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EX255-EX285 Tier2

TECHNICAL MANUAL - OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE


TECHNICAL MANUAL- TROUBLESHOOTING
WORKSHOP MANUAL EXCAVATOR
WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE

EXCAVATOR
TECHNICAL MANUAL
OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE
(Tier 2)

All information, illustrations and specifications in this manual are based on the latest product information available at the time of publication.
The right is reserved to make changes at any time without notice.

FIAT KOBELCO CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY S.p.A.


FORM No. 604.13.191 - Edition - July 2002

ENGINEERING

COPYRIGHT BY FIAT KOBELCO CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY S.p.A.


Documentation Centre
Strada di Settimo, 323 - S. MAURO T.SE ( TO ) ITALY

Reproduction of text or illustrations,


in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited

Print No. 604.13.191 - VII - 2002


Printed by Satiz - Turin (Italy)
Coordinamento Editoriale Satiz - Torino

EX255-EX285

IN-1

INTRODUCTION
TO THE READER
This manual is written for an experienced technician to provide technical information needed to
maintain and repair this machine.
- Be sure to thoroughly read this manual for correct
information concerning the service procedures.

- If you have any questions or comments, or if you


found any errors regarding the contents of this
manual, please contact:
FIAT KOBELCO CONSTRUCTION
MACHINERY S.p.A.
Strada Settimo, 323
San Mauro Torinese (TO)
10099 ITALY
PRODUCT SUPPORT
Fax. ++39 011 6877357

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
Please refer to the materials listed below in addition
to this service manual:
- Operation and Maintenance Instruction
Manual
- Parts Catalog

SERVICE MANUAL COMPOSITION


The complete service manual consists of three
books:
- Technical Manual - Operational Principle
- Technical Manual - Troubleshooting
- Workshop Manual

- The Workshop Manual includes information needed


for maintenance and repair of the machine, tools and
devices needed for maintenance and repair, maintenance standards, removal/installation and assembly/disassembly procedures.

- The Technical Manual-Operational Principle includes the technical information concerning the
operation of main devices and systems.

The Service Manual for EX255 and EX285 Excavators consists of the following book/print numbers:

- The Technical Manual -Troubleshooting includes


the technical information needed for operational
performance tests, and troubleshooting procedures.

BOOK

PRINT NUMBER

- Technical Manual - Operational Principle

604.13.191

- Technical Manual - Troubleshooting

604.13.196

- Workshop Manual

604.13.201

IN-2

EX255-EX285

INTRODUCTION
PAGE NUMBER
Each page has a number, located on the external upper corner of the page. Each page number contains the
following information:
Example: T 1-2-3
Consecutive page number for each group
Group number (if exist)
Section number
T : Technical Manual
W : Workshop Manual

SYMBOLS
In this manual, the following safety alert symbol and signal words are used to alert the reader to the potential for
personal injury or machine damage.

This is the safety alert symbol.


When you see this symbol, be alert to the potential for personal injury.
Never fail to follow the safety instructions prescribed along with the safety alert symbol.
The safety alert symbol is also used to draw attentio in to component/part weights.
To avoid injury and damage, be sure to use appropriate lifting techniques and equipment when lifting heavy
parts.

UNITS USED
SI Units (International System of Units) are used in this manual.
MKSA system units and English units are also indicated in parentheses just behinds SI units.
Example: 24.5 MPa (250 kgf/cm2, 3560 psi)
A table for conversion from SI units to other system units is shown below for reference purposes.

Quantity

To
convert
from (SI)

Into
(Others)

Multiply by

Quantity

To
convert
from (SI)

Into
(Others)

Multiply by

Lenght

mm

in

0.03937

Pressure

MPa

kgf/cm2

10.197

mm

ft

0.003281

MPa

psi

145.0

US gal

0.2642

kW

CV-PS

1.360

US qt

1.057

kW

HP

1.341

m3

yd

1.308

Temperature

C x 1.8 + 32

Velocity

Volume
Mass

kg

lb

2.205

Force

kgf

0.10197

lbf

0.2248

N.m

kgf.m

0.10197

N.m

lbf.ft

0.7375

Torque

Power

Flow rate

km/h

mph

0.6214

min-1

rpm

1.0

L/min

US gpm

0.2642

mL/rev

Cc/rev

1.0

TECHNICAL MANUAL

EX255-EX285

OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE

SECTION AND GROUP CONTENTS

Section 1 -

GENERAL

Group 1
Group 2

Specifications
Component Layout

Section 2 -

SYSTEM

Group 1
Group 2
Group 3

Control System
Hydraulic System
Electrical System

Section 3 -

COMPONENT OPERATION

Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group

Pump Device
Swing Device
Control Valve
Pilot Valve
Travel Device
Other components (Upperstructure)
Other components (Undercarriage)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

SECTION 1

EX255-EX285

GENERAL

CONTENTS
Group 1 -

Specification

EX255 Excavator Dimensions ............. T1-1-1


EX285 Excavator Dimensions ............. T1-1-3
EX255 Excavator performance ............ T1-1-5
- Engine Data ....................................... T1-1-5
- Engine Accessory .............................. T1-1-6
- Hydraulic Devices .............................. T1-1-6
- Electrical Equipment .......................... T1-1-7
EX285 Excavator performance ............ T1-1-8
- Engine Data ....................................... T1-1-8
- Engine Accessory .............................. T1-1-9
- Hydraulic Devices .............................. T1-1-9
- Electrical Equipment .......................... T1-1-10

Group 2 -

Component layout

Main Components ................................ T1-2-1


Electrical System
(overall system) ................................... T1-2-2
Electrical System (cab) ........................ T1-2-3
Electrical System
(monitor and switch panels) ................. T1-2-5
Electrical System
(batteries compartment) ....................... T1-2-6
Electrical System (fuses) ..................... T1-2-7
Pump and related parts ........................ T1-2-8
Other Components ............................... T1-2-9

EX255-EX285
EX255

T1-1-1

SPECIFICATIONS
EX255 EXCAVATOR DIMENSIONS
(Monoblock Version)
E
G

D/D'

F
C

L
M

A
B

OM0253

VERSIONS

D (*)

3 463

4 260

1 090

2 950

2 937

10 170 1) 3 206 2 815

EX255 EL (mm) 3 845

4 642

1 090

2 950

2 937

10 170

EX255 LC

4 642

1 090

2 950

2 937

EX255

(mm)

3 845

F
(**)

2 940

960

460

2 815

2 940

960

460

10 170 4) 3 204 2 815

2 940

960

460

2) 3 237
3) 2 991

(mm)

(*) Rear swing radius

(**) Arm: 1) 2158 mm, 2) 2480 mm, 3) 2950 mm, 4) 3600 mm

EX255

EX255 EL

EX255 LC

M-Track shoe width

(mm)

600

700

800

900

600

700

800

900

600

700

800

900

N-Maximum width

(mm)

2 990

3 090

3 190

3 290

2 990

3 090

3 190

3 290

3 190

3 290

3 390

3 490

24 500 24 750 25 000 25 250 25 000 25 300 25 600 25 900 25 100 25 400 25 700

26 000

Working weight
Spec. Ground Press.

(kg)
(bar)

0.54

0.47

0.41

0.36

0.51

0.44

0.39

0.35

0.51

0.44

0.39

0.35

DIGGING DATA

6 000 mm Boom

OM0254

Arm

mm

2 158

2 480 2 950

3 600

mm

9 650

9 865 10 277 10 903

mm

9 462

9 681 10 100 10 737

mm

6 172

6 485 6 948

7 597

mm

5 940

6 253 6 737

7 429

mm

9 551

9 460 9 635

9 988

mm

6 770

6 759 6 946

7 279

mm

3 789

3 952 3 865

3 892

T1-1-2

EX255-EX285
EX255

SPECIFICATIONS
EX255 EXCAVATOR DIMENSIONS
(Triple Articulation Version)
G

E
D/D'

H
C

L
M

A
B

N
OM0255

VERSIONS

D (*)

3 463

4 260

1 090

2 950

2 937

10 145 1) 3 083 2 815

EX255 EL (mm) 3 845

4 642

1 090

2 950

2 937

10 145

EX255 LC

4 642

1 090

2 950

2 937

EX255

(mm)

3 845

F
(**)

2 940

960

460

2 815

2 940

960

460

10 145 4) 3 290 2 815

2 940

960

460

2) 3 137
3) 3 019

(mm)

(*) Rear swing radius

(**) Arm: 1) 2 158 mm, 2) 2 480 mm, 3) 2 950 mm, 4) 3 600 mm

EX255
M-Track shoe width
N-Maximum width
Working weight
Spec. Ground Press.

(mm)
(mm)
(kg)
(bar)

EX255 EL

EX255 LC

600

700

800

900

600

700

800

900

600

700

800

900

2 990

3 090

3 190

3 290

2 990

3 090

3 190

3 290

3 190

3 290

3 390

3 490

25 100 25 350 25 600 25 850 25 600 25 900 26 200 26 500 25 700 26 000 26 300

26 600

0.56

0.48

0.43

0.38

0.52

0.45

0.40

0.34

0.52

0.45

0.40

0.34

3 600

DIGGING DATA

3 100 mm Boom

OM0256

Arm

mm

2 158

2 480

2 950

mm

9 756

9 993

10 420 11 058

mm

9 570

9 812

10 246 10 895

mm

5 791

6 067

6 517

7 170

mm

5 678

5 958

6 414

7 077

mm

11 099 11 237 11 379 12 128

mm

6 306

8 146

5 840

5 248

mm

2 868

2 896

2 568

2 808

EX255-EX285
EX285

T1-1-3

SPECIFICATIONS
EX285 EXCAVATOR DIMENSIONS
(Monoblock Version)
E / E'
G

D / D'

F
C

L
M

A
B

VERSIONS

(mm) 3 706

4 574

1 208

2 937

EX285 LC (mm) 4 011

4 879

1 210

2 937

EX285

(*) Rear swing radius

D (*)

E (***)

F (**)

OM0540

1) 3 531
2 950 10 293 10 282 2) 3 350 2 815
3) 3 166
2 950 10 293 10 282 4) 3 295 2 815

(**) Arm: 1) 2 120 mm, 2) 2 400 mm, 3) 3 100 mm, 4) 3 750 mm

3 028

1 012

525.5

3 028

1 012

525.5

(***) Arm: 2 120 mm

EX285

EX285 LC

M-Track shoe width

(mm)

600

700

800

900

600

700

800

900

N-Maximum width

(mm)

3 000

3 100

3 200

3 300

3 190

3 290

3 390

3 490

(kg)

26 700

27 066

27 432

27 800

27 442

27 830

28 220

28 608

(bar)

0.65

0.57

0.50

0.45

0.62

0.54

0.48

0.43

Working weight
Spec. Ground Press.

DIGGING DATA

6 200 mm Boom
Arm

OM0254

mm 2 120

2 400

3100

3750

mm

9 834 10 062 10 705 11 299

mm

9 620

9 864 10 519 11 124

mm

6 120

6 538

7 230

7 878

mm

5 998

6 319

7 052

7 725

mm

9 802

9 638

9 978 10 242

mm

6 857

6 906

7 215

7 472

mm

4 269

4 307

4 146

4 124

T1-1-4

EX255-EX285
EX285

SPECIFICATIONS
EX285 EXCAVATOR DIMENSIONS
(Triple Articulation Version)
G

E / E'
D / D'

F
C

L
M

A
B

VERSIONS

(mm) 3 706

4 574

1 208

2 937

EX285 LC (mm) 4 011

4 879

1 210

2 937

EX285

(*) Rear swing radius

D (*)

E (***)

F (**)

1) 3 139
2 950 10 081 10 199 2) 3 166 2 815
3) 3 094
2 950 10 081 10 199 4) 3 376 2 815

(**) Arm: 1) 2100 mm, 2) 2400 mm, 3) 3100 mm, 4) 3750 mm

OM0255

3 028

1 012

525.5

3 028

1 012

525.5

(***) Arm: 2 120 mm

EX285

EX285 LC

M-Track shoe width

(mm)

600

700

800

900

600

700

800

900

N-Maximum width

(mm)

3 000

3 100

3 200

3 300

3 190

3 290

3 390

3 490

(kg) 27 400

27 766

28 132

28 498

28 140

28 506

28 872

29 238

0.58

0.52

0.46

0.69

0.60

0.53

0.48

Working weight
Spec. Ground Press.

(bar)

0.67

DIGGING DATA

3 200 mm Boom

OM0256

Arm

mm

2 120

2 400

3 100

3 750

mm

9 882 10 072 10 733 11 345

mm

9 680

9 875 10 548 11 170

mm

5 784

6 014

6 699

7 335

mm

5 671

5 905

6 600

7 244

mm 11 285 11 370 11 924 12 413

mm

8 175

8 264

8 813

9 302

mm

3 038

3 009

2 726

2 867

EX255-EX285
EX255

T1-1-5

SPECIFICATIONS
EX255 EXCAVATOR PERFORMANCE
GRADEABILITY .......................................................................................................... 35 (70%) in continuous
TRAVEL SPEED ................................................................................................... 2.2 / 3.4 mph (3.5/5.4 km/h)
- Slow ................................................................................................................... 0 to 2.2 mph (0 to 3.5 km/h)
- Fast .................................................................................................................... 0 to 3.4 mph (0 to 5.4 km/h)

EX255 ENGINE DATA


MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
- Manufacturer ........................................................................................................................................ ISUZU
- Model ................................................................................................................................. CC-6BG1 TRA-05
- Type .......................................................................... Diesel, 4 cycle, vertical, 6-cylinder inline, water-cooled,
direct injection type turbocharged, with intercooler
- Cyl. No.-bore x stroke .......................................................................... 6-105 mm x 125 mm (4.13 in x 4.92 in)
- Piston displacement ............................................................................................................ 6494 cm3 (475 in3)
- Rated output ........................................................................................ 118 kW/2000 min-1 (158 HP/2000 rpm)
HP Mode: 125 kW/2100 min-1 (168 HP/2100 rpm)
- Compression ratio .........................................................................................................................................18
- Dry weight ............................................................................................................................... 490 kg (1080 lb)
- Firing order ....................................................................................................................................... 1-5-3-6-2-4
- Rotation direction .............................................................................................. Clockwise (view from fan side)
COOLING SYSTEM
- Cooling fan ............................................................................................. Dia. 670 mm, 6 blades, draw-in type
- Fan pulley ratio .................................................................................................................... Engine rpm x 0.95
- Thermostat ....................................................... Cracking temp. : 82 C (180 F) (under atmospheric pressure)
Full open (Stroke: 10 mm or larger) temp. : 95 C (203 F)
- Water pump ........................................................................................................... Centrifugal type, belt driven
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
- Lubrication pump type ................................................................................................................... Gear pump
- Oil filter .............................................................................. Full-flow paper element type with bypass function
- Oil cooler ........................................................................................................................ Water-cooled, built-in
STARTING SYSTEM
Motor ............................................................................................ Magnetic pinion shift system, reduction type
Voltage-Output .............................................................................................................................. 24 V - 4.5 kW
PRE-HEAT SYSTEM
- Heating method ............................................................................................................................... Glow plug
ENGINE STOP SYSTEM
- Stop method ....................................................................................................................................... Fuel cut
ALTERNATOR
- Type ........................................................................................................................... AC type (with regulator)
- Voltage-Output .................................................................................................... 24 V - 50 A (Brush-less type)
SUPERCHARGING SYSTEM
- Type ............................................................................................................. Exhaust-gas-turbo type IHI RG6
FUEL SYSTEM
- Injection pump model .....................................................................................................................Bosch type
- Governor ..................................................................................................... Centrifugal all speed control RSV
- Injection nozzle ....................................................................................................................... Multihole nozzle

T1-1-6

EX255-EX285
EX255

SPECIFICATIONS
EX255 ENGINE ACCESSORY
RADIATOR ASSEMBLY
- Type ...................................................................... Radiator/Oil Cooler tandem type and intercooler assembly
- Mass .......................................................................................................................................... 85 kg (187 lb)
- Radiator Capacity ....................................................................................................................................... 8 L
- Oil Cooler Capacity ................................................................................................................................. 6.3 L
BATTERY
- Capacity ........................................................................................................................................ 160 Ah x 2
- Voltage ............................................................................................................................................... 12V x 2

HYDRAULIC DEVICES EX255


MAIN PUMP
- Model .......................................................................................................................................... HPV102FW
- Type ............................................................... Variable displacement plunger pump: regulator attached type
- Max. flow (theoretical value) ...................................................................................................... 194 L/min x 2
PILOT PUMP
- Model ................................................................................................................................... HY/ZFS 11/16.8
- Type ....................................................................................................... Fixed displacement type gear pump
- Max. flow (theoretical value) ........................................................................ 33.6 L/min; HP Mode: 35.3 L/min
CONTROL VALVE
- Model ......................................................................................................................................... KVMG-200H
- Type ................................................................................................................... Pilot pressure operated type
(4-spool + 5-spool)
- Main relief pressure ................................................................ Normal: 34.3 MPa (350 kgf/cm2) @ 140 L/min
Power Boost: 36.3 MPa (370 kgf/cm2) @ 140 L/min
- Overload relief pressure ........................................................................ 37.3 MPa (380 kgf/cm2) @ 50 L/min
(Boom raise / lower, Arm roll-in, Bucket roll-in)
39.2 MPa (400 kgf/cm2) @ 50 L/min
(Arm roll-out, Bucket roll-out)
SWING DEVICE
- Type ....................................................................................................... Two-stage planetary reduction type
SWING MOTOR
- Model .............................................................................................................................................. M2X146B
- Type ............................................................................. Swash-plate type, fixed-displacement plunger motor
SWING BRAKE VALVE
- Type ............................................................................................................. Non counter balance valve type
- Relief pressure .................................................................................... 31.4 MPa (320 kgf/cm2) @ 140 L/min
SWING PARKING BRAKE
- Type ............................................................................................................. Multiple-wet-plate negative type
- Cracking pressure for release ................................................................ 1.96 to 2.64 MPa (20 to 27 kgf/cm2)
TRAVEL DEVICE
- Type ..................................................................................................... Three-stage planetary reduction gear
TRAVEL MOTOR
- Model ............................................................................................................................................... HMV116
- Type ............................................................................. Bent-axis type, variable displacement plunger motor

EX255-EX285
EX255

T1-1-7

SPECIFICATIONS
TRAVEL BRAKE VALVE
- Type .................................................................................................................... Counter balance valve type
- Relief pressure .......................................................................................................... 34.8 MPa (355 kgf/cm2)
TRAVEL PARKING BRAKE
- Type ............................................................................................................. Multiple-wet-plate negative type
- Cracking pressure for release ............................................................ 0.95 to 1.02 MPa (9,7 to 10.4 kgf/cm2)
CYLINDERS

Rod diameter

Boom

Arm

Bucket

Positioning (*)

90 mm

100 mm

85 mm

90 mm

Cylinder inner diameter

125 mm

135 mm

125 mm

145 mm

Stroke
Fully retracted
length

1350 mm

1610 mm

1075 mm

1205 mm

1950 mm

2235 mm

1665 mm

1799 mm

(*) Triple articulation version

FRONT ATTACHMENT PILOT VALVE


- Model ................................................................................................................................. HVP04S-040-101
TRAVEL PILOT VALVE
- Model ................................................................................................................................. HVP05D-040-101
SOLENOID VALVE UNIT
- Functions ............................................................................................... SC: Arm regenerative control
SD: Speed sensing control
SG: Power boost control
SI: Travel motor swash angle control
OIL COOLER BYPASS CHECK VALVE
- Cracking pressure .......................................................................................... 392 KPa (4 kgf/cm2) at 5 L/min

EX255 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT


BATTERY RELAY
- Voltage - Current ........................................................................................................................ 24 V - 100 A
GLOW RELAY
- Voltage - Current .......................................................................................................................... 24 V - 30 A
HORN
- Specifications ........................................................................................................... 24 V - 1.5 A, 113 dB (A)
LIGHT
- Specifications ............................................................................................ Work lights: Halogen 24 V - 70 W
Dome light: 24 V - 10 W
AIR CONDITIONER
- Refrigerant .............................................................................................................................................. 134 a
- Temperature control .............................................................................................................. electronic control

EX285
EX255-EX285

T1-1-8

SPECIFICATIONS
EX285 EXCAVATOR PERFORMANCE
GRADEABILITY .......................................................................................................... 35 (70%) in continuous

TRAVEL SPEED ................................................................................................... 1.9 / 3.2 mph (3.0/5.1 km/h)


- Slow ................................................................................................................... 0 to 1.9 mph (0 to 3.0 km/h)
- Fast .................................................................................................................... 0 to 3.2 mph (0 to 5.1 km/h)

EX285 ENGINE DATA


MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
- Manufacturer ........................................................................................................................................ ISUZU
- Model ................................................................................................................................. CC-6BG1 TRA-06
- Type .......................................................................... Diesel, 4 cycle, vertical, 6-cylinder inline, water-cooled,
direct injection type turbocharged, with intercooler
- Cyl. No.-bore x stroke .......................................................................... 6-105 mm x 125 mm (4.13 in x 4.92 in)
- Piston displacement ............................................................................................................ 6494 cm3 (475 in3)
- Rated output ........................................................................................ 125 kW/2050 min-1 (168 HP/2050 rpm)
HP Mode: 132 kW/2150 min-1 (177 HP/2150 rpm)
- Compression ratio .........................................................................................................................................18
- Dry weight ............................................................................................................................... 490 kg (1080 lb)
- Firing order ....................................................................................................................................... 1-5-3-6-2-4
- Rotation direction .............................................................................................. Clockwise (view from fan side)
COOLING SYSTEM
- Cooling fan ............................................................................................. Dia. 670 mm, 6 blades, draw-in type
- Fan pulley ratio ................................................................................................................... Engine rpm x 0.95
- Thermostat .................................................... Cracking temp. : 82 C (180 F) (under atmospheric pressure)
Full open (Stroke: 10 mm or larger) temp. : 95 C (203 F)
- Water pump ......................................................................................................... Centrifugal type, belt driven
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
- Lubrication pump type ................................................................................................................... Gear pump
- Oil filter .............................................................................. Full-flow paper element type with bypass function
- Oil cooler ........................................................................................................................ Water-cooled, built-in
STARTING SYSTEM
Motor ............................................................................................ Magnetic pinion shift system, reduction type
Voltage-Output .............................................................................................................................. 24 V - 4.5 kW
PRE-HEAT SYSTEM
- Heating method ............................................................................................................................... Glow plug
ENGINE STOP SYSTEM
- Stop method ....................................................................................................................................... Fuel cut
ALTERNATOR
- Type ........................................................................................................................... AC type (with regulator)
- Voltage-Output .................................................................................................... 24 V - 50 A (Brush-less type)
SUPERCHARGING SYSTEM
- Type ............................................................................................................. Exhaust-gas-turbo type IHI RG6
FUEL SYSTEM
- Injection pump model .....................................................................................................................Bosch type
- Governor ..................................................................................................... Centrifugal all speed control RSV
- Injection nozzle ...................................................................................................................... Multihole nozzle

EX285
EX255-EX285

T1-1-9

SPECIFICATIONS
EX285 ENGINE ACCESSORY
RADIATOR ASSEMBLY
- Type ...................................................................... Radiator/Oil Cooler tandem type and intercooler assembly
- Weight ....................................................................................................................................... 85 kg (187 lb)
- Radiator Capacity ....................................................................................................................................... 8 L
- Oil Cooler Capacity ................................................................................................................................. 6.3 L
BATTERY
- Capacity ........................................................................................................................................ 160 Ah x 2
- Voltage .............................................................................................................................................. 12 V x 2

EX285 HYDRAULIC DEVICES


MAIN PUMP
- Model .......................................................................................................................................... HPV102FW
- Type ............................................................... Variable displacement plunger pump: regulator attached type
- Max. flow (Theoretical value) .................................................................................................... 209 L/min x 2
PILOT PUMP
- Model ................................................................................................................................... HY/ZFS 11/16.8
- Type ....................................................................................................... Fixed displacement type gear pump
- Max. flow (Theoretical value) ..................................................................... 34.4 L/min; HP Mode: 36.1 L/min
CONTROL VALVE
- Model ......................................................................................................................................... KVMG-200H
- Type ................................................................................................................... Pilot pressure operated type
(4-spool + 5-spool)
- Main relief pressure ................................................................ Normal: 34.3 MPa (350 kgf/cm2) @ 140 L/min
Power Boost: 36.3 MPa (370 kgf/cm2) @ 140 L/min
- Overload relief pressure ........................................................................ 37.3 MPa (380 kgf/cm2) @ 50 L/min
(Boom raise / lower, Arm roll-in, Bucket roll-in)
39.2 MPa (400 kgf/cm2) @ 50 L/min
(Arm roll-out, Bucket roll-out)
SWING DEVICE
- Type ....................................................................................................... Two-stage planetary reduction type
SWING MOTOR
- Model ........................................................................................................................................ M2X210CHB
- Type ............................................................................. Swash-plate type, fixed-displacement plunger motor
SWING BRAKE VALVE
- Type ............................................................................................................. Non counter balance valve type
- Relief pressure ......................................................................... 27.70.3 MPa (2823 kgf/cm2) @ 140 L/min
SWING PARKING BRAKE
- Type ............................................................................................................. Multiple-wet-plate negative type
- Cracking pressure for release ................................................................ 2.25 to 2.84 MPa (23 to 29 kgf/cm2)
TRAVEL DEVICE
- Type ..................................................................................................... Three-stage planetary reduction gear
TRAVEL MOTOR
- Model ............................................................................................................................................... HMV145
- Type ............................................................................. Bent-axis type, variable displacement plunger motor

T1-1-10

EX255-EX285
EX285

SPECIFICATIONS
TRAVEL BRAKE VALVE
- Type .................................................................................................................... Counter balance valve type
- Relief pressure .......................................................................................................... 34.8 MPa (355 kgf/cm2)
TRAVEL PARKING BRAKE
- Type ............................................................................................................. Multiple-wet-plate negative type
- Cracking pressure for release ............................................................ 0.95 to 1.02 MPa (9.7 to 10.4 kgf/cm2)
CYLINDERS

Rod diameter

Boom
90 mm

Arm
100 mm

Bucket
90 mm

Positioning (*)
90 mm

Cylinder inner diameter

135 mm

145 mm

135 mm

145 mm

Stroke

1340 mm

1555 mm

1070 mm

1205 mm

Fully retracted
length

1920 mm

2155 mm

1660 mm

1799 mm

(*) Triple articulation version

FRONT ATTACHMENT PILOT VALVE


- Model ................................................................................................................................. HVP04S-040-101
TRAVEL PILOT VALVE
- Model ................................................................................................................................. HVP05D-040-101
SOLENOID VALVE UNIT
- Functions ............................................................................................... SC: Arm regenerative control
SD: Speed sensing control
SG: Power boost control
SI: Travel motor swash angle control
OIL COOLER BYPASS CHECK VALVE
- Cracking pressure .......................................................................................... 392 KPa (4 kgf/cm2) at 5 L/min

EX285 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT


BATTERY RELAY
- Voltage - Current ........................................................................................................................ 24 V - 100 A
GLOW RELAY
- Voltage - Current .......................................................................................................................... 24 V - 30 A
HORN
- Specifications ................................................................................................................. 24 V - 1.5 A, 113 dB
LIGHT
- Specifications ............................................................................................ Work lights:
Dome light:

Halogen 24 V - 70 W
24 V - 10 W

AIR CONDITIONER
- Refrigerant .............................................................................................................................................. 134 a
- Temperature control ............................................................................................................. Electronic control

EX255-EX285

T1-2-1

COMPONENT LAYOUT
MAIN COMPONENTS

SM5601

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Bucket Cylinder
Arm Cylinder
Boom Cylinder
Center Joint
Swing Bearing
Swing Device
Fuel Tank
Hydraulic Oil Tank
Control Valve
Pilot Filter, Pilot Relief Valve
Pump Device

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Engine
Radiator
Oil Cooler
Intercooler
Battery
Travel Device
Shockless Valve
Pilot Shut-Off Valve
Travel Pilot Valve
Front/Swing Pilot Valve

T1-2-2

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (overall system)

SM5402

1 2 3 4 5 6 7,8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 -

Wiper Motor
Monitor Panel
Relays, Relays box
Windshield
Horn
Work Light
Fuel Sensor with Low Fuel Level Switch
Solenoid Valve Unit
Pressure Switch (Travel)
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch
PC Pressure Sensor (Upper: 4-Spool Side)
PC Pressure Sensor(Lower: 5-Spool Side)
EC Motor
EC Sensor
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor 1
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor 2
N (Engine Speed) Sensor

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

30 31 32 33 -

Engine Oil Pressure Switch


Coolant Temperature Switch (Engine Preheat Circuit)
Engine Oil Level Switch (on oil pan)
Overheat Switch
Coolant Temperature Sensor
Battery Relay
Coolant Level Switch
Battery
Starter Relay
Air Cleaner Restriction Switch
Pressure Switch (Boom Raise), Pressure Sensor (Arm
Roll-In)
Pressure Switch (Front)
Fuse Box
MC (Main Controller)
QOS Controller

EX255-EX285

T1-2-3

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (cab)

SM5603

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Relay box
Air conditioner relays (if installed)
Connection for cab light (ceiling)
WWES connection for wiper cut-off microswitch
Heater connection
Air conditoner connection
Loudspeakers connection
Cab ground
Main controller (MC)
Q.O.S. controller
Load momentum alarm buzzer provision
Load momentum alarm relay provision (R1)

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Breaker relay (R2) variant provision


R.H. Rotation bucket relay (R3) variant provision
L.H. Rotation bucket relay (R4) variant provision
Cab light relay (R5)
Rear cab light relay (R6)
A, B, K junction connector
C, D juncton connector
E, F junction connector
G, H junction connector
Dr. EX. connector
Engine learning switch
Fuse box

T1-2-4

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (cab)

SM5604

1
2
3
4
5
6

Connectors for monitor and switch panels


Cigarette lighter
Connectors to cab harness
Connectors not used
Windshield wiper controller
(1) connector for breaker switch
(2) connector for cab light switch
(3) connector for bucket rotation
(4) connector for load momentum alarm switch
(5) connector for rear cab light

7
8

- Connector not used


- Connector

EX255-EX285

T1-2-5

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (monitor and switch panels)

10
24

11

12

23

13

22

14

21
20

15
16
17

19
3
18

T157-07-02-001
SM0610

5
25
6
4

32
7
8

26

31

27

28

30

T157-01-01-009
SM0611

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Monitor Panel
Switch Panel
Power Boost Switch
Key Switch
Cigar Lighter
HP Mode Switch
E Mode Switch
Engine Control Dial
Air Conditioner Panel
Warm Up Complete Indicator
Fuel Gauge
E Mode Indicator
Auto-Idle Indicator
Hydraulic Oil Level Indicator
Preheat Indicator
Air Filter Restriction Indicator

29

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

T157-01-01-018
SM0612

Fuel Level Indicator


Overheat Indicator
Alternator Indicator
Engine Oil Pressure Indicator
Engine Oil Level Indicator
Coolant Level Indicator
HP Mode Indicator
Coolant Temperature Gauge
Work Light Switch
Wiper Switch
Travel Mode Switch
Work Mode Switch
Buzzer Stop Switch
Auto-Idle Switch
Washer Switch
Level Check Switch

T1-2-6

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (batteries compartment)

1
8

2
7

6
4

1
2
3
4

Battery relay
Fuse link (Box B - Fuse 3-60A)
Fuse link (Box A - Fuse 1-40A, Fuse 2-40A)
Connection box

SM5605

5
6
7
8

Safety relay
Engine coolant level switch
Ground joint connector
Glow relay

EX255-EX285

T1-2-7

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (fuses)
FUSES IN THE BOX
Fuse
No.

LABEL

PROTECTED
CIRCUIT

Rating
(A)

SW. BACK UP

Backup power
source

ENGINE C/U

MC
(Power Source)

10

E.C. MOTOR

EC
Motor

10

AUXILIARY

Auxiliary
Power supply

REAR CAB
LIGHT

Rear cab light


power supply

10

HAMMER

Breaker

10

ROTARY
BUCKET

Bucket
rotation

10

SOLENOID

Solenoid valve
power supply

SW. BOX

Switches
panel

10

HEATING
SEAT

Heating seat

10

11

WIPER

Windshield wiper

10

12

HEATER

Heater

20

13

LIGHT

Light

15

14

CAB LIGHT

Cab light

15

15

RADIO

Radio

16

LIGHTER

Cigar light

15

17

HORN

Horn

10

18

GLOW
RELAY

Glow relay
power supply

19

POWER ON

Power supply on

20

AIR
CONDITION

Air
conditoner

10

OM0231

9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

OM1150

Fuses in the fuse box

FUSES IN THE BATTERIES COMPARTMENT


FUSE 1

BOX A

Main power
supply with
key

40

FUSE 2

BOX A

Glow plug
and fuel transfer
supply

40

FUSE 3

BOX B

Charge
circuit
supply

60

BOX B

OM1304

Fuses in the batteries compartment

T1-2-8

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
PUMP AND RELATED PARTS

3-4
8

12

11

10

9
SM3004

1
2
3
4
5
6

Pilot Filter
Pilot Relief Valve
EC Motor
EC Sensor
Pilot Pump
Regulator (Pump 2)

7
8
9
10
11
12

N Sensor
Regulator (Pump 1)
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor (Pump 1)
Pump 1
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor (Pump 2)
Pump 2

EX255-EX285

T1-2-9

COMPONENT LAYOUT
OTHER COMPONENTS

Shockless Valve

Swing Device

9
8

6
7

SM0626
T157-01-01-011

Travel Device

SM0627
T157-07-03-018

Solenoid Valve Unit

FRONT

10
11
12

13
3
SM0628
T157-01-01-012

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Swing Relief Valve


Counterbalance Valve
Travel Relief Valve
Shockless Valve
Pilot Pressure Switch (Boom Raise)
Check Valve
Shockless Valve

SM0629
W157-02-11-020

8
9
10
11
12
13

Check Valve
Pilot Pressure Sensor (Arm Roll-In)
Solenoid Valve Unit (SC)
Solenoid Valve Unit (SD)
Solenoid Valve Unit (SI)
Solenoid Valve Unit (SG)

T1-2-10

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
NOTES

SECTION 2

EX255-EX285

SYSTEM

CONTENTS
Group 1 -

Control system

Outline .................................................... T2-1-1


Engine control ........................................ T2-1-2
Pump control .......................................... T2-1-8
Valve control ..........................................T2-1-10
Other control functions ......................... T2-1-14

Group 2 -

Hydraulic system

Main circuit .......................................... T2-2-1


Pilot circuit ........................................... T2-2-2
Neutral circuit ...................................... T2-2-3
Single actuator operation .................... T2-2-3
Combined operation ............................ T2-2-4

Group 3 -

Electrical system

Outline ................................................... T2-3-1


Electric power circuit
(Key Switch: OFF) ................................. T2-3-2
Bulb Check Circuit (Key Switch: ON) ..... T2-3-4
Accessory Circuit (Key Switch: ACC) .... T2-3-6
Preheat Circuit
(Key Switch: ON or START) .................. T2-3-8
Starting Circuit
(Key Switch: START) ........................... T2-3-10
Charging Circuit
(Key Switch: ON) ................................. T2-3-12
Surge Voltage Prevention Circuit ......... T2-3-16
Engine Stop Circuit
(Key Switch: OFF) ............................... T2-3-18
Engine and pump control circuit .......... T2-3-20
Monitor circuit ...................................... T2-3-24

EX255-EX285

T2-1-1

CONTROL SYSTEM
OUTLINE
Microcomputer built-in main controller (MC) is provided to control machine operation. Electronic sensing signals from the engine control dial, various
sensors and switches are sent to the MC.

After processing the sensing signals in the logic


circuits, the MC sends out the control signals to the
EC motor and solenoid valve unit to control the
engine, pump, and valve operations.

Sensing signals (Input signals)

Control signals (Output signals)

EC sensor
Engine control dial
Pump control pressure sensor
Pump delivery pressure sensor
N sensor
Pressure switches
(Travel - Front - Boom raise)
Pilot pressure sensor
(Arm roll-in)
Auto-idle switch
Learning switch
Power boost switch
HP mode switch
E mode switch
Travel mode switch
Work mode switch
Key switch

EC motor:

Solenoid valve (SD):

Engine control
Normal control
HP mode control
E mode control
Auto-Idle control
Engine learning control
Pump control
Speed sensing control

MC

Solenoid valve (SC, SG, SI):

Valve control
Power Boost control
Arm regenerative control
Travel motor swash
angle control

EC Motor
Solenoid Valve Unit
(SC, SG)

Work Mode Control


General Purpose Mode
Grading Mode
Precision Mode
Attachment Mode

T2-1-2

EX255-EX285

CONTROL SYSTEM
ENGINE CONTROL
The engine control system has the following control
functions:

Normal control
HP mode control
E mode control
Auto-Idle control
Engine learning control.

Layout of engine control system


Pilot pressure sensor
(Arm Roll-in)

Pressure switch (Travel)

Pressure
switch
(Front)

Learning switch

P/V
Key switch

EC sensor

Engine control dial

ENGINE
M
Auto-Idle switch

A/I

MC
EC motor

HP mode switch

H/P
E mode switch

Pump delivery pressure sensor


(Pump 1, 2)

SM0101

EX255-EX285

T2-1-3

CONTROL SYSTEM
Normal Control
Purpose: To control engine speed in response to the
operation angle of the engine control dial on the
switch panel.
Operation: In response to the operation angle of the
engine control dial, the MC drives the EC motor,
causing the governor lever to move to control engine
speed.

NOTE - Normally, the governor lever does not come


into contact with the full side stopper even if the
engine control dial is turned to the full speed position.
(Refer to HP Mode Control).

The EC sensor feedbacks the position of the EC


motor to the MC.
This confirms that the EC motor moves according to
commands from the MC.

P/V

Engine control dial

EC sensor

ENGINE
M

Stop

Full

MC
A/I

EC motor

Governor lever

H/P
E

SM0102

T2-1-4

EX255-EX285

CONTROL SYSTEM
HP Mode Control
Purpose: To instantaneously increase the engine
speed only when a little more hydraulic power is
required for arm roll-in operation. For example, to
increase the arm roll-in power while conducting a
deep ditching work.

Engine speed
HP mode operation line

100 min-1 (rpm)

Operation: Only when the following conditions are


satisfied, the MC drives the EC motor to operate the
engine faster than normal operation.

1800 min-1 (rpm)

Engine Control Dial Setting: 1600 min-1 or faster


HP Mode Switch: ON
Operation: Arm Roll-In
Average Delivery Pressures of Pump 1 and 2:
Higher Range

NOTE - The engine governor stopper position is


adjusted in accordance with the HP mode operation.
Therefore, the governor lever does not come into
contact with the stopper in the Normal Control mode.

1600 min-1 (rpm)

Fast Idle (Max. Speed)

Slow Idle
Slow Idle

Fast Idle
(Max. Speed)

SM0103

Pilot pressure sensor


(Arm Roll-in)

P/V

Engine control dial

ENGINE
M

Min.

Max.

MC
A/I

EC motor

Governor lever

HP mode switch

H/P
E

Pump delivery pressure sensor

SM0104

EX255-EX285

T2-1-5

CONTROL SYSTEM
E Mode Control
Purpose: To decrease the engine speed at a fixed
rate.

Engine speed

When the E mode switch


is not depressed

Operation: When the E mode switch is ON, the MC


instructs the EC motor to run the engine in the speed
range slower than normal operation in proportion to
the engine control dial set angle.

When the E mode


switch is depressed
Slow Idle

Fast Idle (Max. Speed)


Slow Idle

Fast Idle
(Max. Speed)

SM0105

P/V

Engine control dial

ENGINE
M
MC
A/I

EC motor

Governor lever

H/P
E mode switch

SM0106

T2-1-6

EX255-EX285

CONTROL SYSTEM
Auto-Idle Control
Purpose: To slow the engine speed when all control
levers are in neutral to reduce fuel consumption and
noise.
Operation: When the auto-idle switch is ON and all

control levers are kept in neutral (the pressure


switches for travel and front operations are off) for
more than four seconds, the MC instructs the EC
motor to reduce the engine speed to the auto-idle
speed.

Pressure switch (Travel)

Pressure switch
(Front)

P/V

Engine control dial

ENGINE
M
Auto-Idle switch

A/I

MC
EC motor

Governor lever

H/P
E

SM0107

EX255-EX285

T2-1-7

CONTROL SYSTEM
Engine Learning Control
Purpose: To check the governor lever stopper positions to run the engine at full-speed or to stop as
engine control standard data.
Operation: When the learning switch in the rear
console is turned to the engine learning side, the EC
motor is driven by the signal from the MC. Then, the
EC motor moves the governor lever to the Idle,
FULL, and STOP positions in that order.
Thereby, the EC sensor checks the stopper positions
for the FULL and STOP operation. The signals
corresponding to each stopper position are sent to
the MC from the EC sensor, and the MC stores the
data.

Rear Console

Fuse Box

Learning Switch

Engine Learning

IMPORTANT - Be sure to operate the engine learning control system after replacing the engine, engine
control cable, EC motor, or MC. The procedure is
listed in the Technical Manual "Troubleshooting" on
page T5-4-60.

Neutral (OFF)

SM0108

NOTE - The replacement of batteries does not require operation of the engine learning control system.

Learning switch

P/
V

Key switch

EC Sensor

ENGINE
M

Stop

Full

MC
A/I

EC Motor

Governor Lever

H/P
E
SM0109

T2-1-8

EX255-EX285

CONTROL SYSTEM
PUMP CONTROL
The pump operation is regulated by the speed sensing system and the pump control valve.
The speed sensing system works via the MC.

The pump control valve is provided in the control


valve. (Refer to the Control Valve Group in the
COMPONENT OPERATION Section).

EX255-EX285

T2-1-9

CONTROL SYSTEM
Speed Sensing Control
Purpose: To control the pump drive torque in response to the variation of loads to the engine or the
output of the hydraulic pumps to utilize the engine
output more efficiently.
Operation: The target engine speed is selected by
setting the engine speed with the engine control dial.
The MC receives signals for the target engine speed,
and actual engine running speed from the N sensor.
After processing these input data, the MC sends out
the control signals to the solenoid valve unit (SD).

According to the control signals from the MC, the


solenoid valve unit (SD) supplies pilot oil pressure to
the pump regulators to control the pump flow rate.
When poor quality fuel is used or if the machine is
operated at high altitudes, the engine output torque
may decrease, causing the engine to run slower than
the target speed. As the MC in the speed sensing
control system instructs the solenoid valve unit (SD)
to reduce the pump flow rate, the pump drive torque
is reduced. Thereby, engine speed reduction or
engine stall is avoided.

N sensor

Engine control dial


Solenoid Valve
unit

MC

S D

ENGINE
REG

REG

SM0110

T2-1-10

EX255-EX285

CONTROL SYSTEM
VALVE CONTROL
The valve control consists of the power boost control,
arm regenerative control, and travel motor swash
angle control.

Pump control pressure sensor


(5-Spool Side)
Pilot pressure sensor (Arm Roll-In)
Pressure switch (Boom Raise)
Travel motor swash angle
selector valve
Power Boost switch

Pressure switch
(Front)

Travel motor

Pressure switch
(Travel)

Travel mode switch

Relief valve

P/V
Arm cylinder

MC

To MC

S G
Pump delivery
pressure sensor
Solenoid
valve unit

SI

S C
Arm regenerative
valve

REG

Swing motor

From pump control


pressure sensor
(4-Spool Side)

REG

Pump control pressure


sensor (4- Spool Side)

SM0111

EX255-EX285

T2-1-11

CONTROL SYSTEM
Power Boost Control
Purpose: To increase hydraulic power by temporarily increasing the main relief pressure.
Operation: When the power boost switch is turned

ON, the MC magnetizes solenoid valve unit (SG) for


8 seconds. When magnetized, solenoid valve unit
(SG) supplies pilot oil pressure to the relief valve to
increase the relief set pressure.

Relief Valve
Power Boost switch

MC

Solenoid
Valve Unit

SM0112

T2-1-12

EX255-EX285

CONTROL SYSTEM
Arm Regenerative Control
Purpose: To increase arm roll-in speed and prevent
the arm roll-in hesitation.
Operation: When the signals to the MC from the
pump delivery pressure sensor (pump 2), pilot pressure sensor (arm roll-in), and pressure switch (boom
raise) fall into the following conditions, the MC magnetizes the solenoid valve unit (SC). Then, the solenoid valve (SC) starts to deliver the pilot pressure to
actuate the arm regenerative valve, closing the return
circuit to the hydraulic oil tank from the arm cylinder
rod side.
Thereby, the return oil from the arm cylinder rod side

is combined with the pump delivery oil and supplied


to the arm cylinder bottom side, increasing the arm
roll-in speed and preventing arm roll-in hesitation.

Operation Conditions:
- Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor (Pump 2): Delivery pressure from pump 2 is low (requiring less arm
operating force).
- Pilot Pressure Sensor (Arm Roll-In): Output is large
(operating the arm control lever with a great
stroke).
- Pressure Switch (Boom Raise): ON

Pilot pressure sensor (Arm Roll-In)


Pressure Switch (Boom Raise)

Bucket
Arm cylinder

MC

Arm 1
Bucket
cylinder

Pump delivery
pressure sensor (Pump 2)

Solenoid
valve unit
Arm regenerative
valve

SM0113

EX255-EX285

T2-1-13

CONTROL SYSTEM
Travel Motor Swash Angle Control
Purpose: To change fast/slow travel speed.
Operation: When the travel mode switch is in
position, the travel motor swash angle is held at a
large angle, causing the machine to travel at a slow
speed.
When the travel mode switch is in
position and the
signals to the MC from the pressure switch (travel),
pump delivery pressure sensors (pump 1 and 2) fall
into the following conditions, the MC magnetizes
solenoid valve (SI), allowing pilot oil pressure to
change the travel motor swash angle control valve
port. Thereby, the travel motor swash angle is reduced to cause the machine to travel at a fast speed.

Pump control Pressure Sensor


(5-Spool Side)

Operation Conditions:
- Pressure Switch (Travel): ON
- Pressure Switch (Front): OFF
- Pump Delivery Pressure Sensors (Pump 1 and 2):
Pump delivery pressure is low.
- Pump Displacement Target Angle (controlled by
the MC according to signals from sensors and
switches): Large
NOTE - Even if the track is revolved with the track
raised, one side pump displacement target angle
remains small so that the travel motor speed does not
increase.
The pump displacement target angle is different from
the travel motor displacement target angle.

Travel motor swash angle


control valve
Travel motor

Pressure switch (Front):


OFF signal
Pressure switch (Travel):
ON signal

Left side travel

Right side
travel

Travel mode
switch

MC

To MC

Pump delivery
Pressure Sensors
(Pump 1 and 2)

Solenoid
valve unit

Pump control
Pressure Sensor
(4-Spool side)

Front pump control


Pressure Sensor
(4-Spool side)

SM0114

T2-1-14

EX255-EX285

CONTROL SYSTEM
OTHER CONTROL FUNCTION
Work Mode Control
The work mode includes the four modes of GENERAL PURPOSE, GRADING, PRECISION, and
ATTACHMENT, which can be selected by the work
mode switch.

of the full speed to be set when the engine control dial


is placed in the full position.
The main relief pressure is increased in boom raise
operation. (Refer to T2-1-11)

GENERAL PURPOSE MODE


Normal control is applied.

NOTE - Operating speed is reduced but operating


force is unchanged.

GRADING MODE
To decrease the arm leveling speed, the arm regenerative control is deactivated.
(Refer to T2-1-12)

ATTACHMENT MODE
Only when the attachment option kit is installed, this
function works. In proportion to the auxiliary pilot
valve lever stroke, the engine speed is controlled by
the MC so as to meet the installed attachment
operation. The engine speed setting for the attachment mode is made by the Dr.EX.

PRECISION MODE
In all work modes, engine speed is reduced to 70 %

EX255-EX285

T2-2-1

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
MAIN CIRCUIT
The main pumps (pump 1 and pump 2) draw hydraulic oil from the hydraulic oil tank. Pump 1 delivers oil
to the 4-spool control valve while pump 2 delivers oil
to the 5-spool control valve.
Pressure oil from the main pumps are routed to the
motors and cylinders in response to respective control valve spool shifts.
Return oil from the motors and cylinders flows back

to the hydraulic oil tank via the control valves and the
oil cooler. When oil temperature is low (viscosity is
high), return oil flowing through the oil cooler will be
hampered because of the increased flow resistance
in the oil cooler. If that happens, the bypass check
valve opens, allowing the return oil to directly flow
back to the hydraulic oil tank.

Boom Cylinder
Arm cylinder
Positioning cylinder (*)
Bucket cylinder
Center joint

Swing motor
Travel (R)
Travel (L)

Bucket
Boom 1

Aux.
Hydraulic oil tank

Boom 2

Full-flow filter

Arm 1
Suction filter
Bypass check valve

Swing

Arm 2
Pump 1
Engine

Pump 2

Oil cooler
Pressure oil
Return oil
(*) Triple articulation
version

Center joint

Left travel motor

Right travel motor

SM3005

T2-2-2

EX255-EX285

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
PILOT CIRCUIT
control circuit, and in the swing parking brake release
line.

Pressure oil from the pilot pump acts as working


pressure in pilot operating circuit, in the pump/valve

Posit.
pilot valve

Left pilot
valve

Right pilot
valve

Travel pilot
valve

(*)
Pilot operating circuit

Pilot shut-off
valve

Manifold for shockless valves, pressure


sensor, and for pressure switch

Swing motor

Hydraulic oil
tank

Swing parking brake


release

Suction filter

Solenoid valve unit


SG

Pump / Valve
control circuit

SI

Main pump
regulator
2

Control valve
SD

SC
Pilot pump

Relief valve

Travel motor

Pilot filter

Travel motor

(*) Triple articulation version

SM3006

EX255-EX285

T2-2-3

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
NEUTRAL CIRCUIT

SINGLE ACTUATOR OPERATION

When the control levers are in neutral, pressure oil


from the main pumps returns to the hydraulic oil tank
via the control valves. (Refer to the Control Valve
Group in the COMPONENT OPERATION Section).

Pressure oil from pump 1 flows to the spools (Travel


(R), Bucket, Boom 1, and Arm 2) in the 4-spool side
section in the control valve. Pressure oil from pump
2 flows to the spools (Swing, Arm 1, Boom 2 , Aux.,
and Travel (L)) in the 5-spool side section in the
control valve.
When arm or boom is operated, pressure oil from
both pumps is combined and flows together into the
respective cylinder.

Left travel motor

Right travel motor

Pump control valve

Travel (R)

Travel (L)

Bucket cylinder

Bucket
Aux.

Boom 2
Boom cylinder

Arm cylinder
Boom 1
Arm 1
Arm 2
Swing
Pump control
valve

4-Spool side

5-Spool side

Hydraulic oil tank

Swing motor

Pump 2

Pump 1

SM0117

T2-2-4

EX255-EX285

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
COMBINED OPERATION
Swing and Boom Raise Operation
When swing and boom raise operations are performed at the same time, pilot pressure shifts the
swing, boom 1, and boom 2 spools in the control
valves.
Then, pressure oil from pump 1 flows into the boom
cylinder via the parallel passage in the 4-spool side
section in the control valve to raise the boom. Pressure oil from pump 2 flows into the swing motor to

swing the upperstructure. A portion of the pressure oil


from pump 2 is detoured to the boom cylinder.
The detoured oil flow is combined with the oil flow
from pump 1 after flowing through the parallel passage and boom 2 spool in the 5-spool side section in
the control valve. The boom is raised by combined oil
flow from pump 1 and pump 2.

