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UseofType(3)WeldsinASMEPressureVesselDesign|PVEng

Use of Type (3) welds in ASME Pressure Vessel Design


File: PVE-6022, Last Updated: March 23, 2012, By: LRB
Conclusion: Table UW-12 provides 8 types of welds with appropriate efficiencies to use when differing levels of radiography is
applied. Confusion exists when trying to determine if a single welded circ weld in a small vessel is type 1 or type 3. Our answer
based on experience and code interpretations is that it is a type (1) weld as long as the back side can be inspected; otherwise it
becomes a type (3).

Definition of Type (1):


Joint Description: Butt joints as attained by double-welding or by other means which will obtain the same quality of deposited
weld metal on the inside and outside weld surfaces to agree with the requirements of UW-35. Welds using metal backing strips
which remain in place are excluded.
Efficiency: is 1, 0.85 or 0.7 depending upon the degree of radiography applied

A long seam welded from one side with no backing strip


always Type 1

Definition of Type (3):


Joint Description: Single-welded butt joint with- out use of backing strip
Restrictions: Circumferential butt joints only, not over 5/8 thick and not over 24 inch outside diameter
Efficiency: is 0.60 only for no radiography

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UseofType(3)WeldsinASMEPressureVesselDesign|PVEng

A circ seam on a small vessel welded from one side only with no
backing strip is it Type (1) or Type (3) ?
The confusion always comes from determining what is the equivalent of double welding? Can a joint be welded from one side
only and still be considered to be the equivalent of double welding? ASME has a few of interpretations that directly address this
issue:

Interpretation:

VIII-1-83-220

Subject:

Section VIII, Division 1; UW-12

Date Issued:

February 22, 1984

File:

BC83-557

Question (1):

For vessels of small diameter, not accessible for welding from the inside, as
well as for vessels of large diameter where welding from the inside is
possible, it is proposed to weld both the longitudinal and circumferential
seams with single side full penetration welds. TIG and SMAW or TIC; and
SAW processes with argon backing for the root run will be used. May these
be considered to be Type 1 joints in Table UW-12 of Section VIII, Division
1?

Reply (1):

Yes.

Question (2):

Will the degree of examination affect the determination of the type of joints?

Reply (2):

No.

Interpretation:

VIII-1-83-291

Subject:

Section VIII, Division 1; UW-12

Date Issued:

June 29, 1984

File:

BC84-191

Question:

For vessels of small diameter, not accessible for welding from inside, as well
as for vessels of large diameters where welding from inside is possible, it is
proposed to weld both longitudinal and circumferential seams with single
side full penetration welds. GTAW, GMAW, SMAW, and SAW processes with
fiberglass tape backing for the root run will be used. May these be

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UseofType(3)WeldsinASMEPressureVesselDesign|PVEng

considered to be Type No. (1) joints as described in Table UW-12 of


Section VIII, Division 1?
Reply:

Yes.

Interpretation:

VIII-1-83-267

Subject:

Section VIII, Division 1; Table UW-12, Joint Types

Date Issued:

May 31, 1984

File:

BC84-090

Question:

A circumferential joint of greater than 24 in. 0. D. is made with a singlewelded full penetration butt weld. Is this a Type No. (1) joint as given in
Table UW-12 of Section VIII, Division 1?

Reply:

Yes, provided the requirements in UW-35 and UW-37(d) are met.

So it is permissible to consider single sided welds as type 1. Is it also permissible to consider them as Type (3)?

Interpretation:

VIII-1-92-138

Subject:

Section VIII, Division 1 (1992 Edition, 1992 Addenda); Table UW-12

Date Issued:

March 17, 1993

File:

BC93-110

Questions:

Under the limitation requirements for Type No. (3) joints given in Table UW12 of Section VIII, Division 1, may the following be single welded and still be
in compliance using only circumferential butt joints:
1) Weld a vessel that has a 3/8 in. thick wall and is 20 in. in diameter?
2) Weld a vessel that has a 3/8 in. thick wall and is 30 in. in diameter?

Replies:

1) No.
2) No.

This interpretation prohibits the use of Type (3) joints regardless of the vessel size (over or under 24 inch in diameter). If Type (3)
is not allowed, all that is left is Type (1). Personally I would have expected (1) above, the 20 inch diameter vessel to be allowed as
a Type (3)
Our Experience indicates that the use of Type (1) joints is acceptable as long as the back side of the weld can be visually
inspected after welding. We have been asked to use Type (3) occasionally primarily when the back sides of welds cannot be
inspected. About once every few years we will be asked to change from a Type (1) to Type (3) weld for other reasons which we
will make as requested. These requests are not surprising as this section of the code book is a mess and very hard to
understand or reach consensus on. The change from Type (3) to Type (1) usually does not affect the design of a vessel as the
long seam efficiency normally governs the design thickness.

Contact Us
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UseofType(3)WeldsinASMEPressureVesselDesign|PVEng

For further information on this subject. Please contact our team members below.
Laurence Brundrett
B.Sc., P.Eng.
lrb@pveng.com
(519)880-9808 ext 223

Brian Munn
C.E.T.
bem@pveng.com
(519)880-9808 ext 245

CONTACT

Pressure Vessel Engineering Ltd.


519-880-9808
info@pveng.com
120 Randall Dr, Waterloo, ON N2V 1C6

2016 Pressure Vessel Engineering.

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