14.8T

cos 2 tan cos 0


sin
cos 0
cos
cos sin cos 0
cos (sin 1) 0

cos 2

cos 0 or sin 1
90 or 270

R.H.S.

1
sin( 270 )
cos
cos
tan 2 (180 )

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7 cos 0

1 4 cos 2
1
cos 2
4
1
1
or
cos
2
2

1
sin(180 (90 ))
cos
tan 2
1
sin(90 )
cos
tan 2
1
cos
cos

tan 2
1 cos 2
cos2
sin
cos 2
sin 2 cos 2

cos sin 2
cos

p.183

153

p.184

Trigonometry (1)
Example 14.9T

p.184

Example 14.12T

p.198

2 cos 2 sin 1 0
2(1 sin 2 ) sin 1 0
2 2 sin 2 sin 1 0
2 sin 2 sin 1 0
(sin 1)(2 sin 1) 0
sin 1

90

or sin

1
2

180 30

or

360 30

(a)

210 or 330

From the graphs, the curve cuts the x-axis at x 72 or


252.

90, 210 or 330

Therefore, the solution is 72 or 252.

Example 14.10T

p.191

(b)

To solve the equation, we draw a straight line y 1.5


on the graph of y 3cos x sin x.

(a) & (b)

From the graph, the straight line cuts the curve at


x 43 and 280.
Therefore, the solution is 43 or 280.

14.1

pp.164
p.164

Example 14.11T

(a)

p.196

1.

lies in quadrant I.

2.

lies in quadrant II.

3.

lies in quadrant III.

4.

lies in quadrant IV.

5.

lies in quadrant IV.

6.

lies in quadrant IV.

Draw the straight line y 0.6 on the graph. The straight


line cuts the curve at x 54 and 306, so the solution of
7.

cos x 0.6 for 0 x 360 is 54 or 306.


(b)

Draw the straight line y 0.7 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 135 and 225, so the
solution of cos x 0.7 for 0 x 360 is 135 or
225.
8.

154

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14

New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

14.2

pp.169 170
p.169

9.
1.

we have x 3 and y 4.

p.164
10.

11.

12.

430 360 + 70

lies in quadrant I.

830 360 + 360 + 110

lies in quadrant II.

200 360 200

lies in quadrant II.

Since P(3, 4) is a point on the terminal side of ,

160

2.

32 4 2 5

By definition, sin

y
4

r
5

cos

x
3

r
5

tan

y
4

x
3

Since P(9, 12) is a point on the terminal side of ,


we have x 9 and y 12.
r

9 2 ( 12) 2 15

By definition, sin

13.

(a)

(b)

lies in quadrant I.

3.

y
12
4

r
15
5

cos

x
9
3

r
15 5

tan

y
12
4

x
9
3

Since P(5, 12) is a point on the terminal side of ,


we have x 5 and y 12.
r

14.

By definition, sin

y
12

r
13

cos

x
5

r
13

tan

y
12 12

x
5
5

(a)

(b)

( 5) 2 ( 12) 2 13

lies in quadrant III.


4.

Since P(6, 8) is a point on the terminal side of ,


we have x 6 and y 8.
r

( 6) 2 8 2 10

By definition, sin

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155

y
8
4

r
10
5

cos

x
6
3

r
10
5

tan

y
8
4

x
6
3

Trigonometry (1)
5.

6.

7.

8.

(a)

cos123 0.545 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(b)

sin242 0.883 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(c)

(c)

tan(98) 7.12 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(d)

(d)

cos(252) 0.309 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(e)

(a)

sin560 0.342 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(f)

tan670 1.19 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

(b)
(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

(d)
9.

Since P(1, 2) is a point on the terminal side of ,


we have x 1 and y 2.
r

( 1) 2 2 2

15.

cos

x
1

r
5

tan

y
2

2
x
1

7 ) is a point on the terminal side of ,

Since P(3,

we have x 3 and y
r

3 ( 7 )2 4

lies in quadrant II or III.

16.

lies in quadrant I or III.

Since P(

7 .

By definition, sin

y
7

r
4

cos

x
3

r
4

tan

y
7

x
3

3 , 1) is a point on the terminal side of

,
we have x
r

lies in quadrant III or IV.

3 and y 1.

( 3 ) 2 ( 1) 2 2

By definition, sin

sin 2
5
cos 2
tan 2 5

y
1

r
2

cos

tan

y

x

tan 5 or 5

y
2
By definition, sin r
5

sin 0.7
sin 0

12.

14.

tan 1.8
tan 0

11.

p.170

cos 0.3
cos 0

10.

13.

lies in quadrant I, II, III or IV.


17.

3
2
1
3

Since P(2, 3) is a point on the terminal side of ,


we have x 2 and y 3.

156

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14

New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

( 2) 2 ( 3) 2

y
By definition, sin r

cos
tan

18.

21.

13

Since P(24, 7) is a point on the terminal side of ,


we have x 24 and y 7.

13

By definition, sin

y
7

r
25

cos

x
24

r
25

tan

y
7
7

x
24
24

13

y
3

x
2
3

2
22.

Since P(12, 5) is a point on the terminal side of ,

(a)

12 2 ( 5) 2 13

By definition, sin

19.

(b)

y
5

r
13

cos

x 12

r
13

tan

y
5

x
12

(c)

Since P(15, 8) is a point on the terminal side of ,

(d)

we have x 15 and y 8.
r

( 15) 2 8 2 17

By definition, sin

y
8

r
17

23.

(a)

x
15
cos

r
17
tan

Since is an obtuse angle, it lies in quadrant II.

we have x 12 and y 5.
x

( 24) 2 ( 7) 2 25

y
8

x
15

(b)

sin is positive.

lies in quadrant II.

tan is negative.

tan is positive.

lies in quadrant II.

tan is negative and cos is negative.

tan cos is positive.

lies in quadrant II.

sin is positive.
sin 2 is negative.

cos 0 and is a reflex angle

lies in quadrant III.

cos sin 0

cos 0 and sin 0 or cos 0 and


sin 0

20.

Since P(16, 12) is a point on the terminal side of ,

we have x 16 and y 12.


r

16 2 ( 12) 2 20

By definition, sin
cos

y
12
3

r
20
5
x
16
4

r
20
5

24.

y
12
3
tan

x
16
4

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157

(a)

lies in quadrant I or III.

Trigonometry (1)
(b)

Since tan

5
, let P(12, 5) be a point on
12

6.

(a)

150 lies in quadrant II.


In quadrant II, the sine ratio is positive.
Thus, sin sin.

the

The reference angle 180 150

terminal side of the angle of rotation .

