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..

:
.
(, , )

2009

,
,
, .
, ,
(. ). .

. .
, .

1. .

. , (
).

. , , () .
( , , ).

n-. Rn . n = 2
.
1.1 Rn . .
.
{x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn | ai xi bi , i = 1, . . . , n},
ai , bi , ai < bi , i = 1, . . . , n, n-
Rn .
bi ai = bj aj i, j = 1, . . . , n,
n- .
. k ; xi = m 10k , m = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
, Rn
}
{

m+1
n m
Q = x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) R
xi
, i = 1, . . . , n .
10k
10k
, Rn
k, Q, , k.

4
, ( n = 1) Q
, ( n = 2) , (
n = 3) .
x2

x1

R2
,
.

5
1. .
.
2. k 10n k + 1.
3. G Rn , k k,
G.
.
.
. 2 k. ,
.
1.2 .
(n = 1), (n = 2)
(n = 3) n- .
. Q k.
Q = 10nk

(1)

.
. S , ..

S=
Qi ,
i

Qi k. S
S

S =
Qi .
i

, ..
= 0.

6
:

1. : S 0
S. S = 0 , S = .

2. : (P S) P + S P S. , P S ,
(P S) = P + S

3. : P S, P Q.

1.3 .

F Rn .
k. Fk
k, F , F k
k, F .

x2
Fk

Fk

x1

:
Fk F F k .

(2)

, Fk F k . ,
F Rn ,
, F . F k , F = .

8
,
(2) ,
Fk F k .
(3)
, k Fk , F k ,
..
F1 F2 . . . Fk . . . F . . . F k . . . F 1 .

(4)

, Fk F k , {Fk }
, {F k } , ,
0 F1 F2 . . . Fk . . .
. . . F k . . . F 2 F 1 .

(5)

(5) , {Fk } ,
{F k } . F
F = lim Fk ,
k

F = lim F k .
k

. F F
F .
. F = F , , F .
n- F , ..
F = F = F.
, ,
. , ..
, :

9
1. .
2. F = 0, F F = 0.
3.
= {x Rn | ai xi bi , i = 1, . . . , n}
, ..
=

(bi ai ).

i=1

4. A A Rn ,
..
A 0.
, . , R1 Q0
[0, 1]. k
k Q0 . ,
Q0 . , .. Q0 [0, 1],
Q0 1.
. , Q k0 Rn
(1) ,
.. 10k0 n .
. k. k < k0 ,
k Q. , Fk
k, Q , .. Fk = , , Fk = 0.
k = k0 , Fk0 = Q Fk0 = 10k0 n . , k > k0 ,
, Fk = Q Fk = 10k0 n .
Q
Q = lim Fk = 10k0 n .
k

Q. Q
{
}
m
mi + 1

i

,
i
=
1,
.
.
.
,
n
,
Q = (x1 , . . . , xn )
i
10k0
10k0

10
mi , i = 1, . . . , n. k > k0 .
F k k,
Q. ,
}
{
m
1
mi + 1
1

i
k
F = (x1 , . . . , xn )
k xi
+ k , i = 1, . . . , n
10k0
10
10k0
10

1
1
+2 k,
k
10
100
(10kk0 + 2)n k.
(
F k = (10kk0 + 2)n 10kn = 10k0 n 1 +
, ,

)n

10kk0

Q = lim F k = 10k0 n .
k

, .
F k k k0 .
, , Q . , Q
10k0 n , (1) .
. , , F = [a, b] R1 , a < b, .
. , a > 0.
a b
a = a0 , a1 a2 a3 . . . ak . . . ,
b = b0 , b1 b2 b3 . . . bk . . . .

a0 , a1 a2 a3 . . . ak a a0 , a1 a2 a3 . . . ak +

1
,
10k

11
1
.
10k
k. Fk ( ) k,
[a, b], F k k,
[a, b]. ,

b0 , b1 b2 b3 . . . bk b b0 , b1 b2 b3 . . . bk +

b0 , b1 . . . bk a0 , a1 . . . ak

2
Fk
10k

F k b0 , b1 . . . bk a0 , a1 . . . ak +

2
.
10k

k , ,
b a F F b a.
[a, b]. [a, b]
b a.
.
1. , Q k Rn k, Q = 10kn .
2. R1 :
) A = {1},
) X = {1, 2, . . . , n},
) Y = { 21n | n N},
) Z = { 2mn | 1 m 2n 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .}.
3. , Rn
.
4. , ,
:
) (a, b) R;
) = {(x1 , x2 ) R2 | ai xi bi , i =
1, 2} R2 ;

12
) = {(x1 , x2 ) R2 | ai < xi < bi , i =
1, 2} R2 .
5 . .
6 . ,
)
;
) , , .
7. X1 X2 Rn . ,
(X1 ) (X2 ),

(X1 ) (X2 ).

8. , (X) = 0, X
.
9. M B M . , B
?
10. M .
M ?
11. M . M M ?
12. M M . M ?
13. R2 .
14. X = {(x, y) | x [0, 1]Q, y = 0}.
X R2 ? , .
15. A Rn . A
R1 ?
16 . {xk } Rn . ,
{xk Rn | k = 1, 2, 3 . . . , } . .
1.4 . .

Rn .

13
. ,
.
, Q0 [0, 1] R1 . , Q0 [0, 1],
.
. Rn1 .
(x1 , . . . , xn1 ), (x1 , . . . , xn1 )
, (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) .

C = {x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) Rn | (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) ,
(x1 , . . . , xn1 ) xn (x1 , . . . , xn1 )} .
. f (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) , Rn1 .
epi f = {x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn |
(x1 , . . . , xn1 ) , xn = f (x1 , . . . , xn1 )}
Rn .
. epi f Rn f (x1 , . . . , xn1 ), (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) Rn1 .
. ,
Rn1 , (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) ,
C Rn .
.
17. , A, B Rn
:
) (A B) A B,
) (A B) A B,
) (A\B) A B,
X X.

14
18. A B . , A B, A B, A\B (A B) = 0, (A B) = 0,
(A\B) = 0.
19. A B A B . , A
B ?

20. X Rn ,
a = (a1 , . . . , an )

. X + a = {y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) | yi =
xi + ai , x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) X, i = 1, . . . , n}. ,

X +
a X.
21 . ,
.
22. , .
23 . ,
, .
24. :
) = {(x, y) R2 | x2 + y 2 1} R2 ,
) = {(x, y, z) R3 | x2 + y 2 + z 2 1} R3 ,
) = {(x, y) R2 | x2 + y 2 = 1} R2 ,
) = {(x, y) R2 | x [0, 1] Q, y [0, 1]} R2 ,
) = {(x, y, z) R3 | x2 + y 2 1, 0 z 1} R3 ,
) = {(x, y, z) R3 | x2 + y 2 = 1, 0 z 1} R3 ?
25. ?
1.5 .
,

. .

15
. A B . A
B, A B, A\B .
. A B .

(A B) A + B

( ).

. Ai , i = 1, . . . k.

k
k
)
(

Ai
Ai .
i=1

i=1

. A B
.
(A B) = A + B

( ).

. A B A B.

A B

( ).

.
26. , A B, A = B,
A = B.
27 . A B . ,
) (A B) = (A\B) + (B\A) + (A B);
) (A B) = (A) + (B) (A B).
28. Ak , k =
1, . . . , p,
p

A=
Ak .
k=1

16
, A = 0.
29. Ak , k N,

A=
Ak
k=1

. , A = 0.
30 . Ak , k N,
Ak ,
A=

Ak

k=1

2. .
, .
.
,
, n- . , T
(x). Ti , i = 1, . . . , k. (x) Ti
(xi ), xi ,
Ti .
k

(xi )|Ti |,

i=1

|Ti | Ti .
Ti .

17
(x) T . ,
, .
2.1 .
Rn .

. = {i }ki=1

i , i = 1, . . . , k , , :
1. (i j ) = 0 i = j ;

2. ki=1
i = .
. , i
. , .
.
diam = sup (x, y)
x,y

.
.
| | = max {diam i },
i=1,...,k

diam i i , .
k 1
. 1 = {1j }j=1
2 =
l

2
{2i }i=1
, 2i 2 1j 1 ,
2i 1j . , 2
, 2 1 .
:
1. 1 2 2 3 , 1 3 ().
2. 1 2
,

1 ,

2 ().