Parallel passage

Boom cylinder
Boom 2

Boom 1

Swing

Parallel Passage

4-Spool Side

5-Spool Side

Swing motor

Pump 2

Pump 1

SM0118

EX255-EX285

T2-2-5

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Travel and Arm Roll-In Operation
When travel and arm roll-in operations are performed
at the same time, pilot pressure shifts the travel, arm
1, and arm 2 spools. Pressure in the non-travel signal
pilot pressure circuit rises due to arm spool movement, shifting flow combiner valve.
Then, pressure oil from pump 1 flows into the right
travel motor via the travel (R) spool, actuating it.
A portion of the pressure oil from pump 1 is detoured

Left travel motor

to the left travel motor via the flow combiner valve and
travel (L) spool, actuating it. For this reason, the
machine can travel straight even when the arm rollin operation is performed at the same time, blocking
oil flow from pump 2 to the left travel motor.
Pressure oil from pump 2 flows into the arm cylinder
via the arm 1 spool, actuating it.

Flow combiner
valve

Right travel motor

Pilot pump
Travel (R)

Travel (L)

Signal Pilot
Pressure Circuit

Arm Cylinder

Arm 1

Arm 2

Pump 2

Pump 1

SM0119

T2-2-6

EX255-EX285

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
NOTES

EX255-EX285

T2-3-1

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
OUTLINE
The electrical system is roughly classified into the
main circuit, control circuit, and monitor circuit.
Main circuit:
Related to circuit for the engine and accessories.
Control circuit:
The control circuit of the engine, hydraulic pump,
and valves (including actuators such as solenoid
valves, MC (Main Controller), switch box, sensors,
and pressure switches, and so on).
Monitor circuit:
This circuits indicates machine operating conditions. (The circuits consisting of the monitors, sensors, and switches, and soon).

In this group, the main functions and construction of


the main circuit and some functions of control and
monitor circuit are explaned.
Electric Power Circuit:
Supplies electric power to all electric system on this
machine.
(Key Switch, Batteries, Fuses (Fuse Box and Fusible links), Battery Relay)

Preheat Circuit:
Helps start the engine in cold weather.
(Key Switch, QOS Controller, Glow relay, Glow
plugs)
Starting Circuit:
Starts the engine.
(Key Switch, Starter, Starter Relay)
Charging Circuit:
Recharges batteries and supplies electricity to the
system.
(Alternator, Regulator)
Surge Voltage Prevention Circuit:
Prevents surge voltage from occurring when the
engine is stopped.
(Anti Load Dump Relay)
Engine Stop Circuit:
Stops the engine with the EC motor
(MC, EC Motor).

Bulb Check Circuit:


Checks for blown warning lights and indicator bulbs
on monitor.

Engine and pump control circuit:


Operates the EC motor in order to control the
engine speed.
Control the pump displacement (Main Controller
(MC).
EC motor, Engine control dial, E and HP mode
switch, pressure switches, pressure sensors, solenoid valve unit).

Accessory Circuit:
Works with the key switch placed in the ACC
position.

Monitor control circuit:


Shows the operation conditions of the excavator.
(Monitor panel, pressure switches and sensors).

T2-3-2

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ELECTRIC POWER CIRCUIT
(Key switch: OFF)
The battery negative terminal is grounded to the
vehicle. Current from the positive terminal flows as
follows with the key switch OFF.

Fuse
link 2 (40 A) Glow relay (Power Source)

Battery

Terminal 1 -

Radio (Backup Power Source)


Monitor (Backup Power Source)

Terminal 2 -

MC (Power Source)

Terminal 3 -

MC (EC Motor)

Terminal 4 -

Auxiliary source
(relay box)

Relay box

(terminal 14 - Relay R1 Anti Load Dump)

Terminal B -

Key switch

Fuse
link 1 (40 A) Fuse box

Coolant
temperature
switch

Glow plugs

Alternator

to Monitor (42)

Safety relay

Starter
motor

Battery relay

Batteries

Glow relay

To fuel transfer
pump motor (opt)

Fuse link

Q.O.S. Controller

Relay box

to monitor (18)

Fuse
box

to Monitor (43)

Key switch

EX255-EX285
T2-3-3

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5607

Auxiliary power

EC motor

Radio (pow. b.u.)

MC pow. supply

T2-3-4

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
BULB CHECK CIRCUIT
(Key switch: ON)
When the key switch is turned to the ON position, key
switch terminal B connects with key switch terminals
M and ACC.
The current from terminal M flows throught the diode
D2, located inner the relay box, and excites the
battery relay.

Then, the battery power is routed to the monitor


through the battery relay, the fuse box and the wiper
box, turning the warning lights and indicators on (for
bulb check).

Batteries

Glow relay

To fuel transfer
pump motor (opt)

Alternator

To monitor (42)

Safety relay

Starter motor

Glow plugs

Coolant
temperature switch

Battery relay

Fuse link

QOS Controller

Relay box

To motor (18)

Fuse
box

To monitor (43)

Monitor

Key switch

Wiper
box

EX255-EX285
T2-3-5

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5608

T2-3-6

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ACCESSORY CIRCUIT
(Key Switch: ACC)
When the key switch is turned to the ACC position,
terminal ACC is connected to terminal B in the key
switch.

Then, the battery current flows through the fuse box


terminal 15, 16 and 17, to each accessory circuits
(horn, radio, cigar lighter, power outlet, room lamp.

Batteries

Fuse link

Horn

Radio

Room light

Key switch

To monitor (30)

EX255-EX285
T2-3-7

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5609

Power outlet

Cigar lighter

T2-3-8

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
PREHEAT CIRCUIT
(Key switch: ON or START)
When the key switch is turned to the ON or START
position, the key switch terminal B is connected to
terminal M in the key switch. The current from terminal
M flows to terminal #1 of QOS controller via the fuse
#18 and supply power to glow relay. Throught the
relay box.
When the coolant temperature switch is OFF, QOS
controller allows to preheat the engine for approx. 30
seconds. When QOS controller terminal #4 is
grounded, glow plug relay comes ON, so that the glow
plugs are heated.

Terminal #6 of QOS controller grounds to vehicle for


8 seconds while preheat, therefore glow signal is ON.
(When preheat is not done, glow signal is ON for 0.3
seconds to check the blown bulb.)

NOTE - Coolant temperature switch becomes OFF


when coolant temperature is less than 10 C (50 F).

Glow plugs

N.C. 10 C

Coolant
temperature switch

Batteries

Glow relay

Fuse link

QOS Controller

Relay box

To monitor (18)

Fuse box

Key switch

Monitor panel

EX255-EX285
T2-3-9

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5610

T2-3-10

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
STARTING CIRCUIT
(Key Switch: START)
When the key switch is turned to the START position,
terminal B on the key switch is connected to terminals,
M, and ST. The current from terminal M magnetizes
the battery relay, leading the battery current to terminals B on the starter and starter relay via the battery
relay.
Terminal ST of the key switch is connected to terminal
S on the starter relay so that the battery current flows
through the coil in the starter relay, allowing the relay
to close the circuit. Then, the battery current can flow
to terminal C on the starter, closing the inner starter
relay.
Thereby, the starter begins to rotate.
The current from terminal M flows to the MC,
instructing that the key switch is positioned at ON or
START. When this signal arrives at the MC, the MC
actuates the EC motor which moves the governor
lever.

Starter Relay Operation


When the key switch is turned to the START
position, key switch terminal B and ST have continuity in the key switch. Then, the current flows to the
base of transistor (Q2) via resistance R4 in the
starter relay, switching transistor (Q2) ON.
Thereby, the current flows through coil (L) of relay,
closing the circuit between starter terminals B and
C. Then, the starter begins to rotate.
Once the engine is started, the alternator begins
to charge the batteries so that the voltage at
starter relay terminal R rises. When the voltage at
terminal R reaches 21 to 22 V, zener diode (Z)
comes ON. Accordingly, transistor (Q1) is switched
ON so that the base current to transistor (Q2) is cut,
switching transistor (Q2) OFF. At this time, continuity between starter terminal B and C is opened.
Then, the starter is switched OFF.
Capacitor C1 shown in the figure is used to stabilize
the operating voltage. Diode D4 protects the circuit
from damage when the batteries are inversely
connected.

Starter Relay
S

B
R4
(1)
R3

To Alternator
Terminal L

R2

C
(2)

D2

D3

Q1

(1)
C
M B

Q2

(2)
C1

Starter

E
D4

12V
B
ST

Key Switch

Batteries
12V

SM4015A

Alternator

To monitor (42)

Safety relay

Starter motor

Batteries

Battery relay

Fuse link

Relay box

To monitor (18)

Fuse box

Main controller
(MC)

Key switch

EX255-EX285
T2-3-11

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5611

T2-3-12

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
CHARGING CIRCUIT
(Key Switch: ON)
After the engine starts and the key switch is released,
the key switch is returned to the ON position. With the
key switch kept ON, key switch terminal B is connected to terminals ACC and M.
After the engine starts, the alternator begins power

generation. Current from terminal B on the alternator


flows to the batteries through the battery relay recharging the batteries.
In addition, this current from Alternator terminal L
flows to the monitor to turn off the charge lamp.

Starter motor

Alternator

Batteries

Battery relay

Monitor panel

Relay box

Fuse box

Key switch

EX255-EX285
T2-3-13

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5612

T2-3-14

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Power Generation
The alternator consists of field coil FC, stator coil SC,
and diodes D.
The regulator consists of transistors T1 and T2, zener
diode ZD, and resistors R1 and R2.
Alternator terminal B is connected to:
BRRF(R)R1Base B for Transistor T1
When the key switch BS is turned ON, the battery
voltage flows to base B for transistor T1 in the regulator, allowing current to flow from collector C to
emitter E.
Accordingly, field coil FC is grounded through transistor T1.

At first, the current does not flow to field coil FC.


When the rotor starts to rotate, alternating voltage is
generated in stator coil SC due to residual magnetism
in the rotor.
Thereby, the current starts to flow through field coil
FC, magnetizing the rotor further and increasing
generating voltage.
As generating voltage increases, the flowing current
through field coil FC is increased further, causing the
generating voltage to increase more. Thus, the batteries are recharged.

Alternator

Regulator
B

R
RF

L
(R)

BS

R3

R4

R5

R6
D
Monitor
R2

ZD
Batteries

SC

FC

(F)

R1

D1

B
C

T2
E
T1

(E)
E

SM4056A

EX255-EX285

T2-3-15

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Regulator Operation
When the generating voltage increases higher than
the set voltage of zener diode ZD, the current from the
alternator flows through the zener diode to base B for
transistor T2, connecting collector C to emitter E.
Accordingly, the current flowing through base B for
transistor T1 is cut so that transistor T1 is turned OFF.
Thereby, the current flowing through field coil FC is
cut, causing the SC generating voltage to decrease.

Then, when the voltage to be applied to zener diode


ZD becomes lower than the set voltage of zener diode
ZD, transistor T2 is turned OFF, turning transistor T1
ON again. Thus, the current is allowed to flow through
field coil FC to increase the generating voltage by
stator coil SC. As this operation is repeated, the
alternator generating voltage is maintained at the
specified level.

RF

R3

BS

R4

R5

R6

ZD

R2

SC
A

C
FC

R1

(F)

D1

T2

B
C

E
T1

(E)

SM4057

T2-3-16

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
SURGE VOLTAGE PREVENTION CIRCUIT
When the engine is stopped (key switch is OFF), the
current from key switch terminal M is cut so that
battery relay is turned OFF.
The engine does not stop immediately by the key
switch OFF, due to inertia and the alternator continues to generate electricity. Because the alternator
generating current dose not flow to the batteries, the
surge voltage (Voltage rise) is developed in the circuit. This is the cause of failure of electrical parts and
components.
On account of this, the surge voltage prevention
circuit has been provided.

While the batteries are being recharged, the generating current from terminal L on the alternator is led to
terminal #42 on the monitor, turning the output transistor ON for terminal #18 on the monitor.
In the conditions, the batteries current holds the Anti
Load Dump relay R1, located in the relay box, energised.
Accordingly, even if the key switch is turned OFF
while the engine is running, the battery current can be
supplied through the anti load dump relay (R1) to
magnetize the battery relay, holding the battery relay
ON until the alternator stops generating.

Alternator

Safety relay

Starter motor

Batteries

Battery relay

Fuse link

Relay box

Fuse box

Monitor panel

Key switch

EX255-EX285
T2-3-17

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5613

T2-3-18

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ENGINE STOP CIRCUIT
(Key Switch: OFF)
When the key switch is turned from the ON position to
the OFF position, the signal instructing the MC that
the key switch is ON is cut.

Then, the MC moves the EC motor to the stop position


causing the engine to stop.

Batteries

Fuse link

Fuse box

To monitor (39)/
To Radio

Key switch

Main Controller (MC)

EC
Sensor

EC
Motor

EX255-EX285
T2-3-19

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5614

T2-3-20

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ENGINE AND PUMP CONTROL CIRCUIT
The main controller (MC) monitors all digging functions, travel functions, and hydraulic pump functions
Further the main controller stores possible malfunction conditions of hydraulic and electrical system
generating faults codes that can be detected from
the diagnostic instrument (Dr.EX).
The main controller(MC) receives as input signals:
- from panel switch the signals related to the travel
speed, the auto idle position and work mode selection;
- from the R.H. control lever hand grip the input signal
of power boost;
- from engine speed control dial panel the engine
speed signal and mode switches E and HP signals.
To provide the required functions, the main controller
(MC), compares these input signals with instant conditions detect from various pressure switches and
sensors and provide output signals for the engine
speed control (by means of the operation of EC
motor), and for the pump control circuit (by means of
solenoid valves operation).

Engine speed control circuit


The engine speed control circuit consists of engine
control dial, E and HP mode switches Auto Idle
switch, N sensor and EC motor and angle sensor
assembly.
The engine control dial adjusts the engine revolutions independently of positions of E mode, HP
mode switches.
The engine control dial sends an electrical signal to
the main controller proportionally to the engine
control dial angle. (This signal can be detected from
Dr.EX with monitor function by selecting: Target
engine speed).
The N sensor supply signal to the main controller
indicating the engine speed. (This signal can be
detected from Dr.EX with monitor function by selecting: Actual engine speed).
In order to change the engine speed, the main
controller sends signals to the EC motor, that revolves and controls the governor lever. (This signal
can be detected from Dr.EX with monitor function by
selecting: EC motor position).

The EC angle sensor detects the position of EC


motor and supplies signals to the main controller to
indicate the position of the governor lever. (This
signal can be detected from Dr.EX with monitor
function by selecting: EC angle).
The main controller (MC) compares and processes
the input signals and if the engine requires engine
speed changes, it supplies power to the EC motor
in order to change the position of governor lever.

Fuse box

From fuse link 3 60 A

From fuse link 1 40 A

Solenoid valve group

Key switch

Pressure switch

To/from
monitor

N Sensor

Main Controller (MC)

EC
Motor

From relay box


(R14)

Pressure sensor

to monitor
panel

EX255-EX285
T2-3-21

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5615

T2-3-22

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Pump control circuit
The pump control circuit consists of pilot pressure
switches related to boom up, Front attachment and
travel, Pump 1 and 2 delivery pressure sensors,
Arm roll-in pilot pressure sensor , Pump 1 and 2
control pressure sensors, work mode selector,
travel mode selector and solenoid valve group.

(The operation of each pressure sensor can be


detected from Dr.EX with monitor function by selecting: Pump 1 or 2 Delivery pressure, Pump 1 or 2
Control pressure, Arm Roll-in pilot pressure. The Dr
EX will detect the electrical signal and will show as
pressure value of the related Sensors)

The pilot pressure switches related to the boom up


(located on the shockless valve), front attachment
and travel (located on control valve), when receive
the actuating pressure, send a ground signal to the
MC controller. (The operation of each pressure
switch can be detected from Dr.EX with monitor
function by selecting: Pressure switch. The Dr EX
will detect the pressure switch ON or OFF condition
showing or deleting the related pressures switch
abbreviation BmH, Fr, Tr ).

As result of the position of the Work mode selector,


travel mode selector and the actual condition detected from various pressure switches and sensors, the MC controller processes the output signal
to operate the pump regulator solenoid valve (SD),
the travel motor swash angle solenoid valve (SI),
the arm regenerative solenoid valve (SC), and the
relief pressure solenoid valve (SG). (The operation
of each solenoid valve can be detected from Dr.EX
with monitor function by selecting the individual
solenoid valve. The Dr EX will detect the control
electrical signal and will show as controlled pressure value from each related solenoid valve).

The Pump 1 and 2 delivery and control pressure


sensors located on the pump device) and the Arm
Roll-in pilot pressure sensor (located on shockless
valve) send to controller MC an electrical signal that
is proportional to related pressure to be controlled.

Fuse box

From fuse link 3 60 A

From fuse link 1 40 A

Solenoid valve group

Key switch

Pressure switch

To/from
monitor

N Sensor

Main Controller (MC)

EC
Motor

From relay box


(R14)

Pressure sensor

to monitor
panel

EX255-EX285
T2-3-23

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5615

T2-3-24

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
MONITOR CIRCUIT
The monitor circuit consists of circuits to operate the
hour meter, coolant temperature gauge, fuel gauge,
engine oil level indicator, engine oil pressure indicator, coolant level indicator, engine overheat indicator,
alternator charging indicator, fuel low level indicator,
air cleaner restriction indicator, hydraulic oil level
indicator and engine pre-heat indicator.
Hour meter operates when alternator is charging and
anti load dump relay is energized.
Monitor gauges receive signal from sensors to indicate fuel level and engine coolant temperature.
The monitor controller contains a logic circuit and
transistors to control ground signals for monitor indicator lights.
Monitor controller receives signals from engine oil
level switch, coolant level switch, hydraulic oil level
switch, engine overheating switch, engine oil pressure switch, fuel low level switch, air filter restriction
switch, Q.O.S. controller and alternator.

Monitor controller provides voltages to transistors if


temperature, pressures or levels are outside normal
limits to illuminate indicator lights.
Engine oil level switch is closed when oil level in the
oil pan is OK.
Coolant level switch is closed when coolant level in
the recovery tank is OK.
Hydraulic oil level switch is closed when level in the
hydraulic oil tank is OK.
Fuel low level switch is open when the fuel level in the
fuel tank is above the reserve
Engine overheat switch is open when coolant temperature is within normal operating range.
Engine oil pressure switch opens above 98 kPa
(14.2 psi) and closes when the oil pressure is below.
Engine air filter restriction switch closes when vacuum
is above approx. 635 mm (25 in.) water , and opens
when vacuum is below.
The pre-heating temperature switch is closed when
engine coolant temperature is lower to 10C (50 F).

NOTE: Shown with engine


stopped and correct
liquid level.

Fuse box

From fuse
link 3 (60 A)

From fuse
link 1 (40 A)

Key switch

Wiper box

Relay box
Monitor panel

}
to wiper box

EX255-EX285
T2-3-25

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

SM5616

Relay box

Alternator

T2-3-26

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
NOTES:

SECTION 3

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT OPERATION

CONTENTS
Group 1 -

Pump device
Group 5 -

Outline ................................................. T3-1-1


Main pump .......................................... T3-1-2
Regulator ............................................. T3-1-5
Pilot pump ........................................... T3-1-13
N sensor (Engine speed sensor) ......... T3-1-13
Pump pressure sensor ........................ T3-1-13

Group 2 -

Outline ................................................. T3-5-1


Travel reduction gear ............................ T3-5-3
Travel motor ......................................... T3-5-5
Travel brake valve ................................ T3-5-10
Parking brake ....................................... T3-5-13

Swing device
Group 6 -

Outline ................................................. T3-2-1


Swing motor ........................................ T3-2-3
Swing parking brake ............................ T3-2-6
Valve unit ............................................. T3-2-7
Swing reduction gear ........................... T3-2-9

Group 3 -

Other components
(Upperstructure)

Pilot shut-off valve ............................... T3-6-1


Shockless valve ................................... T3-6-2
Solenoid valve unit .............................. T3-6-4
Pilot relief valve ................................... T3-6-6
EC motor ............................................. T3-6-6

Control valve

Outline ................................................. T3-3-1


Hydraulic circuit ................................... T3-3-6
Flow combiner valve ............................ T3-3-8
Pump control valve .............................. T3-3-10
Main relief valve .................................. T3-3-12
Overload relief valve ............................ T3-3-13
Arm regenerative valve ........................ T3-3-14
Boom anti-drift valve,
arm anti-drift valve ............................... T3-3-16
Bucket flow control valve ..................... T3-3-16
Travel flow control valve ....................... T3-3-18
Travel/boom lower
selector valve ...................................... T3-3-18
Boom regenerative valve ..................... T3-3-20

Group 4 -

Travel device

Pilot valve

Outline ................................................. T3-4-1


Operation ............................................ T3-4-3

Group 7 -

Other components
(Undercarriage)

Swing bearing ...................................... T3-7-1


Center joint .......................................... T3-7-2
Track adjuster ...................................... T3-7-3

EX255-EX285

T3-1-1

PUMP DEVICE
OUTLINE
The pump device consists of a transmission, main
pump, and pilot pump. The transmission receives
engine power via coupling, then divides and transmits the power to pump 1 (1), pump 2 (2) and pilot
pump (3) via gears. Gear ratios on the main pump
drive side and the pilot pump side are 1.
Main pumps (1 and 2) are variable displacement,

bent-axis plunger-type pumps equipped with pump


delivery pressure sensors (5) and engine speed
sensor (4) for controlling of the pumps and valves.
These main pumps are incorporated into a single
housing.
Pilot pump (3) is a gear-type pump.

Transmission
SM3016

Transmission

5
SM3017

1
2
3

- Pump 1
- Pump 2
- Pilot Pump

SM3018

4
5

- Engine Speed Sensor (N Sensor)


- Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor

T3-1-2

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
MAIN PUMP
Operation
Main pump consists of pump 1 and pump 2, and
supplies hydraulic oil to actuate main components
such as motors and/or cylinders.
Shaft (3) is connected to cylinder block (6) via seven
plungers (4).

Therefore, the rotation of shaft (3) is transmitted to


cylinder block (6), causing cylinder block (6) to slide
along the surface of valve plate (5). Plungers (4)
reciprocate in the cylinder bores, thus discharging
hydraulic oil to the hydraulic circuits.

SM0005

1
2

4
5
SM0004

1
2
3

- Regulator
- Housing
- Shaft

SM0006

4
5
6

- Plunger
- Valve Plate
- Cylinder Block

EX255-EX285

T3-1-3

PUMP DEVICE

SM0007

T3-1-4

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
Increasing and Decreasing Main Pump Oil
Flow Rate
When the displacement angle of cylinder block (3) is
changed, the stroke length of plunger (2) changes.
Thus, oil flow rate of the main pump is controlled by
changing the displacement angle of cylinder block
(3). Servo piston (6) is jointed to valve plate (4) with
pin (5).

When servo piston (6) is moved up or down, valve


plate (4) moves too, changing the displacement
angle of cylinder block (3); cylinder block (3) is kept
in contact with the surface of valve plate (4) and slides
along it.

Maximum displacement angle

5
2
6

SM0006

SM0008

Minimum displacement angle

SM0009

2
3
4

- Plunger
- Cylinder Block
- Valve Plate

5
6

- Pin
- Servo Piston

EX255-EX285

T3-1-5

PUMP DEVICE
REGULATOR
Regulator Construction
pump pressure and the pilot pressure from the solenoid valve unit (SD) are routed to the section 2 of the
regulator. (Note that, viewed from a regulator, two
main pumps are said to be the applicable main pump
and the other main pump). Upon receiving various
signal pressures stated above, the regulator outputs
a pilot pressure to servo piston (10) to change the
displacement angle of cylinder block (11), thus controlling the pump oil flow rate.

Both main pumps (1 and 2) are equipped with a


regulator. Upon receiving various signal pressures,
the regulator controls main pump oil flow rate not to
exceed the engine horsepower.
Regulator mainly consists of spring (1), sleeve B (2),
spool B (3), piston (4), load piston (5), spool A (6),
sleeve A (7), outer spring (8), and inner spring (9).
The pump control pressure is routed to section 1 and
the applicable main pump pressure, the other main

Section I

}
5

Section II

9
SM0010

12

11

10

SM0006

1
2
3
4

Spring
Sleeve B
Spool B
Piston

5
6
7
8

Load Piston
Spool A
Sleeve A
Outer Spring

9
10
11
12

Inner Spring
Servo Piston
Cylinder Block
Link

T3-1-6

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
Regulator Functions
The regulator functions to control pump oil flow rate
as follows:

Control by Pump Control Pressure


The pump control valve attached on the control
valve regulates the pump control pressure. Upon
receiving the pump control pressure from the pump
control valve, the regulator increases or decreases
the pump flow rate accordingly.
When the control valve spool is moved to increase
the pump control pressure, the regulator increases
the pump flow rate. When the control valve spool is
returned to neutral, the pump control pressure
decreases.
Accordingly, the regulator reduces the pump flow
rate to the minimum flow. (Refer to the Control
Valve Group).

Summation Control (Control by monitoring both


main pump pressures)
If the delivery oil pressure of either of two main
pumps increases so that the average pressure of
two main pumps exceeds the values set by the
P-Q line, the regulator functions to reduce pump oil
flow rate of both main pumps to match the P-Q
value to the one on the set P-Q line, preventing
engine overloading. Since the P-Q line is set using
the average pressure of two main pump pressures,
delivery rates of both pumps are approximately
equal to each other. For this reason, a larger load
is applied to the pump delivering high pressure oil
while a smaller load is applied to the pump delivering low pressure oil, keeping the total load applied
to the pumps equal with the engine horsepower
output. (Total Horsepower Control)

Control by Pilot Pressure Guided from Solenoid


Valve Unit (SD)
Processing the target engine speed, and the actual
engine speed, the main controller MC sends signal
to solenoid valve unit (SD). Solenoid valve unit, in
turn, routes a pilot pressure to the regulator. Then,
the regulator reduces pump delivery rate accordingly. (Speed Sensing (Horsepower Reducing)
Control) (Refer to the control system Group in the
SYSTEM Section).

Q
Flow rate

Pump control pressure

Pi

Pressure increase

Q
Flow rate
Flow rate decrease

Pressure

Q
Flow rate

Pressure

SM0011

EX255-EX285

T3-1-7

PUMP DEVICE
Regulator operation
3

Pi

12
10
Pps
11
9

13
Pd1 Pd2

5
SM0012

7
3

4
2

Pi
Pd1
11-12

Pps
Pd2

5
9

13
10
7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Piston
Spool B
Spring
Servo Piston
Link
Sleeve B
Large Chamber

4
8
9
10
11
12
13

8
Small Chamber
Load Piston
Spool A
Inner Spring
Outer Spring
Sleeve A

SM0013

T3-1-8

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
Flow Rate Control by Pump Control Pressure

Flow rate increase:


changed by the movement of the servo piston,
increasing the pump flow rate.
6. The movement of servo piston (4) is transmitted
to sleeve B (6) via link (5), moving sleeve B (6) in
the direction that spool B (2) has moved. When
sleeve B (6) moves for the same distance spool B
(2) has moved, large chamber (7) is closed to the
hydraulic oil tank line, stopping the servo piston
movement, thus stopping the increase of pump
flow rate at that point.

1. Pump control pressure Pi increases when a control valve spool is moved.


2. Piston (1) pushes spool B (2) and spring (3) to
move spool B (2) to the direction indicated by the
arrow.
3. Large chamber (7) at the end of servo piston (4)
is connected to the hydraulic oil tank line.
4. As a result, servo piston (4) moves to the direction
indicated by the arrow.
5. The displacement angle of the cylinder block is

Pi

Pressure increase

Pps
Q
Pd1 Pd2

Flow rate

Pump control pressure

Pi
5
SM0014

4
SM0015

1234-

Piston
Spool B
Spring
Servo Piston

5678-

Link
Sleeve B
Large Chamber
Small Chamber

EX255-EX285

T3-1-9

PUMP DEVICE
Flow rate decrease:
1. When the control valve spool is returned to neutral, the pump control pressure Pi decreases.
2. Spring (3) pushes back piston (1) and spool B (2),
returning spool B (2) to the direction indicated by
the arrow.
3. As a result, the servo pressure acting on small
chamber (8) is also routed to large chamber (7).
4. Servo piston (4) moves in the direction indicated
by the arrow, due to the size difference of the
pressure receiving area between both chambers.

5. The displacement angle of the pump decreases.


6. The movement of servo piston (4) is transmitted
to sleeve B (6) via link (5), moving sleeve B (6) in
the direction that spool B (2) has moved. When
sleeve B (6) moves for the same distance spool B
(2) has moved, large chamber (7) is closed to the
hydraulic oil tank line, stopping the servo piston
movement, thus stopping the decrease of pump
flow rate at that point.

Pi

Pressure decrease

Pps
Q

Pd1 Pd2

Flow rate

Pump control pressure

Pi
5
SM0016

1234-

Piston
Spool B
Spring
Servo Piston

5678-

Link
Sleeve B
Large Chamber
Small Chamber

SM0017

T3-1-10

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
Summation Control (Flow Rate Control by Monitoring Both Main Pump Pressures)

Flow Rate Increase:


(Note that, viewed from a regulator, two main pumps
are said to be the applicable main pump and the other
main pump)

indicated by the arrow.


5. As the servo piston moves, the displacement
angle of the cylinder block changes, increasing
the pump flow rate.
6. The movement of servo piston (4) is transmitted
to sleeve A (13) via link (5), moving sleeve A (13)
in the direction spool A (10) has moved. When
sleeve A (13) moves for the same distance spool
A (10) has moved, large chamber (7) is closed to
the hydraulic oil tank line, stopping the servo
piston movement, thus stopping the increase of
pump flow rate at that point.

1. The pressure from the applicable main pump


(Pressure Pd1) or from the other main pump
(Pressure Pd2) decreases.
2. Inner spring (11) and outer spring (12) pushes
load piston (9) and spool A (10), moving them in
the direction indicated by the arrow.
3. Large chamber (7) at the end of servo piston (4) is
connected to the hydraulic oil tank line.
4. As a result, servo piston (4) moves in the direction

13

10

Pi
11
Pps
Q

12

Flow rate

Pd1 Pd2

Pressure decrease

(Summation of two main


pump pressures)

Pd
5
SM0018

4
SM0015

4
5
7
8
9

Servo Piston
Link
Large Chamber
Small Chamber
Load Piston

10
11
12
13

Spool A
Inner Spring
Outer Spring
Sleeve A

EX255-EX285

T3-1-11

PUMP DEVICE
Flow rate decrease:
1. The pressure from the applicable main pump
(Pressure Pd1) or from the other main pump
(Pressure Pd2) increases.
2. Load piston (9) pushes spool A (10), inner spring
(11), and outer spring (12), moving spool A (10) in
the direction indicated by the arrow.
3. As a result, the servo pressure acting on small
chamber (8) is also routed to large chamber (7).
4. Servo piston (4) moves in the direction indicated

by the arrow, due to the size difference of the


pressure receiving area between both chambers.
5. The displacement angle of the pump decreases.
6. When sleeve A (13) moves for the same distance
spool A (10) has moved, servo pressure routed to
large chamber (7) is shut out, stopping the servo
piston movement, thus stopping the decrease of
pump flow rate at that point.

13

10

Pi
11

Flow rate

Pps

12
Pd1 Pd2

Pressure increase

(Summation of two main


pump pressures)

Pd
5
7
SM0019

4
SM0020

4
5
7
8
9

Servo Piston
Link
Large Chamber
Small Chamber
Load Piston

10
11
12
13

Spool A
Inner Spring
Outer Spring
Sleeve A

T3-1-12

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
Flow Rate Control by Pilot Pressure Guided from
Solenoid Valve Unit (SD).

Flow rate decrease:


1. Solenoid valve unit (SD) is activated by signals
from the main controller MC, guiding pilot pressure Pps.
2. Pilot pressure Pps, together with the applicable
main pump pressure or with the other main pump
pressure, acts on load piston (9).
3. Load piston (9) pushes spool A (10), inner spring
(11), and outer spring (12), moving spool A (10) in
the direction indicated by the arrow.
4. As a result, the servo pressure acting on small

chamber (8) is also routed to large chamber (7).


5. Servo piston (4) moves in the direction indicated
by the arrow, due to the size difference of the
pressure receiving area between both chambers.
6. The displacement angle of the pump decreases.
7. When sleeve A (13) moves for the same distance
spool A (10) has moved, servo pressure routed to
large chamber (7) is shut out, stopping the servo
piston movement, thus stopping the decrease of
pump flow rate at that point.

13

10

Pi
11
Pps
12

Pressure increase

Pd1 Pd2

Flow rate

(Summation of two main


pump pressures)

4
SM0021
SM0020

4
7
8
9

Servo Piston
Large Chamber
Small Chamber
Load Piston

10
11
12
13

Spool A
Inner Spring
Outer Spring
Sleeve A

EX255-EX285

T3-1-13

PUMP DEVICE
PILOT PUMP

Suction port

Drive gear (1) is rotated via the transmission to driven


gear (2).

1
2

- Drive gear
- Driven gear

Delivery port
SM0022

N SENSOR (ENGINE SPEED SENSOR)


The N sensor detects engine speed. Engine speed is
a necessary signal for various controls of the machine. The N sensor is installed close to the top of the
transmission gear; when the gear rotates, gear tooth
tops pass by the top of the N sensor. Then numbers
of gear teeth passing by are converted to electrical
pulse signals which are sent to the EC.
Thereby, engine speed is detected.

4
5
6
7
8

4
5
6

Coil
Magnet
Gear
Signal output terminal
Power supply (5 V)

8
SM0023
SM0024

PUMP PRESSURE SENSOR


The pump pressure sensor detects oil pressure. Oil
pressure is a necessary signal for various controls of
the machine.
Oil pressure is received by diaphragm (12).
Depending on the extent of deformation of the diaphragm, oil pressure is detected as an electrical
signal.

9
10
11
12

Grounding terminal
Output terminal
Power supply (5V) terminal
Pressure receiving section (diaphragm)

10

11

12

SM0025

T3-1-14

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
NOTE

EX255-EX285

T3-2-1

SWING DEVICE
OUTLINE
The swing device consists of the valve unit, the swing
motor, and the swing reduction gear.
The valve unit prevents cavitation and overload of the
swing circuit.
The swing motor is a swash-plate-type axial plunger

NOTE- The figure shows the swing device installed on


EX255

motor (with a built-in parking brake for swing), and is


driven by the pressure oil from the pump to rotate the
swing reduction gear.
The swing reduction gear rotates the upperstructure
by rotating the shaft by slow speed and large torque.

Valve unit

Swing motor

Swing reduction
gear

SM3019

T3-2-2

EX255-EX285

SWING DEVICE
NOTE - The figure shows the swing device installed on
EX285.

Valve unit

Swing motor

Swing reduction
gear

SM5001

EX255-EX285

T3-2-3

SWING DEVICE
SWING MOTOR
The swing motor consists of the swashplate, rotor,
plungers, valve plate, housing and swing parking
brake (consists of spring, brake piston, plate, friction
plate and switch valve).
The rotor is installed onto shaft with a spline coupling,
and the plungers are inserted in rotor.
The pressure oil is fed from the pump so that the
plungers are pushed.

The shoe of the plunger slides along swash plate, and


rotation occurs in rotor. The shaft end is connected to
first stage sun gear of the swing reduction gear by a
spline coupling. Therfore the rotation of shaft is
transmitted to the swing reduction gear.

NOTA - The figure shows the swing motor installed on EX255.

1-2

1
2
3
4
5
6

Valve Plate
Rotor
Housing
Plunger
Shoe
Shaft

7
8
9
10
11

Swash Plate
Switch valve
Plate and Friction Plate
Brake piston
Spring

SM0027

T3-2-4

EX255-EX285

SWING DEVICE
NOTE - The figure shows the swing motor installed on EX285.

11

10
2

3
9

8
5

SM5007

1
2
3
4
5
6

Valve Plate
Rotor
Housing
Plunger
Shoe
Shaft

7
8
9
10
11

Swash Plate
Switch valve
Plate and Friction Plate
Brake piston
Spring

EX255-EX285

T3-2-5

SWING DEVICE
Swing speed varies depending on the amount of oil
delivered from the pump. From port A, high pressure
oil is fed so that plunger (3) is pushed from the top to
the bottom.
Shoe (4) then slides along swash plate (5),
developing turning force.

Turning force is transmitted to the swing reduction


gear unit via shaft (6). The return oil flows to outlet
port B and returns to the hydraulic oil tank.
When pressure oil is fed to port B, the motor rotates
in the opposite direction.

4
5

SM0028

1
2
3

- Valve Plate
- Rotor
- Plunger

4
5
6

- Shoe
- Swash Plate
- Shaft

T3-2-6

EX255-EX285

SWING DEVICE
SWING PARKING BRAKE

The parking brake is a wet-type multiple disc brake.


The brake is released only when brake release
pressure enters into brake piston chamber (b),
(negative type brake). When swing and/or front attachment operation is made brake release pressure
is supplied from the pilot pump.
During operations other than swing and/or front, or
while the engine is stopped, brake release pressure
is routed to the hydraulic oil tank and the parking
brake is automatically applied by spring (1).

2
b
3
4
5

When the swing and/or front function is operated,


the brake is released:
When the swing and/or front control lever is operated, the control valve spool for swing and/or front
function is moved from the neutral position, closing
the spool passage for the signal pilot pressure
circuit. Then, the pilot oil pressure increases, and
the increased pressure pilot oil is sent to the pilot
port of the switch valve in the brake release circuit.
Therefore, the switch valve is opened, allowing the
brake release pilot oil pressure from the pilot pump
to act on brake piston (2) via the oil pressure timer
check valve. Accordingly, brake piston (2) is moved
up against spring (1), breaking contact between
friction plates (4) and plates (3). Then, the brake is
released.

When the swing and/or front function is not operated, the brake is applied:
When the swing and/or front control lever is not
operated, the control valve spool for swing and/or
front function is in the neutral position, holding the
spool passage for the signal pilot pressure circuit
open. Then, the pilot oil pressure does not increase. Therefore, the switch valve in the brake
circuit is kept closed, allowing the brake release
pilot oil pressure on brake piston (2) to flow out to
the hydraulic oil tank via the oil pressure timer
orifice. Accordingly, brake piston (2) is moved
down by spring (1) force so that friction plates (4)
come into contact with plates (3). As friction plates
(4) engage the inner circumference of motor housing (5) and plates (3) engage the outer circumference of rotor (6), rotor (6) is braked by friction
force developed between plates (3) and friction
plates (4).

6
1
2
3

- Spring
- Brake Piston
- Plate

SM0032

4
5
6

- Friction Plate
- Motor Housing
- Rotor

When the brake is released (OFF):


Oil pressure timer
Signal pilot pressure
circuit

Brake release
pressure

OFF

Swing motor
Spool

Switch valve

SM0033

When the brake is applied (ON):


Oil pressure timer
Signal pilot pressure
circuit

Brake release
pressure

ON

Swing motor
Switch valve
Spool

SM0034

EX255-EX285

T3-2-7

SWING DEVICE
VALVE UNIT

Relief valve

The valve unit consists of the make-up valve and the


relief valve.
The make-up valve prevents cavitation in the circuit,
and the relief valve prevents surge pressure and
overloads in the circuit.
Make-Up Valve
When swing is stopped, if the upperstructure tends to
keep rotating due to inertia force, causing the swing
motor to continue rotating further, and to begin sucking oil from the pump, developing cavitation in the
motor.
The make-up valve sucks hydraulic oil through the
return circuit (port M) to compensate for the lack of oil,
and prevent cavitation.

Make-up valve

Port M

Control valve

SM0029

Relief valve

Port M

Make-up valve

Control valve

SM5008

T3-2-8

EX255-EX285

SWING DEVICE
Relief Valve
When starting or stopping swing operation, oil
pressure in the swing circuit becomes high. The relief
valve prevents the circuit pressure from rising higher
than the specified pressure. Plunger (1) is pushed to
the left by pressure Pp at port (P) and pressurereceiving area A2.
However, plunger (1) is also pushed back to the right
by spring (2) force and pressure Pg at chamber (g)
and pressure-receiving area A1.
Chamber (g) is routed to port (P) through orifice (m).
When force acting on the right is higher than that on
the left, the relief valve operates.

Relief valve

PA

PB

Port M

Control valve

SM0029

1
m

A1

A2

SM0031

EX255-EX285

T3-2-9

SWING DEVICE
SWING REDUCTION GEAR
The swing reduction gear is a two-stage planetary
gear type. Ring gears (2 and 4) in the first and second
stages are provided on the inside of the housing.
The housing is bolted to the main frame so that ring
gears (2 and 4) are held stationary.
The motor output shaft of the swing motor drives first
stage sun gear (9).
Then, rotary power is transmitted to second stage

sun gear (7) via first stage planetary gear (1) and first
stage carrier (8). Second stage sun gear (7) rotates
shaft (5) via second stage planetary gear (3) and
carrier (6).
As shaft (5) meshes with the internal gear of the
swing bearing bolted to the undercarriage, the
upperstruc- ture is rotated.

NOTE - The figure shows the swing reduction gear


installed on EX255.
9
8

2
3

SM3020

1
2
3
4
5

First Stage Planetary Gear


First Stage Ring Gear
Second Stage Planetary Gear
Second Stage Ring Gear
Shaft (Output Shaft)

6
7
8
9

Second Stage Carrier


Second Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Carrier
First Stage Sun Gear

T3-2-10

EX255-EX285

SWING DEVICE
NOTE - The figure shows the swing reduction gear
installed on EX 285.

9
8

1
2

3
4

SM5002

1
2
3
4
5

First Stage Planetary Gear


First Stage Ring Gear
Second Stage Planetary Gear
Second Stage Ring Gear
Shaft (Output Shaft)

6
7
8
9

Second Stage Carrier


Second Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Carrier
First Stage Sun Gear

EX255-EX285

T3-3-1

CONTROL VALVE
OUTLINE
The control valve controls oil pressure, flow rate, and
flow direction in the hydraulic circuit. A 4-spool side
section and a 5-spool side section are bolted together.
The control valve is a pilot-pressure-operated type
which mainly consists of the main relief valve, pump
control valves, flow combiner valve, and main spools.

Machine Front

In the 4-spool side section, the Right Travel, Bucket,


Boom 1, and Arm 2 spool sections are arranged in
that order as viewed from the machine front.
In the 5-spool side section, the Left Travel, Auxiliary,
Boom 2, Arm 1, and Swing spool sections are arranged in that order as viewed from the machine
front.

Right travel

Bucket

Left travel

Main relief valve

Boom 1

Arm 2

Auxiliary
4-spool side section
Boom 2

Arm 1
Swing

Pump control valve (5-spool side)

5-spool side section

Machine Rear

SM0036

T3-3-2

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
Control valve layout
Left travel motor

3
2

10

Right travel motor

11
12

41

13
14

40

15
16

39

Bucket cylinder

38
37
36
35
34

Boom cylinder

17
18

Arm cylinder

33
32
31

19
20

30
29

21
22
23
26
27
28

24
25

Swing motor

1
2
3

- Hydraulic Timer
- Travel Flow Control Valve
- Load Check Valve (Travel Parallel
Circuit)
4 - Check Valve
5 - Main Relief Valve
6 - Check Valve
7 - Check Valve
8 - Flow Combiner Valve
9 - Load Check Valve (Bucket)
10 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valve A)
11 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valve B)
12 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Poppet Valve)
13 - Load Check Valve (Boom 1
Parallel Circuit)
14 - Load Check Valve (Boom 1
Tandem Circuit)

SM0037

15
16
17
18
19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 -

Overload Relief Valve (Bucket)


Overload Relief Valve (Bucket)
Overload Relief Valve (Boom)
Overload Relief Valve (Boom)
Boom Anti-Drift Valve (Check Valve)
Boom Anti-Drift Valve (Switch
Valve)
Boom Regenerative Valve
Check Valve
Pump Control Valve (4-Spool
Side)
Check Valve
Restriction (4-Spool Side Parallel
Circuit)
Load Check Valve (Arm Parallel
Circuit)
Restriction (Arm 1 Parallel
Circuit)
Load Check Valve (Swing)

29 - Load Check Valve (Arm Tandem


Circuit)
30 - Check Valve
31 - Arm Regenerative Valve
32 - Check Valve
33 - Overload Relief Valve (Arm)
34 - Overload Relief Valve (Arm)
35 - Arm Anti-Drift Valve (Check Valve)
36 - Arm Anti-Drift Valve (Switch Valve)
37 - Load Check Valve (Boom 2
Parallel Circuit)
38 - Travel/Boom Lower Selector Valve
39 - Check Valve
40 - Load Check Valve (Travel
Tandem Circuit)
41 - Pump Control Valve (5-Spool
Side)

EX255-EX285

T3-3-3

CONTROL VALVE
Section A

H
B

C
D
E
F

41

SM0036

SM0038

Section C

Bucket

Auxiliary

15
12
11

39

Section D
9
Boom 2

16
Boom 1

Section B

SM0040

L. Travel

R. Travel

38

17
37
3
2

20
21
19
13

14
40

10
18
SM0039

SM0041

T3-3-4

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
Control valve layout
Right travel motor

Left travel motor

3
2

10
11
12

41

13
14
40

15
16

39

Bucket cylinder

38
37
36
35
34

Boom cylinder

17
18

Arm cylinder

33
32
31

19
20

30
29

21
22
23
26
27
28

24
25

Swing motor

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

- Hydraulic Timer
- Travel Flow Control Valve
- Load Check Valve (Travel Parallel
Circuit)
- Check Valve
- Main Relief Valve
- Check Valve
- Check Valve
- Flow Combiner Valve
- Load Check Valve (Bucket)
- Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valve A)
- Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valve B)
- Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Poppet Valve)
- Load Check Valve (Boom 1
Parallel Circuit)
- Load Check Valve (Boom 1
Tandem Circuit)
- Overload Relief Valve (Bucket)
- Overload Relief Valve (Bucket)

SM0037

17 - Overload Relief Valve (Boom)


18 - Overload Relief Valve (Boom)
19 - Boom Anti-Drift Valve (Check Valve)
20 - Boom Anti-Drift Valve (Switch
Valve)
21 - Boom Regenerative Valve

31
32
33
34
35

22 - Check Valve
23 - Pump Control Valve (4-Spool
Side)
24 - Check Valve
25 - Restriction (4-Spool Side Parallel
Circuit)
26 - Load Check Valve (Arm Parallel
Circuit)
27 - Restriction (Arm 1 Parallel
Circuit)
28 - Load Check Valve (Swing)
29 - Load Check Valve (Arm Tandem
Circuit)
30 - Check Valve

37 -

36 -

38 39 40 41 -

Arm Regenerative Valve


Check Valve
Overload Relief Valve (Arm)
Overload Relief Valve (Arm)
Arm Anti-Drift Valve (Check Valve)
Arm Anti-Drift Valve (Switch Valve)
Load Check Valve (Boom 2
Parallel Circuit)
Travel/Boom Lower Selector Valve
Check Valve
Load Check Valve (Travel
Tandem Circuit)
Pump Control Valve (5-Spool
Side)

EX255-EX285

T3-3-5

CONTROL VALVE
Section E (2)

Arm 1
Arm 2

31

32
Section E (1)
Section F
Arm 1

Arm 2
Swing
SM0042

36
34
35

28

24
26

25

27
29

23
22

33

SM0043

SM0045

30

Section H

Section G
1

SM0044

SM0046

T3-3-6

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
Main Circuit
Pressure oil from pump 1 and from pump 2 is routed
to the 4-spool side section in the control valve and to
the 5-spool side section in the control valve, respectively.
A parallel passage is provided in both right and left
main circuits, making combined operations possible.
The main circuit pressure is restricted by the main
relief valve. Moreover, two overload relief valves are
provided in each of boom, arm, and bucket circuits.
Also, a pump control valve is provided at the most
downstream position of each of right and left neutral
passages.

Signal Pilot Pressure Circuit


The pilot pressure from the pilot pump flows through
the control valve.
When the causes the travel signal pilot pressure circuit
to be restricted, increasing the travel signal pilot pressure, thus turning on the pressure switch (travel) and
shifting the travel/boom lower selector valve.
When a control lever other than the travel levers is
operated, the signal pilot pressure in the front att.
signal pilot pressure circuit increases, thus turning on
the pressure switch (front) and shifting the flow
combiner valve, travel flow control valve, and swing
parking brake shift valve.

Flow combiner valve


Swing parking brake
shift valve

Pressure switch
(Front)

Pressure switch
(Travel)

Neutral passage

Main relief valve


Signal pilot pressure
circuit
Left travel motor
Pump control valve
(5-spool side)

Right travel motor

Auxiliary
Bucket
Travel flow control
valve
Travel/Boom lower
selector valve
Boom
Arm
Overload relief valves

Overload relief valves

Pump control valve


(4-spool side)

Parallel
passages

Swing

Main circuits

Neutral passage

5-spool side

4-spool side
Pilot pump

Pump 2

Pump 1

SM0047

EX255-EX285

T3-3-7

CONTROL VALVE
Pilot Valve Guided Pilot Pressure Circuit
Pilot pressure via the pilot valve exerts on the control
valve spools, shifting them. At the same time, it also
exerts on switch valves. (Arm anti-drift valve, Boom
anti-drift valve, Bucket flow control valve)
Besides shifting of control valve spools (when control
levers are operated), the pilot valve guided pilot
pressure functions as follows:
When the arm roll-in lever is operated, the pilot
pressure via the pilot valve exerts on the bucket
flow control valve and the anti-drift valve (switch
valve), shifting them.
When the boom raise lever is operated, the pilot
pressure exerts on the bucket flow control valve as
the valve shift pressure.

When the boom lower lever is operated, the pilot


pressure exerts on the boom anti-drift valve (switch
valve), shifting it.
In addition, an air bleed circuit is provided in the top
part of the control valve, automatically bleeding air
trapped in the circuit.

Solenoid Valve Guided Pilot Pressure Circuit


The pilot pressure guided via the solenoid valve unit
(SG and SC) shifts the main relief valve and the arm
regenerative valve. (Refer to the Control System
Group in the SYSTEM Section).

Main relief valve


From the solenoid valve unit (SG)

Bucket flow control valve

11

12

8
5
3

13

14

6
Arm anti-drift valve

Arm regenerative valve

From the solenoid valve


unit (SC)

Air bleed circuit

10

Pump 2

1
2
3
4
5

Left Travel Forward


Left Travel Reverse
Auxiliary
Auxiliary
Boom Raise

Boom anti-drift valve

Pump 1

6
7
8
9
10

Boom Lower
Arm Roll-out
Arm Roll-in
Swing Left
Swing Right

SM0048

11
12
13
14

Right Travel Reverse


Right Travel Forward
Bucket Roll-in
Bucket Roll-out

T3-3-8

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
FLOW COMBINER VALVE
When a control lever other than the travel levers is
operated, the signal movement of the control valve
spool restricts the signal pilot pressure in the front
attachment signal pilot pressure circuit, increasing

the pilot pressure to shift the flow combiner valve.


As a result, the pressure oil from the pump 1 is routed
to both right and left travel spools, securing straight
travel in travel combined operations.

EX255-EX285

T3-3-9

CONTROL VALVE

Front attachment signal


pilot pressure circuit
Left travel motor

Flow combiner valve

Right travel motor

Pilot pump

Arm cylinder

Pump 2

Pump 1

SM0049

T3-3-10

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
PUMP CONTROL VALVE
A pump control valve is provided on the most downstream part of the neutral passage in each of the 4spool and 5-spool side sections.
The pump control pressure altered by the pump
control valve exerts on the regulator, changing the
pump displacement angle. (Refer to the Pump Device Group in this section).

In addition, the pump control pressure sensor detects


the pump control pressure, sending signals to MC for
travel motor displacement angle control. (Refer to the
Control System Group in the SYSTEM Section).

Pump control valve


(5-spool side)
To the pump 2 regulator and
to pump control pressure sensor

Neutral passage

Pump control valve


(4-spool side)

To the pump 1 regulator and


to the pump control pressure sensor

4-spool side
5-spool side

Neutral passage

SM0050

EX255-EX285

T3-3-11

CONTROL VALVE
Operation with Control Valve Spool Activated
When a control valve spool is shifted, oil flowing
through the neutral passage and through the pump
control valve decreases.
As oil flowing through the pump control valve
decreases, the pump control valve spool shifts to the
left, increasing the relief valve set pressure, thus

raising the pump control pressure.


This increased pump control pressure exerts on the
regulator and, in return, the regulator increases the
pump displacement angle, increasing the pump
delivery oil flow.