30

We have x 12 and y 5.
r

( 5) ( 12)
2

13

y
5

By definition, sin
r
13
cos

x
12

r
13

(b)

sin150 sin30
1

150 lies in quadrant II.


In quadrant II, the cosine ratio is negative.
Thus, cos cos.
The reference angle 180 150

14.3

30

pp.177 178

p.177
1.

(a)

Since 54 lies in quadrant I,

(c)

reference angle 54.


(b)

2.

(a)

In quadrant II, the tangent ratio is negative.


Thus, tan tan.

Since 223 lies in quadrant III,


reference angle 223 180 43.

The reference angle 180 150

Since 156 lies in quadrant II,

30

(a)

(b)

(a)

7.

(a)

300 lies in quadrant IV.

Since 335 lies in quadrant IV,

In quadrant IV, the sine ratio is negative.


Thus, sin sin.

reference angle 360 335 25.

The reference angle 360 300

Since 395 lies in quadrant I,

60
sin300 sin60

3
2

Since 246 lies in quadrant II,


reference angle 180 114 66.

(b)

3
3

Since 287 lies in quadrant IV,

reference angle 395 360 35.


4.

tan150 tan30

reference angle 360 287 73.


3.

3
2

150 lies in quadrant II.

reference angle 180 156 24.


(b)

cos150 cos30

(b)

300 lies in quadrant IV.

Since 428 lies in quadrant IV,

In quadrant IV, the cosine ratio is positive.


Thus, cos cos.

reference angle 360 292 68.

The reference angle 360 300


60

5.

(a)

sin270 1

(b)

tan360 tan0

cos300 cos60
1

(c)

cos180 1

158

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

(c)

300 lies in quadrant IV.

9.

315 lies in quadrant IV.

In quadrant IV, the tangent ratio is negative.


Thus, tan tan.

In quadrant IV, the tangent ratio is negative.


Thus, tan tan.

The reference angle 360 300

The reference angle 360 315

60

45

tan300 tan60

3
8.

(a)

4+tan315 4 + (tan45)
4 tan 45
4 1
3

210 lies in quadrant III.


10.

In quadrant III, the sine ratio is negative.


Thus, sin sin.

In quadrant II, the tangent ratio is negative.


Thus, tan tan.

The reference angle 210 180

The reference angle 180 120

30

120 lies in quadrant II.

60

4sin210 4(sin30)
1

4
2

10 tan 120 10( tan 60) 2


2

10 tan 2 60

2
(b)

10( 3 ) 2
10(3)
30

210 lies in quadrant III.


In quadrant II, the cosine ratio is negative.
Thus, cos cos.

11.

The reference angle 210 180


30

6cos210 6(cos30)

3
6

12.

13.

210 lies in quadrant III.

The reference angle 210 180


30
3 tan210
3 tan30

3
3

lies in quadrant II where cos 0.


P(4, 3) is a point on the terminal side of .
x 4, y 3

In quadrant III, the tangent ratio is positive.


Thus, tan tan.

cos270 + cos360 sin360


0+10
1

3 3

(c)

sin180 cos180 tan180


0 (1) 0
1

x2 y2

By definition, cos

( 4) 2 3 2 5

x
4

r
5

14.

Since tan 0, lies in quadrant I or III. As it is given


that 180 270, must lie in quadrant III where

3
3
1

sin 0. P(3, 4) is a point on the terminal side of .


x 3, y 4

x2 y2

By definition, sin

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159

( 3) 2 ( 4) 2 5

y
4

r
5

Trigonometry (1)
15.

Since sin 0, lies in quadrant I or II. As it is given

18.

lies in quadrant IV. Let P(

terminal side of , where y 0. We have x

Let P(x, 15) be a point on the terminal side of , where

and
r 9.

x 0. We have y 15 and r 17.

17 2 x 2 15 2

x 2 64

9 2 ( 17 ) 2 y 2

y 8 or 8 (rejected)

x
cos
r

sin

8
17

tan

lies in quadrant IV. Let P(x, 2) be a point on the


terminal side of , where x 0. We have y 2 and
r 13 .

17

y 2 64

x 8 or 8 (rejected)

16.

17 , y) be a point on the

that 90 180, must lie in quadrant II.

y
r
8
9

y
x

8
17

( 13 ) 2 x 2 ( 2) 2

x2 9

p.178

x 3 (rejected) or 3

cos

x
r

(a)

cos540 cos(540 360)


cos180
1

tan

19.

13

y
x

(b)

tan720 tan(720 360 360)


tan0

0
(c)

17.

sin450 sin(450 360)

Since cos 0, lies in quadrant II or III. As it is given

sin90

that 180 270, must lie in quadrant III.

Let P(5, y) be a point on the terminal side of , where


y 0. We have x 5 and r 13.

20.

(a)

132 ( 5) 2 y 2

405 lies in quadrant I.

y 2 144

In quadrant I, the sine ratio is positive.


Thus, sin sin.

y 12 or 12 (rejected)

sin

y
r

Since 405 360 + 45,

The reference angle 45

12
13

sin405 sin45

y
x
12

5
12

tan

(b)

2
2

Since 570 360 + 210,


570 lies in quadrant III.
In quadrant III, the cosine ratio is negative.
Thus, cos cos.
The reference angle 210 180
30

cos570 cos30

160

3
2

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

(c)

Since 585 360 + 225,

23.

585 lies in quadrant III.

240 lies in quadrant III.


In quadrant III, the sine ratio is negative.
Thus, sin sin.

In quadrant III, the tangent ratio is positive.


Thus, tan tan.

The reference angle 240 180

The reference angle 225 180

60

45

sin240 sin60

tan585 tan45

3
2

120 lies in quadrant II.


21.

330 lies in quadrant IV.

In quadrant II, the tangent ratio is negative.


Thus, tan tan.

In quadrant IV, the sine ratio is negative, the cosine


ratio is positive.
Thus, sin sin, cos cos.

The reference angle 180 120

The reference angle 360 330

60
tan120 tan60

30

sin330 sin30
and
2
3
cos330 cos30
2
1
3
sin330 cos330
2
2

22.

3
8

2
8 sin 240

tan 120
3

3
4

24.

60 lies in quadrant I.

The reference angle 60

The reference angle 180 150


30

sin60

3
2

120 lies in quadrant II.

tan150 tan30

In quadrant II, the cosine ratio is negative.


Thus, cos cos.

3
3

The reference angle 180 120

330 lies in quadrant IV.

60

In quadrant IV, the tangent ratio is negative.


Thus, tan tan.

cos120 cos60

The reference angle 360 330


30

tan330 tan30

In quadrant I, the sine ratio is positive.