18

. = {i }ki=1
.
k

=
i .

i=1

. > 0
, | | < .
2.2 . .
Rn y = f (x),

x . = {i }ki=1
. i i , i = 1, . . . , k .
.
= (f ) = (f ; 1 , . . . , k ) =

f ( i )i

i=1

f (x), .
. f (x)
,
m =

k m

f ( i,m )m
i ,

i=1
k

m
m = {m
i }i=1 ,
|m | m , i,m
m
i , i = 1, . . . , km , m = 1, 2, . . .
,
f (x)

f (x) dx
. . . f (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 . . . dxn .

19
,

f (x) dx = lim m (f ; 1,m , . . . , km ,m ).


m

, ,
f (x) dx, : >

0 > 0, = {i }ki=1
i
| | i , i = 1, . . . , k ,





f (x)dx (f ; 1 , . . . , k ) < .

f (x) dx = lim (f ; 1 , . . . , k ).
| |0

. , , .

n > 1, f (x) dx .

n = 2 , n = 3 ,
n n-.
. Rn ; f (x) = 1
x . f (x) .

= {i }ki=1

i=1

f ( i )i ,

20
i , i , i = 1, . . . , k . ,
f ( i ) = 1 i = 1, . . . , k , ,
=

i = .

i=1

1 dx = .

. Rn ,
n 2. f (x), ,

f (x) dx = 0.

, f (x) . ,
.
. , n = 1 = [a, b] R , ( , )
, , , .. .
.

xy dxy,
0x1
0y1
,

x=

i
j
, y = , i, j = 0, . . . , n.
n
n

21
.
31. :
) = {(x, y) R2 | x2 + y 2 1},
) = {(x, y) R2 | x2 + y 2 = 1},
) = {(x, y) R2 | x2 + y 2 < 1},
) O(0,0), A(1,0), B(0,1),
) = {(x, y) R2 | x [0, 1], y = 0},
) = {(0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 0)} R2 .
32. n- Rn .
33. f (x) = C, C const, x , Rn
.

f (x) dx.

34.

(x2 + y 2 ) dxy,
1x2
1y3
,

x=1+

i
2j
, y = 1 + , i, j = 0, . . . , n.
n
n

35. ,
f (x), x Rn , ,

f (x) dx = 0.

22
36 . f (x), x Rn , , > 0,

f (x) dx = 0.

, f (x) = 0 .
37 .
Rn , n 2, f (x) ,

f (x) dx

.
2.3 . .

, .
. f (x)
Rn ; = {i }ki=1
,
mi = inf f (x), Mi = sup f (x), i = 1, 2, . . . , k .
xi

xi


s =

i=1

mi i , S =

Mi i

i=1


.
s , S
s S .

23
, ,
1 2
s1 S2 .
f (x) s S .

lim s , lim S .
| |0

| |0

. F ( ), . ,
a F ( ) | | 0, > 0 > 0, ,
| | < ,
|F ( ) a| < .
. f (x) . f (x)
,
lim (S s ) = 0.
| |0

lim s = lim S = f (x)dx.


| |0

| |0

Rn .

. f (x)

(f ; ) = sup (f (x ) f (x ))
x ,x

f (x) .
, .

24
. f (x) . f (x)
,
lim

| |0

(f ; i ) i = 0.

i=1

.
. f (x)
, f (x) ,
> 0 ,
S s < .
:
> 0 : S s < .
, .

.
. f (x) , . f (x)
.
. , .
. ,
{
0, y [0, 12 ],
f (x, y) =
1, y ( 12 , 1]
= [0, 1] [0, 1].

f (x, y) dxdy.

25
. , f (x, y)
. .
> 0 , S s < .
:
]}
{
[
1
,
1 = (x, y) | x [0, 1], y 0,
2
{
(
]}
1
2 = (x, y) | x [0, 1], y
,1 ,
2

= {1 , 2 }
. , 1 M1 = m1 = 0, =
1
1
1
2 ; 2 M2 = m2 = 1, 2 = 2 . , S = s = 2 ,
, 0 = S s < , > 0.
, f (x, y)
,

1
f (x, y) dxdy = .
2

. R2 = [0, 1] [0, 1]
{
f (x, y) =

0, x ,
1, x .

n
ij 1/n, i, j = 1, . . . , n.
R, i, j =
1, . . . , n
mij =

inf
(x,y)ij

f (x, y) = 0, Mij =

sup
(x,y)ij

f (x, y) = 1.

26
,
S s =

(Mij mij )ij = 1

i, j=1

n. n | | , S s . , f (x, y) .
.
38. S s
f (x, y) = xy = {(x, y) | 0 x, y 1},

x=

i
j
, y = , i, j = 0, . . . , n.
n
n

39. S s
f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 = {(x, y) | 1 x 2, 1 y 3},

x=1+

i
2j
, y = 1 + , i, j = 0, . . . , n.
n
n

2.4 .

: , .

1. , 1 dx = .

2. fi (x) , i , i = 1, . . . , k,
k

i=1

i fi (x)

27


k

i fi (x) dx =

i=1

i=1

fi (x) dx ( ).

3. 1 2 , 1 2 , f (x)
2 ,
1 .

4. , = {i }ki=1
,
f (x) , i i , i = 1, . . . , k , f (x)

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx ( ).

i=1

5. f (x) g(x)
x f (x) g(x),

f (x) dx g(x) dx.

6. f (x) g(x) , f (x) g(x)


.
inf |g(x)| > 0,

f (x)/g(x) .
7. f (x) , |f (x)|





f (x)dx |f (x)|dx.

28
8. f (x) , , > 0. , ,
f (x) x0 , f (x0 ) > 0.

f (x)dx > 0.

, f (x)
,

|f (x)|dx = 0,

f (x) 0 .
9. f (x) g(x) Rn ,
m f (x) M , x , g(x) , [m, M ],

f (x)g(x)dx = g(x)dx.

. ,
, f (x)
g(x) , f (x) ,
g(x) ,
,

g(x)dx.

f (x)g(x)dx = f ()

.
40 .

dx dy

,
x2 + y 2 + 24
x2 +y 2 25

29
, ,
, .
41 .

x + y dxdy,

, x = 0, y = 0 x + y = 1,
x = const, y = const, x+y = const

.
42. X(x) Y (y) x [a, b]
y [c, d] .

b
X(x)dx

X(x)Y (y)dxdy =
a

d
Y (y)dy,
c

R = [a, b] [c, d].


43 . :

)
ln(x2 + y 2 )dxdy,

|x|+|y|1

)1
1 (x2 y 2 ) 3 dxdy.

x2 +y 2 4

44 . ,

dxdydz

,
2
(x a) + (y b)2 + (z c)2
x2 +y 2 +z 2 R2

a, b, c, R , a2 + b2 + c2 > R2 .

30
2.5 .

. . (x) (x)
[a, b] , (x) (x) x [a, b].
= {(x, y) R2 | a x b, (x) y (x)}.

R2 [a, b] , , .
. f (x, y)
x [a, b] [(x), (x)] y.
(x)

(6)
F (x) =
f (x, y) dy
(x)

, x,
b ( (x)

)
f (x, y) dy dx
a

(x)

.
(x)
b

dx
f (x, y) dy.
a

(x)

. ( ) f (x, y)
P = [a, b] [c, d]. x
[a, b] ,
d
F (x) =

f (x, y)dy,
c

31
x.
b

b
F (x) dx =

d
dx

f (x, y) dy
c

f (x, y) dxdy =

dx

f (x, y) dy.

(7)

. x y , .., ,
y y [c, d],

d
f (x, y) dxdy =

b
dy

f (x, y) dx.

,

.
. ( ) (x) (x).
f (x, y) x [a, b] ,

(x)

F (x) =

f (x, y) dy.
(x)

b
F (x) dx =
a

(x)

dx
a

(x)

f (x, y) dy,

32

b
f (x, y) dxdy =

dx
a

(x)

f (x, y) dy.