From the pilot pump


Pump control pressure passage
Pump control
pressure sensor

Hydraulic oil tank


Pressure
increase

Pump control valve

To the regulator
Neutral passage
Small oil flow
SM0051

Operation with Control Valve Spools in Neutral


Position
When control valve spools are returned to the neutral
position, the neutral passage is fully opened and all
pump oil flow goes through the neutral passage and
the pump control valve so that the pump control valve
spool moves to the right, decreasing the relief valve
set pressure so as to have the lowest pump control
pressure.

As the pump control pressure decreases to a


minimum, the regulator decreases the pump
displacement angle to have the minimum pump
delivery flow, contributing to fuel efficiency.

From the pilot pump


Pump control pressure passage
Pump control
pressure sensor

Hydraulic oil tank

Pressure
Decrease

Pump control valve

To the regulator
Neutral passage

Large oil flow

SM0052

T3-3-12

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
MAIN RELIEF VALVE
The main relief valve regulates main circuit pressure.
The set pressure of the main relief valve is shifted by
the pilot pressure guided via the solenoid valve unit
(SG). (Refer to the Control System Group in the
SYSTEM Section).

When oil pressure at port Hp matches the spring set


force, the pilot poppet opens. Oil at port Hp flows to
port Lp through passage A.
As the pilot poppet opens, oil pressure in spring
chamber A decreases, opening the main poppet,
thus directly routing pressure oil at port Hp to port Lp.

Valve Operation
When the pilot pressure is not guided to the main
relief valve via the solenoid valve unit (SG):

Main poppet
Pilot poppet

Lp

Port SG

Hp

Lp
Spring A

Passage A
SM0053

When the pilot pressure is guided to the main relief


valve via the solenoid valve unit (SG):
When the pilot pressure via the solenoid valve unit
exerts on port (SG), the piston is pushed to the left in
the set position, increasing the compressional force

of spring B, thus requiring higher port Hp pressure to


open the pilot poppet.
For this reason, the main relief valve set pressure
increases.

Pilot poppet
Piston

Lp

Port SG

Hp

Lp
Spring B

SM0054

EX255-EX285

T3-3-13

CONTROL VALVE
OVERLOAD RELIEF VALVE
(With Make-Up Function)
Overload relief valves are provided in each port of
the boom, bucket, and arm cylinders, and regulate
oil pressure in the cylinder circuits to protect them
from damage due to excessive high pressure that
might develop if a cylinder is moved by excessive
external force.

Moreover, these relief valves function to suction oil


from the return (hydraulic oil tank) line to prevent the
occurrence of cavitation if negative oil pressure
arises in a cylinder (the make-up function).

10

SM0055

1
2
3
4
5

Spring
Plug
Pilot Poppet
Spring
Spring

6
7
8
9
10

Adjusting Screw
Plug
Main Poppet
Sleeve
Piston

T3-3-14

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ARM REGENERATIVE VALVE
The arm regenerative valve is shifted by the pilot
pressure guided via the solenoid valve unit (SC).
When the arm regenerative valve is shifted, the
return oil line from the cylinder rod side is closed.
Then, the return oil is combined with the pump
delivery oil to be supplied to the cylinder bottom side,

increasing the arm roll-in speed, improving the arm


controllability in general, and preventing arm movement hesitation from occurring in arm roll-in operations. (Refer to the Control System Group in SYSTEM Section).

Arm cylinder

From the solenoid valve unit (SC)


Arm regenerative valve

SM0056

EX255-EX285

T3-3-15

CONTROL VALVE

Arm regenerative valve

Arm 1
From the solenoid valve
unit (SC)

Pump 2

Pump 1

SM0057

T3-3-16

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
BOOM ANTI-DRIFT VALVE, ARM ANTIDRIFT VALVE
An anti-drift valve is provided on the bottom side of
the boom cylinder and on the rod side of the arm
cylinder so as to reduce cylinder drift.
When the control valve spool is in neutral, the switch
valve part of the anti-drift valve is not shifted and the
pressure in the boom cylinder bottom side (the arm
cylinder rod side) exerts on the check valve of the
anti-drift valve via the switch valve, closing the check
valve.

When the arm roll-in or boom lower is operated, the


pilot pressure via the pilot valve shifts the switch valve
of the anti-drift valve. The oil pressure exerted on the
check valve is returned to the hydraulic oil tank via the
restriction in the switch valve.
(The check valve is designed to close by a signal
pressure, which arises when the switch valve is not
shifted, and to open when the signal pressure is not
exerted (when the switch valve is shifted.)).

Boom cylinders

Boom 1
Boom lower
pilot pressure

Anti-drift valve (check valve)


Anti-drift valve (switch valve)

SM0058

BUCKET FLOW CONTROL VALVE


The bucket flow control valve restricts the bucket
circuit in the combined operations of the bucket, arm
roll-in, and boom raise, so as to raise the boom
sufficiently.
When the arm is rolled in, the arm roll-in pilot pressure
shifts switch valve (A) of the bucket flow control
valve. If the boom is raised at the same time, the
boom raise pilot pressure is routed through the switch

valve (A), shifting the switch valve (B) of the bucket


flow control valve.
Thus, the back pressure exerting on the poppet
valve rises, applying a force to close the poppet
valve, thus restricting oil flow through the poppet
valve. For this reason, the oil flow to the bucket is
restricted, supplying an oil flow to the higher-loadapplied boom raise side.

Arm roll-in pilot pressure


Poppet valve
Switch valve A

Boom raise pilot pressure


Bucket

Switch valve B
Bucket pilot pressure

Bucket cylinder

SM0059

EX255-EX285

T3-3-17

CONTROL VALVE

Bucket flow control valve

Arm anti-drift valve

Boom anti-drift
valve

Pump 2

Pump 1

SM0048

T3-3-18

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
TRAVEL FLOW CONTROL VALVE
When the front attachment is operated while
traveling, the non-travel signal pilot pressure exerts
on the travel flow control valve, which is located in the
parallel circuit, after flowing through the hydraulic

timer, so as to gradually restrict the parallel circuit.


As the parallel circuit is gradually restricted, shock
loads, occurring due to the front attachment operation, are reduced.

Hydraulic timer

To the travel motor


Left
travel spool

Non-travel signal pilot pressure

Travel flow control valve

Non-travel spool

SM0060

Travel parallel circuit

TRAVEL/BOOM LOWER SELECTOR VALVE


The boom lower operation is actuated by the oil flow
via the boom 1 section. However, in travel-combined operations, the oil flow from pump 1 does not
flow in the downstream boom 1 spool as it goes to
the upstream travel spool. If the boom is positioned
up in the air at the moment, the boom would be
lowered by its own weight. However, if the travelcombined boom lower operation is performed with
the base machine raised off the ground, the boom
does not lower.

To prevent this from occurring, in travel-combined


boom lower operations, the boom 2 spool is shifted to
route the oil flow from pump 2 to the boom lower
section so that the boom lowers to sufficiently perform the machine jack-up operation.
When the travel spool is shifted, the travel signal pilot
pressure shifts the travel/boom lower selector valve,
allowing the boom lower pilot pressure to exert on the
boom 2 spool. Thus, the boom lower operation is
sufficiently performed in travel-combined operations.

Right travel spool

Boom 2
Boom 1

To the boom cylinder

Travel/Boom lower
selector valve

Pump 2

SM0061

EX255-EX285

T3-3-19

CONTROL VALVE

Hydraulic timer

Travel flow
control valve

Signal pilot pressure circuit

Left travel motor

Right travel motor

Bucket
Travel/Boom lower
selector valve

Boom

Parallel passages

Pilot pump
Pump 2

Pump 1

SM0047

T3-3-20

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
BOOM REGENERATIVE VALVE
In boom lower operations, the return oil from the
cylinder bottom side is combined with the oil flow from
the pump, supplying an additional oil flow to the
cylinder rod side, via the check valve in the boom
spool.

By this boom regenerative valve operation, the boom


lower operation is improved and cavitation is prevented from occurring.

Boom regenerative
valve
Boom cylinders

Boom 1
Boom lower
pilot pressure

SM0062

EX255-EX285

T3-4-1

PILOT VALVE
OUTLINE
The pilot valve controls pilot pressure oil to move the
control valve spools. There are two types of pilot
valves. One is for front/swing operation; the other is
for travel operation. Both have standard four oil ports.
An optional two-oil-port type is available.

Except for the cam construction to push the pusher


down, the construction of the pilot valve in both the
front/swing pilot valve and the travel pilot valve is the
same.

Right and left pilot valves (Front/Swing)


Port No.

Control

Bucket roll-out

Boom lower

Bucket roll-in

Boom raise

Swing right

Arm roll-out

Swing left

Arm roll-in

Right

Left

T
3

P
4

1
SM0065

4
SM0063

T3-4-2

EX255-EX285

PILOT VALVE
Travel pilot valve
Port No.

Control

Left travel forward

Left travel reverse

Right travel reverse

Right travel forward

T
T
P

4
P

SM0064

SM0066

Positioning pilot valve (triple articulation version)


Port No.

Control

Positioning raise
(Positioning cylinder retraction)

Positioning lower
(Positioning cylinder extension)

T
1
2
T

P T

2
SM3043

SM3021

EX255-EX285

T3-4-3

PILOT VALVE
OPERATION
Front and Swing Pilot Valve
The lower face of spool (8) head is suspended by the
upper face of spacer (4); they are kept in contact by
setting force of balance spring (6). Spacer (4) is
installed between pusher (3) and spring guide (5) and
supported by return spring (7). Piston (9) is located
inside spool (8). The lower end of piston (9) makes
contact with the plate, preventing the piston from
moving further downward.
Above piston (9), a chamber is provided and it is led
to the outside of spool (8) through holes provided in
spool (8).

In neutral
(Corresponding to A to B in the output diagram):
When control lever (1) is in the neutral position (no
pusher stroke), spool (8) completely blocks pressure
oil from entering port P. Since the delivery port is open
to port T, pressure at the delivery port equals that in
the hydraulic oil tank.
When control lever (1) is slightly moved, cam (2)
moves together, pressing down on pusher (3).
Then, pusher (3), spacer (4), and spring guide (5)
move downward as a unit, compressing return spring
(7).
The lower face of spool (8) is kept in contact with the
upper face of spacer (4) by setting force of balance
spring (6) and moves downward together with spacer
(4). However, even if control lever (1) is moved
further, until clearance (A) at section (a) reaches
zero, the delivery port remains open to port T, keeping pressure at the delivery port equal to that in the
hydraulic oil tank.

Delivery port
pressure
(pilot pressure)

A B

Pusher stroke

OUTPUT DIAGRAM

4
5
6
Section (a)
(A)

7
8
Port T

(A)=0

Delivery port
Port P

SM0067

1
2
3
4
5

Control Lever
Cam
Pusher
Spacer
Spring Guide

6
7
8
9

Balance Spring
Return Spring
Spool
Piston

T3-4-4

EX255-EX285

PILOT VALVE
Ready to start operation
(Corresponding to B to C section in the output diagram):
When control lever (1) is tilted slightly further from the
position where clearance (A) in section (a) reaches
zero, and pusher (3) is pushed downward, spool (8)
is moved downward, opening notched section (b) to
allow pressure oil at the port P to flow into the delivery
port.
This oil pressure is also led to the inside of spool (8)
via orifice (10), and acts to push spool (8) upward.
Until this oil pressure force reaches the setting force
of balance spring (6), balance spring (6) will not be
compressed so that spool (8) is not moved upward,
closing the clearance at section (a), keeping the
notch at section (b) opened, and letting the oil pressure to increase at the delivery port.
If the oil pressure at the delivery port increases, and the
upward-pushing force of spool (8) slightly exceeds the

setting force of balance spring (6), spool (8) moves


upward against setting force of balance spring (6).
Once spool (8) moves upward, upper clarance at
section (a) is opened and lower notch section at
section (b) is closed, leading oil pressure at the
delivery port to port T, and decreasing oil pressure at
the delivery port.
When oil pressure at the delivery port decreases, the
force to push up spool (8) is reduced so that balance
spring (6) stretches to move spool (8) downward,
closing both the clearance and the notch at sections
(a and b).
Thus, original position of spool (8) is kept resumed.
The oil pressure will continue to increase until it is
equal to setting force of balance spring (6) (shown by
the point C in the output diagram).

Delivery port
pressure
(Pilot pressure)

C
B

Pusher stroke

OUTPUT DIAGRAM

Section (a)

Port T
Clearance (A) reaches zero
Delivery port

Section (b)

10
Port P

9
SM0068

1
3
6

- Control Lever
- Pusher
- Balance Spring

8 - Spool
9 - Piston
10 - Orifice

EX255-EX285

T3-4-5

PILOT VALVE
Operation corresponding to the control lever stroke
(Corresponding to C to D in the output diagram):
As control lever (1) is moved further to push pusher
(3) downward, spool (8) is pushed down to open the
notch at section (b), increasing oil pressure at the
delivery port.
As pressure increases, the force to push up spool (8)
increases. Then, when force to push up spool (8)
exceeds the setting force of balance spring (6), spool
(8) starts to move upward, compressing balance
spring (6).

When spool (8) moves upward until the clearance at


section (a) opens, the delivery port is opened to port
T, stopping oil pressure increase at the delivery port
and stopping movement of spool (8).
Accordingly, when compressed by pusher (3), spring
force of balance spring (6) increases in proportion to
the pusher stroke, Then, oil pressure increases to
counteract against this spring force.

Delivery port
pressure
(Pilot pressure)

C
Pusher stroke

OUTPUT DIAGRAM
3

Section (a)

8
Port T
Delivery port

Section (b)

Port P

SM0069

1
3

- Control Lever
- Pusher

6
8

- Balance Spring
- Spool

T3-4-6

EX255-EX285

PILOT VALVE
Operation close to pusher stroke end
(Corresponding to D to E in the output diagram):
As pusher (3) is pressed down, balance spring (6) is
compressed, reducing clearance (B) between
pusher (3) and the top of spool (8) (shown at section
(c)), finally to zero.
After that, pusher (3) directly pushes spool (8).
Even if oil pressure at the delivery port increases,

spool (8) cannot move upward, closing the oil passage from the delivery port to port T, and opening the
oil passage from the delivery port to port P.
Then, oil pressure at the delivery port increases until
it reaches port P pressure.

Delivery port
pressure
(Pilot pressure)

Pusher stroke

OUTPUT DIAGRAM

3
Section (c)

Clearance (B) reaches zero

6
8

Port T
Delivery port
Port P

SM0070

3
6

- Pusher
- Balance Spring

- Spool

EX255-EX285

T3-4-7

PILOT VALVE
Full stroke operation
(Corresponding to E to F section in the output diagram):
Even if control lever (1) is tilted further to push down
pusher (3), spool (8) moves downward along with
pusher (3), only widening the notch at lower section
(b) of spool (8).
Thus, oil pressure at the delivery port is kept same as
at port P. Pusher (3) can be pressed down until spring
guide (5) comes into contact with the shoulder (sec-

tion (d)) of the casing.


This position is the stroke end of pusher (3) (corresponding to F position in the output diagram).
This process corresponds with E to F section in the
output diagram.
The total stroke of the control lever is decided by
dimension C.

Delivery port
pressure
(Pilot pressure)

E F

Pusher stroke

OUTPUT DIAGRAM

Section (d)

5
8

Port T
Delivery port
Section (b)
Port P

SM0071

1
3

- Control Lever
- Pusher

5
8

- Spring Guide
- Spool

T3-4-8

EX255-EX285

PILOT VALVE
Travel Pilot Valve
In neutral
(Corresponding to A to B in the output diagram):
Lever - In Neutral (Pusher Stroke: A to B)
In neutral, spool (6) closes port P (the input port) and
tank port T is connected to delivery port through
clearance (A). Thus, the pressure at delivery port is
the same as that at tank port T.
When the control lever is moved slightly from A to B,
pusher (2) and spring guide (3) together move down
against return spring (5) and balance spring (4). At
this time, as both oil pressures above and below
spool (6) are the same as the tank pressure, spool (6)
moves down together with spring guide (3) until
clearance (A) becomes zero.

Operation corresponding to the control lever stroke


(Corresponding to C to D in the output diagram):
Lever - Operated
(Pusher Stroke: C to D Metering)
When the control lever is moved further to push
pusher (2) down, port P is connected to delivery port
through notch (B) and passage in spool (6), routing
pilot pump pressure. However, when the pressure
applied into spool (6) overcomes the balance spring
force, spool (6) moves up, closing port P. When
pusher (2) is moved further down, compressing return spring (5) and balance spring (4), the larger the
balance spring force; thus, the output pressure increases in proportion to the increase in the balance
spring force.

Full stroke operation:


Lever - Full Stroke (Pusher Stroke)
When the control lever is moved full stroke, pusher
(2) is moved down until spring guide (3) comes into
contact with the shoulder of the valve casing (Lever
Stroke End), opening notch (B) further to port P.
The output pressure (pilot pressure to the control
valve) remains at the pilot system pressure (the port
P pressure).
Dimension (C) in the figure right shows the control
lever full stroke.

Delivery port
pressure
(Pilot pressure)

C
A

Pusher stroke

OUTPUT DIAGRAM
SM0072

EX255-EX285

T3-4-9

PILOT VALVE
Pusher stroke: A to B
1

3
4
5
Port T
Clearance A: 0

(A)
Port P

Delivery port
SM0073

Pusher stroke: C to D

SM0075

Pusher stroke: full stroke

2
2

(C)

4
5
Port T

Port T
(B)

Port P

Port P

Delivery port

Delivery port
SM0076

SM0074

1
2
3

- Cam
- Pusher
- Spring Guide

4
5
6

- Balance Spring
- Return Spring
- Spool

T3-4-10

EX255-EX285

PILOT VALVE
NOTE

EX255-EX285

T3-5-1

TRAVEL DEVICE
OUTLINE
The travel device consists of travel motor (14), planetary reduction gears (1 to 10, 12, 13), and sprocket
(11).
NOTE - The figure shows the travel device installed
on EX255.
3

5
8
7

11

6
9

12

10
13

14
SM3022

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Cover
First Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Planetary Gear
First Stage Carrier
Second Stage Sun Gear
Second Stage Planetary Gear
Second Stage Carrier

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Third Stage Sun Gear


Third Stage Planetary Gear
Ring Nut
Sprocket
Housing (Ring Gear)
Hub (Third Stage Carrier)
Travel Motor

T3-5-2

EX255-EX285

TRAVEL DEVICE
NOTE - The figure shows the travel device installed
on EX285.

12

13

14

4
5
6
8
9

7
1
10

2
11

SM5003

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Ring Gear
Propel Shaft
First Stage Planetary Gear
First Stage Carrier
Second Stage Sun Gear
Second Stage Carrier
Second Stage Planetary Gear

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Third Stage Sun Gear


Third Stage Carrier
Third Stage Planetary Gear
Sprocket
Drum
Housing
Travel Motor

EX255-EX285

T3-5-3

TRAVEL DEVICE
TRAVEL REDUCTION GEAR
Third stage carrier (2) is part of the hub and as the
housing (1) (ring gear) and sprocket (11) are bolted
together, they all rotate.

The travel reduction gear is a third stage planetary


gear type. The travel motor rotates first stage sun gear
(7) and this driving force is transmitted to the housing
(1) via first stage planetary gear (8), first stage carrier
(6), second stage sun gear (5), second stage planetary gear (9), second stage carrier (4), third stage sun
gear (3), and third stage planetary gear (10).

NOTE - The figure shows the travel reduction gear


installed on EX255.

10

5
7

12

12
12
7

11

8
11

10

Third Second First


stage
stage stage
SM3023

1
2
3
4
5
6

Ring Gear (housing)


Third Stage carrier
Third Stage Sun Gear
Second Stage Carrier
Second Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Carrier

7
8
9
10
11
12

First Stage Sun gear (Propel Shaft)


First Stage Planetary Gear
Second Stage Planetary Gear
Third Stage Planetary Gear
Sprocket
Hub

T3-5-4

EX255-EX285

TRAVEL DEVICE
NOTE - The figure shows the travel reduction gear
installed on EX285.

6
7

12

10

9
1 2

11
7

12
11

10

Third
stage

Second
stage

First
stage

SM5004

1
2
3
4
5
6

Ring Gear (housing)


Third Stage Carrier
Third Stage Sun Gear
Second Stage Carrier
Second Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Carrier

7
8
9
10
11
12

Propel Shaft
First Stage Planetary Gear
Second Stage Planetary Gear
Third Stage Planetary Gear
Sprocket
Hub

EX255-EX285

T3-5-5

TRAVEL DEVICE
TRAVEL MOTOR
This travel motor is a variable-displacement bentaxis axial-plunger type that includes a parking brake
(wet-multi-disc negative type).
The main parts of the motor are plate (1), valve plate
(2), rotor (14), plungers (13), center shaft (5), drive
disc (7), servo piston (16), parking brake piston (12),
friction plates (11), and plates (10).

Rotor (14) is pre-loaded against valve plate (2) by


spring (4). As oil pressure in the rotor bores increases, the pressure acts on end faces (A) of the
rotor bores and assists spring (4) to force rotor (14)
against valve plate (2).

NOTE - The figure shows the travel motor installed on


EX255.

4
5
6

8
9
16
10
11
15

12

14
A

13

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Plate
Valve Plate
Disc Spring
Spring
Center Shaft
Housing
Drive Disc
Roller Bearing

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Roller Bearing
Plate
Friction Plate
Brake Piston
Plunger
Rotor
Link
Servo Piston

SM3024

T3-5-6

EX255-EX285

TRAVEL DEVICE
NOTE - The figure shows the travel motor installed on
EX285.

4
5
6

10

10
16

15

14

13

12

11

11
12
A

SM5005

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Plate
Valve Plate
Disc Spring
Spring
Center Shaft
Housing
Drive Disc
Roller Bearing

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Roller Bearing
Plate
Friction Plate
Brake Piston
Plunger
Rotor
Link
Servo Piston

EX255-EX285

T3-5-7

TRAVEL DEVICE
Pressure oil supplied to port AM of the valve plate (1)
flows into the rotor bores (2) underneath port AM,
pushing the plungers (3). The vertical component
force (FV) of plunger pushing force (F) rotates the
drive disc (4). As the drive disc (4) rotates, the rotor
(2) also rotates.

When the plungers (3) moves to port BM side, oil is


routed to the hydraulic oil tank.
Whether pressure oil from the pump is supplied to
port AM or BM determines travel direction.

3
BM

4
AM

FR
FV
F

SM0080

1
2

- Valve plate
- Rotor

3
4

- Plunger
- Drive disc

T3-5-8

EX255-EX285

TRAVEL DEVICE
Travel Speed Selection
Servo piston (1) is interconnected to valve plate (6)
via link (5) so that when servo piston (1) is moved,
swash angle of rotor (7) is shifted through valve plate
(6), leading to travel speed change.

Slow speed
When the slow speed travel mode is selected, the
MC (Main Controller) does not send out an electronic control signal to the solenoid valve unit (SI).
Therefore, speed change pilot pressure is not
routed to servo piston (1). Thus, spool (3) is held
down by spring (2). Then, pressure oil P from the
motor port is led to both chambers B and C.

Since the pressure-receiving area in chamber C is


larger than that in chamber B, servo piston (1)
moves upward, increasing swash angle to the
maximum.
Accordingly, as the stroke of the plungers in the
motor is increased, slower revolution of the travel
motor for low speed mode is obtained.

6
1

2
Drain

3
5
4

Pilot pressure

SM0081

1
2
3
4

Servo Piston
Spring
Spool
Orifice

5
6
7

- Link
- Valve Plate
- Rotor

EX255-EX285

T3-5-9

TRAVEL DEVICE
Fast speed

travel mode

When the fast speed travel mode is selected,


corresponding to travel loads, the MC sends out an
electronic control signal to the solenoid valve unit
(SI). Therefore, speed change pilot pressure is
routed to chamber D, moving spool (3) upward.
Then, passage E opens and oil in chamber C is
drained through the inner passages in spool (3).
As pressure oil P from the motor port is led to

chamber B, servo piston (1) is moved down,


reducing the swash angle of rotor (7).
Accordingly, as the stroke of the plungers in the
motor is decreased, faster revolution of the travel
motor for fast speed mode is obtained.
(Refer to the Control System Group in the SYSTEM
Section).

1
6
7

2
Drain

P
B

Pilot pressure

Drain

P
C

D
Position of servo piston at initial
stage of fast speed travel operation

Pilot pressure

Position of servo piston during


stage of fast speed travel operation

SM0082

1
2
3
4

Servo Piston
Spring
Spool
Orifice

5
6
7

- Link
- Valve Plate
- Rotor

T3-5-10

EX255-EX285

TRAVEL DEVICE
TRAVEL BRAKE VALVE
The travel brake valve is located on the travel motor
head and consists of the following valves.

- Overload Relief Valve (4):


Prevents overloads and surge pressure in the
motor circuit.

- Check Valve (1):


Ensures smooth starts and stops, and prevents
cavitation from occurring in the motor circuit by
functioning together with counterbalance valve (5).

- Counterbalance Valve (5):


Ensures smooth starts and stops and prevents
overrunning when traveling down slopes.

- Reducing Valve (2):


Reduces parking brake release pressure and prevents sudden operation of the brake.

- Servo-Piston Operating Shuttle Valve (6):


Leads divided hydraulic oil flow for travel motor
operation to the servo-piston.

- Parking Brake Release Shuttle Valve (3):


Leads travel motor drive pressure to the parking
brake.

NOTE - The figure shows the travel brake valve


installed on EX255.

Section B-B

1
1

3
2

4
AM

BM

5
C

BV

AV

Section A-A

Section C-C

SM0083

1
2
3

- Check Valve
- Reducing Valve
- Parking Brake Release Shuttle Valve

4
5
6

- Overload Relief Valve


- Counterbalance Valve
- Servo-Piston Operating Shuttle Valve

EX255-EX285

T3-5-11

TRAVEL DEVICE
NOTE - The figure shows the travel brake valve
installed on EX285.

6
3
4
Section B-B

1
1

Section C-C

5
A
4

BM

AM

C
.

.
C
.
AV

BV
5

Section A-A

1
2
3

- Check Valve
- Reducing Valve
- Parking Brake Release Shuttle Valve

4
5
6

- Overload Relief Valve


- Counterbalance Valve
- Servo-Piston Operating Shuttle Valve

SM5010

T3-5-12

EX255-EX285

TRAVEL DEVICE
Travel Operation
When supply oil from the control valve is routed to
port BV, supply oil flows around spool CB, opens
check valve BC (9) and is led to motor port BM.
However, return oil from motor port AM is blocked by
check valve AC (8) and spool CB (7).
As supply oil pressure at port BV increases, supply oil
is routed to chamber G through orifice F in spool
CB (7), moving spool CB (7) to the left against spring
force.
Consequently, return oil from motor port AM starts to
flow into port AV through notch H in spool CB (7),
allowing the travel motor to rotate.
When the travel levers are returned to the neutral
position, the oil in both ports AV and BV are routed to
the hydraulic oil tank through the control valve. Thus,
oil pressure in chamber G decreases, and spool CB
(7) is moved back to the original position by spring
force. Then, the oil flow circuit is blocked, causing the
travel motors to stop rotating.

draws oil, oil pressure at port BV and chamber G


decreases, causing spool CB (7) to move to the right.
Then, the return oil flow from the motor is restricted
by the spool, increasing pressure at port AM.
The increased pressure at port AM brakes the motor.
Thus, the restricted return oil flow increases the
pressure at port BV again, moving spool CB (7) back
to the left. This repeat movement of the spool (hydraulic brake action) prevents the machine from
overrunning.

Circuit Protectors
If pressure in the circuit increases over the setting
pressure of the overload relief valve (4), this valve
opens to relieve peak pressure to the lower pressure
side to protect the motor from overloading. This valve
also functions to release shock pressure caused by
inertia force developing when the motor stops.
When the motor draws oil because of pumping operation, check valve BC (9) opens to make up vacuum,
so that cavitation will not develop in the circuit.

Descending Operation
When the machine travels down a slope, the travel
motors are forcibly driven by the machine weight so
that the motor draws oil like a pump. When the motor

4
9

8
AM

BM

AV

BV

F
SM0084

4
7

- Overload relief valve


- Spool CB

8
9

- Check valve AC
- Check valve BC

EX255-EX285

T3-5-13

TRAVEL DEVICE
PARKING BRAKE

NOTE - The figure shows the parking brake installed


on EX255.

When the brake is applied:

When the brake is released:


M
K

1
2

3
M
4
5

SM3025

1
2
3

- Disc Spring
- Piston
- Friction Plate

4
5
6

- Plate
- Housing
- Drive Disc

T3-5-14

EX255-EX285

TRAVEL DEVICE
NOTE - The figure shows the parking brake installed
on EX285.

When the brake is applied:

When the brake is released:

SM5006

1
2
3

- Disc Spring
- Piston
- Friction Plate

4
5
6

- Plate
- Housing
- Drive Disc

EX255-EX285

T3-5-15

TRAVEL DEVICE
The parking brake is a negative-type brake released
when oil pressure K is applied to parking brake
chamber M. Whenever the travel control valve
spools are in neutral, the parking brake is automatically applied.
Friction plates (3) are connected to drive disc (6), and
plates (4) to motor housing (5) via spline coupling
respectively. When disc spring (1) pushes piston (2)
to the right, friction plates (3) come into contact with
plates (4), applying the parking brake.

chamber G located at the end of spool CB (9).


Parking brake release pressure is blocked by spool
CB (9). When pressure increases, spool CB (9)
moves to the right. Pressurized oil flows to reducing
valve (7) via the orifice I of spool CB (9), then flows
to parking brake chamber M to release the travel
parking brake.
When the machine is not traveling:
Pressure oil from the travel motor is not routed
through shuttle valve (8), and parking brake chamber
M is led to the drain circuit through reducing valve
(7). Piston (2) is gradually forced to the right by disc
spring (1), making friction plates (3) come into contact with plates (4).

Starting to travel:
When travel lever is pulled reverse, pressurized oil
from the pump flows to port AM via the control valve.
The pressurized oil flows to the travel motor and

Drain

AM
BM

SM0086

7
8

- Reducing valve
- Shuttle valve

- Spool CB

T3-5-16

EX255-EX285

TRAVEL DEVICE
NOTE

EX255-EX285

T3-6-1

OTHER COMPONENTS (Upperstructure)


PILOT SHUT-OFF VALVE

To pilot valve

The pilot shut-off valve is a manual-operated switch


valve. The spool in the pilot shut-off valve is rotated
by moving the pilot control shut-off lever to turn on or
off the pilot oil flow to the pilot valves.

To hydrayulic
oil tank
From pilot
pump

From pilot valve

To shockless valve

SM0087

Valve Operation with Pilot Control Shut-Off


Lever in LOCK Position
The pilot shut-off valve is set in the neutral position.
Pressure oil from the pilot pump does not flow into
the pilot valves, but it is routed to the shockless
valve. Pilot oil on the pilot valve side is routed to the
hydraulic tank as drain passages in the pilot shutoff valve open.

From pilot valve

To shockless valve

To hydraulic
oil tank

From pilot
pump
SM0088

Valve Operation with Pilot Control Shut-Off


Lever in UNLOCK Position
The pilot shut-off valve is set in the operating
position, allowing pressure oil from the pilot pump
to flow into the pilot valves. The pilot pressure can
be and will be routed to the control valve to operate
the respective hydraulic cylinders and/or motors as
the pilot valves are operated, in other words, as the
control levers are operated.

To pilot valve

From pilot pump


SM0089

T3-6-2

EX255-EX285

OTHER COMPONENTS (Upperstructure)


SHOCKLESS VALVE

Check valves, pilot pressure sensor (for arm roll in),


and pilot pressure switch (for boom raise) are built
into the shockless valve block in addition to the
shockless valves.
The shockless valves regulate secondary pilot pressure (pilot pressure between the pilot valves and the
control valve spools) for the arm roll-out and for boom
raise functions, preventing abrupt and rapid movement of the respective control valve spools.

6
5

SM0090

When the arm roll out or the boom raise is operated,


secondary pilot pressure from the pilot valve is
routed to the side B of the shockless valve. Immediately after operating the control lever, the secondary pilot pressure routed to the side B flows to the
control valve spool via orifice (9). As the secondary
pilot pressure increases, check valve (7) opens.

To control
valve spool

From pilot
valve

SM0091

7
Return oil from the control valve spool flows back to
the hydraulic oil tank via orifice (9). As the pressure
at the side A increases, spool (8) moves in proportion to the pressure increase, regulating the return
oil flow.
A

From control
valve spool

To hydraulic
oil tank via
pilot valve

SM0092

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Shockless Valve
Pilot Pressure Switch (Boom Raise)
Check Valve
Check Valve
Shockless Valve
Pilot Pressure Sensor (Arm Roll In)
Check Valve
Spool
Orifice

EX255-EX285

T3-6-3

OTHER COMPONENTS (Upperstructure)


Warm-up circuit
When the pilot shut-off valve is in the LOCK position,
pilot oil via the pilot shut-off valve flows into the
shockless valve. The oil is heated as it flows through
the restriction located at the inlet of the shockless
valve.

For this reason, the pilot circuit is warmed as this


heated oil flows into the shockless valve and into the
pilot valves.

To pilot valve

To control valve

To pilot valve

To control valve

To pilot valve

To control valve

To pilot valve

To control valve

Shockless valve
Pilot shut-off valve

From pilot pump

SM0093

T3-6-4

EX255-EX285

OTHER COMPONENTS (Upperstructure)


SOLENOID VALVE UNIT

Front

The solenoid valve unit functions to control the pump


regulator, control valve and travel motor servo piston
upon receiving signals from the main controller MC.
The solenoid valve unit consists of four solenoid
valves (SC), (SD), (SI), and (SG). (Refer to the
Control System Group in the SYSTEM Section).
SC : Controls the arm regenerative valve located in
the control valve.
SD : Controls the pump regulator.
(Speed Sensing)
SI

: Controls the travel motor servo piston.


(Travel Speed Selection)

SG : Functions to increase the main relief valve


pressure setting

SC
SD

SG
SI

SM0094

EX255-EX285

T3-6-5

OTHER COMPONENTS (Upperstructure)


Proportional Solenoid Valve
Upon receiving an electric current signal from the
MC, the proportional solenoid valve outputs hydraulic
pressure proportional to the degree of the electric
current.
When not energized (In neutral):
The spring pushes the spool to the right, connecting the output port S to the tank port T.
When energized:
The solenoid pushes the spool to the left for a
distance proportional to the electric current flowing
through the solenoid. Pilot oil from port (P) flows

into output port S, increasing the pressure at output


port S. The pressure at port S acts on the two banks
of walls on the spool. (See detail a.).
Because of the pressure receiving area difference
between the two walls, the pressure at port S acts
as a force to push the spool to the right. As the
pressure at port S increases, the force to push the
spool to the right also increases. When this force
overcomes the force to push the spool to the left by
solenoid, the spool moves back to the right side,
closing the passage between output port S and port
P. As a result, pressure increase at port S stops.

Spool

Spring

Solenoid

SM0095

T3-6-6

EX255-EX285

OTHER COMPONENTS (Upperstructure)


PILOT RELIEF VALVE
The pilot relief valve functions to regulate the pilot
pump pressure oil routed to port P to a set constant
pressure.

Pilot relief valve

SM2200

EC MOTOR
The EC motor is used to control engine speed. A
worm gear is incorporated into the EC motor to
prevent a loss of synchronism from occurring. The
EC sensor is provided to detect the degrees of the EC

Output shaft

motor rotation to calculate the governor lever position. (Refer to the Control System Group in SYSTEM
Section).

Worm gear

Output gear

Sensor gear
Motor

EC sensor
Worm wheel
SM0097

EX255-EX285

T3-7-1

OTHER COMPONENTS (Undercarriage)


SWING BEARING
This bearing is a single-row shear ball-type bearing,
comprising outer race (1), inner race (3), balls (6),
supports (5), and seals (2), (4). Outer race (1) is
bolted to the upperstructure and inner race (3) is
bolted to the undercarriage.

The internal gear of inner race (3) engages with the


output shaft of the swing reduction gear.

2
5

6
4

SM0098

1
2
3

- Outer Race
- Seal
- Inner Race

4
5
6

- Seal
- Supports
- Ball

T3-7-2

EX255-EX285

OTHER COMPONENTS (Undercarriage)


CENTER JOINT
The center joint is a 360 rotating joint. When the
upperstructure is rotated, the center joint avoids
twisting of hoses and allows hydraulic oil to flow
smoothly to or from the travel motors. Spindle (1) is
attached to the main frame, and body (2) is bolted to
the swing center of the undercarriage.

To left travel
motor (Reverse)

To right travel
motor (Forward)

To left travel
motor (Forward)

To right travel
motor (Reverse)

Hydraulic oil flows to the right and left travel motors


via spindle (1) and the oil ports of body (2). Seals (3)
prevent oil leaks between spindle (1) and body (2)
into adjacent passages.

To left travel
motor (Forward)

To right travel
motor (Forward)

To left travel
motor (Reverse)

To right travel
motor (Reverse)

1
Pilot pressure for
travel speed selection

Pilot pressure for


travel speed selection

Drain

2
Drain

Drain

3
Drain
Forward
Reverse
Pilot pressure for
travel speed selection

SM0099

1
2

- Spindle
- Body

- Seal

EX255-EX285

T3-7-3

OTHER COMPONENTS (Undercarriage)


TRACK ADJUSTER
The track adjuster located on the side frame is
composed of spring (5) and adjuster cylinder (6).
Spring (5) absorbs loads applied to the front idler.
Adjuster cylinder (6) adjusts track sag.

CAUTION
Do not loosen valve (1) quickly or loosen too much
since high-pressure grease in the adjusting cylinder may spout out.
Loosen carefully, keeping body parts and face
away from valve (1). Never loosen grease fitting.

Grease is applied through grease fitting into chamber (A) of adjuster cylinder (6) as illustrated below.
The pressure of the grease pushes piston rod (8)
out and decreases track sag.
To increase track sag, loosen valve (1) 1 to 1.5
turns counterclockwise to release grease from the
track adjuster cylinder through the grease discharge hole.

Grease fitting

Grease discharge hole

SM0100

1
2
3
4

Valve
Nut
Flange
Spacer

5
6
7

- Spring
- Adjuster Cylinder
- Piston Rod

T3-7-4

EX255-EX285

OTHER COMPONENTS (Undercarriage)


NOTE

COPYRIGHT BY FIAT - HITACHI EXCAVATORS S.p.A.


Documentation Centre
Strada di Settimo, 323 - S. MAURO T.SE ( TO ) ITALY

Reproduction of text or illustrations,


in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited

Print No. 604.13.082 - X - 2001


Printed by Satiz - Turin (Italy)
Coordinamento Editoriale Satiz - Torino

EXCAVATOR
TECHNICAL MANUAL
TROUBLESHOOTING
(Tier 2)

All information, illustrations and specifications in this manual are based on the latest product information available
at the time of publication.
The right is reserved to make changes at any time without notice.

FIAT KOBELCO CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY S.p.A.


FORM No. 604.13.196 - Edition - July 2002

ENGINEERING

EX255-EX285

IN-1

INTRODUCTION
TO THE READER
This manual is written for an experienced technician
to provide technical information needed to maintain
and repair this machine.
- Be sure to thoroughly read this manual for correct
information concerning the service procedures.

- If you have any questions or comments, or if you


found any errors regarding the contents of this
manual, please contact:
FIAT KOBELCO CONSTRUCTION
MACHINERY S.p.A.
Strada Settimo, 323
San Mauro Torinese (TO)
10099 ITALY
PRODUCT SUPPORT
Fax. ++39 011 6877357

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
Please refer to the materials listed below in addition
to this service manual:
- Operation and Maintenance Instruction
Manual
- Parts Catalog

SERVICE MANUAL COMPOSITION


The complete service manual consists of three
books:
- Technical Manual - Operational Principle
- Technical Manual - Troubleshooting
- Workshop Manual

- The Workshop Manual includes information needed


for maintenance and repair of the machine, tools and
devices needed for maintenance and repair, maintenance standards, removal/installation and assembly/disassembly procedures.

- The Technical Manual-Operational Principle includes the technical information concerning the
operation of main devices and systems.

The Service Manual for EX255-EX285 Excavators


consists of the following book/print numbers:

- The Technical Manual-Troubleshooting includes the


technical information needed for operational performance tests, and troubleshooting procedures.

BOOK

PRINT NUMBER

- Technical Manual - Operational Principle

604.13.191

- Technical Manual - Troubleshooting

604.13.196

- Workshop Manual

604.13.201

IN-2

EX255-EX285

INTRODUCTION
PAGE NUMBER
Each page has a number, located on the external upper corner of the page. Each page number contains the
following information:
Example: T 1-2-3
Consecutive page number for each group
Group number (if exist)
Section number
T : Technical Manual
W : Workshop Manual

SYMBOLS
In this manual, the following safety alert symbol and signal words are used to alert the reader to the potential for
personal injury or machine damage.

This is the safety alert symbol.


When you see this symbol, be alert to the potential for personal injury.
Never fail to follow the safety instructions prescribed along with the safety alert symbol.
The safety alert symbol is also used to draw attentio in to component/part weights.
To avoid injury and damage, be sure to use appropriate lifting techniques and equipment when lifting heavy
parts.

UNITS USED
SI Units (International System of Units) are used in this manual.
MKSA system units and English units are also indicated in parentheses just behinds SI units.
Example: 24.5 MPa (250 kgf/cm2, 3 560 psi)
A table for conversion from SI units to other system units is shown below for reference purposes.

Quantity

To
convert
from (SI)

Into
(Others)

Multiply by

Quantity

To
convert
from (SI)

Into
(Others)

Multiply by

Lenght

mm

in

0.03937

Pressure

MPa

kgf/cm2

10.197

mm

ft

0.003281

MPa

psi

145.0

US gal

0.2642

kW

CV-PS

1.360

kW

HP

1.341

Volume

US qt

1.057

yd

1.308

Temperature

C x 1.8 + 32

kg

lb

2.205

Velocity

km/h

mph

0.6214

m
Mass
Force
Torque

Power

kgf

0.10197

lbf

0.2248

N.m

kgf.m

0.10197

N.m

lbf.ft

0.7375

min
Flow rate

-1

rpm

1.0

L/min

US gpm

0.2642

mL/rev

cc/rev

1.0

EX255-EX285

S-1

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
RECOGNISE SAFETY INFORMATION
This is your SAFETY ALERT SYMBOL.
- When you see this symbol on your machine or in
this Manual, be alert of the potential for personal
injury.
- Follow recommended precautions and safe
operating practices.

S0021

UNDERSTAND SIGNAL WORDS


In this Manual you will find the following words:
- DANGER;
- WARNING;
- CAUTION.
referring to different hazard risks.
These words are always accompanied by the safety
alert symbol.

DANGER
WARNING

DANGER: indicates an imminent hazardous


situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.

CAUTION

WARNING: indicated a potential hazardous


situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.

IMPORTANT

CAUTION: indicates a potential hazardous situation


which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate
injury.

NOTE

IMPORTANT: indicates a situation which, if not


avoided, may cause damage to the machine.
NOTE: indicates an additional explanation for
information purposes.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
This Manual also contains this symbol
accompanying instructions for correct behaviour
as regards environmental protection.
S0024

S-2

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
FOLLOW SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Carefully read and observe all safety signs on the
machine and read all safety precautions in this
Manual.
Safety signs should be installed, maintained, and
replaced when necessary.
- If a safety sign or this Manual are damaged or
missing, obtain a replacement from your FIAT
KOBELCO Dealer in the same way you order a
spare part (be sure to detail machine model and
serial number upon ordering).
Learn how to operate the machine and its controls
correctly and safely.
Allow only trained, qualified, authorised personnel
to operate the machine.

S0022

Keep the machine in proper working conditions.


- Unauthorised changes to the machine may
impair function and/or safety and affect machine
life.
Safety messages in this Chapter SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS, are intended to illustrate basic
safety procedures of the machine. However, it is
impossible for these safety messages to cover
every hazardous situation you may encounter. If
you have any doubts, consult your direct
supervisor prior to operating or servicing the
machine.

PREPARE FOR EMERGENCIES


Be prepared if a fire starts or an accident occurs.
- Keep the first-aid kit and fire extinguisher on
hand.
- Thoroughly read and understand the label
attached to the fire extinguisher to use it properly.
- Establish emergency priority procedures to cope
with fires and accidents.
- Keep emergency numbers for doctors,
ambulance service, hospitals and fire
department posted near the telephone.
S0023

EX255-EX285

S-3

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
Wear close-fitting clothing and safety equipment
appropriate to the job.
You need:
- A hard hat;
- Safety shoes;
- Safety glasses or face shield;
- Heavy gloves;
- Ear protection;
- Reflective clothing;
- Waterproof clothing;
- Respirator or filter mask.
Be sure to correctly wear equipment and clothing
for the job.
- Do not take any chances.
- Avoid wearing loose clothing, jewellery, or other
items that can catch on control levers or other
parts of the machine.

S0025

Operating equipment safely requires the full


attention of the operator. Do not wear radio or
music headphones while operating the machine.

PROTECT AGAINST NOISE


Prolonged exposure to loud noise can cause
impairment or loss of hearing.
- Wear a suitable hearing protection such as
earmuffs or earplugs to protect objectionable or
uncomfortably loud noise.

S0026

INSPECT THE MACHINE


Inspect the machine carefully every day or workshift by an attentive visual inspection of machine
outside prior to starting it to prevent damages and
personal injuries.
- In the walk-around inspection, be sure to cover all
points detailed in the Chapter "MAINTENANCE",
paragraph "EXTERNAL VISUAL INSPECTION"
of the OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTION MANUAL.

S0027

S-4

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
USE HAND HOLDS AND STEPS
Falling is one of the major causes of personal injury.
- When you get on and off the machine, always
face the machine and maintain a three-point
contact with the steps and handrails.
- Do not use any control as a handhold.
- Never jump off the machine. Never get on and
off a moving machine.
- Be careful of slippery conditions of platforms,
steps, and handrails when leaving the machine.

S0028

ADJUST THE OPERATOR'S SEAT


A seat poorly adjusted for operator or work
requirements may quickly fatigue the operator
leading to improper operations.
- The seat should be adjusted whenever machine
operator changes.
- The operator should be able to fully press the
pedals and correctly move the control levers with
his back resting against the seat back.
- If not, move the seat fore and aft, and check
again.
S0029

EX255-EX285

S-5

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
FASTEN SEAT BELT
Should the machine overturn, the operator may
become injured and/or thrown from the cab. Not
only, the operator may be crushed by the
overturning machine resulting in serious injury or
even death.
- Prior to operating the machine, thoroughly
examine belt webbing, buckle, and attaching
hardware. If any item is damaged or worn,
replace the seat belt or component before
operating the machine.

S0030

- Be sure to remain seated with the seat belt


securely fastened at all times when the machine
is in operation to minimise injury hazard in case
of accident.
- After a significant accident, replace the seat belts
even though they do not look damaged.

MOVE AND
SAFELY

OPERATE

MACHINE

Bystanders can be run over.


- Pay the utmost attention not to run over
bystanders.
- Be sure and aware of the location of bystanders
before moving, swinging or operating the
machine.
- If fitted, keep the travel alarm and horn sounding
to warn people that the machine is about to move.
S0031

- When operating, swinging, or moving the


machine in a congested area use a signal man.
- Co-ordinate hand signals before starting the
machine.

S-6

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
OPERATE ONLY FROM THE DRIVER'S
SEAT
Inappropriate engine starting procedures may
cause the machine unexpected movement,
possibly resulting in serious injury and even death.
- Start the engine only from the operators seat.
- NEVER start the engine while standing on the
track or on the ground.
- Do not start the engine by shorting across starter
motor terminals.
S0032

- Before starting the engine, ensure that all control


levers are in the neutral position.

KEEP RIDERS OFF THE MACHINE


Riders on the machine are subject to injuries such
as being struck by foreign objects and being thrown
off the machine.
- Only machine operator is
machine. Keep riders off.

allowed on the

- Riders also obstruct the operators visibility,


resulting in the machine being operated
unsafely.
S0033

CONFIRM DIRECTION WHERE THE


MACHINE IS TO BE DRIVEN
Incorrect travel controls operation may result in
serious injury and even death.
- Before driving the machine, be aware of the
undercarriage position relative to the operators
position. If travel motors are located at the front
of the cab, the machine will move reverse when
travel controls are moved towards cab front.
S0037

EX255-EX285

S-7

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID INJURY FROM BACK-OVER AND
SWING ACCIDENTS
If any person is present near the machine when
backing or swinging the upperstructure, the
machine may hit or run over that person, resulting
in serious injury or death.
To avoid back-over and swing accidents:
- Always look around BEFORE YOU BACK UP
AND SWING THE MACHINE. BE SURE THAT
ALL BYSTANDERS ARE CLEAR.
- Keep the travel alarm in working condition (if
equipped).
- ALWAYS BE ALERT FOR BYSTANDERS
MOVING INTO THE WORK AREA. USE THE
HORN OR OTHER SIGNAL TO WARN
BYSTANDERS BEFORE MOVING MACHINE.

S0042

- USE A SIGNAL PERSON WHEN BACKING UP


IF YOUR VIEW IS OBSTRUCTED. ALWAYS
KEEP THE SIGNAL PERSON IN VIEW.
- Use hand signals, which conform to your local
regulations, when work conditions require a
signal person.
- No machine motions shall be made unless
signals are clearly understood by both signalman
and operator.
- Learn the meanings of all flags, signs, and
markings used on the job and confirm with the
person in charge of signalling.
- Keep windows, mirrors, and lights clean and in
good condition.
- Dust, heavy rain, fog, etc., can reduce visibility.
As visibility decreases, reduce speed and use
proper lighting.
- Read and understand all operating instructions in
the OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTION MANUAL.

S0043

S-8

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
DRIVE MACHINE SAFELY

Before starting the machine carefully read the


OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTION MANUAL. (Refer to the OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS chapter).

Before moving the machine, confirm which way to


move travel pedals/levers for the corresponding
direction you wish to go.
- Pushing down on the front of the travel pedals or
pushing the levers forward moves the machine
towards the idlers. (Refer to the OPERATION
AND
MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTION
MANUAL).

S0038

Traveling on a grade may cause the machine to slip


or to overturn, possibly resulting in serious injury or
death.
- When traveling up or down a grade, keep the
bucket in the direction of travel, approximately 20
to 30 cm (A) above the ground.
- If machine starts to skid or becomes unstable,
lower the bucket immediately.

S0039

- Traveling across the face of a slope may cause


the machine to skid or to overturn. When
travelling (ascending/descending) on a slope, be
sure to point the tracks uphill/downhill.

S0004

- Turning on an incline may cause the machine to


tip over.
If turning on an incline is absolutely unavoidable,
do so at a place where the slope is gentle and the
surface is firm.
- When operating on a grade and the fuel reserve
indicator light lights, immediately refuel.

WRONG
S0005

EX255-EX285

S-9

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID OVERTURNING
The danger of tipping is always present when
operating on a grade, possibly resulting in serious
injury or death.
To avoid tipping:
- Be extra careful before operating on a grade.
- Prepare machine operating area flat by grading.
- Keep the bucket low to the ground and close to
the machine.
- Reduce machine operating speed to avoid
tipping or slipping.
- Avoid changing direction when travelling on
grades.
- NEVER attempt to travel across a grade steeper
than 15 degrees.
- Reduce swing speed as necessary when
swinging loads.

S0002

Be careful when working on frozen ground.


- Temperature increases will cause the ground to
become soft and make ground travel unstable.

S0047

PARK MACHINE SAFELY


To avoid accidents:
- Park machine on a level surface.
- Lower bucket to the ground.
- Turn auto-idle (A/I) switch off.
- Run engine at slow idle speed without load for 5
minutes.
- Turn key-start switch to OFF to stop engine.
- Remove the ignition key from the key switch.
- Pull the safety lever (pilot-control shut-off lever) to
the LOCK position.
- Close windows, roof window, and cab door.
- Lock all access doors and compartments.