Thus, sin sin.

In quadrant II, the tangent ratio is negative.


Thus, tan tan.

4 3

150 lies in quadrant II.

1
2

3
2

3
3

3
3

3
9
1

25.

Since tan 0 and sin 0, lies in quadrant II.


P(1, 3) is a point on the terminal side of .
x 1, y 3

x2 y2

( 1) 2 32

x
By definition, cos r

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3 1

4 4
1

3
3

tan150 tan330

sin 60 cos 120


2

161

1
10

10

Trigonometry (1)
26.

Since cos 0 and tan 0, lies in quadrant IV.


Let P( 5 , y) be a point on the terminal side of ,
where y 0. We have x

3 ( 5) y
2

29.

5 and r 3.

terminal side of .
x 1, y 2 2

y2 4
y 2 or 2 (rejected)

x2 y2

x
1

r
3

the terminal side of .


x 1, y 2 2

Let P(x, 4) be a point on the terminal side of , where


x 0. We have y 4 and r 5.

5 2 x 2 ( 4) 2

x2 y2

x 3 or 3 (rejected)

tan

28.

30.

y
x

x
1

r
3

Therefore, cos

1
1
or
3
3

Since cos 0, lies in quadrant I or IV.


If lies in quadrant I:
Let P(3, y) be a point on the terminal side of ,
where y 0. We have x 3 and r 13 .

4
3

( 13 ) 2 32 y 2

y2 4

Since sin 0, lies in quadrant I or II.

y 2 (rejected) or 2

If lies in quadrant I:

Let P(x, 5) be a point on the terminal side of ,

sin

where x 0. We have y 5 and r 13.

132 x 2 5 2

x 2 144

( 13 ) 2 32 y 2

y 2 or 2 (rejected)

where x 0. We have y 5 and r 13.

132 x 2 5 2

sin

x 2 144
x 12 or 12 (rejected)

5
12

Therefore, tan

y
r
2
13

Therefore, sin

y
x

13

y2 4

Let P(x, 5) be a point on the terminal side of ,

tan

Let P(3, y) be a point on the terminal side of ,


where y 0. We have x 3 and r 13 .

y
x
5

12

tan

If lies in quadrant II:

y
r

If lies in quadrant IV:

x 12 (rejected) or 12

12 ( 2 2 ) 2 3

By definition, cos

x2 9

( 1) 2 ( 2 2 ) 2 3

If lies in quadrant IV, P(1, 2 2 ) is a point on

Since sin 0 and cos 0, lies in quadrant II.

By definition, cos

y
sin
r
2

27.

Since tan 0, lies in quadrant II or IV.


If lies in quadrant II, P(1, 2 2 ) is a point on the

31.

2
13

or

2
13

lies in quadrant II where sin 0 and cos 0.


P(3, 4) is a point on the terminal side of .
x 3, y 4

5
5
or
12
12

162

x2 y 2

( 3) 2 4 2 5

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

y 4

r
5
x
3
cos
r
5

3.

By definition, sin

sin 2 cos

sin + sin
2 sin

4
3
2
5
5

4.

4 6

5 5
2

0
5.

Since tan 0, lies in quadrant II or IV.

tan

sin 0 and cos 0.

P(3, 2) is a point on the terminal side of .


x 3, y 2
r

x2 y2

By definition, sin

( 3) 2 2 2

2
13
3

13

13

sin cos

6.

13

r
13

cos

6
13

tan
sin
sin

cos
sin
sin

cos sin
1

cos

P(3, 2) is a point on the terminal side of .


x 3, y 2
x2 y2

3 2 ( 2) 2

13

y
2

r
13
x
3
cos
r
13

By definition, sin

sin cos

tan(180 )
sin(180 )

7.

sin 0 and cos 0.

sin(180 )
cos(90 )
sin

sin
1

If lies in quadrant IV:

tan(180 + ) tan(90 )
tan

If lies in quadrant II:

cos(90 ) sin(180 )
sin sin

32.

sin(180 ) sin(180 + )
sin (sin )

13

sin cos

13

6
13

8.

6
13

sin(90 )
cos(360 )
cos

cos
1

14.4

9.

pp.180 181

1 sin 2
cos 2
R.H.S. cos(360 ) sin(90 )
cos cos
cos 2 L.H.S.

p.180
1.

sin sin(360 )
sin (sin)
2
sin

2.

1 sin 2 (180 ) cos(360 ) sin(90 )

cos(180 ) + cos(360 )
cos +cos
0

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L.H.S. 1 sin 2 (180 )

163

Trigonometry (1)
10.

L.H.S. sin(180 )

14.

sin
R.H.S. cos(360 ) tan(180 )

cos tan
sin

cos

cos

sin L.H.S.

sin(180 ) cos(360 ) tan(180 )


p.181
11.

sin(90 ) cos( )
cos(360 )
sin(180 (90 )) cos

cos
sin(90 ) cos

cos
cos cos

cos
cos
tan(180 ) sin( 270 )
cos(90 )

15.

1 sin(180 ) cos(90 )
1 sin cos(180 (90 ))
1 sin ( cos(90 ))
1 sin ( sin )

tan sin(360 (90 ))


cos(180 (90 )
tan ( sin(90 ))

cos(90 )
sin

( cos )
cos

sin
sin

sin
1

1 sin 2
cos 2
12.

sin 2 (90 ) sin(180 ) cos( 270 )


cos 2 ( sin ) cos(360 (90 ))
cos 2 sin cos(90 )
cos sin sin
cos 2 sin 2
1

13.

cos 2 (180 ) tan(180 )


sin(90 )

16.

sin(90 ) sin(180 )
tan(360 )
cos ( sin )

tan
cos sin

sin
cos
cos
cos sin

sin

cos 2 tan
sin(180 (90 ))

cos 2 tan
sin(90 )

cos 2 tan
cos
sin
cos
cos
sin

17.

cos 2

sin( 270 )
cos(360 )
sin(180 (90 ))
cos cos
cos
sin(90 )
cos 2

cos

cos

cos 2
cos
cos 2 1
cos( ) cos(360 )

(1 cos 2 )
sin 2

164

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

sin( )
tan(360 )

sin(360 ) tan(360 )

18.

5.

sin
tan

sin
tan
1 1
2

180 30 or 180 + 30

150 or 210

6.
19.

20.

180 30 or 360 30

tan(180 (90 ))
tan(90 )
1

R.H.S.
tan
1
tan(90 )
tan

150 or 330

7.

48.2 or 311.8 (cor. to 1 d. p.)


8.