(x)

. , , , .
.
.
2
I=

2x
dx

ln y dy.
x

.
y:
2x

y=2x

ln y dy = (yln y y)
= 2x ln (2x) 2x x ln x + x =
y=x

= x ln x + 2x ln 2 x
,
2
(x ln x + 2x ln 2 x) dx =

I=
1

(
=

x2 ln x x2 (2 ln 2 1)x2

+
2
4
2

) x=2

= 5 ln 2 9 .

4
x=1

.

I=
xy dxdy,

33
[0, 1] [0, 1].
. , (7).

1
1
1
1
1
I=
dx xy dy = x dx y dy = .
4
0

.
2
sin x

I=
dx
f (x, y) dy.
0

.
0 x , 0 y 2 sin x.
Oy [0, 2]. y = const
[0, 2] (y) (y),
y = 2 sin x [0, ]: (y) =
arcsin (y/2), (y) = arcsin (y/2). ,

0 y 2, arcsin (y/2) x arcsin (y/2).


,
arcsin
(y/2)

2
I=

dy
0

f (x, y) dx.
arcsin (y/2)

.

(x y) dx,

34
, y = 2 x2 , y = 2x 1.
. .

{

y = 2 x2 ,
y = 2x 1,

, A(3, 7) B(1, 1) .
, [3, 1],
Ox. ,

1
(x y) dx =

dx
1

2x
2

(x y) dy =

2x1

) y=2x2
)
1 (
1 (
1 2
3
64
1 4
3
2
=
xy y
dx = .
x x + 2x + x
dx =

2
2
2
15
3

y=2x1

.

4
I=
1 y 2 dxdy,

, x = 0, y = 1, y = x.
. [0, 1],
Ox, y = x, y = 1.
,
1
1
4
I=
dx
1 y 2 dy.
0

, .

35
, [0, 1],
Oy, x = y x = 0 . ,
1
I=

dy
0

y
4

y 2 dx

1
4

2
1 y 2 y dy = .
5

,
.
.
45.

1
y cos2 xdy.

dx
46.

3
y(x3 y)dy.

dx
0

47.

(x y)dy.

dx
1

48.

x3

e2y

1
dy
0

ln xdy.
ey

49. :
1 1
)

1 1
x dxdy,

xy dxdy,
0

36

)

1 1

1 1
x sin (xy) dxdy,

(x2 + y) dxdy,

sin x cos y dxdy,

xp y q dxdy, p, q > 0.

)
0

50.

(x2 + 2y) dxdy,


D

D x = 0, x = 1, y = 0, y = 2.
51.

dxdy
,
(x + y)2
D

D x = 3, x = 4, y = 1, y = 2.
52.

xy dxdy,
D

D x = 0, y = 0, x + y = 1.
53.

(cos 2x + sin y) dxdy,
D

D x = 0, y = 0, 4x + 4y = 0.
54.

sin(x + y) dxdy,
D

D x = 0, y = /2, y = x.
55.

x dxdy,
D

D O(0, 0), A(1, 0), B(1, 1).

37

56.

y dxdy,
D

D O(0, 0), A(2, 1), B(2, 1).


57.

(x + y) dxdy,
D

D O(0, 0), A(1, 0), B(1, 2), C(0, 1).


58.

2y dxdy,
D

D y = x y = 0, x + y =
2.
59.
2
x
dxdy,
y2
D

D x = 2, y = x y = 1/x.
60.

ex dxdy,
D

D x = 0, y = 1, y = 2
x = ln y.
61. :
1
)

x2
dx

1
)
0

2
f (x, y)dy,

dx

32y

1
)

f (x, y)dy,
x

x3
2y

f (x, y)dx,
dy

2x

dy
0

f (x, y)dx,

38
1
)

ex
f (x, y)dy,

dx

ex

2ax

2a
dx
0

1y

dy
0

f (x, y)dy,

2axx2

2
f (x, y)dx,

dy
1

1y 2

f (x, y)dx.

ln y

62 . :

1x2

sin x
dx
(1 y 2 )3/2 dy, )
dy
dx,
x

)
0

1/5
y

(1 x )

3 1/2

dy
0

y 1/2

dx, )

1
y2

dx
0

y 4 x2 dy.

63. :

)
x3 y 5 dxdy, D = {(x, y) | |x| + |y| 1},
D


x2 dxdy, D = {(x, y) | |x| + |y| 1},

)
)

|x y 2 | dxdy, D = {(x, y) | |y| 1, 0 x 2},

max{sin x, sin y} dxdy, D = {(x, y) | 0 x , 0 y },


D


sign(x2 y 2 2) dxdy, D = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 4}.
D

39
2.6 n- .
n- n 3.
. f (x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn )
n = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) R2 | (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) xn (x1 , . . . , xn1 )},
(x1 , . . . , xn1 ) (x1 , . . . , xn1 )
n1 Rn1 .
(x1 , . . . , xn1 ) n1 ,
(x1 , . . . , xn1 )
(x1 ,...,x
n1 )

F (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) =

f (x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn )dxn .


(x1 ,...,xn1 )

(n 1)-

...

(x1 ,...,x
n1 )

dx1 dx2 . . . dxn1

n1

f (x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn )dxn


(x1 ,...,xn1 )

. . . f (x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn )dx1 . . . dxn =


n

...

n1

(x1 ,...,x
n1 )

f (x1 , . . . , xn1 , xn )dxn .

dx1 dx2 . . . dxn1


(x1 ,...,xn1 )

n = 3. f (x, y, z)
R3 .
= {(x, y, z) R2 | (x, y) xy , (x, y) z (x, y)},

40
xy R2 , (x, y)
(x, y) xy .

f (x, y, z)dxdydz

, ..


f (x, y, z)dxdydz =

(x,y)

dxdy
xy

f (x, y, z)dz.

(8)

(x,y)

xy

xy = {(x, y) R2 | a x b, 1 (x) y 1 (x)},
1 (x) 1 (x) [a, b], ,
(8)
xy ,

1 (x)

b
dx

f (x, y, z)dxdydz =
a

(x,y)

dy

1 (x)

f (x, y, z)dz.

(9)

(x,y)

(x0 ) {x =
x0 }, ..
(x0 ) = {(x, y, z) R3 | x = x0 },
x [a, b] (x, y, z) (x) 1 (x) y 1 (x) (x, y) z (x, y). ,
(9) y z,

b
f (x, y, z)dxdydz =


dx

f (x, y, z)dydz.
(x)

41
, f (x, y, z) = 1,


dxdydz = 3 ,
dydz = 2 (x),

(x)

3 (), 2 ().

b
3 = 2 (x)dx,
a

..
(x).
.

z dxdydz,
I=


0 x 1/2, x y 2x,
0 z 1 x2 y 2 .
. xy ,
xy = {(x, y) R2 | 0 x 1/2, x y 2x}.
xy .
(9). ,
1

2
I=

dx
0
1

1
2

2
0

1
z dz =
2

dy
x

2
2
1x
y

2x

2x
dx

0
1

z=1x2 y2

z
dy =
2

z=0

)
2 (
2x
1 2 y=2x
1
2
2
2
dx (1 x y ) dy =
y yx y
dx =
2
3
y=x
x

42
1

)
2 (
1
10 3
7
=
x x
dx =
.
2
3
192
0

.

I=
x2 yz dxdydz,

x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x+y +z 2 =
0.
. Oxy ,
x = 0, y = 0, y = 2 x.
z = 2 x y, z = 0. ,

2xy
2x
2x

1
2
z dz =
x dx
y dx
x dx
y(2 x y)2 dy =
2
2

I=
0

1
=
24

2
x2 (2 x)4 dx =

16
.
315

.

I=
y dxdydz,

= {(x, y, z) | 0 z 1, |x| z, z y, x2 + y 2 + z 2 4}.


. |x| z, 0 z 1
Oxz. y.

43
, y 0,

z y 4 x2 z 2 .