S0049

S-10

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID INJURY FROM UNEXPECTED
MACHINE MOVEMENT
Death or serious injury may result if you attempt to
get on or off a moving machine.
To avoid roll-aways:
- Select level ground when possible to park
machine.
- Do not park the machine on a grade.
- Lower the bucket and/or other work tools to the
ground. Thrust the bucket teeth into the ground if
you must park on a grade.
- Turn the auto-idle switch off.
- Run the engine at slow idle speed without load for
5 minutes to cool down the engine.
- Stop the engine and remove the key from the key
switch.
- Pull the pilot shut-off lever to LOCK position.
- Block both tracks.
- Position the machine to prevent overturning.
- Park a reasonable distance from other machines.

S0040

S0041

PROVIDE SIGNALS FOR JOBS


INVOLVING A NUMBER OF MACHINES
For jobs involving several machines, provide
signals commonly known by all personnel involved.
Also, appoint a signal person to co-ordinate the job
site. Make sure that all personnel obey the signal
persons directions.

S0036

EX255-EX285

S-11

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
INVESTIGATE JOB SITE BEFORE HAND
When working at the edge of an excavation or on
a road shoulder, the machine could overturn,
possibly resulting in serious injury or death.
- Investigate the configuration and ground
conditions of the job site beforehand to prevent
the machine from overturning and prevent the
ground, stockpiles, or banks from collapsing.
- Make a work plan. Use machines appropriate to
the work and job site.
- Reinforce ground, edges, and road shoulders as
necessary. Keep the machine well back from the
edges of excavations and road shoulders.
- When working on an incline or road shoulder,
employ a signal person as required.
Confirm that your machine is equipped with a
F.O.P.S. (Falling Object Protective Structure)
cab before working in areas where there is the
possibility of falling stones or landslides.
- When footing is weak, reinforce the ground
before starting the work.
- When working on frozen ground, be extremely
alert. As ambient temperature rises, footing
becomes loose and slipped.

S0034

PROTECT AGAINST FALLING STONES


AND LANDSLIDES
Confirm that your machine is equipped with a
F.O.P.S. (Falling Object Protective Structure) cab
before working in areas where there is the
possibility of falling stones.

S0035

S-12

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
DIG WITH CAUTION
Accidental severing of underground cables or gas
lines may cause an explosion and/or fire, possibly
resulting in serious injury or death.
- Before digging, check the location of cables, gas
lines, and water lines.
- Keep the minimum distance required by law from
cables, gas lines, and water lines. If a fiber optic
cable should be accidentally severed, do not look
into the end. Doing so may result in serious eye
injury.
- Contact local authorities and/or the utility
companies directly (electric power, gas,
telephone, water, sewers, telecommunications,
etc.) to obtain information about underground
utility lines.

S0009

OPERATE WITH CAUTION


If the front attachment or any other part of the
machine hits against an overhead obstacle, such
as a bridge, both the machine and the overhead
obstacle will be damaged, and personal injury may
results as well.
- Take care to avoid hitting overhead obstacles
with the boom or arm.

S0008

AVOID ELECTRIC LINES


Serious injury or death can result if the machine or
front attachments are not kept a safe distance from
electric lines.
- When operating near an electric line, NEVER
move any part of the machine or load closer than
3 m plus twice the line insulator length (L).
- Check and comply with any local regulations that
may apply.
- Wet ground will expand the area that could cause
any person on it to be affected by electric shock.
- Keep all bystanders or co-workers away from the
site.

S0205

EX255-EX285

S-13

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
KEEP PERSONNEL CLEAR FROM
WORKING AREA
A person may be hit severely by the swinging front
attachment or counterweight and/or may be
crushed against an other object, resulting in serious
injury or death.
- Keep all persons clear from the area of operation
and machine movement.
- Before operating the machine, set up barriers to
the sides and rear area of the bucket swing radius
to prevent anyone from entering the work area.

S0044

NEVER MOVE THE BUCKET OVER ANY


ONE
Never lift, move, or swing bucket above anyone or
a truck cab.
Serious injury or machine damage may result due
to bucket load spill or due to collision with the
bucket.

S0045

AVOID UNDERCUTTING
In order to retreat from the edge of an excavation if
the footing should collapse, always position the
undercarriage perpendicular to the edge of the
excavation with the travel motors at the rear.
- If the footing starts to collapse and if sufficient
retreat is not possible, do not panic. Often, the
machine can be secured by lowering the front
attachment, in such cases.

S0011

S-14

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
NEVER UNDERCUT A HIGH BANK
The edges could collapse or a land slide could
occur causing serious injury or death.

S0048

SAFETY LOADS MOVING


The excavator is no lifting and transportation
means, therefore it should not be used to position
loads accurately. Should it be exceptionally used to
lift and lay building components, special caution
must be taken as follows:
- The machine must be equipped without failure
with the appropriate variant supplied, upon
request, by FIAT KOBELCO. Also, totally comply
with the safety precautions for the operation of the
excavator as a lifting equipment.
- Secure the loads to be raised using cables or
chains fastened with appropriate hooking
mechanisms.
- Never hook cables or chains to the bucket teeth.
- Nobody should be allowed to remain under the
raised load or within the excavator operating
range for any reason whatever.
S0165

- Never exceed specified loading capacity.


Incorrect fastening of slings or chains may cause
boom/arm failure or failure of the lifting means
with consequent bodily injuries and even death.
- Always ensure that slings and chains used for
lifting are adequate to the load and in good
condition.
- All loading capacities are referred to the
machine on a level surface and should be
disregarded when working on a slope.

EX255-EX285

S-15

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
SAFETY TRANSPORTING
The danger of tipping is present when loading/
unloading the machine onto/from a truck or trailer
bed.
- Be sure to observe local regulations when
transporting the machine on public roads.
- Provide an appropriate truck or trailer for
transporting the machine.
Take the following precautions when loading/
unloading the machine:
1. Select firm level ground.
2. Be sure to use a loading dock or ramp.
3. Be sure to have a signal person when loading/
unloading the machine.
4. Always turn the auto-idle (A/I) switch OFF when
loading or unloading the machine, to avoid
unexpected speed increase due to unintentional
operation of a control lever.
5. Always select the slow speed mode with the
travel speed selector. In the high speed mode,
travel speed may automatically increase.
6. Avoid steering while driving up or down the ramp
as it is extremely dangerous. If steering is
unavoidable, first move back to the ground or
flatbed, modify travelling direction, and begin to
drive again.
7. Do not operate any levers besides the travel
levers when driving up or down the ramp.
8. The top end of the ramp where it meets the
flatbed is a sudden jolt. Take care when traveling
over it.
9. Prevent possible injury from machine tipping
while the upperstructure is rotating.
10. Keep the arm tucked under and rotate the
upperstructure slowly for best stability.
11. Securely fasten machine frame using chains or
cables. Refer to TRANSPORT chapter in the
OPERATION
AND
MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTION MANUAL for details.

S0052

S-16

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
SAFE MAINTENANCE
To avoid accidents:
- Understand maintenance procedure before
starting the work.
- Kepp the working area clean and dry.
- Do not spray water or steam inside the cab.
- Do not lubricate or service the machine when it is
in motion.
- Kepp hands, feet and clothes far from moving
parts.
Prior to service in the machine:
1. Park the machine on the level ground.
2. Lower the bucket to the ground.
3. Switch off the Auto-Idle (A/I).
4. Let the engine idle with no load for at least five
minutes until it has cooled down.
5. Move the key-start switch to the OFF position
to stop the engine.
6. Remove the ignition key from the start switch.
7. Apply the "Maintenance in progress" tag .
This tag can be applied o the left-hand control
lever, safety lever or cab door.
8. Move the safety lever (pilot-control shut-off
lever) to the LOCK position.
9. Let the engine cool down.
- Do not leave the machine unattended if servicing
requires the engine running .
- If the machine is to be raised, place boom and arm
at an angle 90 to 110. Lock machine components
which should be raised for maintenance or repair
using suitable supporting means.
- Never work under a machine kept raised by the
boom.
- Inspect certain component regularly, repair or
replace as necessary.
Refer to the the OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTION MANUAL.
- Keep all components in good condition and
properly install. Immediately repair any fault.
- Immediately repair any damage.Replace worn or
failed components. Remove grease, oil, debris
build-ups.
- Disconnect the negative cable () from the battery
before carry out any work on the electrical system
or arc-welding on the machine.

S0053

S0054

EX255-EX285

S-17

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
WARN OTHERS OF SERVICE WORK
Unexpected machine movement can cause
serious injury.
- Before performing any work on the machine,
attach a maintenance in progress tag. This tag
can be applied o the left-hand control lever,
safety lever or cab door.

S0055

SUPPORT MACHINE PROPERLY


Never attempt to work on the machine without
securing the machine first.
- Always lower the attachment or tool to the ground
before working on the machine.
- If you must work on a lifted machine or
attachment, securely support the machine or
attachment.
- Do not support the machine on cinder blocks,
bollow tires, or props that may crumble under
continuous load.
- Do not work under a machine that is supported
solely by a jack.

S0054

STAY CLEAR OF MOVING PARTS


Entanglements in moving parts can cause serious
injury.
To prevent accidents, care should be taken to
ensure that hands, feet, clothing, jewelry and hair
do not become entangled when working near
rotating parts.

S0056

S-18

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
DISPOSE OF WASTE IN THE
APPROPRIATE MANNER
Waste improperly disposed of represents a danger
for the envinronment. Potentially dangerous waste
used on the FIAT KOBELCO excavators includes
lubricants, fuel, coolant, brake fluid, filters and
batteries.
- Used sealed containers when discharging fluids.
Do not use containers for food or beverages
which may induce drinking.
- Do not spill waste over the ground, into drains, or
water beds.
S0064

- Obtain information about the correct methods to


recycle or dispose of waste from local
Authorities, collection centres or your Dealer.

WORK IN A CLEAN AREA


Before starting an operation, clean the working
area.
Clear the area from all the objects that can be
dangerous for mechanics or people in the working
area.

S0166

PROPERLY LIGHT THE WORKING AREA


Properly and safely light the working area.
- Use safe portable lamps in order to work inside
and under the machine.
- Make sure that the lamp is shielded by a cage;
the incandescent filament of a lamp, accidentally
broken, can cause fuel or oil fire.

F1480

S0167

EX255-EX285

S-19

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
REGULARLY WASH THE MACHINE
Remove all the traces of grease, oil and deposits,
in order to avoid people accidents or damages to
things.
- Do not spray water or steam in the cab.

F1462

S0153

F1463

S0058

STORE ATTACHMENTS SAFELY


Stored attachments such as buckets, hydraulic
breakers and blades can fall and cause serious
injury or death.
- Securely store attachments and implements to
prevent falling.
- Keep bystanders away from storage areas.

PREVENT ACID SCALDS


The sulphuric acid, contained in the battery, is
poisonous.
It is strong enough to scald the skin, corrode
clothes and cause blindness, if it is sprayed into
the eyes.
To avoid dangers:
- Fill the batteries in airy areas.
- Wear eye protections and rubber gloves.
- Avoid breathing the electrolyte vapours when
topping up.
- Avoid spilling or dripping the electrolyte.
- Use proper emergency starting techniques.
If you are touched with acid sprays:
- Rinse your skin well with water.
- Put on your skin sodium bicarbonate or clay to
help the acid neutralization.
- Rinse your eyes with water for 10-15 minutes.
- Immediately see a doctor.
If you have swallowed the acid:
- Drink a big quantity of water or milk, swallow
milk of magnesia, scrabbled eggs or vegetal oil.
- Immediately see a doctor.

F1474

S0168

S-20

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
STARTING THE ENGINE WITH
BOOSTER BATTERIES
Battery gas may explode causing serious damages
and injuries.
- If the engine is to be started using booster
batteries, ensure to comply with all procedures
detailed in the chapter OPERATING
INSTRUCTIONS of the OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTION MANUAL.
- The operator should be sitting in the drivers seat
to keep the machine under control when the
engine starts. Starting the engine with booster
batteries is a two man operation.

S0001

- Do not use batteries that have been stored in the


cold for a long time.
- Mistakes in following procedures detailed for
starting the engine with slave batteries may
cause the batteries to explode or machine to
move unexpectedly.

PREVENT BATTERY EXPLOSIONS


Battery gas can explode.
- Keep sparks, lighted matches, and flames away
from the top of battery.
- Never check battery charge by placing a metal
object across the posts. Use a voltmeter or
hydrometer.
- Do not charge a frozen battery; it may explode.
Warm battery to 16 C.

Battery electrolyte is poisonous. If the battery


should explode, battery electrolyte may be
splashed into eyes, possibly resulting in blindness.
- Be sure to wear eye protection when checking
electrolyte specific gravity.

S0001

EX255-EX285

S-21

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
PREVENT BURNS
Hot spraying fluids:
After operation, engine coolant is hot and under
pressure. Hot water or steam is contained in the
engine, radiator and heater lines.
Skin contact with escaping hot water or steam can
cause severe burns.
- To prevent possible injury from hot spraying
water. DO NOT remove the radiator cap until the
engine is cool. When opening, turn the cap slowly
to the stop. Allow all pressure to be released
before removing the cap.
- The hydraulic oil tank is pressurized. Again, be
sure to release all pressure before removing the
cap.

S0019

Hot fluids and surfaces:


Engine oil, reduction gear oil and hydraulic oil also
become hot during operation.
The engine, hoses, lines and other parts become
hot as well.
- Wait for the oil and components to cool down
before starting any maintenance or inspection
work.
S0059

KEEP CLEAN THE MACHINE


Keep clean the engine compartment, radiator,
batteries, hydraulic pipes, fuel tank and operator's
position.
The engine compartment temperature can quickly
rise, after stopping the engine.
IN THESE CASES, BE CAREFUL TO POSSIBLE
FIRES.
Open the access doors in order to quicken the engine
cooling process and clean the compartment.

S0177

S-22

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID HIGH-PRESSURE FLUIDS
Fluids such as diesel fuel or hydraulic oil under
pressure can penetrate the skin or eyes causing
serious injury, blindness or death.
- Avoid this hazard by relieving pressure before
disconnecting hydraulic or other lines.
SA0016

- Tighten all connections before applying


pressure.
- Search for leaks with a piece of cardboard; take
care to protect hands and body from highpressure fluids. Wear a face shield or goggles for
eye protection.
SA0017

- In an accident occurs, see a doctor familiar with


this type of injury immediately. Any fluid injected
into the skin must be surgically removed within a
few hours or gangrene may result.

SA0018

PREVENT PARTS FROM FLYING OFF


Grease in the track adjuster is under high pressure.
Failure to follow the precautions below may result
in serious injury, blindness, or death.
- NEVER attempt to remove GREASE FITTING
or VALVE ASSEMBLY.
- As pieces may fly off, be sure to keep body and
face away from valve.

Travel reduction gears are under pressure.


- As pieces may fly off, be sure to keep body and
face away from AIR RELEASE PLUG to avoid
injury. REDUCTION GEAR OIL is hot. Wait for
gear oil to cool down, then gradually loosen the air
release plug to release pressure.

F3635

S0178

EX255-EX285

S-23

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
PROTECT AGAINST FLYING DEBRIS
If flying debris hit eyes or any other part of the body,
serious injury may result.
- Guard against injury from flying pieces of metal or
debris; wear goggles or safety glasses.
- Keep bystanderds away from the working area
before striking any object.

S0046

HANDLE FLUIDS SAFELY - AVOID FIRES


Handle fuel with care: it is highly flammable. If fuel
ignites, an explosion and/or a fire may occur,
possibly resulting in serious injury or death.
- Do not refuel the machine while smoking or when
near open flame or sparks.
- Always stop the engine before refuelling the
machine.
- Fill the tank outdoors.

S0050

All fuels, most lubrificants, and some antifreeze


fluids are flammable.
- Store flammable fluids well away from fire
hazards.
- Do not burn or puncture pressurized containers.
- Do not store oily rags; they can ignite and burn
spontaneously.

S0051

S-24

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
PREVENT FIRES
Check for Oil Leaks:
- Fuel, hydraulic oil and lubricant leaks can lead to
fires.
- Check for missing or loose clamps, kinked hoses,
lines or hoses that rub against each other,
damage to the oil-cooler, and loose oil-cooler
flange bolts which may cause oil leaks.
- Tighten, repair or replace any missing, loose or
damaged clamps, lines, hoses, oil-cooler and oilcooler flange bolts.
- Do not bend or strike high-pressure lines.
- Never install bent or damaged lines, pipes, or
hoses.
Check for Shorts circuits which could cause fires:
- Clean and tighten all electrical connections.
- Check before each shift or after about ten (10)
hour operation for loose, kinked, hardened or
frayed electrical cables and wires.
- Check before each shift or after about ten (10)
hour operation for missing or damaged terminal
caps.
- DO NOT OPERATE MACHINE if cable or wires
are loose, kinked, etc..
Clean up Flammables:
- Spilled fuel and lubricans, and trash, grease,
debris, accumulated coal dust, and other
flammables may cause fires.
- Prevent fires by inspecting and cleaning the
machine daily and by removing spilled or
accumulated flammables immediately.
Check Key-start Switch:
- If a fire breaks out, failure to stop the engine will
escalate the fire, hampering fire fighting.
- Always check key-start switch function before
operating the machine every day:
1. Start the engine and run it at slow idle.
2. Turn the key-start switch to the OFF position
to confirm that the engine stops.
- If any abnormalities are found, be sure to repair
them before operating the machine.
Check Heat Shields:
- Damaged or missing heat shields may lead to
fires.
- Damaged or missing heat shields must be
repaired or replaced before operating the
machine.

S0051

EX255-EX285

S-25

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
EVACUATING IN CASE OF FIRE
If a fire breaks out, evacuate the machine in the
following way:
- Stop the engine by turning the key-start switch to
the OFF position if there is time.
- Use a fire extinguisher if there is time.
- Exit the machine.

S0060

BEWARE OF EXHAUST FUMES


Prevent asphyxiation. Engine exhaust fumes can
cause sickness or death.
- If you must operate in a building, be sure there is
adequate ventilation. Either use an exhaust pipe
extension to remove the exhaust fumes or open
doors and windows to bring enough outside air
into the area.

S0061

USE APPROPRIATE TOOLS


Use tools appropriate for the job to be performed.
- Inappropriate tools, parts and procedures might
generate dangerous conditions.
- Use tools of correct size to tighten or loosening
securing elements, in order to avoid injuries
caused by a wrench getting out of control.
- Do not use U.S. Standard or British Standard
tools on metric fasteners and vice versa.
Use only FIAT KOBELCO genuine spare parts
(please refer to the PARTS CATALOG).

S0120

S-26

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID HEATING NEAR PRESSURIZED
FLUID LINES
Flammable spray can be generated by heating near
pressurized fluid lines, resulting in severe burns to
yourself and bystanders.
Do not heat by welding, soldering, or using a torch
near pressurized fluid lines or other flammable materials.
Pressurized lines can be accidentally cut when heat
goes beyond the immediate flame area. Install temporary fire resistant guards to protect hoses or other
materials when welding, soldering, etc.
S0062

AVOID APPLYING HEAT TO LINES


CONTAINING FLAMMABLE FLUIDS
- Do not weld or flame cut pipes or tubes that contain
flammable fluids.
- Clean them thoroughly with non-flammable solvent
before welding or flame cutting them.

REMOVE PAINT BEFORE WELDING OR


HEATING
Hazardous fumes can be generated when paints is
heated by weiding, soldering, or using a torch. If
inhaled, these fumes may cause sickness.
- Avoid breathing potentially toxic fumes and dust.
- Do all such work outside or in a well-ventilated
area.
- Dispose of paint and solvents properly.
- Remove paint before welding or heating:
1. If you sand or grind paint, avoid breathing the
dust.
Wear an approved respirator.
2. If you use solvent or paint stripper, remove
stripper with soap and water before welding.
Remove solvent or paint stripper containers
and other flammable material from area. Allow
fumes to disperse at least 15 minutes before
welding or heating.

S0063

TECHNICAL MANUAL

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING

SECTION AND GROUP CONTENTS

Section 4 -

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST

Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 5

Introduction
Standard
Engine Test
Excavator Test
Component Test

Section 5 -

TROUBLESHOOTING

Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group

Diagnosing Procedure
Component Layout
Troubleshooting A
Troubleshooting B
Troubleshooting C
Electrical System Inspection
Harness Check

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

SECTION 4

EX255-EX285

OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE

CONTENTS
Group 1 -

Introduction

Operational performance test ............... T4-1-1


Preparation for performance tests ........ T4-1-2

Group 2 -

Standard

EX255 Operational Performance


standard tables .................................... T4-2-1
EX255 Main pump P-Q diagram ........... T4-2-5
EX285 Operational Performance
standard tables .................................... T4-2-6
EX285 Main pump P-Q diagram ........... T4-2-10

Group 3 -

Engine Test

Engine speed ....................................... T4-3-1


Engine check and adjustment .............. T4-3-3

Group 4 -

Excavator Test

Travel speed ......................................... T4-4-1


Track revolution speed ......................... T4-4-2
Mistrack check .................................... T4-4-3
Travel parking function
check ................................................... T4-4-4
Swing speed ........................................ T4-4-5
Swing function drift check .................... T4-4-6
Swing motor leakage ............................ T4-4-7
Swing bearing play ............................... T4-4-8
Maximum swingable slant
angle .................................................... T4-4-9
Hydraulic cylinder cycle time ............... T4-4-10
Dig function drift check ........................ T4-4-12
Control lever operating force ................ T4-4-13
Control lever stroke .............................. T4-4-14
Combined boom raise/swing
function check ..................................... T4-4-15

Group 5 -

Component Test

Primary pilot pressure .......................... T4-5-1


Secondary pilot pressure ..................... T4-5-3
Solenoid valve set pressure ................. T4-5-4
Main pump delivery pressure ............... T4-5-6
Main relief valve set pressure .............. T4-5-7
Overload relief valve set
pressure ............................................... T4-5-11
Main pump flow test ............................. T4-5-14
Swing motor drainage ........................... T4-5-18
Travel motor drainage ........................... T4-5-20

EX255-EX285

T4-1-1

INTRODUCTION
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE TEST
Use operational performance test procedure to quantitatively check all system and functions on the machine.

Purpose of Performance Tests


1. To comprehensively evaluate each operational
function by comparing the performance test data
with the standard values.
2. According to the evaluation results, repair, adjust,
or replace parts or components as necessary to
restore the machines performance to the desired
standard.
3. To economically operate the machine under optimal conditions.

Kinds of Tests
1. Base machine performance test is to check the
operational performance of each system such as
engine, travel, swing, and hydraulic cylinders.
2. Hydraulic component unit test is to check the
operational performance of each component
such as hydraulic pump, motor, and various kinds
of valves.

Performance Standards
Performance Standard is shown in tables to evaluate the performance test data.

Precautions for Evaluation of Test Data


1. To evaluate not only that the test data are correct,
but also in what range the test data are.
2. Be sure to evaluate the test data based on the
machine operation hours, kinds and state of work
loads, and machine maintenance conditions.
The machine performance does not always deteriorate as the working hours increase. However, the
machine performance is normally considered to reduce in proportion to the increase of the operation
hours. Accordingly, restoring the machine performance by repair, adjustment, or replacement shall
consider the number of the machines working hours.

Definition of Performance Standard


1. Operation speed values and dimensions of the
new machine.
2. Operational performance of new components
adjusted to specifications. Allowable errors will be
indicated as necessary.

T4-1-2

EX255-EX285

INTRODUCTION
PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE
TESTS
Observe the following rules in order to carry out
performance tests accurately and safely.
THE MACHINE
1. Repair any defects and damage found, such as oil
or water leaks, loose bolts, cracks and so on,
before starting to test.
TEST AREA
1. Select a hard and flat surface.
2. Secure enough space to allow the machine to run
straight more than 20 m (65 ft 7 in), and to make
a full swing with the front attachment extended.
3. If required, rope off the test area and provide
signboards to keep unauthorized personnel
away.

SM0131

PRECAUTIONS
1. Before starting to test, agree upon the signals to
be employed for communication among
coworkers. Once the test is started, be sure to
communicate with each other using these signals,
and to follow them without fail.
2. Operate the machine carefully and always give
first priority to safety.
3. While testing, always take care to avoid accidents
due to landslides or contact with high-voltage
power lines. Always confirm that there is sufficient
space for full swings.
4. Avoid polluting the machine and the ground with
leaking oil. Use oil pans to catch escaping oil. Pay
special attention to this when removing hydraulic
pipings.
MAKE PRECISE MEASUREMENT
1. Accurately calibrate test instruments in advance
to obtain correct data.
2. Carry out tests under the exact test conditions
prescribed for each test item.
3. Repeat the same test and confirm that the test
data obtained can be produced repeatedly. Use
mean values of measurements if necessary.

SM3026

EX255

T4-2-1

STANDARD
EX255 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE
STANDARD TABLES
The standard Performance values related to excavator test are listed in the table 1 shown below. In table
2 are listed the standard performance related to
component test.
Refer to the Group T4-3 to T4-5 for performance test
procedures.
Values indicated in parentheses are reference values.
The following switch positions shall be selected and
the hydraulic oil temperature shall be maintained as

indicated below as the preconditions of performance


tests unless otherwise instructed in each performance test procedure:
Engine Control Dial
: Fast Idle
E Mode Switch
: OFF
HP Mode Switch
: OFF
Work Mode Switch
: General Purpose Mode
Hydraulic Oil Temperature : 50 5 C (122 9 F)
NOTE - 1 kgf = 9.807 N

Table 1 - Excavator performance (EX255)


Ref.
pag.

Performance test designation

T4-3-1/2

ENGINE SPEED

Fast idle speed with E and HP modes


OFF

2180 100

Fast idle speed with E mode ON

1980 50

Fast idle speed with HP mode ON

50 or more higher
than fast idle speed
measured with E
and HP modes
OFF and arm roll-in
circuit relieved

1200 100

ENGINE COMPRESSION PRESSURE


MPa (kgf/cm2)

(mm)

NOZZLE INJECTION PRESSURE


MPa (kgf/cm2)
INJECTION TIMING
(Before TDC)

Extend the arm cylinder to


relieve the arm roll-in circuit

850 100

Auto-idle speed (A/I)

VALVE CLEARANCE
(IN, EX)

Remarks

(rpm)

Slow idle speed

T4-3-3

Performance
standard
EX255

(deg.)

3 (31)

0.4
18.1 (185)

With the engne hot


(approx. 75 C)
Allowable limit: 2.5 (26)
Difference cylinder pressure
compression exceeding
200 kPa (2.0 kgf/cm2) is
inacceptable

With the engine cold

T4-2-2

EX255

STANDARD
Performance test designation

Ref.
pag.

13.2 1

Slow speed

20 2

TRACK REVOLUTION
SPEED

26.5 2
28.8 2

MISTRACK
(mm/20 m)
(With fast and slow travel speed modes)

200 or less

TRAVEL PARKING FUNCTION


CHECK

1/6 or less

(rev)

(mm/5 min)

Travel slow speed only

SWING SPEED
(s/3 rev)

T4-4-7

SWING FUNCTION DRIFT


CHECK

SWING MOTOR
LEAKAGE
SWING BEARING PLAY

13.3 1

(mm/180)

1500 or less

(mm/5 min)

(mm)
MAXIMUM SWINGABLE SLANT
ANGLE
(deg.)
HYDRAULIC CYLINDER
CYCLE TIME

T4-4-10

(s/3 rev)

EX255
EX255 LC

Travel motor
leak

Remarks

(s/20 m)

Fast speed

T4-4-9 T4-4-8

T4-4-6

T4-4-5

T4-4-4

T4-4-3

T4-4-2

T4-4-1

TRAVEL SPEED

Performance
standard
EX255

1.3 or less
19.2 or more

2950 arm (Mono) or 2158 arm


(Triple articulation) and 1.1 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)
2950 arm (Mono) or 2158 arm
(Triple articulation) and 1.1 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)
Allowable limit: 4.3 mm
2950 arm (Mono) and 1.1 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)
2950 arm (Mono) or 2158 arm
(Triple articulation) and 1.1 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)

(s)

Boom
(Mono version)

Raise
Lower

3.1 0.3
2.5 0.3

Boom (Triple
articulation version)

Raise
Lower

4.1 0.3
3.6 0.3

Arm

Roll-in
Roll-out

3.9 0.3
2.6 0.3

Bucket

Roll-in
Roll-out

4.1 0.3
2.5 0.3

Positioning (Triple
ariticulation version)

Roll-in
Roll-out

6.0 0.3
3.9 0.3

EX255

T4-2-3

STANDARD
Ref.
pag.

Performance test designation

T4-4-12

DIG FUNCTION DRIFT


CHECK

20 or less

Positioning cylinder
(Triple articulation version)

20 or less

Arm cylinder

20 or less

Bucket cylinder

20 or less
Mono
Triple articulation

T4-4-13

CONTROL LEVER OPERATING


FORCE

T4-4-14

150 or less
150 or less

(kgf)

Boom lever

2.0 or less

Arm lever

2.0 or less

Bucket lever

1.7 or less

Swing lever

1.7 or less

Travel lever

2.5 or less

CONTROL LEVER STROKE

(mm)

Boom lever

105 10

Arm lever

105 10

Bucket lever

83 10

Swing lever

83 10

Travel lever

115 10

BOOM RAISE/SWING
(Bucket empty)

(s)

Bucket teeth height: H

(mm)
Mono

NOTE - 1 kgf = 9.807 N.

Remarks

2950 arm (Mono) or 2158 arm


(Triple articulation) and 1.1 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)

(mm/5 min)

Boom cylinder

Total drop

T4-4-15

Performance
standard
EX255

3.7 0.3

6700 or more

2950 arm (mono) and 1.1 m3


bucket (SAE heaped)

T4-2-4

EX255

STANDARD
Table 2 - Component performance standard (EX255)
Performance
standard
EX255

Remarks

(kgf/cm2)

40 +10
5

SECONDARY PILOT
PRESSURE

(kgf/cm2)

(34 40)

SOLENOID VALVE SET


PRESSURE

(kgf/cm2)

Value indicated on
Dr. EX 2

MAIN PUMP DELIVERY


PRESSURE

(kgf/cm2)

25 +15
7

Value indicated on Dr. EX

MAIN RELIEF VALVE SET


PRESSURE

(kgf/cm2)

Boom, Arm and Bucket

350 +20
5

Value indicated on Dr. EX

Swing

330 +20
5

Value indicated on Dr. EX

Travel

350 +20
5

Value indicated on Dr. EX

Power Boost

370 +20
10

Value indicated on Dr. EX

T4-5-7

PRIMARY PILOT
PRESSURE

T4-5-3

Performance test designation

T4-5-6 T4-5-4

T4-5-1

Ref.
pag.

T4-5-14

T4-5-11

OVERLOAD RELIEF VALVE


SET PRESSURE
(kgf/cm2)

(Engine: Fast idle and slow idle)


Value indicated on Dr. EX (Lever:
Full stroke)

Reference values
at 50 L/min

Boom (raise/lower), arm roll-in and


bucket roll-in

380 +10
0

Arm roll-out and


bucket roll-out

400 +10
0

MAIN PUMP FLOW


TEST

(Engine: Fast idle)

(L/min)

Refer to page T4-2-5

With constant maximum speed

(L/min)

0.2 1.0

Allowable limit: 2.0

With the motor


relieved

(L/min)

Allowable limit: 16

With the track jacked up

(L/min)

1.5 2.0

Allowable limit: 3.4

With the motor


relieved

(L/min)

(1.5 4.8)

T4-5-18

SWING MOTOR DRAINAGE

T4-5-20

TRAVEL MOTOR DRAINAGE

NOTE - 1 kgf/cm2 = 0.09807 MPa.

Allowable limit: (5.2)

EX255

T4-2-5

STANDARD
EX255 MAIN PUMP P-Q DIAGRAM
(Reference: Measured at Test Stand)

Points on P-Q Line

Rated Engine Speed


: 2000 min1 (rpm)
Hydraulic Oil Temperature : 50 5 C

A
B
C
D

NOTE - Refer to T4-5-14.

Delivery Pressure
kgf/cm2
144
202
354
370

Flow Rate
L/min
196+3
6
(154)
84 10

The value indicated in parentheses is only a reference value.

NOTE - 1 kgf/cm2 = 0.09807 MPa.

L/min

Flow
Rate
(Q1 + Q2) / 2

Delivery Pressure (P1 + P2) / 2

kgf/cm2

SM3027

T4-2-6

EX285

STANDARD
EX285 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE
STANDARD TABLES
The standard Performance values related to excavator test are listed in the table 1 shown below. In table
2 are listed the standard performance related to
component test.
Refer to the Group T4-3 to T4-5 for performance test
procedures.
Values indicated in parentheses are reference values.
The following switch positions shall be selected and
the hydraulic oil temperature shall be maintained as

indicated below as the preconditions of performance


tests unless otherwise instructed in each performance test procedure:
Engine Control Dial
: Fast Idle
E Mode Switch
: OFF
HP Mode Switch
: OFF
Work Mode Switch
: General Purpose Mode
Hydraulic Oil Temperature : 50 5 C (122 9 F)
NOTE - 1 kgf = 9.807 N

Table 1 - Excavator performance (EX285)


Ref.
pag.

Performance test designation

T4-3-1/2

ENGINE SPEED

Fast idle speed with E and HP modes


OFF

2230 100

Fast idle speed with E mode ON

2030 50

Fast idle speed with HP mode O

50 or more higher
than fast idle speed
measured with E
and HP modes
OFF and arm roll-in
circuit relieved

Slow idle speed

900 100

Auto-idle speed (A/I)

1200 100

VALVE CLEARANCE
(IN, EX)

(mm)

NOZZLE INJECTION PRESSURE


MPa (kgf/cm2)
INJECTION TIMING
(Before TDC)

Remarks

(rpm)

ENGINE COMPRESSION PRESSURE


MPa (kgf/cm2)

T4-3-3

Performance
standard
EX285

(deg.)

3 (31)

0.4
18.1 (185)

Extend the arm cylinder to


relieve the arm roll-in circuit

With the engne hot


(approx. 75 C)
Allowable limit: 2.5 (26)
Difference cylinder pressure
compression exceeding
200 kPa (2.0 kgf/cm2) is
inacceptable

With the engine cold

EX285

T4-2-7

STANDARD
Performance test designation

Ref.
pag.

T4-4-9 T4-4-8 T4-4-7

T4-4-6

T4-4-5

T4-4-4

T4-4-3

T4-4-2

T4-4-1

TRAVEL SPEED

14.1 1.0

Slow speed

23.2 2.0

TRACK REVOLUTION
SPEED

(s/3 rev)

EX285
EX285 LC

32.5 2.0
34.5 2.0

MISTRACK
(mm/20 m)
(With fast and slow travel speed modes)

200 or less

TRAVEL PARKING FUNCTION


CHECK

1/6 or less

Travel motor
leak

Remarks

(s/20 m)

Fast speed

(rev)

(mm/5 min)

Travel slow speed only

SWING SPEED
(s/3 rev)
SWING FUNCTION DRIFT
CHECK

SWING MOTOR
LEAKAGE

16 1.0

(mm/180)

1300 or less

(mm/5 min)

3100 arm (Mono) or 2120 arm


(Triple articulation) and 1.05 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)
3100 arm (Mono) or 2120 arm
(Triple articulation) and 1.05 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)

SWING BEARING PLAY


(mm)
MAXIMUM SWINGABLE SLANT
ANGLE
(deg.)

HYDRAULIC CYLINDER
CYCLE TIME

T4-4-10

Performance
standard
EX285

1.3 or less
18,7 or possibly
more

Allowable limit: 4.3 mm


3100 arm (Mono) and 1.05 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)

3100 arm (Mono) or 2120 arm


(Triple articulation) and 1.05 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)

(s)

Boom
(Mono version)

Raise
Lower

3.4 0.3
2.7 0.3

Boom (Triple
(articulation version)

Raise
Lower

5.0 0.3
4.1 0.3

Arm

Roll-in
Roll-out

3.9 0.3
2.8 0.3

Bucket

Roll-in
Roll-out

4.5 0.3
2.7 0.3

Positioning (Triple
ariticulation version)

Roll-in
Roll-out

6.0 0.3
4.4 0.3

T4-2-8

EX285

STANDARD
Ref.
pag.

Performance test designation

T4-4-12

DIG FUNCTION DRIFT


CHECK

20 or less

Positioning cylinder
(Triple articulation version)

15 or less

Arm cylinder

20 or less

Bucket cylinder

15 or less
Mono
Triple articulation

T4-4-13

CONTROL LEVER OPERATING


FORCE

T4-4-14

150 or less
150 or less

(kgf)

Boom lever

2.0 or less

Arm lever

2.0 or less

Bucket lever

1.7 or less

Swing lever

1.7 or less

Travel lever

2.5 or less

CONTROL LEVER STROKE

(mm)

Boom lever

105 10

Arm lever

105 10

Bucket lever

83 10

Swing lever

83 10

Travel lever

115 10

BOOM RAISE/SWING
(Bucket empty)

(s)

Bucket teeth height: H

(mm)

NOTE - 1 kgf = 9.807 N.

Remarks

3100 arm (Mono) or 2120 arm


(Triple articulation) and 1.05 m3
bucket (SAE heaped)

(mm/5 min)

Boom cylinder

Total drop

T4-4-15

Performance
standard
EX285

3.8 0.3

7000 or more

3100 arm (mono) and 1.05 m3


bucket (SAE heaped)

EX285

T4-2-9

STANDARD
Table 2 - Component performance standard (EX285)
Performance
standard
EX285

Remarks

(kgf/cm2)

40 +10
5

SECONDARY PILOT
PRESSURE

(kgf/cm2)

(34 40)

SOLENOID VALVE SET


PRESSURE

(kgf/cm2)

Value indicated on
Dr. EX 2

MAIN PUMP DELIVERY


PRESSURE

(kgf/cm2)

25 +15
7

Value indicated on Dr. EX

MAIN RELIEF VALVE SET


PRESSURE

(kgf/cm2)

Boom, Arm and Bucket

350 +20
5

Value indicated on Dr. EX

Swing

292 +20
5

Value indicated on Dr. EX

Travel

350 +20
5

Value indicated on Dr. EX

Power Boost

+20
370 10

Value indicated on Dr. EX

T4-5-7

PRIMARY PILOT
PRESSURE

T4-5-3

Performance test designation

T4-5-6 T4-5-4

T4-5-1

Ref.
pag.

T4-5-14

T4-5-11

OVERLOAD RELIEF VALVE


SET PRESSURE
(kgf/cm2)

Engine: Fast idle and slow idle)


Value indicated on Dr. EX
(Lever: Full stroke

Reference values
at 50 L/min

Boom (raise/lower), arm roll-in and


bucket roll-in

380 +10
0

Arm roll-out and


bucket roll-out

400 +10
0

MAIN PUMP FLOW


TEST

(Engine: Fast idle)

(L/min)

Refer to page T4-2-5

With constant maximum speed

(L/min)

Allowable limit: 2.0

With the motor


relieved

(L/min)

Allowable limit: 31

With the track jacked up

(L/min)

(3.0)

Measured at test stand

With the motor


relieved

(L/min)

(6.0)

Measured at test stand

T4-5-18

SWING MOTOR DRAINAGE

T4-5-20

TRAVEL MOTOR DRAINAGE

NOTE - 1 kgf/cm2 = 0.09807 MPa.

T4-2-10

EX285

STANDARD
EX285 MAIN PUMP P-Q DIAGRAM
(Reference: Measured at Test Stand)

Points on P-Q Line

Rated Engine Speed


: 2050 min1 (rpm)
Hydraulic Oil Temperature : 50 5 C

A
B
C
D

NOTE - Refer to T4-5-14.

Delivery Pressure
kgf/cm2
150
206
354
370

Flow Rate
L/min
+3
2076
(160)
84 10
(76)

The value indicated in parentheses is only a reference value.

NOTE - 1 kgf/cm2 = 0.09807 MPa.

L/min

Flow
Rate
(Q1 + Q2) / 2

Delivery Pressure (P1 + P2) / 2

kgf/cm2

SM3027

EX255-EX285

T4-3-1

ENGINE TEST
ENGINE SPEED
Summary:
1. Use Dr.EX. if Dr.EX is not available, use an engine
tachometer.
3

2. Measure the engine speeds in each mode.

NOTE - Measure the engine speed before performing all other tests to check that the engine speed
meets specification. Because, if the engine speed is
not adjusted correctly, all other performance data will
be unreliable.

Preparation:
1. Connect Dr.EX to the diagnosing connector beside the fuse box located behind the operators
seat, and select the monitor function. When using
an engine tachometer, install speed pickup (2) to
injection pipe (3).
2. Warm up the machine until the engine coolant
temperature reaches 50 C (122 F) or more, and
hydraulic oil is 50 5 C (122 9 F).

1
SM5401

IMPORTANT - Never attempt to the readjust stopper


(1).

T4-3-2

EX255-EX285

ENGINE TEST
Measurement:
1. No Load Engine Speed
1-1. Measure the engine slow idle speed, fast
idle speed (in normal mode), and fast idle
speeds (in both E and HP modes).
1-2. Select the switch positions as shown below.
1-3. Start measurement from the slow idle
speed.
1-4. Measure while changing the engine control
dial, E mode switch, and HP mode switch.

Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

Slow Idle

OFF

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

Fast Idle
(Normal
Mode)

OFF

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

Fast Idle
(E Mode)

ON

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

Fast Idle
(HP Mode)

OFF

ON

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Engine
Control Dial

SM0631

2. No Load Auto-Idle Speed


2-1. Select the switch positions as shown below.
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

ON

General
Purpose
Mode

2-2.
2-3.

Start the engine and operate the bucket


lever.
Return the lever to the neutral position.
Wait approx. 4 seconds until the engine
speed is automatically reduced. Then,
measure the reduced engine speed.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.
Auto-Idle
Switch

Work Mode
Switch

SM0612

EX255-EX285

T4-3-3

ENGINE TEST
ENGINE CHECK AND ADJUSTMENT
To perform the compression pressure measurement, the check and adjustment of valve clearance,
the check of injection nozzle and check and adjustment of injection timing, make reference to the Workshop Manual - Section 5.

T4-3-4

EX255-EX285

ENGINE TEST
NOTES

EX255-EX285

T4-4-1

EXCAVATOR TEST
TRAVEL SPEED
Summary:
Measure the time required for the excavator to travel
a 20 m (65.6 ft) test track.

Preparation:
1. Adjust the track sag on both side tracks equally.
2. Prepare a flat and solid test track 20 m (65.6 ft) in
length with extra length of 3 to 5 m (9.8 to 16 ft) on
both ends for machine acceleration and deceleration.
3. Hold the bucket 0.3 to 0.5 m (12 to 20 in) above the
ground with the arm and bucket rolled-in.
4. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

Arm Rolled-In, Bucket Rolled-In

End

Bucket Height: 0.3 to 0.5 m


Start
20 m

Acceleration
Zone
3 to 5 m

Deceleration
Zone
3 to 5 m

SM0138

Measurement:
1. Measure both the slow and fast speeds of the
machine.
2. Select the following switch positions:
Travel
Mode
Switch

Engine E Mode HP Mode Work Auto-Idle


Control Switch Switch
Mode Switch
Dial
Switch

Slow
Mode

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

Fast
Mode

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

3. Start traveling the machine in the acceleration


zone with the travel levers to full stroke.
4. Measure the time required to travel 20 m (65.6 ft).
5. After measuring the forward travel speed, turn the
upperstructure 180 and measure the reverse
travel speed.
6. Repeat steps 4. to 5. three times in each direction
and calculate the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

T4-4-2

EX255-EX285

EXCAVATOR TEST
TRACK REVOLUTION SPEED
Summary:
Measure the track revolution cycle time with the track
raised off ground.
Preparation:
1. Adjust the track sag of both side tracks to be
equal.
2. On the track to be measured, mark one shoe with
chalk.
3. Swing the upperstructure 90 and lower the
bucket to raise the track off ground. Keep the
boom-arm angle between 90 to 110 as shown.
Place blocks under the machine frame.

Mark

SM0139

WARNING
Securely support the raised track using wooden
blocks.

4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C


(122 9 F).
Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Travel
Mode
Switch

90 110

Engine E Mode HP Mode Work Auto-Idle


Control Switch Switch
Mode Switch
Dial
Switch

Slow
Mode

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

Fast
Mode

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

2. Operate the travel control lever of the raised track


to full stroke.
3. Measure the time required for 3 revolutions in both
directions after a constant track revolution speed
is obtained.
4. Raise the other side and repeat the above procedures.
5. Repeat steps 2. to 4. three times and calculate the
average values.
Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.
NOTE - The measurement data obtained through the
raised track revolution test may have wide variations.
Therefore, the evaluation based on the results obtained from the 20 m travel speed check described
before is more recommendable.

EX255-EX285

T4-4-3

EXCAVATOR TEST
MISTRACK CHECK
Summary:
1. Allow the machine to travel 20 m (65.5 ft). Measure the maximum tread deviation from the tread
chord line drawn between the travel start and end
points to check the performance equilibrium between both sides of the travel device systems
(from the main pump to the travel motor).
2. If measured on a concrete surface, the tread
deviation has a trend to decrease.

Maximum Distance

Acceleration
Zone:
3 to 5 m
20 m

Preparation:
1. Adjust the track sag of both tracks to be equal.
2. Provide a flat, solid test yard 20 m (65.5 ft) in
length, with extra length of 3 to 5 m (9.8 to 16 ft)
on both ends for machine acceleration and deceleration.
3. Hold the bucket 0.3 to 0.5 m (12 to 20 in) above the
ground with the arm and bucket rolled in.
4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).
Measurement:
1. Measure the amount of mistracking in both fast,
and slow travel speeds.
2. Select the following switch positions:
Travel
Mode
Switch

Engine E Mode HP Mode Work Auto-Idle


Control Switch Switch
Mode Switch
Dial
Switch

Slow
Mode

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

Fast
Mode

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

3. Start traveling the machine in the acceleration


zone with the travel levers at full stroke.
4. Measure the maximum distance between a
straight 20 m (65.5 ft) tread chord line and the
tread made by the machine.
5. After measuring the tracking in forward travel, turn
the upperstructure 180 and measure in reverse
travel.
6. Repeat steps 3. to 5. three times and calculate the
average values.
Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

SM0140

T4-4-4

EX255-EX285

EXCAVATOR TEST
TRAVEL PARKING FUNCTION CHECK
Summary:
To measure the parking brake function on a specified
slope.

Preparation:
1. The surface of the test slope shall be even with a
gradient of 20% (11.31).
2. Mark a white line on the travel device cover.
3. Hold the bucket 0.2 to 0.3 m (8 to 12 in) above the
ground with the arm and bucket fully rolled in.
4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

0,2 0,3 m

SM0141

Measurement:
1. Measure in the fast travel mode.
2. Select the following switch positions:
Travel
Mode
Switch
Fast
Mode

Engine E Mode HP Mode Work Auto-Idle


Control Switch Switch
Mode Switch
Dial
Switch
Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

3. Measure the displacement (revolution angle) of


the travel device cover until the parking brake is
applied.
3-1. Climb the slope and place the travel levers in
neutral.
3-2. Measure the displacement from the mark
position on the travel device cover when the
levers are placed in neutral to that position
when the machine stops moving.
4. Measure the travel parking brake slip amount
while parked.
4-1. Climb the slope and place the travel levers in
neutral.
4-2. Stop the engine.
4-3. After the machine stops, put alignment
marks on a track link or shoe, and the track
side frame.
4-4. After 5 minutes, measure the distance between the marks on the track link or shoe and
the track side frame.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

Position where the machine


Position when the travel
comes to a stop
levers are in neutral
Displacement
(Revolution Angle)
Mark

SM0142

Alignment marks on the track


side frame and shoe when the
machine comes to a stop
Displacement measured
after 5 minutes

SM0143

EX255-EX285

T4-4-5

EXCAVATOR TEST
SWING SPEED
Summary:
Measure the time required to swing three complete
turns.
Preparation:
1. Check the lubrication of the swing gear and swing
bearing.
2. Place the machine on flat, solid ground with ample
space for swinging. Do not conduct this test on
slopes.
3. With the arm rolled out and bucket rolled in, hold
the bucket so that the height of the bucket pin is
the same as the boom foot pin. The bucket must
be empty.
4. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

WARNING
Prevent personal injury. Always make sure that
the area is clear and that co-workers are out of the
swing area before starting the measurement.

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

2. Operate swing control lever fully.


3. Measure the time required to swing 3 turns in one
direction.
4. Operate swing control lever fully in the opposite
direction and measure the time required for 3
turns.
5. Repeat steps 2. to 4. three times and calculate the
average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

The same height as the


boom foot pin height

SM0144

T4-4-6

EX255-EX285

EXCAVATOR TEST
SWING FUNCTION DRIFT CHECK
Summary:
Measure the swing drift on the bearing outer circumference when stopping after a 180 full-speed swing.
Preparation:
1. Check the lubrication of the swing gear and swing
bearing.
2. Place the machine on flat, solid ground with ample
space for swinging. Do not conduct this test on a
slope.
3. With the arm rolled out and bucket rolled in, hold
the bucket so that the height of the bucket pin is
the same as the boom foot pin. The bucket must
be empty.
4. Make two chalk marks: one on the swing bearing
and one directly below it on the track frame.
5. Swing the upperstructure 180.
6. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

Two chalk marks


SM0145

WARNING
Prevent personal injury. Always make sure that
the area is clear and that coworkers are out of the
swing area before starting the measurement.

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:

SM0146

Measure difference between marks

Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF
Marking on the Track Frame

Marking on the Swing Bearing

2. Operate the swing control lever fully and return it


to the neutral position when the mark on the
upperstructure aligns with that on the track frame
after swinging 180.
3. Measure the distance between the two marks.
4. Align the marks again, swing 180, then test in the
opposite direction.
5. Repeat steps 3. to 5. three times each and calculate the average values.
Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

SM0147

EX255-EX285

T4-4-7

EXCAVATOR TEST
SWING MOTOR LEAKAGE
Summary:
Check for upperstructure drift while suspending a
load on a slope.
Preparation:
1. Check the lubrication of the swing gear and swing
bearing.
2. Park the machine on a smooth slope with a
gradient of 26.8 %.
3. Load bucket fully. In lieu of loading the bucket,
weight (W: tons) of the following specification can
be used.
W = M x 1.5
where: M = Bucket heaped capacity (m3)
1.5 = Soil specific gravity
4. With the arm rolled out, and bucket rolled in,
position the arm top pin height to be level with the
boom foot pin.
5. Swing the upperstructure to position it 90 to the
slope. Make aligning marks on the swing bearing
periphery and track frame using tape, as illustrated.
6. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

SM0148

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch position:
E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

2. Maintain the engine at slow idle. After five minutes, measure the difference between the marks
along the swing bearing periphery and the track
frame.
3. Perform the measurement in both right and left
swing directions.
4. Perform the measurement three times in each
direction and calculate the average values.
Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

Measure difference between marks

Marking on the Track Frame


Marking on the Swing Bearing
SM0147

T4-4-8

EX255-EX285

EXCAVATOR TEST
SWING BEARING PLAY
Summary:
Measure the swing bearing play using a dial gauge to
check the wear of bearing races and balls.
Preparation:
1. Check swing bearing mounting bolts for looseness.
2. Check the lubrication of the swing bearing. Confirm that bearing rotation is smooth and without
noise.
3. Install a dial gauge on the track frame as shown,
using a magnetic base.
4. Position the upperstructure so that the boom
aligns with the tracks facing towards the front
idlers.
5. Position the dial gauge so that its needle point
comes into contact with the bottom face of the
bearing outer race.
6. Bucket should be empty.

SM0149

Measurement:
1. With the arm rolled out and bucket rolled in, hold
the bucket so that the height of the bucket pin is
the same as the boom foot pin. Record the dial
gauge reading (h1).
2. Lower the bucket to the ground and use it to raise
the front idler 0.5 m (20 in). Record the dial gauge
reading (h2).
3. Calculate bearing play (H) from this data (h1 and
h2) as follows:
H=h2-h1

SM0150

Measurement: (h2)

Measurement: (h1)

The same height as the


boom foot pin height

SM0144

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

SM0152

EX255-EX285

T4-4-9

EXCAVATOR TEST
MAXIMUM SWINGABLE SLANT ANGLE
Summary:
With the upperstructure swung 90 to the slope,
check the maximum slant angle on which the
upperstructure can swing to the uphill side.