4sin cos

sin
1

cos
4
1
tan
4

sin
cos 2
cos 2 sin 2

cos 2
1

R.H.S.
cos 2
2

1 tan 2 (180 )

2
3

Hence, 48.18969 or 360 48.18696

1 tan 2

3cos 2

cos

L.H.S. 1 tan 2 (180 )

3
3

tan

L.H.S. tan(90 )

3
2

cos

Hence, 180 14.03624 or 360 14.03624


166.0 or 346.0 (cor. to 1 d. p.)
5 cos 2

9.

1
cos 2

cos

2
5

Hence, 26.56505 or 360 26.56505

26.6 or 333.4 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

14.5

pp.185 186
10.

2 sin

2 sin 7 cos

p.185
1.

sin
7

cos
2

1
cos
2

tan

60 or 360 60
60 or 300

2.

sin

2
2

11.

1
5 1

Hence, 36 or 360 36
36 or 324

60 or 240

sin 0

0 or 180

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5 cos 1 cos

cos

60 or 180 + 60

4.

127.1 or 307.1 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

cos ( 5 1) 1

225 or 315
tan

7
2

5 cos cos 1

180 + 45 or 360 45

3.

7 cos 0

165

Trigonometry (1)
4sin 1

12.

2 sin

p.185

4 sin 2 sin 1

sin

3 cos 2 sin cos 0

19.

sin (4 2 ) 1

cos ( 3 2 sin ) 0

1
4 2

Hence, 22.75115 or 180 22.75115

90 or 270

22.8 or 157.2 (cor. to 1 d. p.)


13.

60,

2 cos 2 1 0
1
cos 2
2
cos

1
2

sin
4 sin 0
cos
sin 4 sin cos 0

or

sin (1 4 cos ) 0

45 or 180 45

0
75.52249

75.5 or 284.5 (cor. to 1 d.

3 or

p.)

60 or 180 60

0,

60 or 120

15.

2 sin tan cos 0

21.

2 sin 2

3 sin cos 0

sin ( 2 sin 1) 0
or sin

sin 0

1
2

45 or 180 45

0 or 180

45 or 135
0,

3 cos 0

sin
sin

cos

sin
cos 0
cos

2 sin 2 sin 0

150
sin

75.5 , 180 or 284.5

3 sin cos
sin
1

cos
3
1
tan
3
180 30

16.

1
4
or 180 75.52249 or 360

sin 0 or cos

tan 2 3 0
tan 2 3
tan

60 or 180 60 120

90 , 120 or 270

tan 4sin 0

20.

45 or 135

14.

3
2

cos 0 or sin

22.

3 cos
3

tan 3
60

45 , 135 or 180

2 cos 2 cos 1 0
( 2 cos 1)(cos 1) 0
1
cos
2

or cos 1

180 60 or 180 + 60

120 or 240
17.

sin sin 40

0, 120 or 240

40 or 180 40
40 or 140

tan 2 (1

23.

tan (1
2

18.

cos cos(70)

3 ) tan

(tan

cos70

tan

70

3 ) tan

3 or

3 0

3 )(tan 1) 0

tan 1

60 or 180 + 60 180 45 or 360 45


60 or 240

166

135 or 315

60, 135,

240 or 315

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

24.

2 sin 2 3 cos 3 0
2(1 cos 2 ) 3 cos 3 0

1
4

tan
sin
1
4
sin
4


sin

sin
cos
cos
4 sin cos
4

cos
sin sin
2
4 sin cos 2 4 cos
4 tan

28.

2 2 cos 2 3 cos 3 0
2 cos 2 3 cos 1 0
( 2 cos 1)(cos 1) 0

1
2

cos

cos 1

or

60 or 360 60

0,

4(1 cos 2 ) cos 2 4 cos 0

60 or 300

4 4 cos 2 cos 2 4 cos 0


3 cos 2 4 cos 4 0

2 cos 2 1 sin
2(1 sin 2 ) 1 sin

25.

3 cos 2 4 cos 4 0
(3 cos 2)(cos 2) 0
2
cos
or cos 2 (rejected)
3

2 2 sin 2 1 sin
2 sin 2 sin 1 0
( 2 sin 1)(sin 1) 0

sin

1
2

48.18969 or 360 48.18969

sin 1

or

30 or 180 30

270

30 or 150

26.

29.

2cos( 10) 1 0

30, 150 or 270

cos( 10)

sin 2 cos sin


sin 2 2(1 sin 2 ) sin
2

10 60 or 300
70 or 310

sin 2 2 sin

30.

sin 2 sin 2 0
(sin 1)(sin 2) 0

2 sin

sin 2

90

1
tan
1
sin
3

sin

cos

cos
3 sin cos

cos sin
3 sin 2 cos 2

3
cos
3

cos

Since

31.

3
cos
3 sin

cos 0

(2 sin 1)(sin 1) 0

30 or 180 30

sin 1

90 (rejected)

30 or 150

or

270 or

2 sin 3 sin 1 0

or

3 is not a real number, the equation


2

sin 2 cos 1
1 cos 2 cos 1
cos 2 cos 0
cos (cos 1) 0

1
2

30 or 150

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3
2

has no solutions.

3 sin 2 1 sin 2 3 sin 0

sin

3
2

sin

3 tan

27.

3 0

sin 2 (rejected)

or

1
2

10 60 or 360 60

sin 2 2 2 sin 2 sin

sin 1

48.2 or 311.8 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

167

cos 1

180

180 or 270

Trigonometry (1)
tan sin cos 1

32.

34.

sin

(sin ) cos 1
cos

2(1 sin )
tan(90 )
cos
2 2 sin
1

cos
tan
2 2 sin
1

sin
cos
cos
2 2 sin cos

cos
sin
cos 2 2 sin 2 sin 2

(a)

sin 2
cos 1
cos
sin 2 cos 2 cos
1 cos 2 cos 2 cos
2 cos 2 cos 1 0
(2 cos 1)(cos 1) 0

cos

1
2

1 sin 2 2 sin 2 sin 2

or

3 sin 2 2 sin 1 0

cos 1

180 60

(b)

120

33.

0 or 120

cos 2 sin 1

cos sin
4
4(cos 2 sin ) cos sin
4 cos 8 sin cos sin
3 cos 9 sin
3 sin

9 cos
1
tan
3
180 18.43495

2(1 sin )
tan(90 )
cos
3 sin 2 2 sin 1 0
(3 sin 1)(sin 1) 0
1
sin
or sin 1 (rejected)
3
19.47122 or 180 19.47122

19.5 or 160.5 (cor. to 1

d. p.)
35.