, 4 x2 z 2 z. . ,

,
2
2
y = z y = 4 x y .
Oxz
{(x, z) | 0 z 1, z x z}.
,

dz

I=
0

4x
2 z 2

1
y dy =
2

dx
z

1
dz
0

(4 x2 2z 2 ) dx =

)
1 (
7 3
17
=
4z z
dz = .
3
12
0

. n Rn ,
n = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) | 0 xn xn1 . . . x2 x1 1}.
n-

In = x1 x2 . . . xn dx.
n

. , , , n ,
n = {x1 , . . . , xn ) | 0 x1 1, 0 x2 x1 ,

44
0 x3 x2 , . . . , 0 xn xn1 }.
, ,
x1

1
In =

xn1

dx1
0

dx2 . . .

x1 . . . xn1 xn dxn =

.
64. :
1

dx
0

xy

dx
y

0
)

dy

)
3

y 2 cos x dx,

dz
0

z2 x2

z
dz

zy

dz
,
x(1 + x2 y 2 z 2 )

dy

xyz dz,

xy
dy (x + y + z) dz,

x
dx

dy
0

1
)

xy 2 z 2 dz,

dx

3yz
3z

dz
dy
1z

dx
.
(x + y + z)2

1
.
(2n)!!

45
65. :
1 1 1
)

xyz dxdydz,
0 1 0

1 1 1
)

(xy + yz + xz) dxdydz,


0

0 0

sin(x + y + z) dxdydz.
0

66.

x2 y 2 z dxdydz,
D

D x = 1, x = 3, y = 0, y = 2,
z = 2, z = 5.
67.

dxdydz
,
(x + y + z + 1)3
D

D x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x+y+z = 1.
68.

xyz dxdydz,
D

D x = 0, y = 0, z = 0
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1.
69.

x dxdydz,
D

46
D z = 0, z = 3
x2 + y 2 = 1.
70 . :

xy 2 z 3 dxdydz,
)

z = xy, y = x, x = 1, z = 0;
(
)

x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 + 2
a2
b
c

)
dxdydz,


x2 y 2 z 2
+ 2 + 2 = 1, a, b, c > 0,
a2
b
c

x2 + y 2 dxdydz,
)


x2 + y 2 = z 2 ,

z = 1.

71.
:
1
)

x+y
1x

f (x, y, z) dz,
dx
dy

1
)

1x2

dx
1

1x2

1
dy

f (x, y, z) dz,
x2 +y 2

47
1
)

1
dx

2 +y 2
x

f (x, y, z) dz,

dy
0

1xy
1x

dx
dy
f (x, y, z) dz,

)
0

1
)

dx
0

2
dx

f (x, y, z) dz,

dy
0

1
)

1|y1|

dy

f (x, y, z) dz.

72 .

,
:
x
)

1
)

f () d,
0

1
dx

x+y

dy
0

f (z) dz.
0

73 . f (x1 , . . . , xn )
= {(x1 , . . . , xn ) | 0 xi x, i = 1, . . . , n}.

x1

dx2 . . .

dx1
0

xn1

x
dxn1 . . .

dxn

f (x1 , . . . , xn ) dxn =

xn

f (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 .
x2

48
74 . :
1 1
)

1
(x21 + x22 + . . . + x2n ) dx1 dx2 . . . dxn ,

...
0

1 1
)

1
(x1 + x2 + . . . + xn )2 dx1 dx2 . . . dxn .

...
0

75 .

n Rn , .

)
1 dx,
n

(x1 + x2 + . . . + xn ) dx.
n

2.7 .
, .
f (y1 , . . . , yn ) , ..


f (y) dy =

...

f (y1 , . . . , yn ) dy1 . . . dyn ,

(10)

Rn
y1 , . . . , yn . , y1 , . . . , yn
x1 , . . . , xn , ..

y1 = 1 (x1 , . . . , xn ),

y2 = 2 (x1 , . . . , xn ),
(11)
..................,

yn = n (x1 , . . . , xn ).

49
(11)
y = (x),
, x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) n- , n 1 , . . . , n .
x,
(11) .
: = ( ). , , (11) , .. x = 1 (y) ,
= 1 ().
. x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) 1 (x), . . . , n (x).

2
n
1
. . .
x1
x1
x1
1 2

x2 x2 . . . xn2

...

n
1
2
.
.
.
xn
xn
xn
, ,

D(y)
D(y1 , . . . , yn )

.
D(x)
D(x1 , . . . , xn )
.
. (11) . 1 , . . . , n . (11)
. f (x) .

D(y)


f (y)dy = f ((x))
(12)
dx.
D(x)

(12)

. . . f (y1 , . . . , yn ) dy1 dy2 . . . dyn =

50

=

...

f (1 (x1 . . . , xn ), . . . , n (x1 , . . . , xn ))

D(y , . . . , y )

1
n

dx1 dx2 . . . dxn .
D(x1 , . . . , xn )

, : (12) , .
.

S, , , n S .
. dy1 dy2 . . . dyn
Oy1 y2 . . . yn .
(11)
Oy1 y2 . . . yn Ox1 x2 . . . xn .

I=

...

1 dy1 dy2 . . . dyn

n- . (12),



D(y)
I=
...
dx1 dx2 . . . dxn .
D(x)

D(y)



dx1 dx2 . . . dxn
D(x)

Ox1 x2 . . . xn .

51
2.8 .

y1 = y1 (x1 , . . . , xn ),
..................
y = F (x) =

yn = yn (x1 , . . . , xn ),

x ,

(13)

Rnx Rny
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) y1 , y2 , . . . , yn .
x. , ,

yi = yi (x1 , . . . , yn ),

i = 1, . . . , n,

, , , , , ,
. , (13)
y1 = x1 , y2 = x2 , . . . , yn = xn .
, (13)
, ,
x1 , . . . , xn y1 , . . . , yn
. = F ()
.
. r, , x,
y
x = r cos , y = r sin .
(14)
x, y (x, y)
+.
r [0, ), [0, 2). (14)

52
.
r = const
= const, .
(14) r, ..
D(x, y)
= r.
D(r, )
, (0, 0), 2-
.
(12)
(14) .
R3 .
.
r, , h x, y, z
x = r cos , y = r sin , z = h,

(15)

r 0, 0 < 2, < h < +.



Oxy Oxy Oz. (15)


cos r sin 0


D(x, y, z)
= sin r cos 0 = r.
D(r, , h)
0
0
1
. r, ,
x, y, z
x = r cos cos , y = r sin cos , z = r sin ,
r 0, 0 < 2,

.
2
2

(16)

53
, (r, ) ,
(r, , ) M R3 : r -
M , - Oxy Ox (), -
Oxy ().
(16)


cos cos r sin sin r cos sin


(x, y, z)
= sin sin r cos cos r sin sin =
(r, , )

sin
0
r cos
= r2 cos .
. ,

x2 + y 2 dxdy,
I=

x2 + y 2 a2 , a > 0.
.
x = r cos , y = r sin ,
,
= {(r, ) | r [0, a], [0, /2]}.

r2 dr

r2 cos2 + r2 sin2 r drd =

I=

.

I=

x2 sin
y

( xy )
2

dxdy,

d =
0

a3
.
6

54

x2 =

y 2 2y 2
, x =
, y = 2x, y 2 = 4x.
3
3

3
3
x = uv 2 , y = u2 v.
,
{
}

2
= (u, v) R2 | 2 u 4,
.
v
3
3


2 2
D(x, y) 13 u 3 v 3
=
1 1
D(u, u) 23 u 3 v 3

2 13 13
3u v
1 23 23
3u v



1

= .

3

,

I=

2
3

u v

1
=
3

4
v dv

sin

( uv )
2

( uv )

u 3 v 3 sin

1
3

|J| dudv =

2
du =
3

(cos v cos (2v)) dv =

3
.
3

. ,
( )
y
f
I=
dxdy,
x

, x3 +y 3 = 3xy.

55
.
x = r cos , y = r sin ,
:
r=

3 cos sin
.
cos3 + sin3

0 2 , .. r 0, = 0 = 2 (0, 0)
. ,
,
{
}

3 cos sin

= (r, ) | 0 , 0 r
.
2
cos3 + sin3
,
(


I=

r sin
r cos

3 cos sin
cos3 +sin3

2
r drd =

f (tg ) d
0

r dr =
0

9
2

f (tg )

cos2 sin2
d.
(cos3 + sin3 )2

.

I=
z x2 + y 2 dxdydz,

x2 + y 2 = 2x y = 0,
z = 0, z = 1.
. , :
r = cos , 0 z 1.