Preparation:
1. Check that the swing gear and bearing are well
lubricated.
2. Load bucket fully. In lieu of loading the bucket,
weight (W: tons) of the following specification can
be used.
W = M x 1.5
where: M = Bucket heaped capacity (m3)
1.5 = Soil specific gravity
3. With the arm cylinder fully retracted and the
bucket cylinder fully extended, hold the arm top
pin to the position flush with the boom foot pin
height.
4. Climb a slope and swing the upperstructure 90 to
the slope.
5. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

2. Operate the swing lever to full stroke to swing the


upperstructure to the uphill side.
3. If the machine can swing, measure the cab floor
slant angle.
4. Increase the slope angle and repeat steps 2. and
3. Check both clockwise and counterclockwise.
5. Perform the measurement three times.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

SM0148

T4-4-10

EX255-EX285

EXCAVATOR TEST
HYDRAULIC CYLINDER CYCLE TIME
Measure the cycle time of the boom, positioning, arm,
and bucket cylinders.

Preparation:
1. To measure the cycle time of the boom cylinders:
With the arm rolled out and the empty bucket
rolled in, lower the bucket to the ground, as
shown.
2. To measure the cycle time of the positioning
cylinder (triple articulation)
With the empty bucket rolled in and arm rolled out,
raise the boom to the maximum height.
3. To measure the cycle time of the arm cylinder:
With the empty bucket rolled in, position the arm
so that it is vertical to the ground. Lower the boom
until the bucket is 0.5 m (20 in) above the ground.
4. To measure the cycle time of the bucket cylinder:
The empty bucket should be positioned at midstroke between roll-in and roll-out, so that the
sideplate edges are vertical to the ground.
5. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

SM0153

0.5 m

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:

SM0154

Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

SM0155

EX255-EX285

T4-4-11

EXCAVATOR TEST
2. To measure cylinder cycle times:
(Cylinder full stroke includes cylinder cushioning
zone)
Boom cylinders:
Measure the time it takes to raise the boom, and
the time it takes to lower the boom. To do so,
position the boom at one stroke end, then move
the control lever to the other stroke end as
quickly as possible.
Positioning cylinder (triple articulation):
Measure the time it takes to extend and retract
the positioning cylinder. To do so, position the
cylinder at one stroke end, then move the
control pedal to the other stroke end as quickly
as possible.
Arm cylinder:
Measure the time it takes to roll in the arm, and
the time it takes to roll out the arm. To do so,
position the arm at one stroke end, then move
the control lever to the other stroke end as
quickly as possible.
Bucket cylinder:
Measure the time it takes to roll in the bucket,
and the time it takes to roll out the bucket. To do
so, position the bucket at one stroke end, then
move the control lever to the other stroke end as
quickly as possible.
3. Repeat each measurement three times and calculate the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

T4-4-12

EX255-EX285

EXCAVATOR TEST
DIG FUNCTION DRIFT CHECK
Summary:
Measure dig function drift, which can be caused by oil
leakage in the control valve and boom, arm, and
bucket cylinders, with the loaded bucket.

Extended
Distance

Retracted
Distance

Retracted
Distance

Same Height

NOTE - When testing the dig function drift just after


cylinder replacement, slowly operate each cylinder to
its stroke end to purge air.

Bucket Bottom

SM0156

Preparation:
1. Load bucket fully. In lieu of loading the bucket,
weight (W: tons) of the following specification can
be used.
W = M x 1.5
where: M = Bucket heaped capacity (m3)
1.5 = Soil specific gravity
2. Position the arm cylinder with the rod 50 mm (2 in)
extended from the fully retracted position.
3. Position the positioning cylinder (triple articulation) with the rod 50 mm (2 in) extended from the
fully retracted position.
4. Position the bucket cylinder with the rod 50 mm
(2 in) retracted from the fully extended position.
5. With the arm rolled out and the bucket rolled in,
hold the bucket so that the height of the bucket pin
is the same as the boom foot pin.
6. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

Measurement:
1. Stop the engine.
2. Five minutes after the engine has been stopped,
measure the change in the position of the bottom
of the bucket, as well as the boom, positioning
(triple articulation), arm and bucket cylinders.
3. Repeat step 2. three times and calculate the
average values.

Evalution:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

Arm Cylinder Extension (and positioning cylinder for


triple articulation)

Mark

SM0157

Boom and Bucket Cylinder Retraction


Mark

Mark

SM0158

EX255-EX285

T4-4-13

EXCAVATOR TEST
CONTROL LEVER OPERATING FORCE
Summary:
Use a spring scale to measure the maximum resistance of each control lever as illustrated.

Preparation:
Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

Measurement:
1. Start the engine.
2. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

SM0159

WARNING
Prevent personal injury. Always make sure that
the area is clear and that co-workers are out of the
swing area before starting the measurement.

3. Operate each boom, arm, bucket and swing lever


to at full stroke and measure the maximum operating force for each.
4. Lower the bucket to the ground to raise one track
off the ground. Operate the travel lever to full
stroke and measure the maximum operating force
required. When finished, lower the track and then
jack-up the other track.
5. Repeat steps 3. to 4. three times and calculate the
average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

SM0160

T4-4-14

EX255-EX285

EXCAVATOR TEST
CONTROL LEVER STROKE
Summary:
Measure each lever stroke at the lever top using a
ruler.

NOTE - When the lever has play, take a half of this


value and add it to the measured stroke.

Preparation:
Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).
SM0161

Measurement:
1. Stop the engine.
2. Measure each lever stroke at the lever top from
neutral to the stroke end using a ruler.
3. Repeat step 2. three times and calculate the
average values.
Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

EX255-EX285

T4-4-15

EXCAVATOR TEST
COMBINED BOOM RAISE/SWING FUNCTION CHECK
Summary:
Check boom raise and swing movement and speeds
while operating both functions simultaneously.
Preparation:
1. Start the engine and run it at fast idle. Operate the
boom raise function and check to be sure that the
cylinder movement is smooth, with out sticking.
2. With the arm fully rolled out and bucket fully rolled
in, lower the bucket to the ground. The bucket
must be empty.
3. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

SM0162

WARNING
Prevent personal injury. Always make sure that
the area is clear and that co-workers are out of the
swing area before starting the measurement.

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

HP Mode
Switch
OFF

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

SM0163

2. Raise the boom and swing simultaneously, both


at full stroke.
3. When the upperstructure rotates 90, release the
control levers to stop both functions. Measure the
time required to swing 90 and the height (H) of the
bucket teeth.
4. Repeat steps 2. to 3. three times and calculate the
average values.
Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.
SM0164

T4-4-16

EX255-EX285

EXCAVATOR TEST
NOTES

EX255-EX285

T4-5-1

COMPONENT TEST
PRIMARY PILOT PRESSURE
Preparation:
1. Properly shut down the engine.
2. Press the air release valve on top of the hydraulic
oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
3. Remove the plug from the pilot pump delivery
port. Install adapter (75301519) and pressure
gauge (75301518) on the port.
: 6 mm
Plug

4. Start the engine. Confirm that no oil leakage is


observed at the pressure gauge connection.
5. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).
SM0165

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

Slow
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

2. Measure the pilot pressure in each specified


setting above.
3. Repeat the measurement three times and calculate the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

T4-5-2

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
Primary Pilot Pressure Adjustment
Adjustment:
Adjust the setting pressure of relief valve (1) (the
primary pilot pressure) as necessary.
1

: 36 mm

SM0166

1. Remove plug (3).


2. Install the estimated necessary number of shims
(2).
3. Tighten plug (3).
: 49 Nm (5 kgfm, 36 lbfft)

4. Check the relief pressure of relief valve (1).


3
Change in Relief Pressure

Shim Thickness (mm)


kPa

kgf/cm2

psi

0.25

78

0.8

11

0.5

157

1.6

23

1.0

304

3.1

44

SM2201

EX255-EX285

T4-5-3

COMPONENT TEST
SECONDARY PILOT PRESSURE
Preparation:
1. Properly shut down the engine.
2. Press the air release valve on top of the hydraulic
oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
3. Install pressure gauge (75301518) and tee
(75301520) to the end of pilot line (1) at the
respective control valve spool end, as illustrated.

: 14 mm, 17 mm
4. Start the engine. Confirm that no oil leakage is
observed at the pressure gauge connection.
5. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

Slow
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

SM0168

2. Measure the pilot pressure in each specified


setting above with the corresponding control lever
operated full stroke.
3. Repeat the measurement three times and calculate the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

SM0169

T4-5-4

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
SOLENOID VALVE SET PRESSURE
Measure solenoid valve set pressure with both the
Dr.EX and the pressure gauge.

Preparation:
1. Properly shut down the engine.
2. Press the air release valve on top of the hydraulic
oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
3. Disconnect line (1) from the solenoid valve to be
measured. Install hose (75301482), tee
(75301521), adapter (75301522), and pressure
gauge (75301518) to the disconnected end at the
solenoid valve side, as illustrated.
: 17 mm, 19 mm, 22 mm

Connect Dr.EX to the machine for solenoid valve


set pressure monitoring.
4. Start the engine. Confirm that no oil leakage is
observed at the pressure gauge connection.
5. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

SM0629

Solenoid Valve
Pressure Gauge

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:

1
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

Travel
Mode
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

Fast
Speed
Mode

Hose

Tee

Adapter

SM0171

2. Operate as instructed below for each measuring


solenoid valve:
Solenoid Valve SG: Repeat pressing and releasing of the power boost switch.
Solenoid Valve SD: Perform a combined operation. Relieve both actuators.
Solenoid Valve SC: Perform a combined operation of boom raise and arm roll-in.
Solenoid Valve SI: Drive the machine, then stop
the machine.
3. Read the values on both Dr.EX and the pressure
gauge.
4. Repeat the measurement three times and calculate the average values.

Evaluation:
The average value read on the pressure gauge shall
be within 0.2 MPa (2 kgf/cm2, 28 psi) of the value
indicated on Dr.EX.

EX255-EX285

T4-5-5

COMPONENT TEST
Solenoid Valve Set Pressure Adjustment Procedure

IMPORTANT - Do not loosen the adjusting screw


excessively.
The O-ring on the threads may come off the sealing
surface, causing oil leakage.

1. Mark the end of the adjusting screw with a white


marker for the record of the original position.
(Take care not to touch any part of the screw
threads with the white marker).
2. Loosen lock nut (7). Turn adjusting screw (8) to
adjust the set pressure of the solenoid valve.
3. Retighten lock nut (7).

The distance between the


lock nut end and screw end
should be 4.0 mm (0.157 in)
or less.
SM0172

: 13 mm
: 4 mm
: 8.8 Nm (0.9 kgfm, 6.5 lbfft)

Reference: Standard Change in Pressure


Turns

1/4

1/2

3/4

kPa

98

196

294

392

kgf/cm2

psi

14

28

43

57

7
SM0173

Adjusting Screw

4. Check the set pressure of the solenoid valve.


Pressure
Increase

Pressure
Decrease

SM0174

T4-5-6

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
MAIN PUMP DELIVERY PRESSURE
The main pump delivery pressure can also be measured with Dr.EX.

Preparation:
1. Properly shut down the engine.
2. Press the air release valve on top of the hydraulic
oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
3. Remove the plug from the main pump delivery
port. Install adapter (75301519), hose
(75301523) and pressure gauge (75301524) on
the port.
: 6 mm
Or connect Dr.EX to the machine for main pump
delivery pressure monitoring.
4. Start the engine. Confirm that no oil leakage is
observed at the pressure gauge connection.
5. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).
SM0175

Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

2. Measure the pressure with the control levers in


neutral.
3. Repeat the measurement three times and calculate the average values.

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.

EX255-EX285

T4-5-7

COMPONENT TEST
MAIN RELIEF VALVE SET PRESSURE
Summary:
Measure the main relief valve setting pressure at the
main pump delivery port.
The main relief pressure can also be measured with
Dr.EX.
Preparation:
1. Properly shut down the engine.
2. Press the air release valve on top of the hydraulic
oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
3. Remove the plug from the main pump delivery
port. Install adapter (75301519), hose
(75301523) and pressure gauge (75301524) on
the port.
: 6 mm
Or connect Dr.EX to monitor the main pump
delivery pressure.
4. Start the engine. Confirm that no oil leakage is
observed at the pressure gauge connection.
5. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).
Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

2. Relieve each actuator to measure main relief


pressures.
First, slowly operate bucket, arm, and boom control levers to the stroke end to relieve each function one at a time.
3. As for the swing function, secure the upperstructure so it is immovable. Slowly operate the swing
lever to relieve the swing function.
4. As for the travel function, secure the tracks
against an immovable object. Slowly operate the
travel levers to relieve the travel function.
Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.
Reference:
If the measure pressures for all functions are lower
than the specified range, the probable cause is a
decrease of the main relief valve setting pressure.
If the relief pressure of a particular function is lower,
the probable cause is other than main relief valve.

SM0175

T4-5-8

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
Main Relief Pressure Setting Adjustment Procedure
Main Relief
Valve

Adjustment:
Adjust the pressure setting of the main relief valve
using plug (3) (for the low-side relief pressure setting)
and plug (5) (for the high-side relief pressure setting)
after loosening lock nut (1).
High-Side Relief Pressure Setting Adjustment Procedure
1. Loosen lock nut (1). Lightly tighten plug (3) until
the end of plug (3) comes into contact with
piston (2). Retighten lock nut (1).
: 27 mm
: Plug (3): 19.5 Nm (2 kgfm, 14.5 lbfft)
: Lock Nut (1):
68 to 78 Nm
(7 to 8 kgfm, 51 to 58 lbfft)

SM0168

2. Loosen lock nut (4). Turn plug (5) to adjust the


relief pressure setting referring to the table
below.
: 27 mm, 32 mm
: Lock Nut (4):
78 to 88 Nm
(8 to 9 kgfm, 58 to 65 lbfft)

3
1
5

Low-Side Relief Pressure Setting Adjustment Procedure


3. Loosen lock nut (1). Turn plug (3) counter
clockwisely until the specified value is obtained
referring to the table below. Retighten lock nut
(1).
: 27 mm
: Lock Nut (1):
59 to 68 Nm
(6 to 7 kgfm, 43 to 51 lbfft)

4
2

4. Recheck the set pressures.

Reference: Standard Change in Pressure


Change in Relief Pressure: Plug (5)
(High-Side Relief Pressure)
Turns
MPa
kgf/cm2
psi

1/4
7.1
72.5
1031

1/2
14.2
145
2062

3/4
21.3
217.5
3093

1
28.4
290
4120

SM0177

Plug

5-3

Change in Relief Pressure: Plug (3)


(Low-Side Relief Pressure)
Turns
MPa
kgf/cm2
psi

1/4
5.3
54
770

1/2
10.7
109
1550

3/4
16.0
163
2320

1
21.3
217
3090

Pressure
Increase

Pressure
Decrease

SM0178

EX255-EX285

T4-5-9

COMPONENT TEST
Swing Relief
Valve

Swing Relief Pressure Setting Adjustment Procedure


Adjustment:
Adjust the pressure setting of the swing relief valve
using adjusting screw (1) after loosening lock nut (2).
1. Loosen lock nut (2).
2. Turn adjusting screw (1) adjust the pressure
setting referring to the table below.
3. Retighten lock nut (2).
4. Recheck the set pressure.
: 24 mm, 32 mm
: 177 Nm (18 kgfm, 130 lbfft)

SM0179

1
2

SM0180

Reference: Standard Change in Pressure


1
Turns
MPa
kgf/cm2
psi

1/4
2.9
30
430

1/2
5.8
59.5
850

3/4
8.7
89
1270

1
11.7
119
1690

Pressure
Increase

Pressure
Decrease

SM0181

T4-5-10

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
Travel Relief Pressure Setting Adjustment Procedure
Adjustment:
Adjust the pressure setting of the travel relief valve
using adjusting screw (1) after loosening lock nut (2).
: 19 mm
: 6 mm
1. Loosen lock nut (2).
2. Turn adjusting screw (1) to adjust the pressure
setting referring to the table below.
Travel Relief
Pressure Valve

3. Retighten lock nut (2).

SM0182

: 49 Nm (5 kgfm, 36 lbfft)
1
2

SM0183

Reference: Standard Change in Pressure


Turns
MPa
kgf/cm2
psi

1/4
2.9
30
430

1/2
5.9
60
850

3/4
8.8
90
1280

1
11.8
120
1710

Adjusting
screw

Pressure
Increase

Pressure
Decrease

SM0174

EX255-EX285

T4-5-11

COMPONENT TEST
OVERLOAD RELIEF VALVE SET PRESSURE
Summary:
Measuring the set pressure of the overload relief
valves on the machine is not recommended for the
following reasons:
1. The circuit pressure must be increased by applying an external force while blocking the return
circuit from the control valve. This measuring
method is hazardous and the results obtained
with this method are unreliable.
2. Pressure setting of the overload relief valve must
be made at a specified oil flow rate normally far
smaller than the main pump delivery flow rate.
Accordingly, even if the main relief valve set
pressure can be reset higher than the overload
relief valve set pressure, the main pump supplies
too much oil to correctly measure the setting
pressure of the overload relief valve.
For this reason, in order to correctly measure the
set pressure of the overload relief valve, the
overload relief valve unit must be removed from
the machine and tested on a test stand.
3. If the overload relief valve performance must be
checked on the machine, however, measure the
main relief pressure while releasing each front
function respective to the measuring overload
relief valve. And, assume that the overload relief
valve is functioning correctly if the obtained main
relief pressure is within the specified value range.
Measure the main pressure of the front functions
as follows:

Preparation:
1. Properly shut down the engine.
2. Press the air release valve on top of the hydraulic
oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
3. Remove the plug from the main pump delivery
port. Install adapter (75301519), hose
(75301523) and pressure gauge (75301524) on
the port.
: 6 mm
Or connect Dr.EX to the machine for main pump
delivery pressure monitoring.
4. Start the engine. Confirm that no oil leakage is
observed at the pressure gauge connection.
5. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

SM0175

T4-5-12

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

2. Slowly operate bucket, arm, and boom control


levers to the stroke ends to relieve each function
one at a time.
3. Read the pressures on the pressure gauge while
releasing the front functions.
4. Perform the measurement for the bucket, arm,
and boom, in that order.
5. Repeat the measurement three times and calculate the average value for each front function.

Evaluation:
1. Performance of the overload relief valves are
normal if the measured main relief pressures are
within the specified value range.
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in
Group T4-2.

EX255-EX285

T4-5-13

COMPONENT TEST
Overload Relief Valve Set Pressure Adjusting
Procedure

NOTE - In principle, adjust the overload relief valve


set pressure on a test stand.

Adjustment:
Adjust the pressure setting of the overload relief valve
using adjusting screw (2) after loosening lock nut (1).
1. Loosen lock nut (1).
2. Turn adjusting screw (2) to adjust the pressure
setting referring to the table below.

3. Retighten lock nut (1).

SM0185

: 17 mm
: 6 mm
: 29.5 Nm (3.0 kgfm, 22 lbfft)
4. Recheck the set pressures.

Reference: Standard Change in Pressure


Turns
MPa
kgf/cm2
psi

1/4
5.2
54
770

1/2
10.6
108
1540

3/4
15.9
162
2300

1
21.1
216
3070

Adjusting
Screw

Pressure
Increase

Pressure
Decrease

SM0174

T4-5-14

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
MAIN PUMPS FLOW TEST
Summary:
To test the performance of the main pumps, measure
the flow rate by connecting a portable flowmeter to
the main pump delivery connections.

Preparation:
1. Shut the engine. Press the air release valve on the
top of the hydraulic oil tank to discharge residual
pressures.

NOTE - Prior to starting the disconnection of the


pipings, check the primary piloting pressure, which
must fall within the required values.
2. Connect a vacuum pump to the oil filler neck on
the hydraulic oil tank.
NOTE - Operate the vacuum pump while the portable
flowmeter is connected to the main pumps.

3. Disconnect hoses A and B from the main pumps.


Connect test pipes (6) and (7) to hoses A and B
disconnected.

7. Disconnect the vacuum pump. Bleed the air from


the pump by loosening plug K on the pump, until oil
flows out the port of plug K.
8. Connect a pick-up of engine tachometer to the
engine injection pipes. Disconnect sensor N terminal. Fully open both loading regulation valves
(2) and (3).
9. Start the engine check the portable flow meter
connection for any leakage.

Measurement:
1. Maintain the hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).
2. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E
Mode
Switch

HP
Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

Auto
Idle
Switch
A/I

Treavel
Mode
Switch

Fast
idle

OFF

OFF

Gen.
mode

OFF

Fast
mode

4. Connect test pipes (4) and (5) with the half flanges
and bolts to the main pumps. Connect portable
flowmeter kit (75298406) (1), (2) and (3) as illustrated in the figure. Eliminate as far as possible all
curves in the hoses and secure them appropriately to prevent all movements.

3. Gradually close the loading regulation pump relative to the pump involved by the test to obtain the
pressures specified in diagram P-Q and measure
the flow rate of the pump and the engine speed.
Repeat step 3. for all pressure points specified in
curve P-Q. To test the other pump, proceed in the
same manner with the other loading valve.

5. Disconnect hose SA (pump 1 control) from main


pump 1 regulator and plug the hose.
Disconnect hose SA (pump 2 control) from main
pump 2 regulator and plug the hose.

4. Repeat the measurement three times and calculate the average values.

6. Disconnect hose PA from the pilot system pump


and install a T-joint between pilot pump and hose
PA.
To the free port of the T-joint, install another
T-joint to which two hoses have to be connected.
The other end of hoses have to be connected to
ports SA and SB on the pump regulators left free
when pipes SA and SB have been disconnected.
(This shall make the pumps operate at maximum
displacement angle).

EX255-EX285

T4-5-15

COMPONENT TEST
Evaluation:
1. Convert the measured pump flow rate into the one
for the rated pump speed using the following
formula.

2. Specified Pump Flow Rate


Refer to the Pump P-Q Diagram in Group T4-2.

Converted Pump Flow Rate:


Qc = Ns x Q / Ne
Where:
Qc: Converted Pump Flow Rate
Q : Measured Pump Flow Rate
Ns : Rated Engine Speed
EX255 = 2000 rpm
EX285 = 2050 rpm
Ne : Measured Engine Speed

K
B
4
SB

SA

5
1
3
PA

SB

Pilot pump

SA

T-joint
T-joint
To ports SA, SB
on pump
regulators

PA hose
SM5403

T4-5-16

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
Regulator Adjustment

4
6
5

1
2

9
3
10

7
8

SM0187

1
2
3
4
5

Lock Nut (For Minimum Flow Adjustment)


Adjusting Screw (For Minimum Flow Adjustment)
Lock Nut (For Maximum Flow Adjustment)
Adjusting Screw(For Maximum Flow Adjustment)
Lock Nut
(For Pilot Pressure Characteristic Adjustment)

- Adjusting Screw
(For Pilot Pressure Characteristic Adjustment)
7 - Lock Nut (For P-Q Line Adjustment)
8 - Adjusting Screw (For P-Q Line Adjustment)
9 - Lock Nut (For P-Q Line Adjustment)
10 - Adjusting Screw (For P-Q Line Adjustment)

EX255-EX285

T4-5-17

COMPONENT TEST
Adjustment Item

Adjustment Procedure

Remarks

1. Minimum Flow Rate

Loosen lock nut (1) and turn adjusting screw (2).


Rotating adjusting screw (2) 1/4
a turn clockwise increases the
minimum pump flow rate by 6.47
cm3/rev. (0.39 in3/rev).

1) Do not turn the adjusting screw


more than two turns.
2) Securely retighten lock nut (1)
after the adjustment.

Loosen lock nut (3) and turn adjusting screw (4).


Rotating adjusting screw (4) 1/4
a turn clockwise decreases the
maximum pump flow rate by 5.39
cm3/rev. (0.33 in3/rev).

1) Do not turn the adjusting screw


more than two turns.
2) Do not increase the maximum
flow rate.
In other words, do not turn the
adjusting screw counterclockwise. Increasing the maximum
flow rate (turning the adjusting
screw counterclockwise), however, will be required after adjusting the pilot pressure characteristics.
3) Securely retighten lock nut (3)
after the adjustment.

Loosen lock nut (5) and turn adjusting screw (6).


Rotating adjusting screw (6) 1/4
a turn clockwise decreases the
flow rate by 10.77 cm3/rev.
(0.66 in3/rev).

1) Do not turn the adjusting screw


more than one turn.
2) When adjusting screw (6) is
turned clockwise, the maximum flow rate will also be decreased.
To maintain the maximum flow
rate unchanged, turn adjusting
screw (4) counterclockwise
twice as much as adjusting
screw (6) is turned.
This ratio of 2 (adjusting screw
(4) counter clockwise turn) to 1
(adjusting screw (6) clockwise
turn) is to counterbalance.
3) Securely retighten lock nut (5)
after the adjustment.

A: Loosen lock nut (7) and turn


adjusting screw (8). Rotating
adjusting screw (8) 1/4 a turn
clockwise increases the
maximum pump flow rate by
10.77 cm3/rev. (0.66 in3/rev.).
B: Loosen lock nut (9) and turn
adjusting screw (10). Rotating adjusting screw (10) 1/4 a
turn clockwise increases the
maximum pump flow rate by
2.60 cm3/rev. (0.16 in3/rev).

1) Do not turn the adjusting


screws more than one turn.
2) Rotate the adjusting screws
watching the engine performance.
3) Securely retighten lock nut (7)
or (9) after the adjustment.

Pi
2. Maximum Flow Rate
Q

Pd
3. Pilot Pressure Characteristics (Pi-Q Line)
Q

Pi

4. P-Q Line
(Torque Adjustment)
Q

B
Pd

T4-5-18

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
SWING MOTOR DRAINAGE
Summary:
To check swing motor performance, measure the
amount of oil draining from the swing motor while
swinging the upperstructure.

NOTE - The amount of drain oil from the swing motor


will change depending on hydraulic oil temperature.
Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

WARNING
Prevent personal injury. Always make sure that
the area is clear and that co-workers are out of the
swing area before starting the measurement.
Also, take care not to fall off the machine while the
measurement.

Preparation:
1. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F). Rotate the swing motor to warm the
inside of the motor.
2. Properly shut down the engine. Press the air
release valve (1) on top of the hydraulic oil tank to
release any remaining pressure.

OM0400

3. Disconnect the swing motor drain hose (2) at the


hydraulic oil tank end. Install plug (75301529) to
the disconnected end on the hydraulic oil tank.
: 22 mm
: 39 Nm (4 kgfm, 29 lbfft)

Preconditions for Measurement:


1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

SM0189

EX255-EX285

T4-5-19

COMPONENT TEST
Measurement:
1. Amount of Oil Drained While Swinging the
Upperstructure
(1) Fully retract the arm cylinder. Fully extend the
bucket cylinder. Raise the boom so that the
arm tip pin height is the same as the boom foot
pin height. Be sure that the bucket is empty.
(2) Start the engine. Operate and hold the swing
lever full stroke. Start draining oil measurement after the swing speed reaches a constant maximum speed. The measuring time
should be more than 45 seconds.
(3) Repeat the measurement at least three times
in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions, and calculate the average values.
2. Amount of Oil Drained While Relieving Swing
Motor Circuit
(1) Thrust the bucket teeth into the ground as
illustrated so that the upperstructure does not
rotate when the swing lever is operated full
stroke.
(2) Start the engine. Operate and hold the swing
lever full stroke. Start drain oil measurement
when drain oil starts coming out of the drain
hose end. The measuring time should be
more than 45 seconds.
(3) Repeat the measurement at least three times
in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions, and calculate the average values.

The same height as


boom foot pin height

SM0144

SM0190

Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.
* Conversion of the amount of drain oil measured into
the per-minute value
First measure the amount of drain oil using a calibrated container. Then, convert the measured drain
oil into the per-minute value using the formula below:
Q = 60 x q / t
Where:
Q : Amount of drain oil per minute (L/min)
t
: Time measured (seconds)
q
: Total amount of drain oil (L)
SM0191

T4-5-20

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
TRAVEL MOTOR DRAINAGE
Summary:
To check travel motor performance, measure the
amount of oil draining from the travel motor while
rotating the travel motor with the measuring side
track jacked up.

NOTE - The amount of drain oil from the travel motor


will change depending on hydraulic oil temperature.
Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F).

Preparation:
1. Maintain hydraulic oil temperature at 50 5 C
(122 9 F). Rotate the travel motor to warm the
inside of the motor.
2. Properly shut down the engine. Press the air
release valve (1) on top of the hydraulic oil tank to
release any remaining pressure.
3. Disconnect the travel motor drain hose (2) at the
travel motor end. Install plug (75301525) to the
disconnected end. Connect the drain hose (3/416UN) to the travel motor.

OM0400

: 22 mm, 27 mm
: 93 Nm (9.5 kgfm, 69 lbfft)
Preconditions for Measurement:
1. Select the following switch positions:
Engine
Control
Dial

E Mode
Switch

HP Mode
Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

AutoIdle
Switch

Fast
Idle

OFF

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

SM0182

EX255-EX285

T4-5-21

COMPONENT TEST
Measurement:
1. Amount of oil drained while travel motor is rotating
(1) Start the engine. Jack up the measuring side
track using the front attachment, as illustrated.

90 110

WARNING
Securely support the raised track using wooden
blocks.

SM0139

(2) Rotate the raised track with the travel lever


operated full stroke. Start drain oil measurement after the track rotation speed reaches a
constant maximum speed. The measuring
time should be more than 45 seconds.
(3) Repeat the measurement at least three times
in both forward and reverse directions, and
calculate the average values.
Evaluation:
Refer to the Performance Standard Table in Group
T4-2.
* Conversion of the amount of drain oil measured into
the per-minute value
SM0193

First measure the amount of drain oil using a calibrated container. Then, convert the measured drain
oil into the per-minute value using the formula below:
Q = 60 x q / t
Where:
Q : Amount of drain oil per minute (L/min)
t
: Time measured (sec.)
q
: Total amount of drain oil (L)

T4-5-22

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT TEST
NOTES

SECTION 5

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING

INDEX
Group 1 -

Diagnosing Procedure

Group 4 -

Troubleshooting B

Introduction ........................................... T5-1-1

Troubleshooting B Procedure .................. T5-4-1

Diagnosing Procedure ......................... T5-1-2

Relationship between Machine Trouble

Dr.EX .................................................... T5-1-4


Dr.EX Start-Up Procedure ................... T5-1-4

Symptoms and Parts in Trouble ........ T5-4-2


Correlation between Trouble

Dr.EX Fault Code ................................. T5-1-5

Symptoms and Part Failures .......... T5-4-12

Dr.EX Monitoring Function ................... T5-1-6

Engine Troubleshooting ...................... T5-4-18

Dr.EX Special Function

Actuator Control System

(Service Mode) ................................. T5-1-7


Adjustable Data List ........................... T5-1-14

Troubleshooting ............................... T5-4-32


Front Attachment Control System
Troubleshooting ............................... T5-4-38
Swing System Troubleshooting ........... T5-4-50

Group 2 -

Component Layout

Travel System Troubleshooting ........... T5-4-53

Main Components ................................ T5-2-1

Troubleshooting for Other Functions .. T5-4-58

Electrical System (Overall System) ..... T5-2-2

Engine Speed Adjustment and

Electrical System (Cab) ........................... T5-2-3


Electrical System
(Monitor and Switch Panels) .............. T5-2-5
Pump and Related Parts ........................ T5-2-6

Engine Learning ............................. T5-4-60


Exchange Inspection Method ............... T5-4-61
Boom Lowering Method
when Engine Stalls ........................... T5-4-63

Other Components ................................. T5-2-7

Group 5 -

Troubleshooting C

Troubleshooting C Procedure ............... T5-5-1

Group 3 -

Troubleshooting A

Malfunction of Coolant

Troubleshooting A Procedure .............. T5-3-1

Temperature Gauge .......................... T5-5-2

Fault Codes .......................................... T5-3-2

Malfunction of Fuel Gauge ................... T5-5-4

Fault Code 01 ....................................... T5-3-4

Malfunction of Fuel Level

Fault Code 02, 03 ................................. T5-3-5


Fault Code 04, 05 ................................. T5-3-6

Indicator ............................................ T5-5-6


Malfunction of Indicator Light

Fault Code 06 ....................................... T5-3-7

Check System ................................... T5-5-8

Fault Code 07 ....................................... T5-3-8

Malfunction of Level Check Switch ....... T5-5-8

Sensor Operating Range List .............. T5-3-9

Malfunction of Engine Oil Level


Indicator .......................................... T5-5-10

INDEX
Malfunction of Coolant Level
Indicator ........................................... T5-5-12
Malfunction of Hydraulic Oil Level
Indicator .......................................... T5-5-14
Malfunction of Alternator Indicator .... T5-5-16
Malfunction of Engine Oil Pressure
Indicator .......................................... T5-5-18
Malfunction of Overheat
Indicator .......................................... T5-5-20
Malfunction of Air Filter Restriction
Indicator .......................................... T5-5-22
Malfunction of Buzzer ........................ T5-5-24
Malfunction of Hour Meter ................. T5-5-26

Group 6 -

Electrical System Inspection

Precautions for Inspection and


Maintenance ..................................... T5-6-1
Instructions for Disconnecting
Connectors ....................................... T5-6-3
Fuse Continuity Test ............................. T5-6-4
Inspection and Replacement of Maxi
Fusible Links .................................... T5-6-5
Battery Voltage Check ........................... T5-6-6
How to Troubleshoot Alternator
Malfunctions ...................................... T5-6-7
Continuity Check ................................... T5-6-8
Voltage and Current Check .................. T5-6-10
Wiper Controller .................................... T5-6-14
Replacement of Relay ......................... T5-6-16
Relay Box ............................................. T5-6-18
Replacement of QOS
Controller .......................................... T5-6-20
Replacement of Power Outlet ................ T5-6-21

Group 7 -

Harness Check

Circuit Check .......................................... T5-7-1

EX255-EX285

T5-1-1

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
INTRODUCTION
Each troubleshooting section group is presented in an
orderly fashion so as to make the inspecting and
troubleshooting procedures easy to follow. Use the
troubleshooting section to guide you in locating the
source of any problems that may arise.
The troubleshooting section consists of 6 groups: the
component layout, the troubleshooting A (using fault
codes), troubleshooting B (starting with symptoms),
troubleshooting C (gauges and indicators), the electrical system inspection procedures, and harness check
groups.
Component Layout Diagrams
Troubleshooting A (using fault codes)
Use these charts when the self-diagnosing function
of Dr.EX shows any fault codes.
(The controller automatically diagnoses and memorizes malfunctions that have occurred in the signal
sending system.)
Example: Fault Code 01 EC Sensor Failure
Troubleshooting B (starting with symptoms)
Use these charts when the machine is exhibiting
trouble and when Dr.EX does not indicate any fault
codes.
Example: Even if engine control dial is operated,
engine speed does not change.
Troubleshooting C (Gauges and indicators)
Use these charts when any gauges or indicators
malfunction.
Example: The fuel gauge does not operate.
Electrical System Inspection Procedure
Refer to this group for precautions and inspection
procedures of the electrical system when or before
performing inspections on the electrical system.
Example: Fuse Inspection
Harness Check
Refer to this group for information about the test
harnesses.
Example: 75301706D

T5-1-2

EX255-EX285

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
These six basic steps are essential for efficient
troubleshooting:
1. Study the System
Study the machines technical manuals. Know the
system and how it works, and what the construction, functions and specifications of the system
components are.

2. Ask the operator


Before inspecting, get the full story of malfunctions
from your star witness the operator.

SM0600

(a) How is the machine being used? (Find out if the


machine is being operated correctly)
(b) When was the trouble noticed, and what types
of work the machine doing at that time?
(c) What are the details of the trouble? Is the
trouble getting worse, or did it appear suddenly
for the first time?
(d) Did the machine have any other troubles previously? If so, which parts were repaired before?

3. Inspect the machine


Before starting the troubleshooting procedure,
check the machines daily maintenance points, as
shown in the operators manual.

SM0601

Also, check the electrical system, including the


batteries, as troubles in the electrical system such
as low battery voltage, loose connections and
blown fuses will result in malfunction of the controllers, causing total operational failure of the machine.
Fuse failure is often caused by a fine crack in the
fuse, and such fine cracks are very hard to detect
by visual inspection.

SM0602

EX255-EX285

T5-1-3

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
4. Operate the machine yourself.
If the trouble cannot be confirmed, stop the engine
and obtain further details of the malfunction from the
operator.
Also, check for any incomplete connections of the
wire harnesses.

5. Perform troubleshooting
CAUTION
Never attempt to disconnect harnesses or hydraulic lines while the engine is running. The machine
may malfunction or pressurized oil may spout,
possibly resulting in personal injury. Be sure to
stop the engine before disconnecting harnesses
or hydraulic lines.

SM0603

Connect the diagnostic analyzer, Dr.EX, to the MC


(Main Controller) to obtain malfunction records.
If any fault codes are displayed on the monitor,
check sensing signal circuits, referring to Troubleshooting A.

SM0604

If no fault code is indicated on the monitor, go to the


troubleshooting B group.
Note that Dr.EX will be necessary in the troubleshooting B procedures for monitoring real time
component performance.

*Note that the fault codes displayed do not necessarily indicate machine trouble. The controller
stores even temporary electrical malfunctions,
such as a drop in battery output voltage or
disconnections of the switches, sensors, etc., for
inspections.
For this reason, the RETRIAL is required to erase
the accumulated fault codes from the controller
memory and to confirm if any fault codes are
indicated after the RETRIAL.

SM0605

6. Trace possible causes


Before reaching a conclusion, check the most likely
causes again. Try to identify the actual cause of the
trouble.
Based on your conclusion, make a plan for appropriate repairs to avoid consequent malfunctions.
SM0606

T5-1-4

EX255-EX285

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
Dr.EX
Dr.EX (75301336) is a handy micro computer used for
diagnosing malfunctions of the machine control system, including the MC (Main Controller).
When the Dr.EX is connected to the MC, malfunctions
recorded in the MC memory are indicated as fault
codes on the Dr.EX display.
(Self-Diagnosing Function)
Input signals from the sensors or switches that are
connected to the MC, or output signals from the MC to
solenoid valves can be monitored on a real-time basis
while the machine is being operated.
(Real-Time Monitoring Function)

Dr.EX START-UP PROCEDURE


1. Connect the harness of the Dr.EX to the diagnosing
connector of the MC, located near fuse box behind
the operators seat.
Start

NOTE - Only this connecting harness can be used to


connect the Dr.EX to the controller. Do not use any
other harness to connect Dr.EX to the controller.
Initial Screen

2. Turn the key switch to the ON position or start the


engine.
3. Turn the Dr.EX ON. After a few seconds, following
patterns will appear on the Dr.EX display:
3-1.

Initial Pattern

3-2.

Model Code Pattern


Example :
Model
: EX200-5
Ver
: XXXX

3-3.

Function Selection Pattern


F-1 : Self-diagnosing Results
F-2 : Monitor Data
F-3 : Special Functions

4. Select key F1 (Proceed according to the instructions that appear on the display.)
NOTE - For the operation procedure of the Dr.EX, refer
to the Dr.EX OPERATORS MANUAL.

Can not
communicate
with MC
Check MC
power source
and/or
communication
harness

Model Code
Confirmation

OK?

OK

SelfDiagnosing

Self-Diagnosing
Results
(Fault Code)

Retrial B

Self-Diagnosing
Results
(Fault Code)

Function
Selection

Record

Not OK

Dr. EX Other
Software

Monitor
Data

Special
Functions

Data Selecting
Pattern

Monitor
Data Display

EX255-EX285

T5-1-5

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
Dr.EX FAULT CODE
Fault Code

Trouble

Corrective Action

01

EC sensor failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace EC sensor.

02
03

Pump 1 delivery pressure sensor failure


Pump 2 delivery pressure sensor failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace the pump delivery pressure sensor.

04
05

Pump 1 control pressure sensor failure


Pump 2 control pressure sensor failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace the pump control pressure sensor.

06

Arm roll-in pilot pressure sensor failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace the arm roll-in pilot pressure sensor.

07

Engine control dial failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace the engine control dial.

T5-1-6

EX255-EX285

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
Dr.EX MONITORING FUNCTION
Dr.EX has a function to monitor the command signals
from the MC and the input signals to the MC from
various switches and sensors.

Monitor Item

Description

Pump 1 Control Pressure

kgf/cm2

kgf/cm2

kgf/cm2

kgf/cm2

Input from the PC pressure sensor (5-spool side)

Input from the arm roll-in pilot pressure sensor

Pump 2 Control Pressure

Input from the pump 2 delivery pressure sensor

Arm Roll-In Pilot Pressure

Input from the pump 1 delivery pressure sensor

Pump 2 Delivery Pressure

Input Signal from EC Sensor

Pump 1 Delivery Pressure

kgf/cm2

Input from the PC pressure sensor (4-spool side)

EC Angle

Display Unit and Form

Accelerator Angle

Dial Angle

Input from the engine control dial

Arm Regenerative Proportional


Solenoid Valve Output

Engine Learning Control

S, G, P, A

EP

AI

HP

Pd

Lo. Hi

On/off state of the key switch

BmH, Fr, Tr

Selected travel mode

Key Switch

ON/off state of the power boost switch

Selected Travel Mode Switch

On/off state of the HP mode switch

Power Boost Switch

On/off state of the auto-idle switch

HP Mode Switch

rpm

On/off state of the E mode switch

Auto-Idle Switch

rpm

Selected work mode

E Mode Switch

kgf/cm2

On/off state of the pressure switches

Selected Work Mode Switch

step

Pressure Switch

kgf/cm2

EC Motor Position

kgf/cm2

Input from the N sensor

kgf/cm2

Target engine speed under loaded condition.


(Approx. 150 min-1 difference from engine speed
under no load.)

Actual Engine Speed

The value of the command signal to the solenoid


valve unit SG

Target Engine Speed

The value of the command signal to the solenoid


valve unit SD

Power Boost Pressure

The value of the command signal to the solenoid


valve unit SI

Pump Proportional Solenoid


Valve Output

The value of the command signal to the solenoid


valve unit SC

Travel Motor Displacement


Angle Change Pressure

Ky

Done, Undone, Aborted

EX255-EX285

T5-1-7

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
Dr.EX SPECIAL FUNCTION (SERVICE
MODE)
1. Purpose
Some data in the MC (Main Controller), such as the
flow rate in the attachment mode, engine speed in
the E mode, can be changed as required.
2. Parts pertaining to the special function.
Dr.EX
Learning Switch
Key Switch

MC

3. Operation
How to Turn Dr.EX in the Service Mode
1) Turn the key switch OFF. Wait 10 seconds or
more.
2) Connect the Dr.EX.
3) Turn the learning switch to the Engine Learning
position.
4) Turn the key switch to the ON position. (Do not
start the engine.)
5) Turn on the switch on the Dr.EX.

On the following pages, the service mode panels on


the Dr.EX and the service mode operating procedure are shown.

T5-1-8

EX255-EX285

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE

Dr.EX VER ****


F1 : Start

F10 : Model Menu

F1

Press

Model: XXXX-X
Ver

: XXXX

Is model correct ?
F1 : Correct
F5 : ESC

F1

Press

Service mode selected


In service mode, self diagnosis
operation and / or monitor display
will not be conducted.
F1 : Rechecked
F5 : ESC

F1

Press

Service mode related to Dr.EX screen panels, beginning with the start screen, are shown along with the
corresponding Dr.EX key operations.
However, Dr.EX screen panels which are not related
to the Dr.EX key operation are excluded.

EX255-EX285

T5-1-9

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE

Select Functions
F3 : Special Functions

F5 : ESC

F3

Press

F5 : ESC

Press

F8

Press

F7

Select Functions
F6 :
F7 : Learning Data Display
F8 : Parameter Change

Select learning data to be displayed.


F6 : EC Motor Stop Position
F7 : EC Motor Maximum Speed
Position
F5 : ESC

F8

F6

Press

Press

F5

Press

Select Item
F6 : Li Speed
F7 : E Speed
F8 : P Speed
F3 : Next

EC Motor Stop Position


-XXXX digit
F5 : ESC

F3

Press

F5 : ESC

Learning
data is
displayed.

T5-1-10

EX255-EX285

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE

Select Item
F6 : AI Speed Control
F8 : Crusher (L) Engine Speed
Control
F4 : Prev.

F5

An example of F7: Breaker Engine


Speed Control operation is shown on
the next page.

Press

F5 : ESC

F5

Press

(Press F4 to return to the previous screen.)

End
(Returns to panel (A) on the previous page.)

EX255-EX285

T5-1-11

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE

F3 : Next F5 : ESC F7 : HELP

F5

Press

Breaker Engine Speed Control


HELP
Adjustable Range : -500 to+100 rpm
Initial : 0 rpm
Minimum Adjusting Deviation :
10 rpm

Press

Input the adjusting deviation you


want.

F7

Breaker Engine Speed Control


adjustable range in HELP

F5 : ESC

F3

Press

Values
Adjusted
In Tens

Breaker Engine Speed Control


123
0 rpm
12
12
12 rpm

F1 : Execute
F2 : Corr
F4 : Prev. F5 : ESC F7 : HELP

F7

Press

F5

Press

Current
:
Adjustment :

-100 is entered as an example here.


SFT
SFT
3
SFT
SFT

Press (123 on the upper right corner of the screen will change to ABC.)
Press (- will be displayed in the Adjustment field.)
Press (ABC on the upper right corner of the screen will change to 123.)

*
1

Press (-1 will be displayed in the Adjustment field.)

.
0

Press (-10 will be displayed in the Adjustment field.)

.
0

Press (-100 will be displayed in the Adjustment field.)

Breaker Engine Speed Control


123
Current
: 0 rpm
Adjustment : -100 rpm
F1 : Execute
F2 : Corr
F4 : Prev. F5 : ESC F7 : HELP

F1

Press

NOTE - Confirm that 123 is displayed on the upper right


corner of the screen before pressing key

T5-1-12

EX255-EX285

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE

Adjusting Deviation
Data Confirmation
Adjusting Deviation Data Name :
Breaker Engine Speed Control
F3 : Next

F5 : ESC

F3

The value input on the previous page will be displayed again in the
Adjustment field.

Press

Current
: 0 rpm
Adjustment : -100 rpm

F1 : Execute F4 : Prev. F5 : ESC

F1

Press

Adjustment was made as follows :


Adjusting Deviation Data Name :
Breaker Engine Speed Control

F3 : Next

F3

The last screen for the Breaker Engine Speed Control will be
displayed.

Press

Current
: 0 rpm
Adjustment : -100 rpm

F4 : Prev

Turn off Dr.EX.

End

F5 : ESC

EX255-EX285

T5-1-13

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
Check the engine performance (Check if the engine
speed has been changed), as follows:
IMPORTANT - Be sure to turn the learning switch to
the OFF (Neutral) position before checking the engine
performance. Because the MC does not perform the
engine, pump, and valve controls if the learning switch
is in the Engine Learning position, engine speed
change cannot be confirmed properly.
1) Turn the key switch OFF.
2) Wait 10 or more seconds.
3) Turn the learning switch to the OFF (Neutral) position.
4) Disconnect Dr.EX. (This step can be omitted if you
wish to monitor the engine speed on Dr.EX.)
5) Turn the key switch to the ON position.
6) Start the engine.
7) Operate the machine to check the engine performance.