2 x 2 3 cos(180 ) x sin 1 0
2 x 2 3( cos ) x sin 1 0
2 x 2 (3 cos ) x sin 1 0
Since the equation has equal roots, 0

161.6 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

( 3 cos ) 2 4( 2)(sin 1) 0
9 cos 2 8 sin 8 0
9(1 sin 2 ) 8 sin 8 0
9 sin 2 8 sin 1 0
(9 sin 1)(sin 1) 0

sin

1
or sin 1 (rejected)
9

is an obtuse angle.

180 6.37937
173.6 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

14.6

pp.192 195
p.192

1.

(a)

The maximum value of the function is 1.


The minimum value of the function is 3.

168

(b)

The y-intercept is 2.

(c)

The curve passes through the point (0, 2)


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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

Substituting (0, 2) into y sinx + k,

1 sin x 1
4sin x
4
4sin x
4

11.

2 sin0 + k

we have

2 0 + k

4 2 4 sin x 2 4 2
2 4 sin x 2 6

k 2

2.

4
4

The period is 360.

The maximum and minimum values are 6 and 2


3.

The period is 360.

4.

The period is 180.

respectively.
12.

5.
6.

The period is 180.

The maximum and minimum values are 7 and 6

5 5 cos x 5

respectively.

The maximum and minimum values are 5 and 5


respectively.
7.

13.

1 cos x

6 6 cos 2 x 7

cos x 1

cos 2 x 0 and 1 cos x 1


0
cos 2 x
6 0 6 cos 2 x 6 1

sin 2 x 0 and 1 sin x 1


0
sin 2 x

1 4 cos x 4 1 4
3 cos x 4 5

1
0

sin x
2

8 1 8 sin 2 x 8 0
7 8 sin 2 x 8

The maximum and minimum values are 5 and 3

The maximum and minimum values are 8 and 7

respectively.

respectively.
8.

sin x

14.

2 2 sin x 2
2 2 sin x 2

2 ( 1)

sin x

respectively.
15.

1 3

cos x

cos x + 3

The maximum and minimum values are 6 and 4

respectively.

1
1
1

4
cos x 3
2
8
8
8

cos x 3
4
2
8
2
4
cos x 3

cos x

3
3 cos x
3 2 3 cos x 2 3 2
1 3 cos x 2 5

The maximum and minimum values are 9 and 1

1 sin x 1
5 1 5 sin x 5 1
6 5 sin x 4
4 5 sin x 6

10.

2 1

1
2
2
12 ( 2 sin x ) 3
1 ( 2 sin x ) 2 9

respectively.

2 + sin x
2 + sin x

The maximum and minimum values are 2 and 2

9.

1 sin x

cos x + 3

1 3

The maximum and minimum values are 5 and 1

The maximum and minimum values are 4 and 2

respectively.

respectively.

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169

Trigonometry (1)
16.

1
sin x
1
2 1 2 sin x
2 sin x
1

sin x

1
2 1

(c)

Substituting (180, 1) into y asinx + b, we have

1 a sin 180 b
1 a (0) b
b 1

1
1

1
3
2 sin x

The curve passes through (90, 3).


Substituting (90, 3) into y asinx + b, we have

1
The maximum and minimum values are 1 and
3

3
3
3
a

respectively.

1 cos x
1

17.

3 1

2
22
4

cos x

3 cos x
3 cos x
(3 cos x ) 2

1
4
42
16

21.

32
32
32

2
(3 cos x )
16
4
32
8
2
(3 cos x ) 2

The maximum and minimum values are 1 and


3 respectively.

(c)

respectively.

(a)

(b)

The maximum and minimum values are 8 and 2

a 2, b 1.

3 1

(3 cos x ) 2
1
1
1

2
(3 cos x )
16
4

18.

a sin 90 b
ab
a 1
2

sin 2 x 0 and 1 sin x 1


0 sin 2 x
0 4 sin 2 x 4 1 4
4 sin 2 x 4 5

The period is 360.

The maximum and minimum values are 5 and 4


respectively.
19.

cos( x 30)
1
1 cos( x 30)
2 2 cos( x 30) 2

22.

1
1

(a)

(b)

respectively.

The maximum and minimum values are 2 and 2


respectively.

(c)

(a)

The period is 360.

(b)

From the graph, when x 180, y 1.

The graph of y cos(x + 180) is obtained by


translating the graph of y cos x to the right (or

p.193
20.

The maximum and minimum values are 1 and 1

left) by 180 or reflecting the graph of y cos x


about the x-axis.

170

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

(b)

If y 5,

(3 cos x 1) 2 5 5
(3 cos x 1) 2 0
3 cos x 1 0
1
cos x
3
23.

x 70.52878 or 360 70.52878

(a)

x 70.5 or 289.5 (cor. to 1 d.

(b)

The x-intercepts are 60, 240 and 420.

(c)

The period is 180.

p.)

14.7

pp.199 203
p.199

1.

24.

(a)

(b)

The maximum and minimum values are 3 and 1


respectively.

25.

(a)

cos x

3 3cos x
3 1

3cos x 1

3 1

(a)

(3 cos x 1)

Draw the straight line y 0.6 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 36 and 144, so
the solution of sin x 0.6 for 0 x 360 is

3cosx 1

(4)

36 or 144.

(3 cos x 1) 2

(b)

16

straight line cuts the curve at x 192 and 348, so


the solution of 5sin x 1 for 0 x 360 is

0 5 (3 cos x 1) 2 5 16 5
5 (3 cos x 1) 2 5 21

192 or 348.

The maximum value of y is 21.


When y 21,

(c)

(3 cos x 1) 2 5 21
3cos x 1 4

or

3cos x 1 4

3cos x 5

or

3cos x 3

5
cos x
(rejected) cos x 1
3
x 180
The corresponding value of x is 180.

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Draw the straight line y 1.1 on the graph. The


straight line does not cut the curve, so
2sinx 2.2 has no solutions.

(3 cos x 1) 2 16

Draw the straight line y 0.2 on the graph. The

171

Trigonometry (1)
(c)

2.

Draw the straight line y 0.3 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 108 and 252, so
the solution of cos x +

3
0 for
10

0 x 360 is 108 or 252.


4.

To solve the equation, we draw a straight line

(a)

12
on the graph of y 2sin x 3cos x.
5

Draw the straight line y 2 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 63 and 243, so
the solution of tan x 2 for 0 x 360 is
63 or 243.