56
,

{
}

= (r, , z) | 0 r 2 cos , 0 , 0 z 1 .
2

I=

2
cos

2
zr drddz =

1
2

r dr

d
0

z dz =
0

4
=
3

8
cos2 d = .
9

.

(x2 + y 2 ) dxdydz,

I=

x2 + y 2 + z 2 a2 .
. .

= {(r, , ) | 0 r a, 0 2, 0

}.
2

a
r4 cos2 drdd =

I=

r4 dr
0

cos3 d =

d
0

2 5
a
5

(1 sin2 ) d(sin ) =
0

57
(
)
2 4 5
2 5
1
3
=
a sin sin =
a .
5
3
15
0
.
76. ,


f (x, y)dxdy,

) x2 + y 2 a2 ,
) x2 + y 2 ax, a > 0,
) a2 x2 + y 2 b2 ,
) 0 x 1, 0 y 1 x,
) O(0, 0), A(0, 1), B(1, 0), C(1, 1),
) = {(x, y) | (x 1)2 + y 2 1, x2 + (y 1)2 1} ,
) = {(x, y) | (x 1)2 + y 2 1, 1 x y}.
77. , :

cos(x2 + y 2 ) dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1},


ln(1 + x2 + y 2 ) dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1},

x2
dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 x},
x2 + y 2


)
x2 + y 2 dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 y},


y2

1 x2 dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1}.

58
78. ,
:

)
f ( x2 + y 2 ) dxdy, = {x2 + y 2 x, x2 + y 2 y},

xy
x2 + y 2

dxdy, = {

= {x + y
2

(y)
x

|x| y 1},

dxdy,

6x, (x2 + y 2 ) 9(x2 y 2 )}.

79. x y u v :
b
)
a

x
dx f (x, y) dxdy, (0 < a < b, 0 < < ),
x

u = x,
2
)
0

v=

y
,
x

2x

dx
f (x, y) dxdy, u = x + y,

v = y x.

1x

80. u v :

)
(x2 y 2 + y 2 ) dxdy,
D

D = {1/x y 2/x, x y 3x},



(x + y)2
)
dxdy,
x
D

59
D = {1 x y 3 x, x/2 y 2x},

)
xy(x + y) dxdy,
D

D = {1 x y 1, 1/x y 2x},

)
x2 dxdy, D = {x3 2x3 , x 2y 6x},
D

xy(x + y) dxdy,
D

D = {x 1 y x + 1, x 1 y x + 1}.

81.
f (x, y, z) dxdydz D

, :
) D = {a2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 4a2 , y 0},
) D = {x2 + y 2 + z 2 R2 , y 0, x 0, x + y 0},
) D = {x2 + y 2 + z 2 R2 , x2 + y 2 3z 2 },
) D = {x2 + y 2 + z 2 2az, x2 + y 2 z 2 }.

f (x, y, z) dxdydz
82.
D

, :
{x y z
}
) D =
+ + 1, x 0, y 0, z 0 ,
2 3 4
) D = {x2 + y 2 z, 0 z H},
) D = {x2 + y 2 2x, x2 + y 2 1 z, z 0},

) D = {|z| 5 3x2 + 3y 2 , z 2 x2 + y 2 + 1}.

60
83.

)
(x2 + y 2 ) dxdydz, D = {x2 + y 2 2z, 0 z 2},
D


(x2 4xy + y 2 ) dxdydz,

)
D

D = {0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1, },

)
xyz dxdydz,
D

D = {x + y + z 3x, x2 + y 2 + z 2 y, z 0},

)
z dxdydz, D = {x2 + y 2 + z 2 1, z 0},
2

z 2 dxdydz, D = {x2 + y 2 + z 2 1, x2 + y 2 + z 2 2z}.

)
D

84. ,
x = ar cos cos , y = br sin cos , z = cr sin
J = abcr2 cos .
85.
{ 2
}
x
y2 z2
=
+ 2 + 2 1 .
a2
b
c
:
)
( 2
x
y2 z2
)
+ 2 + 2 dxdydz,
a2
b
c


(x2 + y 2 ) dxdydz.

61
86 .

xyz dxdydz,
D


yz = a1 x, yz = a2 x, a2 > a1 > 0,
zx = b1 y, zx = b2 y, b2 > b1 > 0,
xy = c1 z, xy = c2 z, c2 > c1 > 0,

u=

yz
zx
xy
, v=
, w=
.
x
y
z

87
. ,
x dxdydz,
D

D = {a xyz b, cx yz dx, my x ny}.


2.9 .
, , . , .
.

, .
. n
{m }
m=1 , m R ,
n
R ,
1) 1 2 . . . m m 1,

62

2)

m = .

m=1

f (x), x Rn , , .
. {m }
m=1 ,
,

lim
f (x) dx,
m
m

{m }
m=1 . f (x)

f (x) dx.

f
. ,

f (x) dx = lim
f (x) dx.
(17)

m
m

. (17) , , . , , .
. f (x), x ,
Rn , (17) {m },
f (x) ,

lim
f (x) dx = f (x) dx.
m
m

63
, .
.

f (x) dx

|f (x)| dx.

f (x) dx -

, .
,
, .. .
, , ,
.
.
1. f (x) g(x)
. f (x) g(x)

(f (x) g(x)) dx = f (x) dx g(x) dx ().

2. f (x) 0, x . , (17)
{m }, (17)
, ,
..

f (x) dx

64
. ,
(17).
3. f (x) g(x) .
0 f (x) g(x) x . g(x) dx

f (x) dx; f (x) dx

g(x) dx ( ).

4. 1 Rn , 2 Rn
: 1 2
: ) 1 2 ; ) S1 S2 , 1 \S1
2 \S2 : 1 \S1 2 \S2 , ..
.
f (x), x 2 f (x) dx
2

f ((t)) | (t)| dt
1

( ).
.

2
2
I = e(x +y ) dxdy
R2

.
. . k = {x2 + y 2 k 2 }, k = 1, 2, . . ., R2 :

2
2
Ik = e(x +y ) dxdy.
k

65
,
2
Ik =

k
d

r2

k
rdr = 2

er rdr =
2

= (1 ek ) k .
2

, R2
Ik . I .
.

dxdydz

I=
.
2
( x + y 2 + z 2 )
x2 +y 2 +z 2 1

. , .
k ,
k = {1 x2 + y 2 + z 2 k 2 }.


dxdydz

Ik =
,
2
( x + y 2 + z 2 )
k


k
Ik = 4

dr
r2

{
=

ln k ( = 3,
)
.
1
1

1
= 3
3
3 k

, {Ik } k , > 3. , I
> 3, 3.

66
.

xy
I=
dxdy,
x2 + y 2

= {x + y 1, x 0, y 0}.
. ,
, .
, y = x,


xy
I1 = 2
dxdy,
x2 + y 2
1

1 = {x + y 1, x 0, 0 y x}.
,
I1

xy
I2 =
dxdy,
x2 + y 2
2

2 = {x2 + y 2 1, x 0, 0 y x}.
,

/4
(cos sin ) d dr,
I2 =
0

. , I .
.
88. , :

2
2
)
e(x +y ) cos (x2 + y 2 ) dxdy,
R2

67

)

e(x

2 +y 2 )

sin (x2 + y 2 ) dxdy.

R2

89. ( ):


dxdy
dxdy
)
, )
,
p
q
x y
(x + y)p
xy 1
x+y 1
x1
0x1

dxdy
)
,
)
e(x+y) dxdy.
(x2 + y 2 )p
x2 +y 2 1

0xy

90. ,

sin (x2 + y 2 ) dxdy = ,

lim

|x| n
|y| n


lim

n
x2 +y 2 2n

91. ,

sin (x2 + y 2 ) dxdy = 0.

x2 y 2
dxdy
(x2 + y 2 )2

x1, y1

dx
1

x2 y 2
dy,
(x2 + y 2 )2

dy

x2 y 2
dx
(x2 + y 2 )2

68
92 . :


dxdy
dxdy
)
,
)
.
(1 + x2 + xy + y 2 )
(1 + x4 + y 4 )
R2

R2

93. :
1 1 1
)
0

dxdydz
,
xp y q z r


)
x2 +y 2 +z 2 1

e(x

2 +y 2 +z 2 )

dxdydz,

dxdydz
.
(1 x2 y 2 z 2 )p

94. :

y
)
dxdy, = {x 1, 1 y 1},
x

y
dxdy, = {x 1, 1 xy 1},
x

ex
dxdy, = {x 0, 1 y 1}.
y

95. :

1xyz
)
dxdydz,
xyz

= {x + y + z 1, x 0, y 0, z 0},

1xyz
)
dxdydz,

xyz

69
= {x + y + z 1, x 0, y 0, z 0},

xy
dxdydz, = {x 1, y 1, z 1}.
)
z3

70

3.
.
3.1 .
1. Rn .