T5-1-14

EX255-EX285

DIAGNOSING PROCEDURE
ADJUSTABLE DATA LIST
Adjustable Data

Values Adjusted In

Adjustable Range

Set Adjustment Value Before


Factory Shipment

Li Mode Speed

10s min-1 (rpm)

0 to 120 min-1 (rpm)

0 min-1 (rpm)

E Mode Speed

10s min-1 (rpm)

-120 to 120 min-1 (rpm)

0 min-1 (rpm)

-1

P Mode Speed

10s min (rpm)

-120 to 120 min (rpm)

0 min-1 (rpm)

AI Mode Speed

10s min-1 (rpm)

-120 to 100 min-1 (rpm)

0 min-1 (rpm)

-1

-1

-1

Breaker Engine Speed

10s min (rpm)

-500 to 100 min (rpm)

0 min-1 (rpm)

Crusher Engine Speed

10s min-1 (rpm)

-500 to 100 min-1 (rpm)

100 min-1 (rpm)

EX255-EX285

T5-2-1

COMPONENT LAYOUT
MAIN COMPONENTS

SM5601

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Bucket Cylinder
Arm Cylinder
Boom Cylinder
Center Joint
Swing Bearing
Swing Device
Fuel Tank
Hydraulic Oil Tank
Control Valve
Pilot Filter, Pilot Relief Valve
Pump Device

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Engine
Radiator
Oil Cooler
Intercooler
Battery
Travel Device
Shockless Valve
Pilot Shut-Off Valve
Travel Pilot Valve
Front/Swing Pilot Valve

T5-2-2

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (overall system)

SM5402

1 2 3 4 5 6 7,8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 -

Wiper Motor
Monitor Panel
Relays, Relays box
Windshield
Horn
Work Light
Fuel Sensor with Low Fuel Level Switch
Solenoid Valve Unit
Pressure Switch (Travel)
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch
PC Pressure Sensor (Upper: 4-Spool Side)
PC Pressure Sensor(Lower: 5-Spool Side)
EC Motor
EC Sensor
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor 1
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor 2
N (Engine Speed) Sensor

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

30
31
32
33

Engine Oil Pressure Switch


Coolant Temperature Switch (Engine Preheat Circuit)
Engine Oil Level Switch (on oil pan)
Overheat Switch
Coolant Temperature Sensor
Battery Relay
Coolant Level Switch
Battery
Starter Relay
Air Cleaner Restriction Switch
Pressure Switch (Boom Raise), Pressure Sensor
(Arm Roll-In)
Pressure Switch (Front)
Fuse Box
MC (Main Controller)
QOS Controller

EX255-EX285

T5-2-3

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (cab)

SM5603

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Relay box
Air conditioner relays (if installed)
Connection for cab light (ceiling)
WWES connection for wiper cut-off microswitch
Heater connection
Air conditoner connection
Loudspeakers connection
Cab ground
Main controller (MC)
Q.O.S. controller
Load momentum alarm buzzer provision
Load momentum alarm relay provision (R1)

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Breaker relay (R2) variant provision


R.H. Rotation bucket relay (R3) variant provision
L.H. Rotation bucket relay (R4) variant provision
Cab light relay (R5)
Rear cab light relay (R6)
A, B, K junction connector
C, D juncton connector
E, F junction connector
G, H junction connector
Dr. EX. connector
Engine learning switch
Fuse box

T5-2-4

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (cab)

SM5604

1
2
3
4
5
6

Connectors for monitor and switch panels


Cigarette lighter
Connectors to cab harness
Connectors not used
Windshield wiper controller
(1) connector for breaker switch
(2) connector for cab light switch
(3) connector for bucket rotation
(4) connector for load momentum alarm switch
(5) connector for rear cab light

7
8

- Connector not used


- Connector

EX255-EX285

T5-2-5

COMPONENT LAYOUT
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (monitor and switch panels)

10
24

11

12

23

13

22

14

21
20

15
16
17

19
3
18

T157-07-02-001
SM0610

5
25
6
4

32
7
8

26

31

27

28

30

T157-01-01-009
SM0611

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Monitor Panel
Switch Panel
Power Boost Switch
Key Switch
Cigar Lighter
HP Mode Switch
E Mode Switch
Engine Control Dial
Air Conditioner Panel
Warm Up Complete Indicator
Fuel Gauge
E Mode Indicator
Auto-Idle Indicator
Hydraulic Oil Level Indicator
Preheat Indicator
Air Filter Restriction Indicator

29

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

T157-01-01-018
SM0612

Fuel Level Indicator


Overheat Indicator
Alternator Indicator
Engine Oil Pressure Indicator
Engine Oil Level Indicator
Coolant Level Indicator
HP Mode Indicator
Coolant Temperature Gauge
Work Light Switch
Wiper Switch
Travel Mode Switch
Work Mode Switch
Buzzer Stop Switch
Auto-Idle Switch
Washer Switch
Level Check Switch

T5-2-6

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
PUMP AND RELATED PARTS

3-4
8

12

11

10

9
SM3004

1
2
3
4
5
6

Pilot Filter
Pilot Relief Valve
EC Motor
EC Sensor
Pilot Pump
Regulator (Pump 2)

7
8
9
10
11
12

N Sensor
Regulator (Pump 1)
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor (Pump 1)
Pump 1
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor (Pump 2)
Pump 2

EX255-EX285

T5-2-7

COMPONENT LAYOUT
OTHER COMPONENTS

Shockless Valve

Swing Device

9
8

6
7

SM0626
T157-01-01-011

Travel Device

SM0627
T157-07-03-018

Solenoid Valve Unit

FRONT

10
11
12

13
3
SM0628
T157-01-01-012

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Swing Relief Valve


Counterbalance Valve
Travel Relief Valve
Shockless Valve
Pilot Pressure Switch (Boom Raise)
Check Valve
Shockless Valve

SM0629
W157-02-11-020

8
9
10
11
12
13

Check Valve
Pilot Pressure Sensor (Arm Roll-In)
Solenoid Valve Unit (SC)
Solenoid Valve Unit (SD)
Solenoid Valve Unit (SI)
Solenoid Valve Unit (SG)

T5-2-8

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
Control valve

Right travel motor

Left travel motor

3
2

10
11
12

41

13
14

40

15
16

39

Bucket cylinder

38
37
36
35
34

Boom cylinder

17
18

Arm cylinder

33
32
31

19
20

30
29

21
22
23
26
27
28

24
25

Swing motor

1 - Hydraulic Timer
2 - Travel Flow Control Valve
3 - Load Check Valve (Travel Parallel Circuit)
4 - Check Valve
5 - Main Relief Valve
6 - Check Valve
7 - Check Valve
8 - Flow Combiner Valve
9 - Load Check Valve (Bucket)
10 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valve A)
11 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valve B)
12 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Poppet Valve)
13 - Load Check Valve (Boom 1 Parallel Circuit)
14 - Load Check Valve (Boom 1 Tandem Circuit)

SM0037

15
16
17
18
19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 -

Overload Relief Valve (Bucket)


Overload Relief Valve (Bucket)
Overload Relief Valve (Boom)
Overload Relief Valve (Boom)
Boom Anti-Drift Valve (Check
Valve)
Boom Anti-Drift Valve (Switch
Valve)
Boom Regenerative Valve
Check Valve
Pump Control Valve (4-Spool
Side)
Check Valve
Restriction (4-Spool Side Parallel Circuit)
Load Check Valve (Arm Parallel
Circuit)
Restriction (Arm 1 Parallel Circuit)
Load Check Valve (Swing)

29 - Load Check Valve (Arm Tandem


Circuit)
30 - Check Valve
31 - Arm Regenerative Valve
32 - Check Valve
33 - Overload Relief Valve (Arm)
34 - Overload Relief Valve (Arm)
35 - Arm Anti-Drift Valve (Check Valve)
36 - Arm Anti-Drift Valve (Switch Valve)
37 - Load Check Valve (Boom 2 Parallel
Circuit)
38 - Travel/Boom Lower Selector Valve
39 - Check Valve
40 - Load Check Valve (Travel Tandem
Circuit)
41 - Pump Control Valve (5-Spool Side)

EX255-EX285

T5-2-9

COMPONENT LAYOUT
Section A

H
B

C
D
E
F

41

SM0036

SM0038

Section C

Bucket

Auxiliary

15
12
11

39

Section D
9
Boom 2

16
Section B

Boom 1

SM0040

L. Travel

R. Travel

38

17
37
3
2

20
21
19
13

14
40

10
18
SM0039

SM0041

T5-2-10

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT

Left travel motor

3
2

10

Right travel motor

11
12

41

13
14

40

15
16

39
38
37
36
35
34

Bucket cylinder

Boom cylinder

17
18

Arm cylinder

33
32
31

19
20

30
29

21
22
23
26
27
28

24
25

Swing motor
SM0037

1 - Hydraulic Timer
2 - Travel Flow Control Valve
3 - Load Check Valve (Travel Parallel Circuit)
4 - Check Valve
5 - Main Relief Valve
6 - Check Valve
7 - Check Valve
8 - Flow Combiner Valve
9 - Load Check Valve (Bucket)
10 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valve A)
11 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valve B)
12 - Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Poppet Valve)
13 - Load Check Valve (Boom 1 Parallel Circuit)
14 - Load Check Valve (Boom 1 Tandem Circuit)

15
16
17
18
19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 -

Overload Relief Valve (Bucket)


Overload Relief Valve (Bucket)
Overload Relief Valve (Boom)
Overload Relief Valve (Boom)
Boom Anti-Drift Valve (Check
Valve)
Boom Anti-Drift Valve (Switch
Valve)
Boom Regenerative Valve
Check Valve
Pump Control Valve (4-Spool
Side)
Check Valve
Restriction (4-Spool Side Parallel Circuit)
Load Check Valve (Arm Parallel
Circuit)
Restriction (Arm 1 Parallel Circuit)
Load Check Valve (Swing)

29 - Load Check Valve (Arm Tandem


Circuit)
30 - Check Valve
31 - Arm Regenerative Valve
32 - Check Valve
33 - Overload Relief Valve (Arm)
34 - Overload Relief Valve (Arm)
35 - Arm Anti-Drift Valve (Check Valve)
36 - Arm Anti-Drift Valve (Switch Valve)
37 - Load Check Valve (Boom 2 Parallel
Circuit)
38 - Travel/Boom Lower Selector Valve
39 - Check Valve
40 - Load Check Valve (Travel Tandem
Circuit)
41 - Pump Control Valve (5-Spool Side)

EX255-EX285

T5-2-11

COMPONENT LAYOUT
Arm 1

Section E (2)

Arm 2

31

32

Section E (1)
Arm 1

Section F

Arm 2
Swing
SM0042

36
34
35

28

24
26

25

27
29

23
22

33
30

SM0045

SM0043

Section H
Section G
1

SM0044

SM0046

T5-2-12

EX255-EX285

COMPONENT LAYOUT
NOTE:

EX255-EX285

T5-3-1

TROUBLESHOOTING A
TROUBLESHOOTING A PROCEDURE
Use troubleshooting A procedure when fault codes are shown on Dr.EX.
How to Read the Troubleshoting Flow Charts
YES(OK)

(2)

After checking or measuring item (1), select either Yes (OK) or No (NOT
OK) and proceed to item (2) or (3), as appropriate.

(1)
(3)
NO(NG)

Key switch: ON

Special instructions or reference item are indicated in the spaces under the box. Incorrect
measuring or checking methods will render troubleshooting impossible, and may damage
components as well.

Explanation of how to use lamp harness kit required. Refer to Harness Check Group (Group
T5-7) in this section.

Use the Dr. EX troubleshooting/monitor function for the description in a double line box.

Causes are stated in a thick-line box. Scanning through thick-line boxes, possible causes
can be seen without going through the flow chart.

NOTE - For all connector drawings illustrated in this


group, harness end connector terminals seen from the
open end side are shown.

SM0630

T5-3-2

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING A
FAULT CODES

FAULT CODE

TROUBLE

CORRECTIVE ACTION

01

EC sensor failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace EC sensor.

02
03

Pump 1 delivery pressure sensor failure


Pump 2 delivery pressure sensor failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace the pump delivery pressure sensor.

04
05

Pump 1 control pressure sensor failure


Pump 2 control pressure sensor failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace the pump control pressure sensor.

06

Arm roll-in pilot pressure sensor failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace the arm roll-in pilot pressure sensor.

07

Engine control dial failure

1) Perform Retrial B.
2) Check harness.
3) Replace the engine control dial.

EX255-EX285

T5-3-3

TROUBLESHOOTING A

T5-3-4

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING A
FAULT CODE 01 (EC SENSOR FAILURE)

NO

YES

YES
Disconnect EC sensor
connector. Check if
resistance between EC
sensor side connector
terminals No.1 and No.3
is 1.7 0.4 k.
Connect test harness
between EC sensor
connector halves. Turn
engine control dial and
check if voltage
changes as specified.

Check if breakage or
short circuit exists
between MC 22P
connector terminal
No.D15 and EC
sensor terminal No. 2.

Disconnect EC
sensor connector.
Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
No.1 and No.3 is
5 0.5 V.
Key switch: ON

After replacement,
refer to page T5-4-60.

YES

YES
Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
NO No.1 and vehicle
frame is 5 0.5 V.
Key switch: ON
5 0.5 V for the voltage
change standard
values.

Harness failure
between MC and EC
sensor.

Harness breakage
between MC and EC
sensor terminal No.3.

Harness breakage
between MC and EC
NO sensor terminal
No.1.

NO

Test harness: 75301706D


Refer to page T5-3-9 for
the voltage change standard values.

Faulty MC

Faulty EC sensor
After replacement,
refer to page T5-4-60.

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)
Main Controller (22P): D is added for each terminal number in the text.

1 2 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

EC Sensor
1

EX255-EX285

T5-3-5

TROUBLESHOOTING A
FAULT CODE 02
(PUMP 1 DELIVERY PRESSURE SENSOR
FAILURE)
FAULT CODE 03
(PUMP 2 DELIVERY PRESSURE SENSOR
FAILURE)
Checking Instruction:
It is unlikely for both pump delivery pressure sensors (for pumps 1 and 2) to fail simultaneously. For
this reason, if faults codes 2 and 3 are indicated, the
probable cause is harness failure.

YES
Disconnect the pump
delivery pressure
sensor connector.
Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
No.1 and No.3 is
5 0.5 V.

NO

Switch pump delivery


pressure sensors
(for pumps 1 and 2)
with each other.
Perform RETRIAL.
Check if indicated
fault code changes
to the one for the
other pump delivery
pressure sensor.

Key switch: ON

Check if breakage or
short circuit exists
between MC 22P
connector terminal
No. D16 (pump 1)/
No. D17 (pump 2)
and pump delivery
pressure sensor terminal No.2.

YES

Faulty EC sensor
NO
After replacement,
refer to page T5-4-60.

YES
Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
NO No.1 and vehicle
frame is 5 0.5 V.
Key switch: ON
5 0.5 V for the voltage
change standard
values.

Harness failure
between MC and
pump delivery
pressure sensor.

Harness failure between MC and pump


delivery pressure
sensor terminal No.3.

Harness failure between MC and pump


NO delivery pressure
sensor terminal No.1.

Faulty pump delivery


pressure sensor.

YES

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)
Main Controller (22P): D is added for each terminal number in the text.

1 2 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor

T5-3-6

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING A
FAULT CODE 04
(PUMP 1 CONTROL PRESSURE SENSOR
FAILURE)
FAULT CODE 05
(PUMP 2 CONTROL PRESSURE SENSOR
FAILURE)
Checking Instruction:
It is unlikely for both pump control pressure sensors
(ones in 4-spool side and in 5-spool side control
valves) to fail simultaneously. For this reason, if
faults codes 04 and 05 are indicated, the probable
cause is harness failure.

YES

Disconnect pump
control pressure
sensor connector.
Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
No.1 and No.3 is
5 0.5 V.

NO

Switch pump control


pressure sensors (ones
in 4-spool side and in 5spool side control
valves) with each other.
Perform RETRIAL.
Check if the indicated
fault code changes to
the one for the other
pump control pressure
sensor.

Key switch: ON

Check if breakage or
short circuit exists
between MC 22P
connector terminal
No. D14 (4-spool
side)/No. D19
(5-spool side) and
pump control pressure sensor terminal
No.2.

YES

Faulty MC
NO
After replacement,
refer to page T5-4-60.

YES
Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
NO No.1 and vehicle
frame is 5 0.5 V.
Key switch: ON
5 0.5 V for the voltage change standard
values.

Harness failure between MC and pump


control pressure sensor.

Harness breakage
between MC and
pump control pressure sensor terminal
No.3.

Harness breakage
between MC and
NO pump delivery pressure sensor terminal.
Faulty pump control
pressure sensor.

YES

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)
Main Controller (22P): D is added for each terminal number in the text.

1 2 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Pump Control Pressure Sensor

3
2

EX255-EX285

T5-3-7

TROUBLESHOOTING A
FAULT CODE 06
(ARM ROLL-IN PILOT PRESSURE
SENSOR FAILURE)

YES

YES

Disconnect pilot
pressure sensor
connector. Check if
voltage between harness end connector
terminals No.1 and
No.3 is 5 0.5 V.

NO

Key switch: ON

Replace pilot pressure


sensor with pump control pressure sensor.
Perform RETRIAL.
Check if fault code disappears.

Check if breakage or
short circuit exists
between MC 22P
connector terminal
No.D18 and pilot
pressure sensor terminal No.2.

Harness failure between MC and pilot


pressure sensor.

Faulty MC
NO
After replacement,
refer to page T5-4-60.

YES
Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
NO No.1 and vehicle
frame is 5 0.5 V.
Key switch: ON
5 0.5 V for the voltage change standard
values.

Harness breakage
between MC and pilot
pressure sensor terminal No.3.

Harness breakage
between MC and pilot
NO pressure sensor terminal No.1.

YES

Faulty pilot pressure


sensor (arm roll-in).

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)
Main Controller (22P): D is added for each terminal number in the text.

1 2 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Pilot Pressure Sensor

1
2

T5-3-8

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING A
FAULT CODE 07
(ENGINE CONTROL DIAL FAILURE)

YES

YES

Disconnect engine
control dial connector. Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
No.5 and No.7 i
5 0.5 V.

NO
Disconnect engine control dial connector.
Check if resistance between engine control dial
side terminals No.5 and
No.7 is 5 0.5 k.
With the engine control
dial connected, insert
test probe from back of
engine control dial. Turn
engine control dial and
check if voltage changes
as specified.

Key switch: ON

Check if breakage or
short circuit exists
between MC 22P
connector terminal
No.D21 and engine
control dial terminal
No.6.

Faulty MC

NO
After replacement,
refer to page T5-4-60.

YES
Check if voltage
between harness end
connector terminals
NO No.5 and vehicle
frame is 5 0.5 V.
Key switch: ON
5 0.5 V for the voltage
change standard
values.

Refer to page T5-3-9 for


the voltage change standard values.

Harness failure between MC and engine


control dial.

Harness breakage
between MC and engine control dial terminal No.7.

Harness breakage
between MC and enNO gine control dial terminal No.5.
Faulty engine control
dial.

YES

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen from the open end side)
Main Controller (22P): D is added for each terminal number in the text.

1 2 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Engine Control Dial


4 3
5 6

7 8

2 1
9

EX255-EX285

T5-3-9

TROUBLESHOOTING A
SENSOR OPERATING RANGE LIST
1. Preconditions for measurement
Hydraulic Oil Temperature: 50 5 C (122 9 F)
Unless otherwise instructed, set the switches as
follows:
Engine
Control Dial

E Mode
Switch/HP
Mode Switch

Work
Mode
Switch

Auto-Idle
Switch

Max.
Position

OFF

General
Purpose
Mode

OFF

Monitor using the Dr.EX.

SM0631

2. Sensor Operating Range


Item
Engine Control Dial

Required Control/Switch Operation


At minimum speed position

0.3 to 1.0 V

At maximum speed position

4.0 to 4.7 V

Engine control dial at Min. position

2.5 to 2.7 V

Engine control dial at Max. position with HP mode


switch turned OFF

3.3 to 3.7 V

EC Sensor
Engine control dial at Max. position with HP mode
switch turned ON

Control Levers: Neutral


Pump Delivery Pressure
Sensor

Pilot Pressure Sensor

Boom Raised to stroke end and main relief


valve relieved

2
25+15
-7 kgf/cm

2
350+20
-5 kgf/cm

Control Levers: Neutral


Pilot Control Shut-Off Lever:
Locked Position

0 to 1.0 kgf/cm2

Control Lever: Full Stroke


Pilot Control Shut-Off Lever:
Unlocked Position

34 to 40 kgf/cm2

Control Levers: Neutral


Pump Control Pressure
Sensor

0.2 V or more larger than the voltage


obtained above (with the engine
control dial at Max. position with HP
mode switch turned OFF)

One Track Jacked-Up Travel Lever (Raised track


side): Full Stroke

NOTE - 1 kgf/cm2 = 0,09807 MPa

10 to 16 kgf/cm2
30 to 40 kgf/cm2

T5-3-10

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING A

EX255-EX285

T5-4-1

TROUBLESHOOTING B
TROUBLESHOOTING B PROCEDURE
Apply troubleshooting B procedure when no fault code
is displayed on the Dr.EX although the machines
operation is abnormal.
On the front section pages of this group T5-4, are
tables indicating the relationship between machine
trouble symptoms and related parts which may cause
such trouble if failed.

Start the troubleshooting with more probable causes


selected by referring to these tables.

How to Read the Troubleshooting Flow Charts

YES (OK)

(2)

After checking or measuring item (1), select either Yes (OK) or No


(NOT OK) and proceed to item (2) or (3), as appropriate.

(1)
(3)
NO(NG)

Key switch: ON

Special instructions or reference item are indicated in the spaces under the box. Incorrect
measuring or checking methods will render troubleshooting impossible, and may damage
components as well.

Explanation of how to use lamp harness kit required. Refer to Harness Check Group
(Group 7) in this section.

Use the Dr. EX troubleshooting/monitor function for the description in a double line box.

Causes are stated in a thick-line box. Scanning through thick-line boxes, possible
causes can be seen without going through the flow chart.

T5-4-2

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MACHINE
TROUBLE SYMPTOMS AND PARTS IN
TROUBLE
Part Name

Part function

Control System
Trouble

Machine Symptoms

Trouble
shooting
Procedures

This table indicates the probable machine trouble


symptoms by part item when each part is failed and
procedures to determine if the part has failed.

EC Motor

EC Sensor

To operate governor lever.

To detect the slow-idle speed


governor lever position (2.5 V).

To instruct the engine


target speed governor lever
position.

Governor lever does not


move.

Whenever key switch is ON,


governor lever position is learned
as in the slow idle speed position
differing from the correct position.
Accordingly, engine speed is
controlled afterward with the
discrepancy which occurred at this
time.

Even if engine control dial


is operated, engine speed
is unchanged.
If harness to engine control
dial is broken, target speed
1600 min-1 is used as the
backup value

Even if engine control dial is If the discrepancy occurred to the


Engine speed is constantly
operated, engine speed does
slower side, engine speed is
held at 1600 min-1.
changed by engine control dial.
not increase from slow
(Auto-idle function
However, engine speed control
speed range.
operates, and engine can
range stays slower than normal.
be stopped by turning key
Starter rotates but engine
(Note: If the discrepancy occurred
switch.)
fails to start occasionally.
to the faster side, when engine
While engine is running at a
control dial is turned to the fastest
faster than specific speed, if position, EC motor continues
harness to EC motor is bromoving. However, EC motor is a
ken, engine stalls.
worm gear type so that governor
While engine is running at a
lever is kept holding at the full
stroke position. If engine control dial
slower than specific speed, if
is turned to the slowest position,
harness to EC motor is brogovernor lever returns to the slow
ken, engine becomes unconidle position.)
trollable.
When engine is started, engine
speed fluctuates.
Engine start may become difficult
-

By Dr.EX SelfDiagnosing
Function

By Dr.EX Monitor
Function

Fault code 01 is displayed.

Fault code 07 is displayed.

Monitor Item: EC Angle

Monitor item:
Target Engine Speed

By Lamp Harness Install test harness


Check
(75301706B). Then, check
output signal from EC and
check if harness is normal
-

By Other Check/
Measurements

Note

Descriptions in
(Operational Principle)
Technical Manual

Engine Control Dial

Engine is stopped by
EC motor.
No engine stop
is provided. However, a
fuel shut-off cable is installed

T2-1

If EC sensor is failed, engine


learning operation becomes
impossible.

T2-1

T2-1

EX255-EX285

T5-4-3

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Pump Control
Pressure Sensor

Pump Delivery
Pressure Sensor

N Sensor

To detect pump control valve


pressure in control valve to
control the travel motor
swash angle.

To detect both right and left


pump delivery pressures to
control speed sensing system,
HP mode circuit, arm regenerative circuit, and travel motor
swash angle.

To detect engine speed to


control speed sensing system.

To increase relief setting


pressure temporarily.

Sensor output is reduced


to zero and travel motor
swash angle is held to the
maximum angle.

When pump delivery pressure


sensor output is 0 V or 5 V, the
following symptoms appear.

Speed sensing system does


not function.

If solenoid valve unit (SG)


is not energized, pilot pressure at port SG is 0 MPa
(0 kgf/cm2).

Even if travel mode switch is


turned to the fast mode
position, travel speed does
not change to the fast
range.

Travel speed is changed to the


slow speed range. However,
automatic up shifting to the
fast speed range from slow
speed range is impossible.
HP mode does not work.
When combined operation is
made, arm speed is slow
(when delivery pressure
sensor for pump 2 has
failed).

Engine stalls when the


machine is operated at a high
altitude or under heavy operating
conditions.

Main relief pressure set is


unchanged from the
standard setting pressure
of 34 MPa (350 kgf/cm2).
Even if the power boost
switch is depressed, main
relief pressure does not
increase. Digging force
does not increase.

Fault codes 04 and 05 are


displayed.

Fault codes 02 and 03 are


displayed.

Monitor items:
Pump 1 Control Pressure
Pump 2 Control Pressure

Install lamp harness


(75301514). Then, check
output signal from MC and
check if harness is normal.

Proportional solenoid
valve is used for the ONOFF valve so that whether
the power boost switch is
depressed or not, as long
as an output signal from
MC is measure by means
of test harness, the control
of solenoid valve unit is
normal. If any output signal
is detected, a broken wire
harness may be a cause.
See NOTE at the end of
TABLE.

Evaluation by Dr.EX
0.25 V or Less: Discontinuity
4.75 V or More: Short Circuit

T2-1

T2-1

Monitor item:
Actual Engine Speed

Solenoid Valve Unit


(SG)

T2-1

Monitor item:
Power boost pressure

T2-1

T5-4-4

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Part Name
Part function

Control System
Trouble

Machine Symptoms

Solenoid Valve Unit (SD)

Solenoid Valve Unit (SI)

To reduce pump swash


angle by guiding pilot
pressure to regulator to operate the speed sensing
control system.

When arm is rolled in, arm


speed is increased by guiding
return oil from arm cylinder rod
side to bottom side.

To increase travel speed


by decreasing travel motor
swash angle when fast
travel mode is selected
and pump delivery
pressure is low.

Pilot pressure is not fed to


regulator.

If solenoid valve unit (SC) is not


energized, pilot pressure at port
SC is 0 MPa (0 kgf/cm2).
Thereby, arm regenerative
function does not work.

Travel speed is held in


slow speed range.

Engine may stall under


heavy conditions such as
operation at a high altitude.

When leveling, arm speed


becomes very slow.

Travel speed does not


increase even if travel
mode switch is turned to
the fast travel speed
position.

By Dr.EX SelfDiagnosing
Function
Trouble
shooting
Procedures

Solenoid Valve Unit (SC)

By Dr.EX Monitor
Function

Monitor item:
Pump proportional
Solenoid valve output

Monitor item:
Arm regenerative proportional
solenoid valve output

Monitor item:
Travel motor displacement
angle change pressure

By Lamp Harness
Check

Install test harness


(75301514). Then, check
output signal from MC and
check if harness is normal.

Install test harness


(75301514). Then, check output
signal from MC and check if
harness is normal.

Install test harness


(75301514). Then, check
output signal from MC and
check if harness is normal.

By Other Check/
Measurements

Note

Descriptions in
(Operational
Principle)Technical
Manual

Output signal MC must be


measured with the
solenoid valve connected.
See NOTE at the end of
table.

T2-1

Output signal MC must be


measured with the
solenoid valve connected.
See NOTE at the end of
table.

Output signal MC must be


measured with the
solenoid valve connected.
See NOTE at the end of
table.

T2-1

T2-1

EX255-EX285

T5-4-5

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Pressure Switch (Travel)

Pressure Switch (Front)

To detect that travel spool


is operated (for auto-idle
operation and travel motor
swash angle control).

To detect that front and/or


swing spool is operated (for
auto-idle operation).

To detect boom raise pilot


pressure (for arm
regenerative control).

To detect arm roll-in pilot


pressure (for HP mode
control and arm regenerative control).

No signal is sent to MC.

No signal is sent to MC.

No signal is sent to MC.

No signal is sent to MC.

Even if machine is traveled


with auto-idle switch ON,
engine speed does not
increase.
When traveling on a flat
area in the fast travel
mode, travel speed is
slow.

Even if either front or swing


control lever is operated with
auto-idle switch ON, engine
speed does not increase.

As arm regenerative function


does not work, when boom is
raised and arm is rolled in,
arm speed is slower than
normal (difficult to discern).
When beginning to level a
ground surface, bucket is
slightly lowered into the
ground.

When the combined operation of swing and arm roll-in


is made, arm regenerative
function does not work so
that arm speed is slow
when starting to roll in (difficult to discern).
Arm speed is slow when
leveling.
HP mode does not function
when arm is rolled in.

Fault code 06 is displayed.

Monitor item: Pressure Switch


While operating front or swing
function, monitor to check if
pressure switch is ON or
OFF.

Monitor item: Pressure Switch.


While raising boom, monitor to check
if pressure switch is ON or OFF

Monitor item:
Arm Roll-In Pilot Pressure

It is possible to check if
pressure switch has failed
or if a port is clogged by
switching the pressure
switch with an adjacent one
(for front).

It is possible to check if
pressure switch has failed or
if a port is clogged by
switching the pressure
switch with an adjacent one
(for travel).

T2-1

T2-1

Monitor item: Pressure


Switch
While traveling, monitor to
check if pressure switch is
ON or OFF.

Pressure Switch
(Boom Raise)

T2-1

Pilot Pressure Sensor


(Arm Roll-In)

T2-1

T5-4-6

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Part Name
Part function

Learning Switch
To start learning engine control
ON: 0 V Learning
OFF: 5 V Normal Control

Control System
Trouble

Machine Symptoms

By Dr.EX Monitor
Function

To operate power boost function


ON: 0 V Boost function works.
OFF: 5 V Boost function does
not work.

HP Mode Switch
To control HP mode
operation
ON: 0 V HP Mode.
OFF: 5 V Standard Mode.

Engine learning does not


function.

Breaking of Wire: Boost function


does not work.
Short Circuit: Boost function
works for 8 seconds after key
switch is turned ON, but becomes
inoperative afterwards.

If trouble is caused by circuit discontinuity, engine


control system operates
normally. (Only engine
learning function fails.)
If trouble is caused by a
short circuit, the learning
mode operates when key
switch is turned ON. Therefore, engine may stall 5 seconds after engine starts.

Power boost function does not


work if whether a wire is broken
or short circuit occurs.

Broken Wire: Even if HP


mode switch is
depressed, HP mode does
not operate.
Short Circuit: Even if HP
mode switch is turned
OFF, HP mode is not
deactivated.

By Dr.EX SelfDiagnosing
Function
Trouble
shooting
Procedures

Power Boost Switch

Monitor item:
Engine Learning Control

Monitor item: Power Boost Switch

Monitor item: HP Mode


Switch

By Lamp Harness Check

By Other Check/
Measurements

Note

Descriptions in
(Operational
Principle)Technical
Manual

T2-1

T2-1

T2-1

EX255-EX285

T5-4-7

TROUBLESHOOTING B

E Mode Switch
To select E mode.
ON: 0 V E Mode
OFF: 5 V Standard Mode

Travel Mode Switch

MC

Pump Control
Valve

To change travel speed at two


stages.

To control engine, pump, and


valve operations.

To develop pump control


pressure in response to the
oil flow rate passing through
the center bypass passage
in the control valve.

Fast Travel Mode:


0 V Traveling at fast
speed
Slow Travel Mode: 5 V

Discontinuity in Switch:
Travel speed is kept in slow
range (5 V).

Problems may differ depending


on the trouble. (Machine
troubles shown below signify
that the logic circuit in MC has
some faults.)

If the pump control valve


spool is seized, or the
spring is broken, pump control pressure does not
change.

Broken Wire: Even if E


mode switch is depressed,
engine runs at full speed.
Short Circuit: Engine
speed is not increased up
to full speed.

Even if travel mode switch is


turned to the fast travel
mode position, travel speed
is un-changed.

Even if key switch is turned to


the ON position, EC motor
does not rotate to the start
position so that engine cannot
start. Or, even if engine is
started, engine speed does not
increase.
Pump swash angle is held to a
minimum, all function speeds
are slow.

When the 5-spool side


pump control valve is faulty:
1.Left track travel speed
only
is slow.
2.Swing function is also slow.
3.Arm speed is slow when
leveling.
4.Single operation of bucket,
boom, or arm is almost
normally performed.
When 4-spool side pump
control valve is faulty:
1.Bucket single operation
speed is very slow.
2.Boom is not raised when
leveling.
3.Right track travel speed
only is slow.
4.Single operation of boom,
arm, or swing is almost
normally performed.

Procedures may differ depending


on the locations of failures.

Monitor item:
Selected Travel Mode Switch

Before suspecting a failure in MC,


check the fuse in this control circuit.

Monitor item:
E Mode Switch

T2-1

T2-1

Monitor items:
Pump 1 Control Pressure
Pump 2 Control Pressure

T3-3

T5-4-8

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Part Name
Part function

Control System
Trouble

Machine Symptoms

Trouble
shooting
Procedures

Flow Combiner Valve

Restriction in Arm 1
Parallel Passage

Check Valve and Restriction in


4-Spool Side Parallel Circuit

To supply hydraulic oil to


both right and left travel
spools from pump 1 when
the combined operation of
travel and
front/swing is made.

To ensure lateral thrust force of


the front by swing function.

To supply hydraulic oil from


pump 1 to arm 1 spool in
pump 2 side.

When the combined operation of travel and front/swing


is made, hydraulic oil is not
supplied to the left travel
spool, or oil flow to the left
travel spool is insufficient.

If the restriction is clogged,


hydraulic oil does not flow
through the arm 1 parallel
circuit.

If the check valve is seized


and kept closed, or the
restriction is clogged,
hydraulic oil does not flow
from pump 1 to arm 1
spool.
If the check valve is seized
and kept opened, hydraulic
oil from pump 2 flows to the
pump 1 side.

While traveling straight, the


machine mistrack when the
swing lever is operated.

Arm speed is slow when


leveling.

When check valve is kept


closed, or restriction is
clogged:
Arm speed is slow when
leveling.
When check valve is kept
opened:
Left travel speed is slow.

By Dr.EX SelfDiagnosing
Function

By Dr.EX Monitor Function

By Lamp Harness
Check

By Other Check/
Measurements

Note

Descriptions in
(Operational Principle)
Technical Manual

T3-3

T3-3

T3-3

EX255-EX285

T5-4-9

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Arm Regenerative
Control Valve

Travel Flow Control Valve

To increase arm speed by


allowing the return oil from the
arm cylinder rod side to flow
into the arm cylinder bottom side when the valve is
switched by pilot pressure
oil led from solenoid valve
unit (SC)

To reduce the shock load


developed when single travel
operation is switched to the
combined operation of travel
and front by gradually
restricting oil flow in the
travel parallel circuit.

To ensure the boom lower


force when the combined
operation of travel and boom
lower is made.

To prevent the arm drift


caused by inner leakage
of hydraulic oil in control
valve. Only when arm rollin operation is made, antidrift valve (check valve) in
the arm cylinder return
circuit is forcibly opened
so that the arm is rolled in.

Arm regenerative function


does not operate.

Oil flow is not restricted


properly.

Boom 2 spool does not move


when the combined operation
of travel and boom lower is
made.
Boom 2 spool is moved even if
the single operation of boom
lower is made.

Check valve does not


open if the changeover
valve is seized.

Arm speed is very slow


when leveling.

When fully closed:


Great shock is felt when
changed from travel single
operation to travel combined
operation.
When fully opened:
The boom is not raised
when the combined operation of travel down a slope
and boom raise with the
bucket loaded is made.
(Boom is raised when boom
single operation is
performed.)

When fully opened:


Boom lower speed is very fast.
With swing lever fully stroked,
swing speed is slow when the
combined operation of swing
and boom lower is made.
When fully closed:
With the front lowered while
traveling, the track of the base
machine is not raised off the
ground.

If check valve does not


open fully, arm roll-in
speed is slow.
If check valve is kept
opened, arm drift
increases due to the
control valve inner leakage.
According to the degree of
seizure in check valve,
arm roll-in operation
becomes jerky, or slower.

T3-3

Travel and Boom Lower


Selector Valve

Arm Anti-Drift Valve

T3-3

T3-3

T3-3

T5-4-10

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Part Name

Boom Anti-Drift Valve

Boom Regenerative Valve

Part function

To prevent the boom drift


caused by inner leakage of
hydraulic oil in control valve.
Only when boom lower
operation is made, anti-drift
valve (check valve) in the
boom cylinder return circuit
is forcibly opened so that
boom is lowered.

To prevent boom hesitation when


lowering boom by allowing the
return oil from the boom cylinder
bottom side to flow into the boom
cylinder rod side.

To restrict the bucket


circuit to assist boom to
raise when the combined
operation of bucket, arm
roll-in, and boom raise is
made.

Control System
Trouble

Check valve does not open


if the switch valve is seized.

With check valve kept closed,


boom lower speed becomes slow.
With check valve kept opened,
the track of the base machine is
not raised off the ground by
lowering the boom.

Bucket circuit is always


restricted if the switch
valve is seized.

Machine Symptoms

If check valve does not


open, boom is not lowered.
If check valve is kept
opened, boom drift
increases due to the control
valve inner leakage.
According to the degree of
seizure in check valve,
boom lower operation
becomes jerky, or slower.

Same as described in the above


column.

Bucket speed is slow if


poppet valve is seized and
kept closed, or switch valve is seized so that the
poppet valve is closed.
Boom is not raised when
the combined operation of
bucket, arm roll-in, and
boom raise is made with
poppet valve fully opened,
or if the switch valve is
seized so that the poppet
valve is fully opened.

Trouble
shooting
Procedures

Bucket Flow Control


Valve

By Dr.EX SelfDiagnosing
Function

By Dr.EX Monitor
Function

By Lamp Harness
Check

By Other Check/
Measurements

Note

Descriptions in
(Operational
Principle)Technical
Manual

T3-3

T3-3

T3-3

EX255-EX285

T5-4-11

TROUBLESHOOTING B
NOTE - The measurement of the control voltage of proportional solenoid valves SG,
SI, SD and SC, must be performed with test harness (75301514) meaning
that the main controller (MC) output must be connected to the load of the
solenoid valve. Under this test configuration, the normal control voltage
changes from 5 through 10 Volt.
On the other hand, when measuring the control voltage directly on the
connector disconnected from the solenoid valve (harness side) the voltage
measured is always 24 Volt and this is irrelevant in troubleshooting the
solenoid valve.

T5-4-12

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
CORRELATION BETWEEN TROUBLE
SYMPTOMS AND PART FAILURES
Engine Control

Trouble Symptom

EC
EC
Motor Sensor

Pump / Valve Control

Eng. Coolant QOS Sol. Pump Pump


N
Cont. Temp. Con- Valve Deliv. Deliv. SenDial
Sw.
troller Unit Press. Press. sor
(PreSD Sensor Sensor
heat
Pump Pump
Circuit)
2
1

Arm
Roll
In
Sensor

Switch Panel
Press. Press. AutoSw.
Sw.
Idle
Travel Front Sw.
Act.

Learning
Sw.

HP
Mode
Sw.

E-1 Starter does not rotate


E-2 Although starter rotates,
engine does not start.
E-3 Engine runs slower than
normal at all operation
speeds.
Slow idle speed is faster or
slower than normal.
E-4 Even if engine control dial is
turned, engine speed is
unchanged.
E-5 Even if HP mode switch is
depressed, HP mode does
not operate.
E-6 Engine does not stop even
if key switch is turned OFF.
E-7 Auto-idle function does not
function.
E-8 Engine speed does not
change, even if E mode is
depressed.
E-9 Engine stalls several seconds after engine starts.
E-10 Engine stalls when machine is operated at high
altitude or under adverse
conditions.
E-11 Engine is hard to start at
low ambient temperature.
A-1. All actuators speeds are
slow
A-2. When single travel operation is made, left side track
slow but right side track is
normal. Single swing operation is slow. Bucket operation is normal. Arm
speed is slow when leveling. (All above symptoms
occurred at the same time).
A-3. When single travel operation is made, right side
track is slow but left side
track is normal. Single
swing operation is normal.
Boom hardly raises when
leveling. (All the above
symptoms occurred at the
same time).
A-4. Actuator does not stop,
even after control lever is in
the neutral position.

NOTE - The above table shows the correlation between machine operation trouble and related parts
which may cause trouble. However, the correlations in
this table are described based on the condition supposing that each occurs independently.

If any other trouble occur at the same time, find out the
faulty parts causing the trouble by checking all suspected parts in each symptom.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-13

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Switch Panel
E
Mode
Sw.

Key
Sw.

MC
(Main
Contr.)

Engine
Eng.
Elec.
Parts

Eng.
Unit

Pump
Governor

Main
Pump
Unit

Pilot
Pump

Control Valve
Spool

Pump
Cont.
Valve
5Spool
Side

Pump
Cont.
Valve
4Spool
Side

Other
Main
Relief
Valve

Pilot
Valve

Pilot
Relief
Valve

Note

Check battery
Check fuel system
Check fuel shut-off
handle. Check engine
control cable. Be sure to
operate engine learning
whenever engine is
replaced.
Check engine control
cable.

Check if fuel system


is clogged

: being linked closely. Checking the part is required.


: being linked, but if this parts is faulty another type of
trouble will be prominent. Therefore this part may not be
the main cause of the trouble.

T5-4-14

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
Pump/Valve Control

Sw.

Sol.
Sol.
Pump
Arm
Press.
Valve
Valve Deliv. Roll in
Sw.
Unit SG Unit SC Press. Sensor Boom
Sensor
Raise
Pump 2

Power
Boost
Sw.

Control valve
Spool

Main
Relief
Valve

Overload
Relief
Valve

Load
Check
Valve

Boom
ReCheck
RestricValve
genertion
& Reative Arm 1
stric.
Valve Parallel 4-Spool
Parallel

F-1 All front attachment


functions are weak.
F-2 Digging force is not
increased even if
power boost switch is
depressed.
F-3 Some cylinders do
not move or speeds
are slow.
F-4 Boom lower single
operation is fast.
F-5 Arm speed is slow in
a combined operation.
Arm speed is slow in
leveling operation.
F-6 Bucket digging single
operation is slightly
slow.
Bucket digging single
operation is jerky.
F-7 Arm starting speed is
slow during
combined operations.
Arm operation is
jerky.
During arm roll-in
single operation, arm
starting speed is
slightly slow which often
occurs at low temperature.
F-8 Boom starting speed
is slow during
combined operations.
Boom operation is jerky.
Boom starting speed
is slightly slow during
boom lower single
operation.
F-9 When operating the
control lever to raise
boom or to roll-out
arm, boom or arm
starts to move after
slightly moving in the
reverse direction.
F-10 Front attachment
cylinders drift is large.
S-1 Swing speed is slow or
swing function does
not operate.
S-2 Swing speed is slow
during combined
operation with boom
lower.

NOTE - The above table shows the correlation between machine operation trouble and related parts
which may cause trouble. However, the correlations in
this table are described based on the condition sup-

posing that each occurs independently.If any other


trouble occur at the same time, find out the faulty parts
causing the trouble by checking all suspected parts in
each symptom.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-15

TROUBLESHOOTING B
Control valve
Arm
Regenerative
Valve

Travel
Boom
Lower
Select.
Valve

Arm
Anti
Drift
Valve

Boom
Anti
Drift
Valve

Others
Bucket Swing ShockFlow Device less
Cont.
Valve
Valve

Pilot Cylinder
Valve

Note

Check the work mode switch position


Take care not to confuse power boost
operation with HP mode

Check the work mode switch position

: being linked closely. Checking the part is required.


: being linked, but if this parts is faulty another type of
trouble will be prominent. Therefore this part may not be
the main cause of the trouble.

T5-4-16

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Pump/Valve Control

Trouble Symptom

Sol.
PC
PC
Valve Press. Press.
Unit Sensor Sensor
SI
5 Spool 4 Spool
Side
Side

Pump Pump. Press


Deliv. Deliv.
Sw.
Press. Press. Travel
Sensor Sensor
Pump Pump
2
1

T-1 Both right and left


side tracks do not
move or move
slowly.
T-2 When a single
travel operation is
shifted to a
combined operation
with front functions,
a shock load is felt.
T-3 One side track does
not move or moves
slowly. Or the
machine cannot
travel straight
(mistracks).
T-4 During a combined
operation of travel
and front
attachment
function, the
machine mistracks.
T-5 Steering power and
gradeability are insufficient in the fast
travel mode.
T-6 Travel mode does
not change to the
fast speed range.
O-1 The wiper does not
operate, or will not
retract.

NOTE - The above table shows the correlation between machine operation trouble and related parts
which may cause trouble. However, the correlations in
this table are described based on the condition supposing that each occurs independently.
If any other trouble occur at the same time, find out the
faulty parts causing the trouble by checking all suspected parts in each symptom.

Sw.
Travel Spool
Mode
Switch

Control valve
Load
Check
Valve

Flow Travel
Comb. Boom
Valve Lower
Select
Valve

Others
Travel
Device

Center
Joint
.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-17

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Others
Pilot
valve

Remarks
.

Refer to A1.

Refert to T-6.

Refer to the troubleshooting section.

: being linked closely. Checking the part is required.


: being linked, but if this parts is faulty another type of
trouble will be prominent. Therefore this part may not be
the main cause of the trouble.

T5-4-18

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING
E-1 Starter Does Not Rotate.

Faulty starter or
disconnected starter ground
line.

YES

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Measure each voltage by referring to the tables
below.
Electronic system such as MC has nothing to do
with the trouble obstructing the rotation of starter.

YES

Key switch:
ONSTART

Check if each terminal


voltage on starter is normal
with key switch turned to the
positions in the following
table.

Key
switch
Terminal

With key switch


positioned at
START, voltage at
terminal C does
not increase to 24
volts.

ON
ON
(Engine START (Engine
not
running)
running)

24

24

24

24

24

Starter Relay Terminal Voltage Unit: Volt

NO

Key
switch
Terminal

Voltage:
24 volts or more
Density:
1.26 or more

NO

With key switch


positioned as shown
in the following table,
check if each
terminal voltage is
normal.

Unit: Volt

Starter Terminal Voltage

Check if battery
voltage and
electrolyte density
are normal.

Regardless of key switch


position ON or START,
voltage at terminal B is 0
(zero).

ON
ON
(Engine START (Engine
not
running)
running)

24

24

24

12

24

With key switch


positioned at
START, voltage at
terminal S does
not increase to 24
volts.

Faulty Battery

24

Faulty starter or
disconnected
starter ground line.

(When key switch is turned to START, in


case voltage at terminal B is 18 V or lower,
battery is faulty.)

Starter Terminal Voltage Check.

Starter Relay Voltage Check.

(Seen from the back of the connector.)


SM5401

SM6117

EX255-EX285

T5-4-19

TROUBLESHOOTING B

YES

Faulty harness between


battery relay and starter.

Check if battery relay clicks


when key switch is turned
OFF from the ON position.
Key switch: ONOFF

Faulty battery relay


NO
YES

With key switch in


START, voltage at
terminal S does not
increase to 24 V.

Terminal No.1
voltage: 0 V
Measure voltage
at key switch
terminals No. 1
and No. 6.

Check if fusible link


(40 A) has blown.

NO

Key switch: START

Faulty harness between


fusible link and key switch.

Blown fusible link 1 (40A).

Terminal No.1 voltage: 24 V


Terminal No.6 voltage: 0 V
Faulty key switch.

Terminal No.1 voltage: 24 V


Terminal No.6 voltage: 24 V

Voltage at terminal B is 0 V.

Faulty harness between key


switch terminal No. 6 and
starter relay terminal S.
Broken harness between
both terminals B on starter
and starter relay.

With key switch in START, voltage at


terminal C is 0 V but voltage at starter
relay terminal C is 24 V.

Broken harness between


both terminals C on starter
and starter relay.

With key switch in START, voltage at all


terminals other than C is normal. Voltage at
terminal C does not increase to 24 V.

Faulty starter relay.

Key Switch Voltage Check


NOTE - Remove the key switch from the console.

View A

SM0633

T5-4-20

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
E-2

Although Starter Rotates, Engine Does Not


Start.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Check the governor lever and the fuel shut-off lever
positions while the engine is cranking. If their
positions are normal, the engine and the fuel system may be faulty.

YES

Faulty engine.
Refer to engine Section.

With key switch ON, check if


governor lever moves to the
starting position.
Key switch : ON
Check EC motor activating
circuit.

NO

Governor Lever and Fuel Shut-Off Lever

1
SM5402

1 - Governor Control Cable


(From EC Motor)
2 - Fuel Shut-Off Cable
[Handle (Emergency Engine
Stop)]
3 - Fuel Shut-Off Lever
4 - Governor Lever

EX255-EX285

T5-4-21

TROUBLESHOOTING B
Governor Lever Position
AB-

Key Switch OFF (Engine Stop Position)


Key Switch ON (Engine Start Position)

B
FULL

STOP

P
STO

L
FUL
SM5404

Fuel Shut-Off Lever


AB-

Fuel Cut Handle Pulled Position


Fuel Cut Handle Returned Position

SM5405

T5-4-22

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
E-3

Engine Runs Slower than Normal at


All Operation Speeds.
Slow Idle Speed is Faster or Slower
than Normal.

Related Fault Code: 01


Checking Instructions
Before the engine learning operation is carried out,
or when the engine learning operation is made in a
wrong procedure, the engine may run slower at all
operation speeds.
If the EC sensor is faulty, the governor lever
position which is located when the key switch is
turned ON, is learned as the idle position. Then, the
engine is controlled based on this engine learning
operation. Accordingly, the engine runs with discrepancy from the standard control speed. Further
more, this trouble may not reemerge as the extent
of discrepancy in the governor lever position differs
each time when the key switch is turned ON.
Refer to the Control System Group titled Engine
Learning Control in the SYSTEM Section in the
Operational Principle book (Technical Manual).
Even if the EC motor control becomes abnormal,
the governor lever position is constantly kept at the
full stroke end since the EC motor is a worm gear
type. Accordingly, the engine does not stall.

NO
Check governor
lever or EC motor
cable for proper
operation.

Restore governor
lever or EC motor
cable to correct
operation.
YES

YES

Faulty EC sensor.
After replacement,
refer to T5-4-60.

Check if fault
code 01 is
displayed.
NO

Check if the
trouble is
reconditioned
after engine
learning operation
is conducted.
Refer to T5-4-60.

YES

NO

End.

Monitor the
engine learning
operation.
Monitor item:
Engine Learning
Control

EX255-EX285

T5-4-23

TROUBLESHOOTING B

OK

Check if governor
lever comes in
contact with the
stopper when
conducting
engine learning
operation.

YES

NO

Faulty engine or
fuel system.

Faulty control
cable. Faulty
engine governor
lever adjustment.
Refer to T5-4-60.

NOT OK

Failure in MC.
Faulty learning
switch, or
harness between
learning switch
and MC.
After replacement,
refer to T5-4-60.

T5-4-24

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
E-4

Even If Engine Control Dial is Turned, Engine Speed is Unchanged.

Related Fault Code: 07


Checking Instructions
Refer to the Control System group titled Engine
Learning Control in the SYSTEM Section in the
Operational Principle book (Technical Manual).

YES

Faulty engine control dial or


broken harness between
engine control dial and MC.
YES

Check if fault code 07 is


displayed.
NO

Connect Lamp Harness


(75301706B) to EC motor.
Check if the lamp comes
ON when engine control dial
is turned.

Faulty EC motor.
After replacement, refer to
T5-4-60.

NO

Failure in MC or broken
harness between MC and EC
motor.
After replacement, refer to
T5-4-60.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-25

TROUBLESHOOTING B
E-5

Even If HP Switch is Depressed, HP Mode


Does NOT Operate.
(Standard Mode Operates Normally.)

Related Fault Codes: 02, 03, and 06


Checking Instructions
The pressure switches check if the HP mode is
requested so that if these pressure switches fail,
the HP mode does not operate.
Refer to the Control System group titled HP Mode
Control in the SYSTEM Section on the Operational
Principle book (Technical Manual).

Faulty HP mode
switch, or broken
harness between
HP mode switch
and MC.

NO

NO

Check if fault
code is displayed.

Monitor HP mode
switch. Check if
indication of HP
is displayed or
deleted on Dr. EX
screen by
operating the HP
mode switch on
the right console
ON or OFF.

Monitor item:
HP Mode Switch

YES

YES

Faulty sensors, or
broken harness
between MC and
sensors.
Fault codes:
Pump 1 delivery pressure sensor: 02
Pump 2 delivery pressure sensor: 03
Pilot pressure sensor (arm roll-in): 06

Check if governor
lever comes into
contact with fullspeed side stopper
when hydraulic oil
pressure is relieved by arm rollin operation.

YES

Faulty engine or
poor quality fuel.

Failure in MC.
NO
After replacement,
refer to T5-4-60.

T5-4-26

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
E-6

Engine Does Not Stop Even If Key Switch is


Turned OFF.
(When the engine does not stop, be sure to
start checking after stopping the engine by
pulling the engine stop handle located under the seat stand).

Related Fault Codes: 01 and 07


Checking Instruction
Trouble symptoms such as Engine runs slower
than normal at all operation speed or Even if
engine control dial is turned, engine speed is unchanged are sure to exist at the same time.
Perform the troubleshooting of all symptoms.

E-7

Auto-Idle Function Does Not Function.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instruction
When trouble corresponding to E-1 to E-6 exist,

perform the troubleshooting of them beforehand.


Refer to the Control System group titled Auto-Idle

Control in the SYSTEM Section in the Operational


Principle book (Technical Manual).

NO

YES

Monitor auto-idle switch.


Check if indication of AI
is displayed or deleted on
Dr.EX screen by
operating the auto-idle
switch on the right panel
ON or OFF.
Monitor item:
Auto-Idle Switch

Monitor pressure switches


(travel and front
attachment).
Check if indication of Tr
and Fr is displayed or
deleted on Dr.EX screen by
operating each of the travel
and front control levers.

Faulty pressure switches


(travel, and front attachment).
Faulty harness between
MC and pressure switches.
Filter in the pilot signal circuit is clogged.

NOTE - Pressure switches


(travel, and front attachment)
are installed on the control
valve.

Monitor item:
Pressure Switch

Failure in MC
YES
After replacement,
refer to T5-4-60.

NO

Faulty auto-idle switch, or


broken harness between
auto-idle switch and MC.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-27

TROUBLESHOOTING B
E-8

Engine Speed Does Not Change Even If


E Mode Switch is Depressed.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
If trouble corresponding to E-1 to E-7 exist, perform
the troubleshooting of them beforehand.
Refer to the Control System group titled E Mode
Control in the SYSTEM Section in the Operational
Principle book (Technical Manual).

Monitor E mode
switch. Check if
indication of E or
P is displayed
alternately on Dr.EX
screen by operating
the E mode switch
on the right console
ON or OFF.

E-9

Faulty E mode
switch, or broken
harness between E
mode switch and
MC.

NO

Failure in MC.
YES
After replacement
refer to T5-4-60.

Engine Stalls Several Seconds After Engine


Starts.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Refer to the Control System group titled Engine
Learning Control in the SYSTEM Section on the
Operational Principle book (Technical Manual).
If engine learning switch is set to the engine learning
side, engine comes to a stop 5 seconds after engine
is started.

YES
Check if engine
learning switch is
turned ON.

NO

Return the switch


to neutral.

End.
Faulty learning
switch, or short
circuit of harness
between learning
switch and MC.
Or, check if the
fuel system is
clogged.