(b)

Draw the straight line y 1.5 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 123 and 303, so

From the graph, the straight line cuts the curve at


x 99 and 195. Therefore, the solution is 99 or 195.

the solution of tan x + 1.5 0 for


0 x 360 is 123 or 303.
(c)

Draw the straight line y 2.5 on the graph. The

5.

straight line cuts the curve at x 69 and 249, so


the solution of 2tan x 5 for 0 x 360 is

(a)

To solve the equation, we draw a straight line


y 1 on the graph of y sin x + 2cos x.

69 or 249.
3.

From the graph, the straight line cuts the curve at


x 90. Therefore, the solution is 90.
(a)

Draw the straight line y 0.4 on the graph. The

(b)

straight line cuts the curve at x 114 and 246, so


the solution of cos x 0.4 for 0 x 360

From the graph, the curve cuts the x-axis at


x 117. Therefore, the solution is 117.

is 114 or 246.
(b)

Draw the straight line y 0.6 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 54 and 306, so
the solution of 5cos x 3 for 0 x 360 is
54 or 306.

172

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14

New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

p.202
6.

(a)

8.

(a) & (b)

Since the graph passes through (0, 1.0), we have

1.0 a sin 0 b cos 0


1 a (0) b (1)

b 1

Since the graph passes through (90, 1.0),


we have

1.0 a sin 90 b cos 90


1 a (1) b (0)

(b)

a 1

To solve the equation, we draw a straight line y 0.6


on the graph of y sin x.

To solve the equation, we draw a straight line


y 0.4 on the graph of y sin x + cos x.

From the graph, the straight line cuts the curve at 36


and 144.
Therefore, the solution is 36 or 144.
9.

(a)

Since the graph passes through (0, 2), we have

2 a sin 0 b cos 0
2 a (0) b(1)

b2

Since the graph passes through (90, 1), we have

From the graph, the straight line cuts the curve at


x 150 and 300. Therefore, the solution is 150 or

1 a sin 90 b cos 90
1 a (1) b(0)

300.

7.
(b)

a 1

The curve y asin x + bcos x cuts the curve


y tan x at x 39 and 117, so the solution is 39
or 117.

(c)

5a sin x 5b cos x 4

5( a sin x b cos x) 4
a sin x b cos x 0.8
Draw the straight line y 0.8 on the graph.

(a)

The curve cuts the x-axis at x 115.


Therefore, the solution is 115.

(b)

Draw the straight line y 1.5 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 97, so the
solution of 3sin x + 4cos x 1 1.5 for
0 x 120 is 97.

(c)

The straight line cuts the curve at x 42 and 264,


so the solution of 5asin x + 5bcos x 4 for
0 x 360 is 42 or 264.

Draw the straight line y 3 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 0 and 74, so the
solution of 3sin x + 4cos x 1 3 for
0 x 120 is 0 or 74.

Hong Kong Educational Publishing Co.

173

Trigonometry (1)
5.

(a)

150 lies in quadrant II.


In quadrant II, the sine ratio is positive.
Thus, sin sin.

pp.208 215

The reference angle 180 150


30

p.208

1.

(a)

Quadrant I

(b)

Quadrant III

(c)

Quadrant IV

(d)

Quadrant II

(e)

Quadrant III

(f)

Quadrant I

sin150 sin30

1
2

300 lies in quadrant IV.


In quadrant IV, the cosine ratio is positive.
Thus, cos cos.
The reference angle 360 300
60

cos300 cos60

1
2

sin150 + cos300

1 1

2 2

2.

(a)
(b)
(b)

3.

In quadrant III, the cosine ratio is negative.


Thus, cos cos.

Quadrant IV

The reference angle 210 180

Since P(8, 15) is a point on the terminal side of ,

30

we have x 8 and y 15.


r

( 8) 2 (15) 2 17

4.

In quadrant I, the tangent ratio is positive.


Thus, tan tan.
The reference angle 390 360
30

Since P(9, 12) is a point on the terminal side of ,

we have x 9 and y 12.

tan390 tan30

( 9) 2 ( 12) 2 15

By definition,

y
12
sin

r
15
4

5
tan

3
2

390 lies in quadrant I.

y
15

x
8

cos210 cos30

By definition,
x
8
cos

r
17

tan

210 lies in quadrant III.

1
3

3
cos210tan390
2

0.5

y
12

x
9
4

3
6.

174

(a)

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

(b)

lies in quadrant II where cos 0 and sin 0.

Since sin 0, lies in quadrant I or II.


If lies in quadrant I:
Let P(x, 7 ) be a point on the terminal side of ,

where x 0. We have y

x2 y2

By definition, cos
sin

7.

10.

P(12, 5) is a point on the terminal side of .


x 12, y 5
( 12) 2 5 2 13

x
12

r
13

42 x 2 ( 7 )2

x2 9

y
5

r
13

x 3 (rejected) or 3

x
r
3

cos

Since cos 0 and sin 0, lies in quadrant II.


Let P(1, y) be a point on the terminal side of ,
where y 0. We have x 1 and r 5 .

If lies in quadrant II:


Let P(x, 7 ) be a point on the terminal side of ,

( 5 ) 2 ( 1) 2 y 2

where x 0. We have y

y2 4

y 2 (rejected) or 2

tan

y
x

4 x ( 7)
2

x 3 or 3 (rejected)

x
r
3

cos

lies in quadrant IV where sin 0. P(3, 1) is a point

Therefore, cos

on the terminal side of .


x 3, y 1

x2 y2

3 2 ( 1) 2

y
By definition, sin r

9.

10

3 tan sin(90 ) sin(180 )


sin
3
cos sin
cos
3 sin sin
2 sin

12.

cos(180 ) tan(360 )
cos ( tan )

10

quadrant II.
Let P(x, 5) be a point on the terminal side of ,
where x 0. We have y 5 and r 13.

132 x 2 5 2
x 2 144

cos tan

cos

x
r

sin

cos

cos

x 12 or 12 (rejected)

3
4

11.

Since sin 0 and is an obtuse angle, lies in

7 and r 4.

x2 9

8.

7 and r 4.

sin
12
13

13.

+ + 180 ( sum of )
+ 180

cos cos( ) cos cos(180 )


cos ( cos )

cos cos
0

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Trigonometry (1)
14.

L.H.S. cos 2 (360 ) cos 2

19.

R.H.S. cos(180 ) sin(90 )

( cos ) cos
cos cos
cos 2 L.H.S.

3 cos 2 2 sin 0
3(1 sin 2 ) 2 sin 0
3 3 sin 2 2 sin 0
3 sin 2 2 sin 3 0
sin

cos 2 (360 ) cos(180 ) sin(90 )


15.

2 sin 1 0

sin

1
2

180 + 30 or 360 30
210 or 330

3 tan 1 0

16.

tan

20.