= dx.

R2 S, R3 V :

S=
dxdy,


V =

dxdydz.

. z = f (x, y) , (x, y) R2 . V R3 ,
z = f (x, y), ,
.

R3

f (x, y) dxdy.
V =

, .
. ,
x = 4y y 2 , x + y = 6.

71
. .
x = 4y y 2 , x + y = 6.
A(4, 2) B(3, 3). ,


S=

3
dxdy =

2
4yy

dy
2

dx =
6y

1
(y 2 + 5y 6) dy = .
6

. S ,

x2 + y 2 = 1, x2 + y 2 = 4, y = 2x, y = 3x.

72

x2

D
x1

. D
x = r cos , y = r sin .
D, r = 1
r = 2, = arctg 2 = arctg 3. , -

73
D = {1 r 2, arctg 2 arctg 3}.
, S
arctg
3

S=

d
arctg 2

1
rdr = (arctg 3 arctg 2).
2

, . ,
D . , .. , ,
, .
. ,

(x2 + y 2 )2 = 2x3 .
. .
x = r cos , y = sin . ,

r4 = 2r3 cos3 r = 2 cos3 .
, Ox.
,
.
0 /2,
r 0 2 cos3 . ,


dxdy = 2

S=

2
cos6 d =

2 cos3

r2
d =

2
0

r dr =

d
0

=4

3
2 cos

2
(1 + cos 2)3 d =

+3 cos2 2 + cos3 2)d =

(1 + 3 cos 2+
0

5
.
16

74
. , x2 + y 2 =
Rx x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2 .
. Oxy.

. R2 x2 y 2 ,
V =2

R2 x2 y 2 dxdy.


Oxy, .. x2 + y 2 Rx.
r = R cos . ,

2
V =2

R
cos

R2 r2 r dr =

2R3
3

(sin3 1) d =
2

2(3 4) 3
R .
9

. D,
x2 + y 2 = x, x2 + y 2 = 2x, z = x2 + y 2 , z = 0.
. , , , :
r = cos , r = 2 cos , h = r2 , h = 0.
D
{
[ ]
}
D= ,
, r [cos , 2 cos ], h [0, r2 ] .
2 2

75
, V D


V =

2
dxdydz =

d
2

2
=

rdr
cos

15
r3 dr =
4

r2
dh =
0

2
cos

2
cos

cos

cos4 =
2

45
.
32

. D, :
z = x2 + y 2 , z = 2 (x2 + y 2 ), y = x, y = x2 .
. D Oxy
{(x, y) R2 | 0 x 1, x2 y x},
D = {(x, y, z) R3 | 0 x 1, x2 y x, x2 + y 2 z 2(x2 + y 2 )}.

1
dxdydz =

V =

1
=
0

1 (

x
2

dx

(x + y )dy =
x2

dx
0

2(x2 +y 2 )

dy
x2

dz =
x2 +y 2

)
1 6
3
4 3
4
x x x dx = .
3
3
35

. D,
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 = (x2 + y 2 z 2 ).
. x, y, z x, y, z, . ,

76
, , , 8. ,
,
:
r2 = cos 2.
,


V =

dxdydz = 8

2
cos d

r2 dr =

d
0

4
=
3

cos
2

4
cos (cos 2) d =
3
3
2

(1 2 sin2 ) 2 d(sin ).
0

2
V = .
4 2
. ,
,
z = x2 + y 2 , z = 2 (x2 + y 2 ), xy = 1, xy = 2, x = 2y,
2x = y, (x > 0, y > 0).
.

I=
dxdydz

, . ,
u = xy, v =

y
, z = z.
x

77

x = u 2 v 2 , y = u 2 v 2 , z = z.
1


D(x, y, z)
=
D(u, v, z)

1
2
1
2

u 2 v 2
1 1
u 2 v 2
1


1
3
1
21 u 2 v 2
.
=
1 12 12
2v
2u v

,
{
1

= (u, v, z) | 1 u 2, v 2,
2
}
1
1
u(v + v ) z 2u(v + v ) .
,

I=

1
D(x, y, z)
dudvdz =
D(u, v, z)
2

du
1

1
=
2

2
1

dv
v

1
2

1 )
2u(v+v

dz =
u(v+v 1 )

)
2 (
1
3
u du
1 + 2 dv = .
v
2
1
2

.
96. , :
) x = y 2 2y, x + y = 0,
) y 2 = 4x x2 , y 2 = 2x,

) y = 2 x, y 2 = 4x + 4,
) 3y 2 = 25x, 5x2 = 9y,

) y 2 + 2y 3x + 1 = 0, 3x 3y 7 = 0,
) y = 4x x2 , y = 2x2 5x.

78
97. , , :
) (x2 + y 2 )2 = 2(x2 y 2 ),

) (x2 + y 2 )3 = x4 + y 4 ,

) (x2 + y 2 )3 = 4x2 y 2 .
98 . , :
) x2 + y 2 = 2ax, x2 + y 2 = 2bx, y = x, y = 0, b > a > 0,

) (x2 + y 2 )2 = 2a2 (x2 y 2 ), x2 + y 2 = a2 , ( x2 + y 2 a > 0).


99. , :
x y z
) + + = 1, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0,
a
b
c
) z = x2 + y 2 , x + y = 1, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0,
) z = x2 + y 2 , y = x2 , z = 0, y = 1.
100. , , :
) x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, x2 + y 2 |x|,
) x2 + y 2 az = 0, (x2 + y 2 )2 = a2 (x2 y 2 ), z = 0,
) z = x2 + y 2 , x4 + y 4 = x2 + y 2 , z = 0,
) x2 + y 2 = x, z 2 = x2 + y 2 , z 0.
101. , ,

) x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4, z 2 = x2 + y 2 , 0 z x2 + y 2 ,
) (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 = xyz,
) (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 = z(x2 + y 2 ),

79
) (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 = x.
102. , , :
) xy = 1, xy = 3, x = 2y, x = 3y, z = x2 + y 2 , z = 0,
) y 2 = x, y 2 = x, x = y, x = 2y, z =

1
, z = 0,
xy

) y 2 = 2x, y 2 = 3x, x2 = y, x2 = 2y, z = xy, z = 0,


) xy = 1, xy = 4, y 2 = x, y 2 = 3x, z 2 = xy, z = 0,
) x + y + z = 1, x + y + z = 2, x + y = z, x + y = 2z,
y = x, y = 3x.
3.2 .
( ) , Rn (n = 2 n = 3)
.
. (x, y)
( n = 2) (x, y, z) ( n = 3)

(x, y) dxdy n = 2,
(18)
M=


M=

(x, y, z) dxdydz

n = 3.

(19)

. (x, y, z) C R3

1
xC =
x(x, y, z) dxdydz,
M

80
1
yC =
M


y(x, y, z) dxdydz,

zC =

1
M


z(x, y, z) dxdydz,

M , (19).
.
. Myz = M xC , Mzx = M yC , Mxy = M zC
Oyz, Ozx, Oxy.
. l

d2l dxdydz,

Il =

(20)

dl = dl (x, y, z) (x, y, z) l, =
(x, y, z) . , l Ox, (20)

Ixx =
(y 2 + z 2 )(x, y, z) dxdydz.

Iyy Izz
Oy Oz .
, I , I . Ixy
zx
yz
Oxy, Oyz, Ozx

Ixy =
z 2 (x, y, z) dxdydz,

Iyz


x2 (x, y, z) dxdydz,

81

Izx


y 2 (x, y, z) dxdydz.

. M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 )

d2M0 dxdydz,

IM0 =

dM0 = (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 + (z z0 )2 (x, y, z)
M0 . , IO

IO =
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )(x, y, z) dxdydz.