SM0108

T5-4-28

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
E-10

Engine Stalls When Machine is Operated


at High Altitude, or under Adverse Conditions.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instruction
If speed sensing control does not function, engine
may stall under adverse operating conditions.

NO

NO

Check if fault
code is displayed.

Monitor engine
speed. Check if
engine runs at
abnormal speed.

Monitor item:
Pump Proportional
Solenoid Valve Output
Refer to Operational
Performance Test
section.

Monitor item:
Actual Engine Speed

YES

Referring to the
displayed fault
code, check
suspectable
parts.

Monitor output
signal from
solenoid valve
unit (SD). With
a pressure gauge
installed to port
SD, compare the
pressure gauge
reading with the
monitored
pressure by
Dr.EX. Check if
pressure values
indicated on both
the pressure
gauge and the
Dr.EX vary
identically.

YES

Faulty N sensor
or faulty harness
between N
sensor and MC.

NO

YES

Disconnect harness from solenoid valve unit


(SD) and
connect test harness (75301514)
between solenoid
valve unit (SD)
and the disconnected harness.
Check if the solenoid valve control
voltage is
present.

Disassemble and
check regulator.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-29

TROUBLESHOOTING B

YES

NO

Faulty solenoid
valve unit (SD).

Broken harness
between solenoid
valve and MC.

NOTE - The measurement of the control voltage of proportional solenoid valves SG, SI, SD and SC, must be
performed with test harness (75301514) meaning that the main controller (MC) output must be connected
to the load of the solenoid valve. Under this test configuration, the normal control voltage changes from
5 through 10 Volt.
On the other hand, when measuring the control voltage directly on the connector disconnected from the
solenoid valve (harness side) the voltage measured is always 24 Volt and this is irrelevant in
troubleshooting the solenoid valve.

T5-4-30

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
E-11 Engine is Hard to Start at Low Ambient
Temperature.
(Even if preheated, engine is hard to start or
does not start at a low ambient temperature
or in a cold climate district.)

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instruction
Check if electricity is conducted to glow plugs and
glow plugs are normal.

YES

Faulty engine coolant temperature switch.

Disconnect engine coolant


temperature switch. Check if
voltage at glow plug is 20 to
24 V.

YES

Key switch: ON
NO

With engine coolant temperature switch


disconnected, ground glow
relay terminal No.4 to vehicle
frame. Check if voltage at
glow plug is 20 to 24 V.
Key switch : ON
Without removing connector,
ground the terminal to vehicle
frame using a jumper wire,
like a clip, from the reverse
side of the connector.

NO

Faulty QOS controller.

With engine coolant


temperature switch, and glow
relay disconnected, check if
voltage at glow relay harness
end connector terminal No.1
and No.3 is 20 to 24 V.

Measurement of Glow Plug Voltage and Resistance

Remove
Copper
Plates.
Standard: 20 to 24 V

Standard: 10 or Less

SM4049

SM4050

EX255-EX285

T5-4-31

TROUBLESHOOTING B

YES

Faulty glow relay.

10 or less

NO

Refer to engine shop section.


Refer to T5-4-60 after
replacing the engine.

Measure glow plug


resistance.
Key switch: OFF
After removing copper
plates connecting glow
plugs, measure the glow
plug resistance.

Faulty engine.

Replace glow plug.

T5-4-32

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
OVERALL ACTUATOR SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
A-1 All Actuator Speeds are Slow.
Related Fault Code: None
Checking Instructions
In case the speed is normal without power, main
relief valve may be faulty (F-1). If speed is extremely slow, the pump control system may have
malfunction (A-2, or A-3) or the pilot system may be
faulty.
If N sensor fails, only an abnormal value like
0 min-1 (rpm) is displayed.

Normal. Select
general purpose
mode

YES

Check if precision
work mode is
selected.

NO

NO

NO

Check if any
fault codes are
displayed.

YES

Arm: Fully rolled in.


Monitor item:
Arm roll-in pilot
pressure

Monitor actual
engine speed.
Check if abnormal
speed is
monitored.
Monitor item:
Actual Engine Speed

Check if
secondary pilot
pressure is normal.

YES

Faulty N sensor
or broken
harness in N
sensor circuit.

Referring to the
displayed fault
code, check
faulty parts.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-33

TROUBLESHOOTING B

NO

YES

NO

End

YES

Faulty pilot pump


or clogged pilot
filter.

After
disassembling,
cleaning, and
adjusting
pilot relief valve,
check if an
abnormal
condition still
remains.

Trace the causes


of trouble by
checking other
symptoms.

T5-4-34

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
A-2

When Single Travel Operation is Made, Left


Side Track is Slow But Right Side Track is
Normal. Single Swing Operation is Slow.
Single Bucket Operation is Normal.
Arm Speed is Slow When Leveling.
(All above symptoms occurred at the same
time.)

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Due to some reasons, pump 2 delivery rate is
reduced to the minimum (approx. 20 L/min). Accordingly, left side track and swing function speeds
are too slow as they are actuated by pressure oil
from pump 2.
Arm and boom cylinders are also actuated by
pressure oil from pump 1 so that arm and boom
speed is slightly reduced when the single operation
of arm or boom is made. However, when the level
crowding operation is made, oil flow to boom cylinders has priority over arm cylinder. Then, almost no
oil flow is supplied to arm cylinder, reducing arm
speed.
Refer to Control Valve and Pump Device groups
in COMPONENT OPERATION Section in the Operational Principle book (Technical Manual).

YES

NO

Check if pump
control pipe lines
are correctly
connected.

NO

Check if fault
code is displayed.

YES

Reconnect
correctly.

Referring to the
displayed fault
code, check
suspected parts.

NO

Monitor pump
control pressure
by operating
control lever.
Check if pump
control pressure
increases.
Swing or travel left
Monitor item:
Pump 2 Control Pressure

YES

Faulty pump
control valve
(5 spool side).

Check regulator
for pump 2.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-35

TROUBLESHOOTING B
A-3

When Single Travel Operation is Made,


Right Side Track is Slow But Left Side Track
is Normal.
Single Bucket Operation is Slow. Single
Swing Operation is Normal.
Boom Hardly Raises When Leveling.
(All the above symptoms occurred at the
same time.)

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Due to some reasons, pump 1 delivery rate is
reduced to the minimum (approx. 20 L/min). Accordingly, right side track and bucket function
speeds are too slow as they are actuated by
pressure oil from pump 1.
Arm and boom cylinders are also actuated by
pressure oil from pump 2 so that arm and boom
speed is slightly reduced when the single operation
of arm or boom is made. However, when the level
crowding operation is made, oil flow to arm cylinder
has priority over boom cylinders. Then, almost no
oil flow is supplied to boom cylinders, causing boom
to become immovable.
Refer to Control Valve and Pump Device groups
in COMPONENT OPERATION Section in the Operational Principle book (Technical Manual).

YES

NO

Check if pump
control pipe lines
are correctly
connected.

NO

Check if fault
code is displayed.

YES

Reconnect
correctly.

Referring to the
displayed fault
code, check
suspected parts.

NO

Monitor pump
control pressure
by operating
control lever.
Check if pump
control pressure
increases.
Bucket or travel right.
Monitor item:
Pump 1 Control Pressure

YES

Faulty pump
control valve (4
spool side).

Check regulator
for pump 1.

T5-4-36

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
A-4

Actuator Does Not Stop Even After


Control Lever is Returned to Neutral.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instruction
Sticking of pilot valve spool or control valve main
spool may be the cause of the trouble.

YES

Faulty Pilot Valve.


When control lever is in
neutral, pilot pressure is
guided to control valve
spool.

Check if actuator stops when


pilot control shut-off lever is
raised.

Faulty Control Valve.


NO
Pilot pressure is not
guided to control valve
spool. However, control
valve is kept open as
spool is stuck.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-37

TROUBLESHOOTING B

T5-4-38

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
FRONT ATTACHMENT CONTROL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
F-1

All Front Cylinder Functions are Weak.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
If motion speed is normal and power is weak, main
relief valve may be faulty (F-1). If motion speed is
too slow, pump control system may have malfunction (A-2, or A-3) and pilot system also may be
faulty.

NOTE - 1 kgf/cm2=98.07 kPa

350 to 370 kgf/cm2


Monitor pump 1
and 2 delivery
pressures.
Monitor item:
Pump 1 Delivery Pressure
Pump 2 Delivery Pressure
Relieve boom, arm, or
bucket.

F-2

E mode switch: OFF


HP mode switch: OFF
Work mode: General
purpose mode.

Less than 350 kgf/cm2

Main Relief Valve


is normal. Trace
the cause of the
trouble by
checking other
symptoms.
Adjust main relief
valve.

Digging Force is Not Increased Even If


Power Boost Switch is Depressed.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instruction
Refer to the Control System Group titled Power
Boost in the SYSTEM Section in the Operational
Principle book (Technical Manual).
Pressure increases from less than
350 kgf/cm2 to 370 kgf/cm2.
Monitor the
delivery
pressures from
pumps 1 and 2.
Monitor items:
Pump 1 Delivery
Pressure
Pump 2 Delivery
Pressure
With power
boost switch
depressed,
check the pump
delivery pressure.

Pressure does
not increase.

Monitor power
boost switch.
Check if the
indication of Pd
is displayed or
deleted on Dr.EX
by operating
power boost
switch.
Monitor items:
Power Boost Switch

NO

YES

Faulty power
boost switch, or
broken harness
between power
boost switch and
MC.
Measure oil
pressure at the
port of solenoid
valve unit (SG).
With power boost
switch depressed,
check pressure
change.
Refer to Operational
Performance Test
section

Normal
(HP mode
operation might
have been
mistaken for
Power Boost
operation.)

EX255-EX285

T5-4-39

TROUBLESHOOTING B
NOTE - The measurement of the control voltage of proportional solenoid valves SG, SI, SD and SC, must be
performed with test harness (75301514) meaning that the main controller (MC) output must be connected
to the load of the solenoid valve. Under this test configuration, the normal control voltage changes from
5 through 10 Volt.
On the other hand, when measuring the control voltage directly on the connector disconnected from the
solenoid valve (harness side) the voltage measured is always 24 Volt and this is irrelevant in
troubleshooting the solenoid valve.

NOTE - 1 kgf/cm2=98.07 kPa

Pressure does
not change.

Disconnect harness
from solenoid valve
unit (SG) and
connect test
harness (75301514)
between solenoid
valve unit (SG)
and the
disconnected
harness. Check
when the switch is
actuating if the
solenoid valve
control voltage is
present.
Power boost switch: ON

Pressure increases
from less than 5
kgf/cm2 up to 10
kgf/cm2.

Faulty main relief


valve.

YES

NO

Faulty solenoid
valve unit (SG).

Faulty harness
between solenoid
valve and MC.

T5-4-40

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
F-3

Some Cylinders Do Not Move or Speeds


are Slow.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Discriminate whether the cause of the trouble is in
the pilot system or in the main circuit system.
If other functions (travel, swing) are normal, the pilot
pump is considered to be normal.
If bucket single operation speed is slow, refer to
F-6 as well.
If arm roll-in single operation speed is slow, refer to
F-7 as well.
If boom lower single operation speed is slow, refer
to F-8 as well.
YES

YES
Check if the pilot
valve delivery
pressure is
normal by
monitoring or
measuring.
Pilot valve delivery
pressure: Refer to
Operational
Performance Test
section.
Monitor Item:
Arm Roll-In Pilot
Pressure
When measuring the
pilot valve delivery
pressure for boom
raise or lower, bucket
roll-in or roll-out, or
arm roll-out, install a
pressure gauge to the
control valve pilot oil
port.

Monitor pump
control pressure
by slowly
operating the
control lever.
Check if the
control pressure
changes
smoothly.

NO

Monitor item:
Pump 1 Control
Pressure
Pump 2 Control
Pressure

NO

Check if overload
relief pressure is
normal.

YES

Check if the pilot


valve delivery
pressure is
correct at the inlet
port of the
shockless valve.

Control valve
spool is sticking.

NO

Faulty pilot valve

YES

Shockless valve
spool sticking

Only when
operating arm
roll-out or boom
raise.

2 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

6
7

SM0634

Faulty overload
relief valve

NO

Shockless Valve

Faulty cylinder
(Seal kits are
faulty.)

From swing left pilot valve


From swing right pilot valve
From bucket roll-out pilot valve
From bucket roll-in pilot valve
From boom raise pilot valve
From boom lower pilot valve
From arm roll-out pilot valve
From arm roll-in pilot valve

EX255-EX285

T5-4-41

TROUBLESHOOTING B
F-4

Boom Lower Single Operation Speed is


Fast.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
When the speed is too fast, travel/boom lower
selector valve may be sticking.

NO

Trace the cause of the trouble by checking other types


of trouble.

Check if travel/boom lower


selector valve is scored or
stuck.

YES

Faulty travel/boom lower


selector valve.

T5-4-42

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
F-5

Arm Speed is Slow in a Combined Operation.


Arm Speed is Slow in leveling Operation.

Related Fault Codes: 03 or 06


Checking Instructions
Refer to the Control System Group titled Arm
Regenerative Control in the SYSTEM section in
the Operational Principle book (Technical Manual).
When arm speed is slow in only a combined operation with boom lowering, travel/boom lower selector
valve may be faulty.
Refer to the Control Valve group in the COMPONENT OPERATION section in the Operational
Principle book (Technical Manual).

NOTE - When the grading mode is selected, arm


regenerative control does not function so that arm
speed becomes slow.

NO
Check if any fault
codes
are displayed.
Fault codes:
Pump delivery
pressure sensor
(Pump 2): 03
Pilot pressure sensor
(Arm roll-in): 06

Monitor the output


signal from
solenoid valve unit
(SC). Install a
pressure gauge to
port SC and compare the
monitored
pressures by Dr.
EX with the gauge
readings. Check if
both pressures
vary identically.

Monitor Item:
Arm Regenerative
Proportional Solenoid
Perform a combined
operation of boom raise
and arm roll-in.
Measurement: Refer to
Operational Performance
Test section.

NOTE - If other fault


codes are displayed,
check the suspected parts
referring to the displayed
fault code.
YES

NO

Disconnect
harness from
solenoid valve
unit (SC).
Connect test
harness
(75301514)
between solenoid
valve unit (SC)
and the
disconnected
harness. Check
when a combined
operation is
performed, the
solenoid valve
control voltage is
present.

YES

NO

Faulty solenoid
valve unit (SC)

Broken harness
between solenoid
valve and MC.

Perform the combined


operation of boom
raise and arm roll-in.

YES

Faulty sensor or
broken harness
between MC and
sensors.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-43

TROUBLESHOOTING B
NOTE - The measurement of the control voltage of proportional solenoid valves SG, SI, SD and SC, must be
performed with test harness (75301514) meaning that the main controller (MC) output must be connected
to the load of the solenoid valve. Under this test configuration, the normal control voltage changes from
5 through 10 Volt.
On the other hand, when measuring the control voltage directly on the connector disconnected from the
solenoid valve (harness side) the voltage measured is always 24 Volt and this is irrelevant in
troubleshooting the solenoid valve.

Faulty arm
regenerative
valve

YES

Check if arm
regenerative
valve on 5-spool
control valve is
seized or stuck.

Faulty check
valve or
restriction
(in 4-spool control
valve).

YES

NO

Check if check
valve or
restriction in the
parallel passage
in the 4-spool
control valve is
seized, bound, or
clogged.

YES

NO

Check if the
restriction in
arm 1 parallel
passage in 5spool control
valve is clogged.

NO

Faulty restriction
(in 5-spool control
valve)

Trace the cause


of the trouble by
checking other
types of trouble.

T5-4-44

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
F-6 Bucket Digging Single Operation is
Slightly Slow.
Bucket Digging Single Operation is
Jerky.
Related Fault Code: None
Checking Instructions
Refer to A-3.
Refer to Control Valve group in the COMPONENT
OPERATION section in the Operational Principle
book (Technical Manual).

NO
Check if bucket flow control
valve in control valve is
seized or bound.
YES

F-7

Trace the cause of the


trouble by checking other
types of trouble.

Cleaning or replacement of
bucket flow control valve.

Arm Starting Speed is Slow during


Combined Operations. Arm Operation
is Jerky.
During Arm Roll-in Single Operation,
Arm Starting Speed is Slightly Slow
which Often Occurs at Low Temperature.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Refer to Control Valve group in the COMPONENT

OPERATION section in the Operational Principle


book (Technical Manual).

NO

Trace the cause of the


trouble by checking other
types of trouble.

Check if anti-drift valve is


seized or bound.
YES

Cleaning or replacement of
anti-drift valve.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-45

TROUBLESHOOTING B
F-8

Boom Starting Speed is Slow during Combined Operations. Boom Operation is Jerky.
Boom Starting Speed is Slightly Slow during Boom Lower Single Operation.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Refer to Control Valve group in the COMPONENT

OPERATION section in the Operational Principle


book (Technical Manual).

NO
NO

Check if boom anti-drift


valve is seized or stuck.
YES

Check if boom anti-drift


valve is seized or stuck.

YES

Trace the cause of the


trouble by checking other
symptoms.

Cleaning or replacement of
boom regenerative valve.

Cleaning or replacement of
boom anti-drift valve.

T5-4-46

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
F-9

When Operating the Control Lever to Raise


Boom or to Roll-out Arm, Boom or Arm
Starts to Move after Slightly Moving in the
Reverse Direction.

Related Fault Code: None

YES
YES

Faulty anti-drift valve

Check if anti-drift valve for


arm or boom is sized or
bound.
Cylinder internal leakage
NO

Check if load check valve in


control valve operates
correctly.
Disassemble and visually
check.

Faulty load check valve


NO

EX255-EX285

T5-4-47

TROUBLESHOOTING B
NOTE - 1. During the initial stage of operation, oil
pressure and flow rate from the pump is
low. Therefore, if the load check valve is
malfunctioning, the oil in the bottom side of
the boom cylinder flows back into the
circuit through the load check valve, causing the boom cylinder to temporarily retract.
2. If the clearance between the piston and the
cylinder barrel is poor, oil pressure in the
bottom side (A) leaks to rod side (B). As oil
pressure and flow rate from the pump is
low during the initial stage of operation,
and if the amount of oil leaking through the
gap between the piston and the barrel is
large, the cylinder is temporarily retracted.
In addition, cylinder force is reduced. In
this case, the cylinder drift is also increased.

(B)

When the load check valve


is malfunctioning:

(A)

SM0635

T5-4-48

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
F-10

Front Attachment Cylinder Drift is Large.

Related Fault Code: None

YES

Normal

Check if each front


attachment
cylinder drift is
within the specified
value.

NO
NO

NO

Check if the
cylinder drift is
reduced when pilot
shut-off
valve is closed.

Check if manual
boom lowering
valve in boom
section in 4-spool
control valve is
correctly
adjusted.
YES

Correctly adjust
manual boom
lowering valve
and lock it up.
Check if the
symptom is
deleted when the
overload valve is
temporarily
switched with one
in an other
cylinder circuit.

Faulty pilot valve


YES

Boom Cylinder Internal Leakage Check

1. With the bucket cylinder fully retracted and the arm


cylinder slightly extended from the fully retracted
position, lower the bucket tooth tips onto the
ground.
2. Disconnect hoses to the boom cylinder rod side.
Then, drain oil from hoses and cylinders. (Plug the
disconnected hose ports.)
3. Retract the arm cylinder to lift the bucket above the
ground.
At this time, if oil flows out of the pipes from which
the hoses were disconnected and the boom cylinder
is retracted, internal leakage in the boom cylinder
exists.
If no oil flows out of the pipes from which the hoses
were disconnected but the boom cylinder is retracted, internal leakage in the control valve exists.

SM0636

EX255-EX285

T5-4-49

TROUBLESHOOTING B

Manual Boom Lowering Valve

1
2

NO
NO

Check if internal
leakage in cylinder exists.

SM0637

YES

YES

Control valve
spool is scored,
spring is
damaged, or spool
end is loose.

Faulty cylinder
(replace seal kit.)

Adjustment Procedure:
Tighten (1). Then, tighten (2).

Faulty overload
relief valve.

Tightening Torque:
(1)- 7 Nm (0.7 kgfm)
(2)- 13 Nm (1.3 kgfm)

T5-4-50

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
SWING SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
S-1

Swing Speed is Slow or Swing Function


Does not Operate.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Check whether the pilot system is malfunctioning or

the main hydraulic system is malfunctioning.


If other functions (front attachment or travel) ope-

rate normally, the pilot pump is considered to be


normal. If the pilot system is malfunctioning, the
cause of the trouble may exist in the pilot system
after the pilot valve.
When the left travel speed is also slow, refer to
A-2.

YES

YES

YES

Check if the pilot


secondary
pressure is
normal.
Specification: Refer
to Operational
Performance Test
section.

Monitor the pump


control pressure.
While slowly
operating the
control lever,
check if the pump
control pressure
changes
smoothly.
Monitor item:
Pump 2 Control Pressure

NO

Measurement:
Refer to
Operational
Performance Test
section.

Check if swing
relief pressure is
normal.
Monitor item: Pump 2
Delivery Pressure
Specification: Refer to
Operational
Performance Test
section.

Check if swing
motor oil drain
amount is
normal.

NO

Faulty swing
relief valve

Seized control
valve spool

Faulty pilot valve


NO

EX255-EX285

T5-4-51

TROUBLESHOOTING B

NO
YES

Check if swing
motor parking
brake release
valve is stuck or
seized.
YES

NO

Faulty swing
reduction device

Faulty swing
motor parking
brake release
valve

Faulty swing
motor

T5-4-52

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
S-2

Swing Speed is Slow during Swing Combined Operation with Boom Lower.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Refer to Control Valve group in the COMPONENT
OPERATION section in the Operational Principle
book (Technical Manual).

YES

Clean or replace
travel/boom lower selector
valve.

Check if travel/boom lower


selector valve is stuck.
NO

Trace the cause of the trouble


by checking other symptoms.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-53

TROUBLESHOOTING B
TRAVEL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
T-1

Both Right and Left Travel Side Tracks Do


Not Move or Move Slowly.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Pilot valves, travel motors, control valve spools in
both right and left travel systems are unlikely to be
faulty at the same time.
If both travel systems do not operate, the pilot
system, which is applied to both side travel motors,
may be faulty. If the pilot pump delivery pressure is
lower than specification, the front attachment does
not operate as well. Refer to A-1.

T-2

When a Single Travel Operation is Shifted to


a Combined Operation with Front Functions, a Shock Load is Felt.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
Travel flow control valve might be seized.
Refer to Control Valve group in the COMPONENT

OPERATION section in the Operational Principle


book (Technical Manual).

T5-4-54

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
T-3

One Side Track does not Move or Move


Slowly, or the Machine cannot Travel
Straight (Mistracks).

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
If one side system only does not operate, pilot
valve, control valve, travel motor, or center joint
might be faulty.
If a symptom such as bucket or swing function
speed is slow, or arm roll-in or boom raise speed is
slow during a leveling operation is recognized at the
same time, refer to A-2 and A-3.

YES

Check if travel
pilot secondary
pressure is
normal.

YES

NO

Relieve travel
system.
Monitor Item:
Pump 1 Delivery
Pressure
Pump 2 Delivery
Pressure
Specification: Refer
to Operational
Performance Test
section.

Check if the
symptom is
reversed when
right and left
travel line hoses
connected to top
of center joint are
switched with
each other.

Measurement: Refer
Operational
Performance Test
section

Check if travel
relief pressure in
slow speed side
system is normal.
NO

Check if travel
motor oil drain
amount is normal.
Switch rear and
front or right and
left travel relief
valves with each
other. Check if
symptom is
reversed.

Seized control
valve spool

YES

Faulty pilot valve


NO

Relation between Faulty Seal Position and

Mistrack Direction

Seal No.

Traveling

Pivot Turn

External oil leakage

Seal Position

1
3

4
Left Travel
(Reverse)

Left Travel
(Forward)

4
5
6
7

External oil leakage

Right Travel
(Reverse)
Right Travel
(Forward)

SM0638

EX255-EX285

T5-4-55

TROUBLESHOOTING B

NO

Faulty travel
motor
YES
YES

YES

Faulty travel
reduction device

Disassemble and
clean travel motor
servo piston.
Check if same
symptom arises.

Disassemble and
clean travel motor
counterbalance
valve. Then,
recheck if same
symptom arises.

Faulty travel
motor servo
piston
NO
Faulty
counterbalance

NO
NO

Faulty center joint

Faulty travel relief


valve

YES
Piping Location

Front

1
2
3
4
5
6

Left Travel (Forward)


Right Travel (Forward)
Pilot
Right Travel (Reverse)
Left Travel (Reverse)
Drain

SM0639

T5-4-56

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
T-4

During a Combined Operation of Travel and


Front Function, the Machine Mis-tracks.

YES

Faulty load check valve

Related Fault Code: None


NO

Check if load check valve is


normal.

NO

Trace the cause of the trouble


by checking other symptoms.

Check if flow combiner valve


is normal.
Faulty flow combiner valve
YES

T-5

Steering Power and Gradeability are


Insufficient in the Fast Travel Mode. (Normal
in the Slow Travel Mode)

Related Fault Codes: None


Monitor travel motor swash
angle. After installing a pressure gauge to solenoid valve
unit (SI) port, repeat traveling
and travel pressure relief operation. Check if the pressure
value displayed on Dr.EX
equals is to the pressure
gauge reading and vary identically.

T-6

Trace the cause of the trouble


by checking other symptoms.

YES

Monitor item:
Travel Motor Displacement
Angle Change Pressure
Travel mode: Fast
Measurement: Refer to
Operational Performance
Test section.

Seized solenoid valve unit (SI)


NO

Travel Mode Does Not Change to the Fast


Speed Range.

Related Fault Codes: 02, 03, 04, and 05


Checking Instructions
Refer to the Control group titled Travel Motor
Swash Angle Control in the SYSTEM section in the
Operational Principle book (Technical Manual).
NO

Check if any fault


codes are
displayed.

Monitor travel
mode switch.
Check if Lo or
Hi, displayed on
Dr.EX, changes
alternately each
time the travel
switch is
operated.
Monitor item:
Selected Travel Mode
Switch

YES

Faulty sensor or
broken harness
between sensors
and MC.

NO

YES

Monitor travel
pressure switch.
Check if the
display Tr is
indicated or
deleted on Dr.Ex
screen each time
travel lever is
operated or
released.

Faulty travel
mode switch or
broken harness
between travel
mode switch and
MC.

Monitor item:
Pressure Switch
Fault code:
Pump delivery pressure sensor (Pump 1): 02
Pump delivery pressure sensor (Pump 2): 03
Pump control pressure sensor (4-Spool Side): 04
Pump control pressure sensor (5-Spool Side): 05

NOTE - If any other fault codes are displayed,


check suspected parts referring to the displayed fault codes.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-57

TROUBLESHOOTING B
NOTE - The measurement of the control voltage of proportional solenoid valves SG, SI, SD and SC, must be
performed with test harness (75301514) meaning that the main controller (MC) output must be connected
to the load of the solenoid valve. Under this test configuration, the normal control voltage changes from
5 through 10 Volt.
On the other hand, when measuring the control voltage directly on the connector disconnected from the
solenoid valve (harness side) the voltage measured is always 24 Volt and this is irrelevant in
troubleshooting the solenoid valve.

Faulty travel
pressure switch,
broken harness
between travel
pressure switch
and MC, or
clogged filter in
travel pilot signal
circuit.

NO

YES

Monitor travel motor


swash angle. After
installing a pressure
gauge to solenoid
valve unit (SI) port,
repeat traveling and
stopping. Check if the
pressure value
displayed on Dr. EX
equals to the pressure
gauge reading and that
both vary identically.

Monitor item: Travel motor swash


angle control pressure
Travel mode: Fast
Measurement: Refer to Operational
Performance Test section.

NO

Disconnect
harness from
solenoid valve
unit (SI). Connect
test harness
(75301514)
between solenoid
valve unit (SI)
and the
disconnected
harness. Check
when travel
mode selector is
actuated, the
solenoid valve
control voltage is
present.
Travel mode: Fast

YES

YES

NO

Faulty solenoid
valve unit (SI).

Broken harness
between solenoid
valve and MC.
Faulty travel
motor or travel
reduction gear.

T5-4-58

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
TROUBLESHOOTING FOR OTHER FUNCTIONS
O-1

Wiper Does Not Operate, or Retract.

Related Fault Code: None


Checking Instructions
The wiper is controlled by a wiper box in which the
relay circuit are operated by the monitor panel.
When the wiper does not work, check first that the
motor and the relevant linkage are operative, using
an auxiliary power source and the test herness.
If the wiper motor works properly when is powered
throught the test harness, check the upper latch of
front window and wiper cut-off switch for proper
operation.

The windshield wiper motor and washer pump con-

trol relays are moulded inside the wiper controller


and cannot be replaced. The wiper controller must
be considered as an assembly.

YES

YES

As illustrated to the
right, connect test
harness
(75301706C)
between power
outlet and wiper
motor. Check if
wiper operates.

Remove the test


harness and
reconnect the
disconnected
harness to the
original position.
Key switch: ON

NO

Faulty wiper box.

YES

End

NO

Faulty cab
harness

Replace the
monitor assembly.
Check if wiper
operates.

Key switch: ON
NO, or lamp
does not light
normally.

NOTE - When the wiper motor is


normal, lamp S comes ON while
the wiper is moving within the
operating range. Then, only when
the wiper reaches the intermittent
stop position, both lamps B and S
light for a moment at the same
time.

YES

Faulty wiper
motor or link

Check correct
operation of wiper
cut-off switch.

NO

Faulty wiper cutoff switch.

EX255-EX285

T5-4-59

TROUBLESHOOTING B
Electrical Circuit When Test Harness is Connected.
Power outlet

Lamp S

Wiper Motor
Lamp B

Ground

SM0640

Wipers Operating Range

Intermittent Stop Position


Retracted Position

Wiper Range

SM0641

Test Harness Connection

Lamp B
Lamp S
Wiper Motor
Power outlet

Test Harness
SM5618

T5-4-60

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
ENGINE SPEED ADJUSTMENT AND
ENGINE LEARNING
When the following repair or inspection is made, or
when engine speeds deviate from the specifications,
perform the engine speed adjustment and engine
learning.
When the engine, engine control cable, or EC motor
is removed.
When MC is replaced.
Engine Speed Adjustment:
1. Turn the key switch to START and run the engine.
(Note: Turn the air-conditioner switch OFF.)
2. Turn the engine control dial to the minimum speed
position. (EC sensor voltage is set to
2.5 V.)
3. Loosen the bolt tightening the control lever to the EC
motor output axis.
4. While checking the engine actual speed with Dr.EX
or a tachometer, adjust the control lever to conform
the slow idle speed specification.
Specification: Refer to Operational Performance
Test section.
5. Tighten the bolt to secure the control lever to the EC
motor output axis.

Bolt
Tightening
Control Lever
SM0643

: 13 Nm (1.3 kgfm, 9.4 lbfft)


NOTE - Take care not to allow oil or grease to stick to
the motor output axis.
6. Perform engine learning.
Engine Learning :
Rear cover

1. Turn the key switch OFF.


NOTE - If the engine does not stop with the key switch
OFF, pull the fuel shut-off handle under the operator's
seat to stop the engine
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Remove Dr.EX. Wait for 5 seconds.


Turn the engine learning switch ON.
Turn the key switch ON. Wait for 5 seconds.
Turn the key switch OFF. Wait for 5 seconds.
Turn the engine learning switch OFF.
Check the engine speed.

Fuse box

Engine
Learning
switch

Engine
Learning
side

Neutral position (OFF)


SM0108

EX255-EX285

T5-4-61

TROUBLESHOOTING B
EXCHANGE INSPECTION METHOD
Exchange inspection method is used to check if a part
and/or a component is normal by replacing or switching the part/component with one being identical in
performance characteristics.
Pump 2
(5-Spool
Side)

Some of sensors and solenoid valves used on this


machine are identical in performance characteristics.
Accordingly, the exchange inspection method is effective to find out if a part/component or harness is
normal.

PP2

Pump 1
(4-spool
Side)

PP1

Example: Abnormal Pump 1 Delivery Pressure Sensor Failure (Fault Code: 02)
Check :
1. Switch two delivery sensor connectors from the
position shown in Fig.1 to Fig.2.
2. Retry troubleshooting.

Fig. 1
SM0644

Result :
If pump 2 delivery pressure is shown as abnormal
(Fault Code: 03), the pump 1 delivery pressure
sensor is faulty.

Pump 2
(5-Spool
Side)

If pump 1 delivery pressure is shown as abnormal


(Fault Code: 02), the harness which was connected
to the pump 1 delivery pressure sensor is faulty.

PP1

Pump 1
(4-spool
Side)

PP2

Fig. 2
SM0645

T5-4-62

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
Exchange Inspection Method Application
Fault Code

Trouble

Application

01

EC Sensor Failure

Not Applicable

02
03

Pump 1 Delivery Pressure Sensor Failure


Pump 2 Delivery Pressure Sensor Failure

Applicable
Applicable

04
05

Pump 1 Control Pressure Sensor Failure


Pump 2 Control Pressure Sensor Failure

Applicable
Applicable

06

Arm Roll-In Pilot Pressure Sensor Failure

Applicable (Pump Control Pressure Sensor)

07

Engine Control Dial Failure

Not Applicable

EX255-EX285

T5-4-63

TROUBLESHOOTING B
BOOM LOWERING METHOD WHEN ENGINE STALLS
Excavator not equipped with hose rupture protection valve
In case the engine has stalled and is difficult to restart
while the boom is raised above the ground, lower the
boom in the following method.

WARNING
Ensure that nobody stands under or near the front
equipment prior to beginning the boom lowering
procedure.

1. Loosen lock nut (1) and loosen screw (2) half turn.
The boom will start lowering. The lowering speed
can be slightly adjusted by loosening a bit more
screw (2).

NOTE: never loosen screw (2) more than 2 turns, since


it could come out.

2. After lowering the bucket to the ground, tighten


screw (2) then lock nut (1) to the torques here
below:
Lock nut (1)
- Wrench:
13 mm
- Tightening torque:
1.3 daNm
Screw (2)
- Allen wrench:
4 mm
- Tightening torque:
0.7 daNm

NOTE: in the event the screw and the lock nut are not
adequately tightened, excessive leakages could occur.
Make sure that screw and lock nut are tightened to the
specified torque.

S0014

T5-4-64

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING B
Excavator equipped with hose rupture protection valve
In case the engine has stalled and it is difficult to
restart while the boom is raised above the ground,
lower the boom with the following method.

WARNING
Ensure that nobody stands under or near the front
equipment prior to beginning the boom lowering
procedure.

1. Remove protection cap (1) from the relief valve of


the hose rupture protection valve located on the
boom right cylinder.

3
2

2. Make a reference mark on the relief valve and the


lock nut, in correspondence with the hole on the
setting screw.
3. Loosen lock nut (2).
4. Loosen, very slowly, setting screw (3) to lower the
front equipment to the ground.
5. Return the setting screw and the relevant lock nut
into their original position, making reference to the
mark made as per point 2.

NOTE: it is sufficient to perform the procedure explained above on one hose rupture protection valve
only.

OM0416

EX255-EX285

T5-5-1

TROUBLESHOOTING C
TROUBLESHOOTING C
(TROUBLESHOOTING FOR MONITOR)
PROCEDURE
Use troubleshooting C when any monitors, such as
gauges or indicators malfunction.
How to Read Troubleshooting Flow Charts

YES(OK)

(2)
After checking or measuring item (1), select either Yes (OK) or No (NOT

(1)

OK) and proceed to item (2) or (3), as appropriate.


(3)
NO(NG)

Special instructions or reference item are indicated in the spaces under the box. Incorrect
Key switch: ON

measuring or checking methods will render troubleshooting impossible, and may damage
components as well.

Causes are stated in a thick-line box. Scanning through thick-line boxes, possible causes

can be seen without going through the flow chart.

NOTE - For all connector drawings illustrated in this


group, harness end connector terminals seen from the
open end side are shown.

Wire Harness Side

Open End
Side
Harness End Connector
SM0646

T5-5-2

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF COOLANT
TEMPERATURE GAUGE
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

YES
Gauge pointer does not
move at all. (It does not rise
from zero.)

Remove coolant
temperature sensor terminal,
ground harness side terminal
to vehicle. Does pointer
swing to the (H) side?
NO

Key switch : ON

With sensor terminal disconnected, remove 20P connector from monitor, and check
continuity between terminal
No.47 and sensor terminal.

YES
Gauge pointer swings over
scale.

When removing coolant temperature sensor, does


pointer swing back to
zero?
Key switch : ON

NOT OK
(Continuity)

NO

With sensor terminal disconnected, remove 20P connector of monitor, and check
continuity between harness
side terminal and ground.
OK
(No continuity)

Gauge pointer swings


unstably.

Remove coolant
temperature sensor terminal,
and ground harness side terminal to vehicle. Does the
pointer swing to [H] side, and
stably?
Key switch : ON

YES

NO

EX255-EX285

T5-5-3

TROUBLESHOOTING C
Approximate Temperature on Coolant Temperature
Gauge
105 C (221 F)
95 C (203 F)

Faulty coolant temperature


sensor.
OK
(Continuity)

NOT OK
(No continuity)

70 C (158 F)

Failure in monitor.

Faulty harness (breakage)


between monitor and sensor.
SM0647

Coolant Temperature Sensor


Faulty coolant temperature
sensor.
Faulty harness (short circuit)
between monitor and sensor.

Failure in monitor.

Coolant
Temperature

Resistance

(50 C)
(122 F)

(153.9 )

80 C
(176 F)

51.910

100 C
(212 F)

27.44

(120 C)
(248 F)

(16.1 )

NOTE - The value indicated in parentheses is only


a reference value.
Faulty coolant temperature
sensor.

Failure in monitor.

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)

Monitor (20P)

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

T5-5-4

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION FUEL GAUGE
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

YES
Gauge pointer does not
swing. (It does not rise from
zero.)

Remove connector of fuel


sensor, short-circuit terminals C and A of harness side
connector by using a jumper
wire. Does pointer swing to
(FULL) side?
NO

Key switch : ON

With sensor connector disconnected, remove 20P connector of monitor, and check
continuity between terminal
No.46 of monitor and terminal
C of fuel sensor.

YES
Gauge pointer swings over
scale.

When fuel sensor


connector is removed,
does pointer swing back to
zero?
Key switch : ON

Gauge pointer swings


unstably.

NO

Remove connector of fuel


sensor, and short-circuit terminals C and A of harness
side connector by using
jumper wire. Does pointer
swing to [FULL] side, and
stably?
Key switch : ON

With sensor connector disconnected, remove the 20P


connector of monitor, and
check continuity between terminal C of harness side connector and ground.

YES

NO

NOT OK
(Continuity)

OK
(No continuity)

EX255-EX285

T5-5-5

TROUBLESHOOTING C
Fuel Sensor

1 mm=0.03937 in
Float

FULL
257 mm
3/4

138.6 mm

Faulty fuel sensor.


OK
(Continuity)

22
R370

33

70.5 mm
1/2

Failure in monitor.
228 mm

27
28
Resistance

1/4
292 mm

NOT OK
(No continuity)

Faulty harness (breakage)


between monitor and fuel
sensor.

Reserve
338 mm
EMPTY
SM0648

Faulty fuel sensor.


Faulty harness (short- circuit) between monitor and
fuel sensor.

Float

Resistance ()

FULL

10+0
-4

3/4

26

1/2

385

1/4

53

EMPTY

90+10
0

Failure in monitor.

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)

Faulty fuel sensor.

Monitor (20P)
Fuel Sensor

Failure in monitor.

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

C B A
C
B
A

Level signal
Reserve signal
Ground

T5-5-6

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF FUEL LEVEL INDICATOR (RESERVE)
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.
YES

YES
Although fuel
gauge pointer
shows E, the indicator does not
come ON.

Check if indicator
comes ON when
key witch is
turned ON

With fuel sensor


connector removed, short circuit terminals B
and A of harness
side connector
by using a jumper
wire. Does indicator light?
Key switch : ON

Key switch : ON

NO

Reconnect fuel
level sensor connector
Remove 12P
connector of
monitor, and
check continuity
between terminal
No.2 of connector and vehicle
ground.

NO

YES

Even if fuel is in
tank, the indicator
comes ON.

Check if indicator
goes OFF when
fuel level sensor
connector is removed.
Key switch : ON
NO

Disconnect fuel
level sensor connector and 12P
connector of
monitor, and
check continuity
between terminal
No.2 of connector and vehicle
ground.

NOT OK (Continuity)

OK (No Continuity)

EX255-EX285

T5-5-7

TROUBLESHOOTING C

Faulty fuel level


sensor.

YES

NO

Failure in
monitor.

Faulty harness
(breakage) between monitor
and low fuel level
switch.

Burned out indicator light.

Faulty fuel level


sensor.

Faulty harness
(short circuit)
between monitor
and fuel level
sensor.

Failure in
monitor.

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)

Monitor (12P)

1 2
7 8

3 4 5 6
9 10 11 12

T5-5-8

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF INDICATOR LIGHT
CHECK SYSTEM
YES

Indicator does not come ON


when indicator light check
switch is turned ON.

Check if all indicators do not


come ON.

NO

Check power line.


Fuse
Disconnect 20P monitor
connector. Then, check
continuity between harness
side terminal No.30 and
fuse terminal No.6.

Perform troubleshooting for the


individual indicator which does
not come ON.

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)
Monitor (20P)

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

MALFUNCTION OF LEVEL CHECK SWITCH


Process to be taken:
This troubleshooting is applied when only the level
check switch malfunctions.
If power is not supplied at all when key switch is
turned ON, or indicator does not come ON when
indicator light check is conducted, perform troubleshooting for these failures first.
Required Condition:
Park the machine on level surface.

YES
YES
Check if indicator
does not come
ON when level
check switch is
depressed.

Check if all indicators do not


come ON.

Check if oil and


coolant levels are
correct.
NO

NO

Faulty level
switch or harness
(breakage).

Refill engine oil,


hydraulic oil, or
coolant.

Perform troubleshooting for individual indicator


which does not
come ON.

EX255-EX285

T5-5-9

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF PREHEAT INDICATOR
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.
Reference:
The preheat system operates when the coolant
temperature is 10 C (50 F) or lower.
During preheat operation, the preheat indicator
stays ON for 8 seconds.

YES
Preheat indicator
comes ON even if
preheat system is
not in operation.

Faulty QOS controller

Check if preheat
indicator goes OFF
when QOS controller
is disconnected.

With QOS controller


disconnected, remove
20P connector from
monitor. Check for
continuity between
monitor harness end
connector terminal
No.43 and vehicle
frame.

Key switch : ON
NO

YES

NO

YES
Preheat indicator
does not come ON
during preheat operation.

With QOS controller


disconnected, remove
20P connector from
monitor. Check for
continuity between
monitor harness end
connector terminal
No.43 and vehicle
frame.

NO

Without disconnecting
the connector, insert a
jumper wire such as a
clip into the back of the
connector and ground
to the vehicle frame.

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)
Monitor (20P)

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Q.O.S. Controller

3 2
6 5

1
4

Faulty monitor.

Faulty QOS controller

With QOS controller


disconnected, ground
harness end connector terminal No.6
to vehicle frame.
Check if preheat indicator comes ON.
Key switch : ON

Short-circuited harness between QOS controller and


monitor.

YES

NO

Broken harness between QOS controller and monitor.

Faulty monitor.

T5-5-10

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF ENGINE OIL LEVEL INDICATOR
Providing that:
Indicator light is not burned out.
Other indicators work correctly.
The machine is parked on a level surface.
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

YES
Indicator does not
come ON even if the
level check switch is
depressed.

With engine oil level


switch disconnected,
check continuity between engine oil level
switch connector and
vehicle frame.

Reconnect engine oil


level switch. Disconnect 12 P connector
from monitor. Check
for continuity between harness end
terminal No. 7 and vehicle frame.

YES

NO

NO

YES
Lower than 3.5 mm
below LOW level
Indicator comes ON
even if oil level is
lower than the specified level when level
check switch is depressed.

Check oil level with oil


level gauge.

Higher than 3.5 mm


below LOW level

Disconnect engine
oil level switch.
Check if indicator
comes ON when
level check switch is
depressed.
NO

With engine oil level


switch disconnected,
disconnect 12P connector from monitor.
Check for continuity
between harness
end terminal No.7
and vehicle frame.

EX255-EX285

T5-5-11

TROUBLESHOOTING C
Engine Oil Level Switch
1 mm=0.03937 in

Oil Level Gauge

Engine Oil
Level Switch
ON
Indicator ON

Indicator
OFF

Faulty in monitor.
OFF

A : 3,5 mm

SM6130

Broken harness between engine oil level


switch and monitor.

Faulty engine oil level


switch.

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)

Monitor (12P)

YES

Short-circuited harness
between engine oil level
switch and monitor.

Faulty monitor.
NO

Faulty engine oil level


switch.
Normal.

1 2
7 8

3 4 5 6
9 10 11 12

T5-5-12

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF COOLANT LEVEL INDICATOR
Providing that:
Indicator light is not burned out.
Other indicators work correctly.
The machine is parked on a level surface.
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

YES

Indicator does not


come ON even if
level check switch
is depressed.

With coolant level


switch disconnected, check
continuity between terminals
on level switch 2P
connector.

Reconnect coolant level switch.


Disconnect 12 P
connector of
monitor. Check
continuity between harness
side terminal No.8
and vehicle
ground.

YES

NO

NO

YES

YES
Indicator comes
ON even if coolant level is lower
than specified
level when level
check switch is
depressed.

Check coolant
level at coolant
reservoir. Check
if coolant level is
lower than LOW
mark.

Disconnect coolant level switch.


Check if indicator
comes ON
when level check
switch is depressed.
NO

NO

Leave coolant
level switch disconnected.
Disconnect 12 P
connector of
monitor. Check
continuity between harness
side terminal No.8
and vehicle
ground.

EX255-EX285

T5-5-13

TROUBLESHOOTING C

Coolant Level Switch


Coolant Reservoir
ON
FULL
LOW

Failure
in monitor.

Radiator

OFF

SM0649

Faulty harness.
(breakage)

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)
Faulty coolant
level switch.

Monitor (12P)

1 2
7 8

YES

NO

Faulty harness.
(short circuit)

Failure in
monitor.

Faulty coolant
level switch.

Normal

3 4 5 6
9 10 11 12

Coolant Level Switch

T5-5-14

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC OIL LEVEL
INDICATOR
Providing that:
Indicator light is not burned out.
Other indicators work correctly.
The machine is parked on a level surface.
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

YES

Indicator does not


come ON even if
level check switch
is depressed.

With hydraulic oil


level switch disconnected,
check continuity
between level
switch 2P connector.

Disconnect 12P
connector of
monitor. Check
continuity between harness
side terminal No.9
and vehicle
ground.

YES

NO

NO

YES

YES
Indicator comes
ON even if oil
level is lower than
the specified level
when level check
switch is depressed.

Check oil level


with level gauge.
Check if oil can
be seen at level
gauge.

Disconnect oil
level switch.
Check if indicator
comes ON when
level check switch
is depressed.
NO

NO

Leave hydraulic
oil level switch
disconnected.
Disconnect 12P
connector of
monitor. Check
continuity between harness
side terminal No.9
and vehicle
ground.

EX255-EX285

T5-5-15

TROUBLESHOOTING C

Hydraulic Oil Level Switch


1 mm=0.03937 in
ON
6.2 mm

Failure
in monitor.

OFF

Faulty harness.
(breakage)

Faulty hydraulic
oil level switch.

SM0650

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)

Monitor (12P)

YES

NO

Faulty harness.
(short circuit)

Failure in
monitor.

Faulty hydraulic
oil level switch.

Normal

1 2
7 8

3 4 5 6
9 10 11 12

Hydraulic Oil Level Switch

T5-5-16

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF ALTERNATOR INDICATOR
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

NOTE - (*) Regulator terminals L is water-resistance


type connectors so that it is not practical to measure
voltage at these terminals. Measure voltage at starter
relay terminal R.
Before measuring voltage, check continuity between
the starter relay terminal R and regulator terminal L.
13 V or higher

13 V or
higher

Alternator indicator does not go off


after engine is
started.

Measure voltage at
monitor 20 P connector terminal
No.42.
Engine: Running

Measure voltage
at regulator terminal L.

Less than 13 V

Engine: Running

Less than
13 V

Less than 10 V.

YES

Although alternator output is low,


alternator indicator does not
come on.

Check voltage at
regulator terminal L
(*).
Key switch: ON
Engine: Stopped

Check if indicator
comes on when
key switch is
turned to ON position.

10 V or more

Key switch: ON
NO

EX255-EX285

T5-5-17

TROUBLESHOOTING C

Faulty monitor.

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)

Starter Relay

Harness breakage
between regulator
terminal L and
monitor terminal
No.42.

E
S

Monitor (20P)

Faulty regulator or
faulty alternator.
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Faulty monitor.

Faulty regulator.

Blown indicator bulb.

T5-5-18

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF ENGINE OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

YES

YES

Although engine
oil pressure is
lower than specification, indicator
does not come
ON
Key switch: ON
Engine: Stopped

Check if indicator
comes ON when
key switch is
turned to ON position.

Key switch: ON

Key switch: ON

NO

YES

Indicator stays
ON after engine
is started.
Check if oil filter is
clogged or not.

Check if indicator
goes OFF when
engine oil pressure switch is disconnected.
Key switch: ON
Engine: Stopped

With engine oil pressure switch disconnected, check if indicator comes ON


when terminal
of wire number 33 is
grounded to vehicle.

NO

NO

EX255-EX285

T5-5-19

TROUBLESHOOTING C

Engine Oil Pressure Switch


Pressure

Faulty engine oil


pressure switch.

Reconnect engine oil


pressure switch.
Check if indicator
comes ON when
monitor terminal
No.10 is grounded to
vehicle.
Key switch: ON
Without disconnecting,
ground connector to
vehicle using a clip from
the back of connector.

YES

Broken harness
between monitor
and engine oil
pressure switch.

Approx.
98 kPa (1.0 kgf/cm2,
14.2 psi) or Less

ON

More than Approx.


98 kPa (1.0 kgf/cm2,
14.2 psi)

OFF

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)

Monitor (12P)

NO

Faulty
monitor.

Burned out indicator light.

Faulty engine oil


pressure switch,
faulty engine oil
lubrication system, or clogged
oil filter.

With engine oil pressure switch connected, remove 12P


connector from monitor. Check for continuity between harness end connector
terminal No.10 and
vehicle frame.

Indicator

YES

NO

Short-circuited
harness between
monitor and engine oil pressure
switch.

Faulty monitor.

1 2
7 8

3 4 5 6
9 10 11 12

T5-5-20

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF OVERHEAT INDICATOR
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

YES

YES
Indicator does not
come ON even if
engine overheats.

Check if indicator
comes ON when
key switch is
turned to HEAT
position.

With overheat
switch connector
disconnected,
check if indicator
comes ON when
terminal of wire
number 201 is
grounded to vehicle.

NO

Key switch: ON

Key switch: ON

NO

YES

Indicator comes
ON even if coolant
temperature is
low.

Check if indicator
goes OFF when
overheat switch
connector is disconnected.
Key switch: ON
Engine: stopped

NO

Disconnect overheat switch connector and 12P


connector of
monitor. Check if
continuity between 12P connector terminal
No.1 and vehicle.

YES

NO

EX255-EX285

T5-5-21

TROUBLESHOOTING C

Overheat Switch
Coolant Temperature
Faulty overheat
switch.

Lower than 105 C


(221 F)

OFF

105 C (221 F)
or more
Reconnect overheat
switch connector.
Check if indicator
comes ON when
monitor 12P connector terminal No.1 is
grounded to vehicle.
Key switch: ON
Without disconnecting,
ground connector to
vehicle using a clip from
the reverse side of the
connector.

YES

Faulty harness.
(breakage)

ON

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)
Monitor (12P)

NO

Failure in
monitor.

Burned out indicator light.

Faulty overheat
switch.

Faulty harness
(short circuit) between monitor
and overheat
switch.

Failure in
monitor.