30 or 210
sin

( 2) 2 4(3)(3)
2(3)

40
6

2 2 10
6

1 10
3

1 10
1 10
or
(rejected)
3
3

180 + 46.11720 or 360 46.11720


226.1 or 313.9 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

30 or 180 + 30

17.

( 2)

tan(180 45) sin(180 30)


tan 45 ( sin 30)
tan 45 sin 30
1
1
2
1

180 60

5 cos 0

sin

5 cos

sin

cos

tan

cos tan 135 sin 210

65.90516 or 180 + 65.90516


65.9 or 245.9 (cor. to 1
d. p.)

120

2 cos 2 cos sin 0

18.

21.

cos ( 2 2 sin ) 0

2
2

cos 0 or

45, 90, 135 or 270

sin

90 or 270 45 or 180 45 135

(a)

cos x
1
1
1

cos x
2
2
1
1

cos x
2
2
1
1
1
1 1 cos x 1
2
2
2
1
1
3
1 cos x
2
2
2
The maximum and minimum values are

1
1

2
1

3
and
2

1
respectively.
2

176

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

(b)

sin 2 x
1
2 ( 1) 2 sin 2 x 2 1
1 2 sin 2 x 3

The maximum and minimum values are 3 and 1


respectively.
(c)

1
1

sin x
sin x

3 1 3 sin x

1
1

22. (i) & (ii)


3 1

3 sin x

23.

1
1
1

4
3 sin x
2
12
12
12

sin
x
4
2
12
3
6
3 sin x

Since the graph passes through (0, 3), we have

3 A cos 0 B
3 A(1) B
3 A B...................(1)
Since the graph passes through (180, 1), we have

1 A cos180 B
1 A( 1) B
1 A B.............( 2)

The maximum and minimum values are 6 and 3


respectively.

(1) + (2):
(d)

3 (1)

cos x
3 + cos x

B 1

3 1

Substituting B 1 into (1),


3 A 1
A2

3 + cos x
2
4
2
2
2
(
3

cos
x
)
2
4
(
3

cos x) 2 16
4
The maximum and minimum values are 16 and 4

24.

respectively.
25.

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2 2B

177

Reflect about the x-axis (or other reasonable answers).

Trigonometry (1)
p.211
(a)

Draw the straight line y 0.5 on the graph. The

27.

straight line cuts the curve at x 27 and 207, so


the solution of tan x 0.5 for 0 x 360 is

If 90 + lies in quadrant I:
Let P(x, 5 ) be a point on the terminal side of

27 or 207.
(b)

Since sin(90 + ) 0, 90 + lies in quadrant I or II.

(90 + ), where x 0.
We have y 5 and r 3.

Draw the straight line y 2 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 117 and 297, so
the solution of tan x 2 for 0 x 360 is

x2 4

117 or 297.
(c)

32 x 2 ( 5 ) 2

x 2 (rejected) or 2

Draw the straight line y 3 on the graph. The

y
x

tan(90 + )

straight line cuts the curve at x 108 and 288, so


the solution of tan x + 3 0 for 0 x 360

5
2

is 108 or 288.
26.

tan(180 (90 ))

5
2

tan(90 )

5
2

1
5

tan
2
2
tan
5

If 90 + lies in quadrant II:


Let P(x, 5 ) be a point on the terminal side of
(a)

(90 + ), where x 0. We have y

Draw the straight line y 1.5 on the graph. The

straight line cuts the curve at x 48 and 132, so


the solution of 2sin x 1.5 for 0 x 360

5 and r 3.

x 2 or 2 (rejected)

4sin x 1
2sin x

x2 4

is 48 or 132.
(b)

3 x ( 5)
2

1
0.5
2

y
x

tan(90 + )

Draw the straight line y 0.5 on the graph. The

5
2

tan(180 (90 ))

straight line cuts the curve at x 195 and 345, so


the solution of 4sin x 1 for 0 x 360 is

tan(90 )

x 195 or 345.

5
2

5
2

1
5

tan
2
2
tan
5
Therefore, tan

178

2
5

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

28.

Since tan 0 , lies in quadrant II or IV. As it is


given that 180 360, must lie in quadrant IV

32.

Let P(x, k) be a point on the terminal side of ,

where sin 0 and cos 0.

where x 0. We have y k and r 2.

22 x 2 k 2

P(3, 4) is a point on the terminal side of .


x 3, y 4

x2 y2

Since is an obtuse angle, lies in quadrant II.

x2 4 k 2

3 2 ( 4) 2 5

y
4

r
5
x 3
cos
r 5

By definition, sin

4
3
10 12
10 sin 12 cos
5
5

3
7 cos 3 sin

4
7 3
5
5
4

5
33
5
4

33

tan

cos

34.

3
2
150 30 (rejected) or 330
330 150

(a)

1
1 k 2
k
1 k 2

Let P ( x ) x 3 2 x 2 4 x 3

x + 1 is a factor of P(x).

x2

x3

x 1 x3 2 x2 4 x 3
x3 x 2
x2 4 x 3
x2 x
3x 3
3x 3

x 3 2 x 2 4 x 3 ( x 1)( x 2 x 3)

sin cos110
cos(90 + 20)

x 2 x 3 cannot be factorised into

linear

sin20

180 + 20 or 360 20

200 or 340

1
, where
2

60 2 60 300
2 60 30 or 180 30
30 or

1 k 2

P ( 1) ( 1) 3 2( 1) 2 4( 1) 3

180

sin( 2 60)

k 2 12

31.

x2 y2

By definition, sin r

sin(180 60)
sin 60

4k2

P(k, 1) is a point on the terminal side of .


x k, y 1

150 150 330

30.

lies in quadrant II where sin 0 and cos.

cos(150 + ) sin120, where

4k2
2

y
x

33.

4 k2

x
r

cos

29.

4 k 2 (rejected) or

150

2 90 or 210
45 or 105

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179

factors.
x + 1 is the only linear factor of
x3 2x2 4x 3 .

Trigonometry (1)
(b)

Let x 2cos.

37.

(a)

3 tan 2 sin(90 ) 0

x3 2x2 4x 3 0

sin
3
2 sin(180 (90 )) 0
cos
3 sin
2 sin(90 ) 0
cos
3 sin
2 cos 0
cos
3 sin 2 cos 2 0

( x 1)( x 2 x 3) 0
x + 1 0 or
x 1

x x30
2

No real roots

2cos 1

cos

1
2

180 60 or 180 + 60

3 sin 2(1 sin 2 ) 0

120 or 240

35.

3 sin 2 2 sin 2 0

Since 0 a 1 , sin 0 .
2

2 sin 2 3 sin 2 0

Since sin 0 and tan 0 , lies in quadrant II.