. , = {0
x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1} R3 , M (x, y, z)

(x, y, z) = x + y + z.
. m (x, y, z)


m=

1
(x, y, z) dxdydz =

1
dx

1
=
0

1
dy

(x + y + z) dz =
0

)
1 (
1
3
1
dy = (x + 1) dx = .
dx
x+y+
2
2
0

. ,
ay = x2 y = 2, a > 0.

82
. Oy (
, x x
) , xC = 0.

m=

dxdy = 2

2
ay

8 2a

y dy =
dy
dx = 2 a
.
2

,
1
yC =
m

3
y dxdy =
4 2a

ay
2
3
3
6
y dy
dx =
y 2 dy = .
5
4 2

. a, y, .
. ,

. :

a
2

I0 =

(x + y )y dxdy =

a
=

(x2 y + y 3 ) dy =

dx
0

)
4

a2 x 2 a
+
2
4

dx =

5a5
.
12

. R .
. , Oy .

Oy. ,


My =

2
x dxdy =

R
r2 cos dr =

d
2

83

R3
3

cos d =
2

2R3
.
3

. ( ) ,
x2 + y 2 = z, x + y + z = 0.
. , , z = x y .
Oxy D = {x2 + y 2 x y}, ..
(
)
(
)
1 2
1 2 1
x+
+ y+
.
2
2
2
, {x = y}
xC = yC . :
1
1
x = r cos , y = r sin .
2
2
, , .. r.
,

dxdydz =

m=

2
d
0

d
0

rdr
0

2(

1r(cos
+sin )

r2 r(cos +sin

)
1

3
r r dr = .
2
8


1
x C = yC =
m


x dxdydz =
D

dz =
)+ 21

84

1
m

)(
)
2 (
1
1
1
r2 dr = ,
d r r cos
2
2
2

1
zC =
m


z dxdydz =
D

1
=
m

dr

rz dz =

r2 r(cos +sin

1r(cos
+sin )

)+ 21

)
2 (
1
2
d r 1 2r(cos + sin ) + r +

(
)
1
5
2
1r
dr = .
2
6

)
(
, , 12 , 21 , 65 .
. (
) D,
x2 + y 2 = 2z, x2 + y 2 = z 2
l:
x = 0, z = 4.
.

m=

2
dxdydz =

d
0

r
dr

rdz =
r2
2

)
2 (
r3
4
2
= 2
r
dr =
.
2
3
0

85
l

Il =
d2l dxdydz,
D

dl (x, y, z) D l.
d2l = x2 + (z 4)2 ,

( 2
)
Il =
x + (z 4)2 dxdydz =
D

2
=

2
d

2
=

2
d

r
dr

(
)2
r cos2 + (z 4)2 dz =

r2
2

4
2
r cos

r5
2

(
cos2 + r

(r
3

4)3

r2
2

4
3

)3

dr =

2 (
=

1 5
r6
(r 4)5
r cos2
cos2 +
+
5
12
15

4(r
12

(
4)4

r2
2

)4 )
2
40

.
d =

24
3
4

.
103. ( ) :
{ 2
}
y
) =
x 2a y, a > 0 ,
a2
}
{
a2 y 2
x 2a, a > 0 ,
) = y ,
x 8a

86
{
}

x + y a, x 0, y 0 ,
{
}
) = x2 + y 2 1, x 0, y 0 .

) =

104. ( ) ,
}
{
( )
, a, const ,
) = x2 + y 2 a2 , |y| xtg , 0,
2
{
}
) = (x a)2 + (y a)2 a2 , a x 0, a y 0 ,
{x y
}
x y
) =
+ 1,
+ 1, y 1, a > b > 0, c > 0 ,
a
c
b
c
{
}

2
) = xy = a , xy = 2a, x = 2y, y = 2x, x > 0, y > 0 .
105. ( ) :
) D = {0 x a, 0 y b, 0 z c},
) D = {x2 + y 2 R2 , 0 z h},
{
}

) D = 0 z h(R x2 + y 2 ) ,
) D = {x2 + y 2 + z 2 R2 , z 0}.
106. (x, y, z),

) = {0 x a, 0 y a, 0 z a}, (x, y, z) = (x + y + z)2 ,


) = {x2 + y 2 + z 2 R2 , x 0}, (x, y, z) =

1
x2 + y 2

) = {R2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 4R2 , y 0}, = x2 + y 2 + z 2 ,


{
}
) =
x2 + y 2 z h , (x, y, z) = z 2 ,

87
) = {x2 + y 2 z 2 = 0, 0 z h}, (x, y, z) = z.
3.3 .
R2 (, ), (, )
.
. M (x, y)

1
u(x, y) =
(, ) ln r dd,
2

r = ( x)2 + ( y)2 (x, y) (, ).


(, , ).
. R3 G (, , ) G. M (x, y, z)

(, , )
u(x, y, z) = k
ddd,
r
G

r = ( x)2 + ( y)2 + ( z)2 (x, y, z)


(, , ), k = const. (,
, ).
,
G.
. u(x, y, z) G, , G
u(x, y, z). M (x, y, z)

MN
E (x, y, z) = k
3 (, , )ddd,
|M N |
G

88

N = N (, , ), M N = ( x, y, z),

|M N | = ( x)2 + ( y)2 + ( z)2 .


. (, , ), G, G1 1 (1 , 1 , 1 ). ,
G1 ,

F =
E (1 , 1 , 1 )1 (1 , 1 , 1 )d1 d1 d1 .
G1

. M (x0 , y0 , z0 )

m E (x, y, z).
, M ,

F = m E (x0 , y0 , z0 ).
, , .
. G R1 R2 ,
(x, y, z) =

0
,
r

0 = const,

r (x, y, z). , M m, R , R > R2 .


. , Oz
M . M (0, 0, R).
, ,

R1 2 + 2 + 2 R2 .

N (, , ) , M N = (, , R),

|M N | = 2 + 2 + 2 + R2 2R = r2 + R2 2R, r = 2 + 2 + 2 .

89

, F = (Fx , Fy , Fz )

ddd
Fx = m0
,
2
r(r + R2 2R)3/2
G


Fy = m0

r(r2
G


Fz = m0
G

ddd
,
+ R2 2R)3/2

( R) ddd
.
r(r2 + R2 2R)3/2

, , .. Fx = Fy = 0.

= r cos cos , = r sin cos , = r sin .

2 2 R2
Fz = m0
0 2 R1

(r sin R)r cos dddr


=
(r2 + R2 2rR sin )3/2

R2

= 2m0

dr
2

R1

r(r sin R) cos d


.
(r2 + R2 2rR sin )3/2


t = r2 R2 2rR sin ,

m0
Fz =
2R2

R2

2
(R+r)

dr
R1

(Rr)2

(
)
(r2 R2 )t3/2 t1/2 dt =

90
)
2m0 ( 2
R2 R12 .
2
R
. P (0, 0, z), z > 0 x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, (, , ) = k 2 ,
k const, ..
Oxy.
.

ddd

u(0, 0, z) = k
.
2 + 2 + ( z)2
=

2
u(0, 0, z) = k

r4 sin2 cos dr
r2 cos2 + (r sin z)2

R
r4 dr

= 2k

sin2 cos d
r2 + z 2 2rz sin

t = r2 + z 2 2rz sin ,

u(0, 0, z) =

k
4

2
(z+r)

R
dr
0

r(r2 + z 2 t2 )2
4k
dt =
15z 3
z 3 t1/2

)
2 7
R + z 2 R5 .
7

(zr)2

.
107. , = {x2 + y 2 1}

) (x, y) = 1, ) (x, y) = x2 + y 2 .
108. M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ),
0 = const R.

91
109. , 0 = const,
H R m, .
110. , 0 = const, H R m,
) ,
) .
111. m (0, 0, h)
= {x2 + y 2 R2 , z = 0},
0 = const.