Let P ( x, 1 a 2 ) be a point on the terminal side

(b)

of ,
where x 0.
We have y 1 a 2 and r 1 a 2 .

sin

(1 a 2 ) 2 x 2 (1 a 2 ) 2
x 2 (1 a 2 ) 2 (1 a 2 ) 2
4

30 or 150

1 2a 2 a 4 1 2a 2 a 4
4a 2

38.

(a)

x 2a (rejected) or 2a

x
r
2a

1 a2

cos

tan

2 sin cos
3

3 cos 2 sin
5

5( 2 sin cos ) 3(3 cos 2 sin )


10 sin 5 cos 9 cos 6 sin
10 sin 6 sin 9 cos 5 cos
16 sin 4 cos
sin
4

cos
16
1
tan
4

y
x

1
or sin 2 (rejected)
2

30 or 180 30

1 2a a (1 2a a )
2

3 tan 2 sin(90 ) 0
2 sin 2 3 sin 2 0
(2 sin 1)(sin 2) 0

1 a2
2a

sin 2 sin cos 6 cos 2


sin 2 sin cos 6 cos 2 0
(sin 3 cos )(sin 2 cos ) 0
sin 3 cos 0 or sin 2 cos 0
sin 3 cos
sin 2 cos
sin
sin
3
2
cos
cos
tan 3
tan 2

36.

(b)

2 sin cos
3

3 cos 2 sin
5
1
tan
4
180 + 14.03624
194.0 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

39.

(a)

Since the graph passes through (45, 1), we have


1 k tan 45 1

71.56505 or 180 + 71.56505

2 k (1)

71.6 or 251.6 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

k 2

or 180 63.43494 or 360 63.43494

116.6 or 296.6 (cor. to 1 d. p.)

71.6, 116.6 , 251.6 or 296.6

180

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

(b)

41.

(a) & (b)

Draw the straight line y 0.6 on the graph. The


straight line cuts the curve at x 126, so the solution of
(i)

cosx 0.6 is 126.

Draw the straight line y 3 on the graph.


The straight line cuts the curve at x 134,

42.

so the solution of 2tan x + 1 0 for


0 x 360 is 134.
(ii)

(HKCEE Question)

Extended Question

2tan x + 6 0
2tan x + 1 + 5 0

43.

2tan x + 1 5

p.213

(a)

Draw the straight line y 5 on the graph.


The straight line cuts the curve at x 72,
so the solution of 2tan x + 6 0 for
0 x 360 is 72.

40.

(a)

Since the graph passes through (0, 1.5), we have


1.5 asin0 + bcos0
1.5 a(0) + b(1)

b 1.5

(b)

The maximum and minimum temperatures are


27C and 9C respectively.

(c)

The maximum temperature occurs at t 5.

Since the graph passes through (90, 0.5),


we have
0.5 asin90 + bcos90
0.5 a(1)

(b)

(c)

a 0.5

Open-ended Questions

The maximum and minimum values are 1.5 and


1.6 respectively.

44.

(a)

p.213

Since cos 150

3
, we have the
2

following
possible equation
2 cos 3 0

Draw the straight line y 0.6 on the graph.

(or other reasonable answers)


(b)

2 cos

3 0

cos

3
2

180 30, 180 + 30, 180 30 + 360


or 180 + 30 + 360

The straight line cuts the curve at x 50, so the

150, 210, 510 or 570

solution of 0.5sinx + 1.5cosx 0.6 for


0 x 180 is 50.

The other solutions are 210, 510 or 570.

(or other reasonable answers)

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Trigonometry (1)
45.

(a)

1 cos(x 60) 1

5.

h h cos( x 60) h (for h

B
In ABC,
A + B + C 180

0) or

h h cos( x 60) h (for h

B + C 180 A

0)

sin(B + C) sin(180 A)
sinA

h k h cos( x 60) k h k or
h k h cos( x 60) k h k

6.

The maximum value of y is 6

D
sin cos100
0.17365

h + k 6 or h + k 6

180 + 10 or 360 10

Two possible pairs of h and k are:


h 2, k 4 or h 1, k 5

190 or 350

(or other reasonable answers)


7.
(b)

cos x

3cos x 1

3cos x
3
3 1 3cos x 1 3 1

the minimum value of y


2 + 4
2
When h 1, k 5,

0 (3 cos x 1)

the minimum value of y


1 + 5
4

0 (3 cos x 1) 2 16

Multiple-choice Questions

p.214

8.

9.

A
Since 180 x 270, 90

1.

2.

D
Since 280 lies in quadrant IV,

4.

C
Since 90 180, lies in quadrant II.

10.

11.

Let P(x, k) be a point on the terminal side of ,


where x 0.
We have y k and r 1.

12 x 2 k 2

x2 1 k 2
x 1 k 2 or

tan

(4) 2

x
135.
2

x
lies in quadrant II.
2
x
x
x

sin 0 , cos 0 , tan 0 .


2
2
2

reference angle 360 280 80


3.

The maximum value is 16.

(or other reasonable answers)

When h 2, k 4,

1 k 2 (rejected)

y
x

cos(90 ) sin(180 )
tan(360 )
cos(180 (90 )) sin

tan
cos(90 ) sin

sin
cos
cos
sin sin

sin
sin cos

k
1 k 2

182

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New Progress in Senior Mathematics 5 (Compulsory Part) Solution Guide

12.

D
sin x 1

18.

sin 4 2 tan 2 cos 4 cos 4


sin 2
cos 4 cos 4
sin 4 2
2
cos

x 270
13.

C
(2cos x + 1)(cos x 1) 0

1
cos x
2

or

sin 4 2 sin 2 cos 2 cos 4


(sin 2 cos 2 ) 2
cos x 1

x 180 60 or 180 + 60

12
1

x 0

120 or 240

14.

x 0, 120 or 240

3 sin 2 x 13 sin x 4 0
(3 sin x 1)(sin x 4) 0

sin x

1
or sinx 4 (rejected)
3

x 19.47122 or 180 19.47122


x 19.5 or 160.5
15.

B
sin x 1
x 90

16.

B
Since the graph passes through (0,

1
), we have
2

1
cos(0 )
2
1
cos
2
60
17.

C
Since the graph passes through (0, 3), we have

3 a cos 0 b
3 a (1) b
a b 3..............(1)
Since the graph passes through (180, 1), we have

1 a cos180 b
1 a ( 1) b

a b 1..........( 2)
(1) + (2):

2b 2
b1

Substituting b 1 into (1),

a 1 3
a2

a = 2, b 1

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