92

4.
4.1 1.
1. , F R,
{
}
1
1.1. F =
|nN ;
10n
}
{
1
1.2. F = 1 n | n N ;
10
{
}
1
1.3. F = 1 + n | n N ;
10
{
}
1
1.4. F = 1 n+1 | n N ;
10
{
}
(1)n
1.5. F =
|nN ;
10n

1.6. F = [0, 2);

1.7. F = [0, 3].


2. M R2 . M ,
2.1. ) M (0, 1),
) M = {(x, y) | x (0, 1], y = 0};
2.2. ) M (1, 0),
) M = {(x, y) | x (0, 1), y = 0};
2.3. ) M (1, 1),
) M = {(x, y) | x (0, 1], y = 1};
2.4. ) M (0, 0),
) M = {(x, y) | x = 0, y [0, 1]};
2.5. ) M (0, 0),
) M = {(x, y) | x= 0,
y (0, 1)};

2.6 . ) M ( 2, 2),

93
) M = {(x, y) |
x =0, y [0, 1] Q};
2.7 . ) M ( 3, 3),
) M = {(x, y) | x [0, 1] Q, y = 0};
3. [0, 1] [0, 1] , x = i/n, y = j/n, i, j = 1, . . . , n.
f (x, y) , :

3.1. f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 ;
3.2. f (x, y) = (x2 + y 2 )2 ;
2 +y 2

3.3. f (x, y) = ex

3.4. f (x, y) = sin (x2 + y 2 );


3.5. f (x, y) = cos (x2 + y 2 );
3.6 . f (x, y) = ex

2 y 2

3.7 . f (x, y) = sin (x2 y 2 ).


2
2
4. {(x, y) | x + y 1}.
f (x, y) dxdy, :

4.1. f (x, y) = x2 + xy + y 2 12x 3y;


4.2. f (x, y) = 3 + 2x y x2 + xy y 2 ;
4.3. f (x, y) = 3x + 6y x2 xy + y 2 ;
4.4. f (x, y) = 4x2 4xy + y 2 + 4x 2y + 1;
4.5. f (x, y) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3xy 4x 5y;
4.6 . f (x, y) = x2 cos (x2 + y 2 );
4.7 . f (x, y) = y 2 sin (x2 + y 2 ).
4.2 2.

94
1. :
1
1.1.

x
dx

0
y2 +y

1
1.2.

f (x, y) dx;

dy
0

7x+10
6

1.3.

dx

f (x, y) dy;

2x

1.4.

cos
x

dx

f (x, y) dy;

2
1.5.

3x
dx

2+ 4y 2

3
dy

f (x, y) dx;

12y 2

1.7 .

f (x, y) dy;

ln x

1.6 .

f (x, y) dy;

sin
x

dx

f (x, y) dy.

cos x

2. :

2.1.
(x + y) dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1, y x};

95


xy dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 25, 3x + y 5};

2.2.


2.3.

x dxdy,

= {(x, y) | x + y 2, x2 y 2 1, x 0, y 0};
2


(2y x) dxdy, = {(x, y) | y(y x) 2, x(x + y) 3};

2.4.


xy dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1, (x 1)2 + y 2 1};

2.5.


x dxdy,

2.6 .

= {(x, y) | y 0, cos x 0, sin x 0, 0 x };


xy dxdy,

2.7 .

= {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1, (x 1)2 + y 2 1, x2 + (y 1)2 1}.


3. , :

3.1.

cos (

x2 + y 2 ) dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1};

96

3.2.

x2

dxdy
, = {(x, y) | 9 x2 + y 2 25};
+ y2 1
2 +y 2

ex

3.3.

dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1};

ln (x2 + y 2 ) dxdy, = {(x, y) | 1 x2 + y 2 4, };

3.4.


3.5.

ln (x2 + y 2 )
dxdy, = {(x, y) | 1 x2 + y 2 9};
x2 + y 2

3.6 .

y 2 dxdy, = {(x, y) | 2x x2 + y 2 6x, y x};


x dxdy, = {(x, y) | x x2 + y 2 2x, y 0}.

3.6 .

4. :

4.1.
(x2 + y + z) dxdydz,

= {(x, y, z) | 0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1};

(x2 y + z) dxdydz,

4.2.

= {(x, y, z) | 0 x 1, 1 y 1, 0 z 1};

4.3.

xyz dxdydz,

= {(x, y, z) | 0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1};

97

(x2 + y 2 ) dxdydz,

4.4.

= {(x, y, z) | 1 x 1, 1 y 1, 1 z 1};

4.5.

(xy + yz + zx) dxdydz,

= {(x, y, z) | 0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 1};
4.6 .


xy dxdydz,

= {(x, y, z) | 0 x y z 1};


zex dxdydz,

4.7 .

= {(x, y, z) | 0 x 1, 0 y 2, 0 z 3}.
4.3 3.
1. :

x
1.1.
dxdy, = {(x, y) | x 1, y 1};
y

1.2.

y
dxdy, = {(x, y) | 0 < x 1, 0 < y 1};
x

1.3.

1
x2

+ y2

dxdy, = {(x, y) | x 1, y 1};

98

1.4.

1
x2

+ y2


1.5.

x2

dxdy, = {(x, y) | 0 < x 1, 0 < y 1};

1
dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1};
+ y2

1.6 .

1.7 .

1
x2

y4

1
x2 + y 4

dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1};

dxdy, = {(x, y) | x2 + y 2 1};

2. , :
2.1. 4y = x2 4x, x = y + 3;
2.2. y 2 = 10x + 25, y 2 = 9 6x;
2.3. y 2 = 2x + 1, y 2 = 1 2x;
2.4. x2 + y 2 = 4, y 2 = 4 4x, x < 1;
2.5. y = cos x, y = cos 2x, 0 x

2
;
3

2.6 . 2x2 + 2y 2 = 2x + 1, x2 + y 2 = 1, x2 + y 2 1;
2.7 . (x + y)2 + x2 = 1.
3. , :
3.1.

x2 y 2
+ 2 = 1;
a2
b

3.2. (x2 + y 2 )2 = y 2 ;
3.3. x2 + y 2 = x + y;

99
3.4.

x + y = 1, x + y = 1;
3.5. (x2 + y 2 )2 = 2xy;
3.6 . x4 + y 4 = 2xy;
3.7 . x3 + y 3 = xy.

4. , :
4.1. x2 + y 2 = x, z = x2 + y 2 , z = 0;
4.2. y = x2 , y = 1, z = 0, z = x2 + y 2 ;
4.3. x + y + z = 1, 4x + y = 1, 4x + 3y = 3, y = 0, z = 0;
4.4. x2 + y 2 = , z = sin (x2 + y 2 ), z = 0;
4.5. z 2 + y 2 = 1, x + y + z = 1, x + y + z = 1;
4.6 . x2 + y 2 = 1, x2 + z 2 = 1;
4.7. z 2 x2 = 1, z 2 y 2 = 1, z =

2.

100

1. , .. / .. , .. .
.: , 1973. . 2. 448 .
2. , .. . .
: . / .. . .: ,
2002. . 2. 400 .
3. , .. : . / .. . .:
: , 2005. 558 .
4. , .. . : . / .. ,
.. , .. , .. . .: . ,
1995. 496 .
5. , .. . 2 . . 2. , , : . , . / .. ,
.. , .. -; . .. 2- .,
. .: , 2002. 712 .
6. .. . 2-
. . 2: . . 5- ., . / .. , ..
, .. . .: , 1999. 416 .
7. , .. . / .. . , 2001.

101
.

0 dx = C,

x dx =

x+1
+ C, R\{1},
+1

dx
= ln |x + a| + C,
x+a

ax dx =

ax
+ C, a > 0, a = 1,
ln a
ex dx = ex + C,

sin x dx = cos x + C,

cos x dx = sin x + C,

dx
= tg x + C,
cos2 x

dx
= ctg x + C,
sin2 x

x
dx
1
= arctg + C, a = 0,
2
2
x +a
a
a

x a
dx
1
+ C, a = 0,
=
ln
x2 a2
2a x + a

dx

= ln |x + x2 + a| + C, a = 0,
x2 + a

dx
x

= arcsin
+ C, a = 0.
2
2
|a|
a x

102
,
1.
+

sin (x)

dx = sign , R,
x
2

1, > 0,
0, = 0,
sign =

1, < 0.
2.
+

x2
, > 0.
e
dx =

103

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Rn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
2.3. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.6. n-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.1. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.2. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.3. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98