Indicator

1 2
7 8

3 4 5 6
9 10 11 12

T5-5-22

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF AIR FILTER RESTRICTION INDICATOR
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

YES

YES
When air filter is
clogged, indicator
does not light.

When key switch


is returned to
HEAT position,
does indicator
light?

When restriction
switch is disconnected, and harness side terminal of wire
number 203 is
grounded to vehicle, does indicator light?

NO

Key switch: ON

Key switch: ON

NO

YES

Although air filter


is not clogged,
indicator lights.
Disassembled and
visual check
Confirm that air filter
is not moist.

When air filter restriction switch is


disconnected,
does the indicator
go out?
Key switch: ON
NO

Disconnect air
filter restriction
switch connector
and 12P connector of
monitor, and
check continuity
between terminal
No.3 of connector
and vehicle
ground.

YES

NO

Reconnect restriction switch.


Disconnect 12P
connector of
monitor, and
check continuity
between terminal
No.3 of connector
and vehicle
ground.

EX255-EX285

T5-5-23

TROUBLESHOOTING C

Air Restriction Switch


Pressure

Faulty air restriction switch.

YES

Failure in
monitor.

Indicator

62 6 mbar (6.2 0.6 kPa)


(635 58 mmH2O)
or Less

OFF

More than 62 6 mbar


(6.2 0.6 kPa)
(635 58 mmH2O)

ON

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)
Monitor (12P)

NO

Faulty harness
(breakage) between monitor
and air restriction
switch.
Burned out indicator light.

Faulty air restriction switch.

Faulty harness
(short circuit) between monitor
and air restriction
switch.

Failure in
monitor.

1 2
7 8

3 4 5 6
9 10 11 12

T5-5-24

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF BUZZER
NOTE - (*) Regulator terminals L is water-resistance
type connectors so that it is not practical to measure
voltage at these terminals. Measure voltage at starter
relay terminal R.
Before measuring voltage, check continuity between
the starter relay terminal R and regulator terminal L.

13 V or more
Faulty regulator.
Buzzer keeps
sounding when
key switch is
turned ON.

Check voltage at
monitor terminal
No.42.
Key switch: ON
(Engine is stopped.)

Less than 13 V

Failure in engine
oil pressure system.

YES
Buzzer keeps
sounding when
engine is started.

Check if engine
oil pressure indicator is ON.

YES

NO

YES
Check if engine is
running at 1000
min-1 (rpm) or
faster.

Check if buzzer
stops when
buzzer stop
switch is depressed.

Normal

NO

NO

Overheat of engine.

Check if overheat
indicator is ON.

NO

Buzzer does not


sound even if engine oil pressure
indicator or overheat indicator
comes ON.

Failure in
monitor.

Normal

Check if alternator indicator is


ON.

YES

Check voltage at
alternator terminal L.
Engine speed:
1000 min-1 (rpm) or
faster.

EX255-EX285

T5-5-25

TROUBLESHOOTING C
Connector (harness end connector terminals seen
from the open end side)
Monitor (20P)

Starter Relay

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

YES

Normal

Failure in monitor.

NO

Less than 13 V

13 V or more

Faulty regulator or
alternator.

Check voltage at
monitor 20P connector terminal
No.42.
Engine speed:
1000 min-1 (rpm) or
faster.

Less than 13 V

Faulty harness
(breakage) between
alternator terminal L
and monitor terminal
No.42.

Failure in monitor.
13 V or more

T5-5-26

EX255-EX285

TROUBLESHOOTING C
MALFUNCTION OF HOUR METER
Providing that:
Be sure to inspect wiring connections prior to
troubleshooting.

NOTE - (*) Regulator terminals L is water-resistance


type connectors so that it is not practical to measure
voltage at these terminals. Measure voltage at starter
relay terminal R.
Before measuring voltage, check continuity between
the starter relay terminal R and regulator terminal L.

Broken harness
between monitor
terminal No.29
and No.6 fuse.

0V
NO

Check voltage at
monitor 20P connector terminal
No.29.
24 V

Hour meter
does not count
operating
hours when
engine is running.

Failure in
monitor.

Check if alternator indicator is


ON.
Less than 13 V

Faulty regulator
or alternator.

Engine : Running

YES

Check voltage at
alternator terminal L
(*).
Engine speed:
1 000 min-1 (rpm) or
faster

13 to 14.5 V
or more
Check voltage at
monitor 20P connector terminal
No.42.
13 V or more

Connector (harness end connector terminals seen


from the open end side)
Monitor (20P)

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Starter Relay

E
S

Less than
13 V

Failure in
monitor.
Broken harness
between alternator terminal L and
monitor terminal
No.42.

EX255-EX285

T5-6-1

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


PRECAUTIONS FOR INSPECTION AND
MAINTENANCE

A
0511

0511

0511

20 30 mm

C
2,5 R 0679

0511

0511

1. Disconnect the power source.


Be sure to remove the negative terminals from the
batteries first when taking wire harnesses and
connectors off for repair or replacement work.
Failure to do so can result in damage to the wire
harnesses, fuses, and fusible links and, in some
cases, cause fire due to short circuiting.
2. Wire harnesses identification.
The wire harnesses used on electrical system of the
machine are of three colours: red, white and brown.
The wire harnesses red coloured are used for
the main power supply distribution and for direct
connection to the positive not controlled by key
switch.
The wire harnesses white coloured are used for
the all other functions.
The wire harnesses brown coloured are used for
ground connection.
Each wire is identified by a four digit numerical
coding printed on the whole lenght every 20 to 30
mm (A).
This coding is also shown on the wiring diagrams of
electrical system (B).
On the general electrical system diagram attached,
numbers and letters are shown before the four digit
coding.
Numbers mean the wire section shown in mm2.
The following letters indicate the wire colours;
where W stands for white, R for Red and Br for
Brown. See detail (C).
3. Precautions for connecting and disconnecting terminal connectors.
1) When disconnecting harnesses, grasp them by
their connectors. Do not pull on the wire itself.
Be sure to release the lock first before attempting to separate connectors, if a lock is provided.
(Refer to Instructions for Disconnecting Connector on page T5-6-3.)
2) Water-resistant connectors keep water out so
that if water enters them, water will not easily
drain from them. When checking water-resistant connectors, take extra care not to allow
water to enter the connectors. In case water
should enter the connectors, reconnect only
after the connectors are thoroughly dried.
3) Before connecting terminal connectors, check
that no terminals are bent or coming off. In
addition, as most connectors are made of
brass, check that no terminals are rusting.
4) When connecting terminal connectors provided
with a lock, be sure to insert them together until
the lock clicks.

Right

Wrong

SM0651

Right
Rust
Wrong
(deformation)
Wrong
(Separation)
SM0652

T5-6-2

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


4. Precaution for using a circuit tester.
1) Before using a circuit tester, refer to the instructions in the circuit tester manual.
Then, set the circuit tester to meet the object to
be measured, voltage range and current polarity.
2) Before starting the connector test, always
check the connector terminal numbers, referring to the circuit diagram.
When the connector size is very small, and the
standard probe size is too large to be used for
testing, wind a fine piece of sharpened wire or
a pin around the probe to make the test easier.

Wind a Piece of Wire

Tester Probe

Sharpen the end of the Wire


SM0653

EX255-EX285

T5-6-3

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISCONNECTING
CONNECTORS
Push the lock to disconnect.
NOTE - 1) Connectors may not be separated if the
lock is pushed while the connectors are
pulled. Be sure to push the lock first before
pulling the connectors.
2) The lock is provide on the female connector (harness side).

SM0654

Locations of This Type Connector


Fuel Gauge
Hydraulic Oil Level Switch
Horn
Cab Harness
Pressure Switch

Washer
Pilot Pressure Switch
EC Motor
EC Sensor
Pump Delivery Pressure Sensor

N Sensor
Engine Oil Level Sensor
Coolant Level Switch
Key Switch
Engine Control Dial

Radio
Speaker
Learning Switch
Wiper
Monitor

Pull up the lock to disconnect.


Locations of This Type Connector
Pressure Switch (Front)
Pilot Pressure Sensor
Pump Control Pressure Sensor
Rel avviamento

Pull to disconnect.
Locations of This Type Connector
Solenoid Valve Unit
Dr.EX

SM0656

T5-6-4

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


FUSE CONTINUITY TEST
Fuse failure is often caused by a fine crack in the fuse,
and such fine cracks are very hard to detect by visual
inspection.
Checking fuse continuity with a tester is far superior to
sight inspection.

NOTE - All the inside terminals of the fuses in the


fuse box are connected to the power source,
while the outside terminals are connected to
the accessories.
Test all fuses using the same method.

(1) Turn the key switch ON


In doing so, the battery relay is activated by the
current from terminal M of the key switch, and
electric power is supplied to all circuit, except the
glow relay circuit.
(2) Remove the fuse box cover and set the correct
voltage measurement range of the tester.
(Measurement range: 0 to 30 V)
(3) Connect the negative probe to the vehicle ground,
and touch the outside terminal of each fuse with the
positive probe of the tester.
When normal continuity of a fuse is intact, the
tester will indicate 20 to 25 volts.

Accessory (Outside)

SM0657

Glow relay

Power Source (Inside)


Accessory (Outside)

EX255-EX285

T5-6-5

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


INSPECTION AND REPLACEMENT OF
MAXI FUSIBLE LINKS
Inspection
1. Remove the negative cable from the battery.
2. Loose the wing nut fixing the protection panel and
open it by rotating forward to gain the access.
3. Withdraw the front cover of the maxi fusible link box
and visually inspect the maxi fusible link inside.

Replacement
1. Make sure that the negative cable is removed from
the battery.
2. Loose the wing nut fixing the protection panel and
open it by rotating forward to gain the access.

OM5633

3. Withdraw the front cover of the maxi fusible link box.


4. Take out the maxi fusible link and replace it.

Front cover

5. Reinstall the front cover to maxi fusible link box.


6. Reconnect the negative cable to the battery.
Maxi fusible

Body

Bottom cover

SM3032

T5-6-6

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


BATTERY VOLTAGE CHECK
1. Turn the key switch OFF. Check voltage between
the battery positive terminal and the vehicle frame.
Normal Voltage: 24 V
NOTE - If voltage is abnormal, recharge or replace the
battery.
2. Start the engine. Check voltage between the battery
positive terminal and the vehicle frame.
V

Normal Voltage: 26 to 28 V
NOTE - If voltage is abnormal, check the charging
system.

SM3034

EX255-EX285

T5-6-7

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ALTERNATOR
MALFUNCTIONS

Terminal R

Terminal L

In general, the alternator indicator remains off when


the alternator is generating power.
If the alternator indicator comes on while the engine is
running, the alternator might be defective.
Terminal B

How to check the circuit


1. Stop the engine. Turn the key switch to the ON
position. Confirm that the alternator indicator
comes on.
2. Measure the voltage between the B and E terminals
of the alternator. If the measured voltage is around
24 V, the alternator circuit can be consi-dered
normal. If the measured voltage is low, a shortage
in battery capacity or looseness of the wire connectors of the alternator circuit might be the cause of
the malfunction. When the voltage is 0 V, the wiring
between the fuse box and alternator might be loose
or disconnected.
Also, the alternator cannot generate electricity if the
ground line is disconnect.
3. Next, start the engine and measure the voltage
generated while as the alternator rotates.
As described above, measure the voltage between
terminals B and E on the side of the alternator. If the
voltage is around 28 V, the alternator is operating
normally.
If the rated voltage is not being generated, there is
some trouble with the alternator or the regulator.

Terminal E

SM6122

T5-6-8

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


CONTINUITY CHECK
Harness

Single-line continuity check


Disconnect both end connectors of the harness and
check continuity between both ends:
If the ohm-meter reading is:
0 = Continuity
= Discontinuity
NOTE - When the one end connector is far apart from
the other, connect one end of connector (A) to the
machine chassis using a clip. Then, check continuity
of the harness through the vehicle frame as illustrated.
If the ohm-meter reading is:

0 = Continuity
= Discontinuity

Connect to the
machine
chassis.

Connect to the
machine
chassis.

Single-line short-circuit check


Disconnect both end connectors of the harness and
check continuity between one end connector of the
harness and the vehicle frame:
If the ohm-meter reading is:
0 = Short circuit is present.
= No short circuit is present.
Multi-line continuity check
Disconnect both end connectors of the harness, and
short-circuit two terminals, (A) and (B), at one end
connector, as illustrated. Then, check continuity between terminals (a) and (b) at the other connector. If
the ohm-meter reading is , either line (A) - (a), or
(B) - (b) is in discontinuity. To find out which line is
discontinued, conduct the single line continuity check
on both lines individually, or, after changing the shortcircuit terminals from (A) - (B) to (A) - (C), check
continuity once more between terminals (a) and (c).

Short-circuit
between the
harness and
the vehicle
frame

SM0660

First short-circuit

a
b
c

A
B
C
Second short-circuit

NOTE - By conducting the multi-line continuity check


twice, it is possible to find out which line is discontinued. With terminals (A) and (C) short-circuited, check
continuity between terminals (a) and (c).
If the ohm-meter reading is:
0 = Line (B) - (b) has discontinuity.
= Line (A) - (a) has discontinuity.
Multi-line short-circuit check
Disconnect both end connectors of the harness, and
check continuity between terminals (A) and (B) or (C).
If the ohm-meter reading is:
0 = Short-circuit exists between the lines.
= No short-circuit exists between the lines.

SM0661

Short-circuit between harnesses.

a
b
c

A
B
C

SM0662

EX255-EX285

T5-6-9

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION

T5-6-10

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CHECK
Turn switch ON so that the specified voltage (current)
is applied to the point to be measured. Then start
measuring either voltage or current. Judge if the
specified voltage is applied.

Engine

Key
Switch

24 Voltage Circuit
Start checking in order up to the point where voltage is
measured from either power source or actuator side.
Thereby, the faulty location in the circuit will be found.
Black Probe (Minus) of Tester : To ground (vehicle
frame).
Red Probe (Plus) of Tester
: To location to be
measured.

Check Point

Standard

Power Source Circuit


Stopped
Stopped
Stopped
Stopped
Stopped
Stopped

OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF

Between (2) and (1): One Battery


Between (3) and (2): One Battery
Between (3) and (1): Two Batteries
Between (4) and Ground: Power Source
Between (5) and Ground: Fusible Link
Between (1) and Ground: Backup Current (*)

10 to 12.5 V
10 to 12.5 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
6 mA

Preheat Circuit
Stopped
Stopped
Stopped

ON
ON
ON

Between (6) and Ground: Key Switch


Between (7) and Ground: Glow plugs
Between (20) and Ground: QOS Controller power supply

20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V

Starting Circuit
Started
Started
Started
Started
Started
Started

START
START
START
START
START
START

Between (8) and Ground: Key Switch


Between (9) and Ground: Battery Relay (Coil)
Between (10) and Ground: Battery Relay (Switch)
Between (11) and Ground: Starter (B)
Between (12) and Ground: Starter (C)
Between (13) and Ground: Starter Relay (S)

20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V

Charging Circuit
Fast Speed
Fast Speed
Fast Speed
Fast Speed
Fast Speed

ON
ON
ON
ON
ON

Between (14) and Ground: Alternator Generating Voltage (B)


Between (10) and Ground: Alternator Generating Voltage
Between (15) and Ground: Alternator Generating Voltage
Between (16) and Ground: Alternator Generating Voltage (L)
Between (17) and Ground: Monitor

26 to 30 V
26 to 30 V
26 to 30 V
13 to 30 V
13 to 30 V

Surge Voltage
Prevention Circuit
Slow Idling
Slow Idling
Slow Idling
Slow Idling

ON
ON
ON
ON

Between (14) and Ground: Alternator (B)


Between (16) and Ground: Alternator (L)
Between (18) and Ground: Anti Load Dump Relay
Between (10) and Ground: Battery Relay

26 to 30 V
13 to 30 V
26 to 30 V
26 to 30 V

Accessory Circuit
Stopped
Stopped
Stopped
Stopped

ON
ON
ON
ON

Between (19) and Ground: Air Conditioning


Between (21) and Ground: Horn
Between (22) and Ground: Lighter
Between (23) and Ground: Radio

20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V
20 to 25 V

(*) After disconnection the minus cable to the battery, start measuring.

EX255-EX285

T5-6-11

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION

QOS Controller

Battery
Battery
Relay
Starter

Key Switch

Fuse
box

Starter Relay

Glow
Relay
Fuse
box

Alternator

Monitor

Glow Plugs

SM5619

Relay box

SM3036

T5-6-12

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


5 Voltage Circuit
Voltage between terminal No.1 and the vehicle
frame (ground)
With the key switch turned OFF, disconnect the
sensor connector.
Measure the voltage between terminal No.1 on the
machine harness side connector and the vehicle
(ground) under the following conditions.

Two polarities

Signal or
ground

Power source
1

Key switch position: ON


Tester black terminal (negative):
Connected to the vehicle (ground)
Tester red terminal (positive):
Connected to terminal No.1

SM0664

Ground

Power source
1

Three polarities

Evaluation:
If the measuring voltage is within 50.5 volts, the
circuit up to terminal No.1 is normal.

Voltage between terminal No.1 and the ground


terminal
With the key switch turned OFF, disconnect the
sensor connector.
Measure the voltage between terminal No.1 on the
machine harness side connector and the ground
terminal (terminal No.2 for two polarities, or terminal
No.3 for three polarities) under the following conditions.

SM0665

Two polarities
1

Key switch position: ON


Tester black terminal (negative):

Connected to the ground terminal


(terminal No.2 or 3)
Tester red terminal (positive):
Connected to terminal No.1

SM0666

Three polarities
1

Evaluation:
If the measuring voltage is within 50.5 volts, the
circuit up to terminal No.1 or the ground terminal is
normal.
V

SM0667

EX255-EX285

T5-6-13

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


Check Using False Signal
IMPORTANT - On three-polarity connectors, do not
short-circuit terminals No.1 and No.2 to No.3 or the
vehicle frame (ground), causing harnesses, controllers and fuses to burn due to current overload.

Two polarities

With the key switch turned OFF, disconnect the


sensor connector.
Short-circuit terminal No.1 (power source) and No.2
(signal) on the machine harness side connector and
supply the power source voltage as a false signal to
the controller. Check the controller under this condition, using the Dr.EX monitor function.
Evaluation:
Except for the pressure switch circuits, if the maximum value is displayed, the MC (Main Controller) and
the circuits up to the machine harness side connector
are normal. When the pressure switch circuits are
normal, the Dr.EX monitor displays ON.

(Pressure switch)
(N sensor)

Short circuit

SM0668

Three polarities
(EC sensor)
(Pilot pressure sensor)
(Pump control pressure
sensor)
(Pump delivery pressure
sensor)

Short circuit

SM0669

T5-6-14

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


WIPER CONTROLLER
2

SMW0465

3
5
To wiper
motor

To washer
pump

SMW0466

1
2
3
4

Connector
Box
Diode 1n5408 (q.ty 3)
Relay

5
6
7

- Board
- Diode 1N4007
- Wiper controller connector, harness side

EX255-EX285

T5-6-15

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


Replacement of wiper controller
1. Remove screw (1) under the right console to detach
cover (2).

2. Remove bolt (3) and turn the console around pin (4).
Then, take out lock pin (5). Push pin (4) to the seat
side, then remove spacer (6).
: 17 mm
3. Move the console to the seat side.
4. Using a sharp-pointed tool, remove cap (9) from
cover (7) and duct cover (8) located under the
monitor.

13
SM5620

5. Remove cover (7) and duct cover (8).

6. Remove ashtray (10) and the ashtray screw.


Remove aux. switch panel (11).

7. Remove wiper controller cover (12).


a

8. Replace the wiper controller (13).

5
4

1
SM0670

View a

11

10

SM0671

1
2
3
4
5

Screw
Cover
Bolt
Pin
Lock Pin

6
7
8
9
10

Spacer
Cover
Duct Cover
Cap
Ashtray

12

11 - Aux. Switch Panel


12 - Wiper controller cover
13 - Wiper controller

T5-6-16

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


REPLACEMENT OF RELAY
(R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6)
1. Remove the rear cover (1) by loosen the 3 bolts (3)
and the four bolts (2).
: 13 mm

2. Remove the bolt (4 and 5) fixing the support (6)


: 13 mm

R1-R2-R3-R4-R5-R6
SM5621

3. Lift the support (6).

3
SM1126

4. Lift the protection sheet (7).


6

SM3039

EX255-EX285

T5-6-17

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


5. Identify the relay on the terminal board.

SM5622

6. Replace the relay.

T5-6-18

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


RELAY BOX

SM5623

- Relay box

- Relay box connector harness side

SM5624

- Diodes
d1, d2, d3, d4 : Diode IN4007
D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6 : Diode IN5408
- Relay
R1:
R2:
R3:
R4:

Anti Load Dump


Horn
Light 2
Light 1

EX255-EX285

T5-6-19

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


Replacement of relay box
1. Remove the rear cover (1) by loosening the three
bolts (3) and the four bolts (2).

2. Identify the relay box (4).

3. Remove the hexagonal screw M6 and the two


washer (5).

SM1126

A
4. Disconnect the connector (6).

5. Remove the relay box (4).


SM3039

View from A
5
6. Install the new relay box (4).
4

7. Fix the relay box with hexagonal screw M6 and the


two washer (5).

8. Install the connector (6) on the relay box.


6
SM5625

9. Reinstall the rear cover by tightening the four bolts


(2) and the three bolts (3).

T5-6-20

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


REPLACEMENT OF QOS CONTROLLER
1. Remove the rear cover (1) by loosening the 3 bolts
(3) and the four bolts (2).

2. Remove the bolts (4 and 5) fixing the support (6).

3. Lift the support (6).

4. Lift the protection sheet (7).


3

5. Remove the main controller (MC) (8) by loosening


the four bolts (9).
Do not disconnect the MC connectors.

SM1126

6. Remove the QOS controller (10) by loosening the


two bolts (11).
Disconnect the connector.

5
7. Install the new QOS controller (10) and secure by
tightening the two bolts (11). Properly route the
QOS controller cable tail and fix by tie-wrap.
Connect the connector.

SM3039

8. Reinstall main computer (MC) (8) by tightening the


four bolts (9), the protection sheet (7) and the
support (6).

9. Reinstall the rear cover by tightening the four bolts


(2) and the three bolts (3).

SM6127

10

11
SM6128A

EX255-EX285

T5-6-21

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


REPLACEMENT OF POWER OUTLET
1. Gain the access to the rear of panel and disconnect
the connector from power outlet.

2. Open the guard.

Power outlet

OM0376

3. Using the special plier (Fiat Auto code No.


1876044000) unlock the sleeve from the lock ring.
Panel
Power outlet

4. Withdraw the sleeve from the rear of the panel.

Guard

SM3041

5. Install the new power outlet inserting the sleeve


from the rear of the panel and pushing the lock ring
on the front of the panel.

SM3042

6. Reconnect the connector to the power outlet.

Special plier Fiat Auto Code No. 1876044000

T5-6-22

EX255-EX285

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTION


NOTES

EX255-EX285

T5-7-1

HARNESS CHECK
CIRCUIT INSPECTION
To inspect the circuits of the machine, a test harnesses kit 75301706 has been developed, including
dedicated harnesses for the inspection of the various
components of the machine, and the test harness
75301514.
The kit 75301706 includes harnesses for the check of
solenoid valves, harnesses for sensor check and
harness for wiper check.

The test harness 75301514 is used to check the


solenoid valves installed on solenoid valve unit.
To check the circuits, connect the appropriate harness
between the male and female connectors of the
component to be checked.
Then check the normal or abnormal operation of the
circuit, measuring with a tester, the power voltage on
the free connections.

Solenoid valve test harness


Two terminals test harness 75301706A.
Use this harness to check the circuit of solenoid
valve.

SM6732

Test harness 75301706A

Two-terminal test harness 75301514.


Use this harness to check the circuit of solenoid
valves SG, SI, SD, SC (installed on solenoid valve
unit). (Refer to pages T5-4-28, -39, -42 and -57).

SMW0491

Test harness 75301514

T5-7-2

EX255-EX285

HARNESS CHECK
EC motor test harness
Test harness 75301706B
Use this harness to check the circuit of the EC
motor.
(Refer to page T 5-4-24).

SM6733

Test harness 75301706B

Sensor test harness


Test harness 75301706D
Use this harness to measure the signal voltage of the
EC angle sensor circuit.
(Refer to page T5-3-4)

(Red)

(Blue)
(Black)
V

SM6734

Test harness 75301706D

Wiper circuit test harness


Test harness 75301706C
Use this harness to check the wiper circuit.
(Refer to page T5-4-58)

SM6735

COPYRIGHT BY FIAT KOBELCO CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY S.p.A.


Documentation Centre
Strada di Settimo, 323 - S. MAURO T.SE ( TO ) ITALY

Reproduction of text or illustrations,


in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited

Print No. 604.13.196 - VII - 2002


Printed by Satiz - Turin (Italy)
Coordinamento Editoriale Satiz - Torino

EXCAVATOR
WORKSHOP MANUAL
(Tier 2)

All information, illustrations and specifications in this manual are based on the latest product information available at the time of publication.
The right is reserved to make changes at any time without notice.

FIAT KOBELCO CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY S.p.A.


FORM No. 604.13.201 - Edition - July 2002

ENGINEERING

EX255-EX285

IN-1

INTRODUCTION
TO THE READER
This manual is written for an experienced technician
to provide technical information needed to maintain
and repair this machine.
- Be sure to thoroughly read this manual for correct
information concerning the service procedures.

- If you have any questions or comments, or if you


found any errors regarding the contents of this
manual, please contact:
FIAT KOBELCO CONSTRUCTION
MACHINERY S.p.A.
Strada Settimo, 323
San Mauro Torinese (TO)
10099 ITALY
PRODUCT SUPPORT
Fax. ++39 011 6877357

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
Please refer to the materials listed below in addition
to this service manual:
- Operation and Maintenance Instruction
Manual
- Parts Catalog

SERVICE MANUAL COMPOSITION


The complete service manual consists of three
books:
- Technical Manual - Operational Principle
- Technical Manual - Troubleshooting
- Workshop Manual

- The Workshop Manual includes information needed


for maintenance and repair of the machine, tools and
devices needed for maintenance and repair, maintenance standards, removal/installation and assembly/disassembly procedures.

- The Technical Manual-Operational Principle includes the technical information concerning the
operation of main devices and systems.

The Service Manual for EX255 andEX285 Excavators consists of the following book/print numbers:

- The Technical Manual -Troubleshooting includes


the technical information needed for operational
performance tests, and troubleshooting procedures.

BOOK

PRINT NUMBER

- Technical Manual - Operational Principle

604.13.191

- Technical Manual - Troubleshooting

604.13.196

- Workshop Manual

604.13.201

IN-2

EX255-EX285

INTRODUCTION
PAGE NUMBER
Each page has a number, located on the external upper corner of the page. Each page number contains the
following information:
Example: T 1-2-3
Consecutive page number for each group
Group number (if exist)
Section number
T : Technical Manual
W : Workshop Manual

SYMBOLS
In this manual, the following safety alert symbol and signal words are used to alert the reader to the potential for
personal injury or machine damage.

This is the safety alert symbol.


When you see this symbol, be alert to the potential for personal injury.
Never fail to follow the safety instructions prescribed along with the safety alert symbol.
The safety alert symbol is also used to draw attentio in to component/part weights.
To avoid injury and damage, be sure to use appropriate lifting techniques and equipment when lifting heavy
parts.

UNITS USED
SI Units (International System of Units) are used in this manual.
MKSA system units and English units are also indicated in parentheses just behinds SI units.
Example: 24.5 MPa (250 kgf/cm2, 3560 psi)
A table for conversion from SI units to other system units is shown below for reference purposes.

Quantity

To
convert
from (SI)

Into
(Others)

Multiply by

Quantity

To
convert
from (SI)

Into
(Others)

Multiply by

Lenght

mm

in

0.03937

Pressure

MPa

kgf/cm2

10.197

mm

ft

0.003281

MPa

psi

145.0

US gal

0.2642

kW

CV-PS

1.360

US qt

1.057

kW

HP

1.341

Volume

L
3

yd

kg

lb

m
Weight
Force
Torque

Power

1.308

Temperature

C x 1.8 + 32

2.205

Velocity

km/h

mph

0.6214

kgf

0.10197

lbf

0.2248

N.m

kgf.m

0.10197

N.m

lbf.ft

0.7375

min
Flow rate

-1

rpm

1.0

L/min

US gpm

0.2642

mL/rev

cc/rev

1.0

EX255-EX285

S-1

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
RECOGNISE SAFETY INFORMATION
This is your SAFETY ALERT SYMBOL.
- When you see this symbol on your machine or in
this Manual, be alert of the potential for personal
injury.
- Follow recommended precautions and safe
operating practices.

S0021

UNDERSTAND SIGNAL WORDS


In this Manual you will find the following words:
- DANGER;
- WARNING;
- CAUTION.
referring to different hazard risks.
These words are always accompanied by the safety
alert symbol.

DANGER
WARNING

DANGER: indicates an imminent hazardous


situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.

CAUTION

WARNING: indicated a potential hazardous


situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.

IMPORTANT

CAUTION: indicates a potential hazardous situation


which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate
injury.

NOTE

IMPORTANT: indicates a situation which, if not


avoided, may cause damage to the machine.
NOTE: indicates an additional explanation for
information purposes.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
This Manual also contains this symbol
accompanying instructions for correct behaviour
as regards environmental protection.
S0024

S-2

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
FOLLOW SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Carefully read and observe all safety signs on the
machine and read all safety precautions in this
Manual.
Safety signs should be installed, maintained, and
replaced when necessary.
- If a safety sign or this Manual are damaged or
missing, obtain a replacement from your FIAT
KOBELCO Dealer in the same way you order a
spare part (be sure to detail machine model and
serial number upon ordering).
Learn how to operate the machine and its controls
correctly and safely.
Allow only trained, qualified, authorised personnel
to operate the machine.

S0022

Keep the machine in proper working conditions.


- Unauthorised changes to the machine may
impair function and/or safety and affect machine
life.
Safety messages in this Chapter SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS, are intended to illustrate basic
safety procedures of the machine. However, it is
impossible for these safety messages to cover
every hazardous situation you may encounter. If
you have any doubts, consult your direct
supervisor prior to operating or servicing the
machine.

PREPARE FOR EMERGENCIES


Be prepared if a fire starts or an accident occurs.
- Keep the first-aid kit and fire extinguisher on hand.
- Thoroughly read and understand the label
attached to the fire extinguisher to use it properly.
- Establish emergency priority procedures to cope
with fires and accidents.
- Keep emergency numbers for doctors,
ambulance service, hospitals and fire
department posted near the telephone.

S0023

EX255-EX285

S-3

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
Wear close-fitting clothing and safety equipment
appropriate to the job.
You need:
- A hard hat;
- Safety shoes;
- Safety glasses or face shield;
- Heavy gloves;
- Ear protection;
- Reflective clothing;
- Waterproof clothing;
- Respirator or filter mask.
Be sure to correctly wear equipment and clothing
for the job.
- Do not take any chances.
- Avoid wearing loose clothing, jewellery, or other
items that can catch on control levers or other
parts of the machine.

S0025

Operating equipment safely requires the full


attention of the operator. Do not wear radio or
music headphones while operating the machine.

PROTECT AGAINST NOISE


Prolonged exposure to loud noise can cause
impairment or loss of hearing.
- Wear a suitable hearing protection such as
earmuffs or earplugs to protect objectionable or
uncomfortably loud noise.

S0026

INSPECT THE MACHINE


Inspect the machine carefully every day or workshift by an attentive visual inspection of machine
outside prior to starting it to prevent damages and
personal injuries.
- In the walk-around inspection, be sure to cover all
points detailed in the Chapter "MAINTENANCE",
paragraph "EXTERNAL VISUAL INSPECTION"
of the OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTION MANUAL.

S0027

S-4

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
USE HAND HOLDS AND STEPS
Falling is one of the major causes of personal injury.
- When you get on and off the machine, always
face the machine and maintain a three-point
contact with the steps and handrails.
- Do not use any control as a handhold.
- Never jump off the machine. Never get on and
off a moving machine.
- Be careful of slippery conditions of platforms,
steps, and handrails when leaving the machine.

S0028

ADJUST THE OPERATOR'S SEAT


A seat poorly adjusted for operator or work
requirements may quickly fatigue the operator
leading to improper operations.
- The seat should be adjusted whenever machine
operator changes.
- The operator should be able to fully press the
pedals and correctly move the control levers with
his back resting against the seat back.
- If not, move the seat fore and aft, and check again.

S0029

EX255-EX285

S-5

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
FASTEN SEAT BELT
Should the machine overturn, the operator may
become injured and/or thrown from the cab. Not
only, the operator may be crushed by the
overturning machine resulting in serious injury or
even death.
- Prior to operating the machine, thoroughly
examine belt webbing, buckle, and attaching
hardware. If any item is damaged or worn,
replace the seat belt or component before
operating the machine.

S0030

- Be sure to remain seated with the seat belt


securely fastened at all times when the machine
is in operation to minimise injury hazard in case
of accident.
- After a significant accident, replace the seat belts
even though they do not look damaged.

MOVE AND
SAFELY

OPERATE

MACHINE

Bystanders can be run over.


- Pay the utmost attention not to run over
bystanders.
- Be sure and aware of the location of bystanders
before moving, swinging or operating the
machine.
- If fitted, keep the travel alarm and horn sounding
to warn people that the machine is about to move.
S0031

- When operating, swinging, or moving the


machine in a congested area use a signal man.
- Co-ordinate hand signals before starting the
machine.

S-6

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
OPERATE ONLY FROM THE DRIVER'S
SEAT
Inappropriate engine starting procedures may
cause the machine unexpected movement,
possibly resulting in serious injury and even death.
- Start the engine only from the operators seat.
- NEVER start the engine while standing on the
track or on the ground.
- Do not start the engine by shorting across starter
motor terminals.
S0032

- Before starting the engine, ensure that all control


levers are in the neutral position.

KEEP RIDERS OFF THE MACHINE


Riders on the machine are subject to injuries such
as being struck by foreign objects and being thrown
off the machine.
- Only machine operator is
machine. Keep riders off.

allowed on the

- Riders also obstruct the operators visibility,


resulting in the machine being operated unsafely.
S0033

CONFIRM DIRECTION WHERE THE


MACHINE IS TO BE DRIVEN
Incorrect travel controls operation may result in
serious injury and even death.
- Before driving the machine, be aware of the
undercarriage position relative to the operators
position. If travel motors are located at the front
of the cab, the machine will move reverse when
travel controls are moved towards cab front.
S0037

EX255-EX285

S-7

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID INJURY FROM BACK-OVER AND
SWING ACCIDENTS
If any person is present near the machine when
backing or swinging the upperstructure, the
machine may hit or run over that person, resulting
in serious injury or death.
To avoid back-over and swing accidents:
- Always look around BEFORE YOU BACK UP
AND SWING THE MACHINE. BE SURE THAT
ALL BYSTANDERS ARE CLEAR.
- Keep the travel alarm in working condition (if
equipped).
- ALWAYS BE ALERT FOR BYSTANDERS
MOVING INTO THE WORK AREA. USE THE
HORN OR OTHER SIGNAL TO WARN
BYSTANDERS BEFORE MOVING MACHINE.

S0042

- USE A SIGNAL PERSON WHEN BACKING UP


IF YOUR VIEW IS OBSTRUCTED. ALWAYS
KEEP THE SIGNAL PERSON IN VIEW.
- Use hand signals, which conform to your local
regulations, when work conditions require a
signal person.
- No machine motions shall be made unless
signals are clearly understood by both signalman
and operator.
- Learn the meanings of all flags, signs, and
markings used on the job and confirm with the
person in charge of signalling.
- Keep windows, mirrors, and lights clean and in
good condition.
- Dust, heavy rain, fog, etc., can reduce visibility.
As visibility decreases, reduce speed and use
proper lighting.
- Read and understand all operating instructions in
the OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTION MANUAL.

S0043

S-8

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
DRIVE MACHINE SAFELY

Before starting the machine carefully read the


OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTION MANUAL. (Refer to the OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS chapter).

Before moving the machine, confirm which way to


move travel pedals/levers for the corresponding
direction you wish to go.
- Pushing down on the front of the travel pedals or
pushing the levers forward moves the machine
towards the idlers. (Refer to the OPERATION
AND
MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTION
MANUAL).

S0038

Traveling on a grade may cause the machine to slip


or to overturn, possibly resulting in serious injury or
death.
- When traveling up or down a grade, keep the
bucket in the direction of travel, approximately 20
to 30 cm (A) above the ground.
- If machine starts to skid or becomes unstable,
lower the bucket immediately.

S0039

- Traveling across the face of a slope may cause


the machine to skid or to overturn. When
travelling (ascending/descending) on a slope, be
sure to point the tracks uphill/downhill.

S0004

- Turning on an incline may cause the machine to


tip over.
If turning on an incline is absolutely unavoidable,
do so at a place where the slope is gentle and the
surface is firm.
- When operating on a grade and the fuel reserve
indicator light lights, immediately refuel.

WRONG
S0005

EX255-EX285

S-9

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID OVERTURNING
The danger of tipping is always present when
operating on a grade, possibly resulting in serious
injury or death.
To avoid tipping:
- Be extra careful before operating on a grade.
- Prepare machine operating area flat by grading.
- Keep the bucket low to the ground and close to
the machine.
- Reduce machine operating speed to avoid
tipping or slipping.
- Avoid changing direction when travelling on
grades.
- NEVER attempt to travel across a grade steeper
than 15 degrees.
- Reduce swing speed as necessary when
swinging loads.

S0002

Be careful when working on frozen ground.


- Temperature increases will cause the ground to
become soft and make ground travel unstable.

S0047

PARK MACHINE SAFELY


To avoid accidents:
- Park machine on a level surface.
- Lower bucket to the ground.
- Turn auto-idle (A/I) switch off.
- Run engine at slow idle speed without load for 5
minutes.
- Turn key-start switch to OFF to stop engine.
- Remove the ignition key from the key switch.
- Pull the safety lever (pilot-control shut-off lever) to
the LOCK position.
- Close windows, roof window, and cab door.
- Lock all access doors and compartments.

S0049

S-10

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID INJURY FROM UNEXPECTED
MACHINE MOVEMENT
Death or serious injury may result if you attempt to
get on or off a moving machine.
To avoid roll-aways:
- Select level ground when possible to park
machine.
- Do not park the machine on a grade.
- Lower the bucket and/or other work tools to the
ground. Thrust the bucket teeth into the ground if
you must park on a grade.
- Turn the auto-idle switch off.
- Run the engine at slow idle speed without load for
5 minutes to cool down the engine.
- Stop the engine and remove the key from the key
switch.
- Pull the pilot shut-off lever to LOCK position.
- Block both tracks.
- Position the machine to prevent overturning.
- Park a reasonable distance from other machines.

S0040

S0041

PROVIDE SIGNALS FOR JOBS


INVOLVING A NUMBER OF MACHINES
For jobs involving several machines, provide
signals commonly known by all personnel involved.
Also, appoint a signal person to co-ordinate the job
site. Make sure that all personnel obey the signal
persons directions.

S0036

EX255-EX285

S-11

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
INVESTIGATE JOB SITE BEFORE HAND
When working at the edge of an excavation or on a
road shoulder, the machine could overturn, possibly
resulting in serious injury or death.
- Investigate the configuration and ground
conditions of the job site beforehand to prevent the
machine from overturning and prevent the ground,
stockpiles, or banks from collapsing.
- Make a work plan. Use machines appropriate to
the work and job site.
- Reinforce ground, edges, and road shoulders as
necessary. Keep the machine well back from the
edges of excavations and road shoulders.
- When working on an incline or road shoulder,
employ a signal person as required.
Confirm that your machine is equipped with a
F.O.P.S. (Falling Object Protective Structure) cab
before working in areas where there is the
possibility of falling stones or landslides.
- When footing is weak, reinforce the ground before
starting the work.
- When working on frozen ground, be extremely
alert. As ambient temperature rises, footing
becomes loose and slipped.

S0034

PROTECT AGAINST FALLING STONES


AND LANDSLIDES
Confirm that your machine is equipped with a
F.O.P.S. (Falling Object Protective Structure) cab
before working in areas where there is the
possibility of falling stones.

S0035

S-12

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
DIG WITH CAUTION
Accidental severing of underground cables or gas
lines may cause an explosion and/or fire, possibly
resulting in serious injury or death.
- Before digging, check the location of cables, gas
lines, and water lines.
- Keep the minimum distance required by law from
cables, gas lines, and water lines. If a fiber optic
cable should be accidentally severed, do not look
into the end. Doing so may result in serious eye
injury.
- Contact local authorities and/or the utility
companies directly (electric power, gas,
telephone, water, sewers, telecommunications,
etc.) to obtain information about underground
utility lines.

S0009

OPERATE WITH CAUTION


If the front attachment or any other part of the
machine hits against an overhead obstacle, such
as a bridge, both the machine and the overhead
obstacle will be damaged, and personal injury may
results as well.
- Take care to avoid hitting overhead obstacles
with the boom or arm.

S0008

AVOID ELECTRIC LINES


Serious injury or death can result if the machine or
front attachments are not kept a safe distance from
electric lines.
- When operating near an electric line, NEVER
move any part of the machine or load closer than
3 m plus twice the line insulator length (L).
- Check and comply with any local regulations that
may apply.
- Wet ground will expand the area that could cause
any person on it to be affected by electric shock.
- Keep all bystanders or co-workers away from the
site.

S0205

EX255-EX285

S-13

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
KEEP PERSONNEL CLEAR FROM
WORKING AREA
A person may be hit severely by the swinging front
attachment or counterweight and/or may be
crushed against an other object, resulting in serious
injury or death.
- Keep all persons clear from the area of operation
and machine movement.
- Before operating the machine, set up barriers to
the sides and rear area of the bucket swing radius
to prevent anyone from entering the work area.

S0044

NEVER MOVE THE BUCKET OVER ANY


ONE
Never lift, move, or swing bucket above anyone or
a truck cab.
Serious injury or machine damage may result due
to bucket load spill or due to collision with the
bucket.

S0045

AVOID UNDERCUTTING
In order to retreat from the edge of an excavation if
the footing should collapse, always position the
undercarriage perpendicular to the edge of the
excavation with the travel motors at the rear.
- If the footing starts to collapse and if sufficient
retreat is not possible, do not panic. Often, the
machine can be secured by lowering the front
attachment, in such cases.

S0011

S-14

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
NEVER UNDERCUT A HIGH BANK
The edges could collapse or a land slide could
occur causing serious injury or death.

S0048

SAFETY LOADS MOVING


The excavator is no lifting and transportation
means, therefore it should not be used to position
loads accurately. Should it be exceptionally used to
lift and lay building components, special caution
must be taken as follows:
- The machine must be equipped without failure
with the appropriate variant supplied, upon
request, by FIAT KOBELCO. Also, totally comply
with the safety precautions for the operation of the
excavator as a lifting equipment.
- Secure the loads to be raised using cables or
chains fastened with appropriate hooking
mechanisms.
- Never hook cables or chains to the bucket teeth.
- Nobody should be allowed to remain under the
raised load or within the excavator operating
range for any reason whatever.
S0165

- Never exceed specified loading capacity.


Incorrect fastening of slings or chains may cause
boom/arm failure or failure of the lifting means
with consequent bodily injuries and even death.
- Always ensure that slings and chains used for
lifting are adequate to the load and in good
condition.
- All loading capacities are referred to the
machine on a level surface and should be
disregarded when working on a slope.

EX255-EX285

S-15

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
SAFETY TRANSPORTING
The danger of tipping is present when loading/
unloading the machine onto/from a truck or trailer
bed.
- Be sure to observe local regulations when
transporting the machine on public roads.
- Provide an appropriate truck or trailer for
transporting the machine.
Take the following precautions when loading/
unloading the machine:
1. Select firm level ground.
2. Be sure to use a loading dock or ramp.
3. Be sure to have a signal person when loading/
unloading the machine.
4. Always turn the auto-idle (A/I) switch OFF when
loading or unloading the machine, to avoid
unexpected speed increase due to unintentional
operation of a control lever.
5. Always select the slow speed mode with the
travel speed selector. In the high speed mode,
travel speed may automatically increase.
6. Avoid steering while driving up or down the ramp
as it is extremely dangerous. If steering is
unavoidable, first move back to the ground or
flatbed, modify travelling direction, and begin to
drive again.
7. Do not operate any levers besides the travel
levers when driving up or down the ramp.
8. The top end of the ramp where it meets the
flatbed is a sudden jolt. Take care when traveling
over it.
9. Prevent possible injury from machine tipping
while the upperstructure is rotating.
10. Keep the arm tucked under and rotate the
upperstructure slowly for best stability.
11. Securely fasten machine frame using chains or
cables. Refer to TRANSPORT chapter in the
OPERATION
AND
MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTION MANUAL for details.

S0052

S-16

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
SAFE MAINTENANCE
To avoid accidents:
- Understand maintenance procedure before
starting the work.
- Kepp the working area clean and dry.
- Do not spray water or steam inside the cab.
- Do not lubricate or service the machine when it is
in motion.
- Kepp hands, feet and clothes far from moving
parts.
Prior to service in the machine:
1. Park the machine on the level ground.
2. Lower the bucket to the ground.
3. Switch off the Auto-Idle (A/I).
4. Let the engine idle with no load for at least five
minutes until it has cooled down.
5. Move the key-start switch to the OFF position
to stop the engine.
6. Remove the ignition key from the start switch.
7. Apply the "Maintenance in progress" tag .
This tag can be applied o the left-hand control
lever, safety lever or cab door.
8. Move the safety lever (pilot-control shut-off
lever) to the LOCK position.
9. Let the engine cool down.
- Do not leave the machine unattended if servicing
requires the engine running .
- If the machine is to be raised, place boom and arm
at an angle 90 to 110. Lock machine components
which should be raised for maintenance or repair
using suitable supporting means.
- Never work under a machine kept raised by the
boom.
- Inspect certain component regularly, repair or
replace as necessary.
Refer to the the OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTION MANUAL.
- Keep all components in good condition and
properly install. Immediately repair any fault.
- Immediately repair any damage.Replace worn or
failed components. Remove grease, oil, debris
build-ups.
- Disconnect the negative cable () from the battery
before carry out any work on the electrical system
or arc-welding on the machine.

S0053

S0054

EX255-EX285

S-17

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
WARN OTHERS OF SERVICE WORK
Unexpected machine movement can cause serious
injury.
- Before performing any work on the machine,
attach a maintenance in progress tag. This tag can
be applied o the left-hand control lever, safety
lever or cab door.

S0055

SUPPORT MACHINE PROPERLY


Never attempt to work on the machine without
securing the machine first.
- Always lower the attachment or tool to the ground
before working on the machine.
- If you must work on a lifted machine or
attachment, securely support the machine or
attachment.
- Do not support the machine on cinder blocks,
bollow tires, or props that may crumble under
continuous load.
- Do not work under a machine that is supported
solely by a jack.

S0054

STAY CLEAR OF MOVING PARTS


Entanglements in moving parts can cause serious
injury.
To prevent accidents, care should be taken to
ensure that hands, feet, clothing, jewelry and hair do
not become entangled when working near rotating
parts.

S0056

S-18

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
DISPOSE OF WASTE IN THE
APPROPRIATE MANNER
Waste improperly disposed of represents a danger
for the envinronment. Potentially dangerous waste
used on the FIAT KOBELCO excavators includes
lubricants, fuel, coolant, brake fluid, filters and
batteries.
- Used sealed containers when discharging fluids.
Do not use containers for food or beverages
which may induce drinking.
- Do not spill waste over the ground, into drains, or
water beds.
S0064

- Obtain information about the correct methods to


recycle or dispose of waste from local
Authorities, collection centres or your Dealer.

WORK IN A CLEAN AREA


Before starting an operation, clean the working
area.
Clear the area from all the objects that can be
dangerous for mechanics or people in the working
area.

S0166

PROPERLY LIGHT THE WORKING AREA


Properly and safely light the working area.
- Use safe portable lamps in order to work inside
and under the machine.
- Make sure that the lamp is shielded by a cage;
the incandescent filament of a lamp, accidentally
broken, can cause fuel or oil fire.

F1480

S0167

EX255-EX285

S-19

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
REGULARLY WASH THE MACHINE
Remove all the traces of grease, oil and deposits,
in order to avoid people accidents or damages to
things.
- Do not spray water or steam in the cab.

F1462

S0153

F1463

S0058

STORE ATTACHMENTS SAFELY


Stored attachments such as buckets, hydraulic
breakers and blades can fall and cause serious
injury or death.
- Securely store attachments and implements to
prevent falling.
- Keep bystanders away from storage areas.

PREVENT ACID SCALDS


The sulphuric acid, contained in the battery, is
poisonous.
It is strong enough to scald the skin, corrode
clothes and cause blindness, if it is sprayed into
the eyes.
To avoid dangers:
- Fill the batteries in airy areas.
- Wear eye protections and rubber gloves.
- Avoid breathing the electrolyte vapours when
topping up.
- Avoid spilling or dripping the electrolyte.
- Use proper emergency starting techniques.
If you are touched with acid sprays:
- Rinse your skin well with water.
- Put on your skin sodium bicarbonate or clay to
help the acid neutralization.
- Rinse your eyes with water for 10-15 minutes.
- Immediately see a doctor.
If you have swallowed the acid:
- Drink a big quantity of water or milk, swallow
milk of magnesia, scrabbled eggs or vegetal oil.
- Immediately see a doctor.

F1474

S0168

S-20

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
STARTING THE ENGINE WITH
BOOSTER BATTERIES
Battery gas may explode causing serious damages
and injuries.
- If the engine is to be started using booster
batteries, ensure to comply with all procedures
detailed in the chapter OPERATING
INSTRUCTIONS of the OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTION MANUAL.
- The operator should be sitting in the drivers seat
to keep the machine under control when the
engine starts. Starting the engine with booster
batteries is a two man operation.

S0001

- Do not use batteries that have been stored in the


cold for a long time.
- Mistakes in following procedures detailed for
starting the engine with slave batteries may
cause the batteries to explode or machine to
move unexpectedly.

PREVENT BATTERY EXPLOSIONS


Battery gas can explode.
- Keep sparks, lighted matches, and flames away
from the top of battery.
- Never check battery charge by placing a metal
object across the posts. Use a voltmeter or
hydrometer.
- Do not charge a frozen battery; it may explode.
Warm battery to 16 C.

Battery electrolyte is poisonous. If the battery


should explode, battery electrolyte may be
splashed into eyes, possibly resulting in blindness.
- Be sure to wear eye protection when checking
electrolyte specific gravity.

S0001

EX255-EX285

S-21

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
PREVENT BURNS
Hot spraying fluids:
After operation, engine coolant is hot and under
pressure. Hot water or steam is contained in the
engine, radiator and heater lines.
Skin contact with escaping hot water or steam can
cause severe burns.
- To prevent possible injury from hot spraying water.
DO NOT remove the radiator cap until the engine
is cool. When opening, turn the cap slowly to the
stop. Allow all pressure to be released before
removing the cap.
- The hydraulic oil tank is pressurized. Again, be
sure to release all pressure before removing the
cap.

S0019

Hot fluids and surfaces:


Engine oil, reduction gear oil and hydraulic oil also
become hot during operation.
The engine, hoses, lines and other parts become hot
as well.
- Wait for the oil and components to cool down
before starting any maintenance or inspection
work.
S0059

KEEP CLEAN THE MACHINE


Keep clean the engine compartment, radiator,
batteries, hydraulic pipes, fuel tank and operator's
position.
The engine compartment temperature can quickly
rise, after stopping the engine.
IN THESE CASES, BE CAREFUL TO POSSIBLE
FIRES.
Open the access doors in order to quicken the engine
cooling process and clean the compartment.

S0177

S-22

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID HIGH-PRESSURE FLUIDS
Fluids such as diesel fuel or hydraulic oil under
pressure can penetrate the skin or eyes causing
serious injury, blindness or death.
- Avoid this hazard by relieving pressure before
disconnecting hydraulic or other lines.
SA0016

- Tighten all connections before applying


pressure.
- Search for leaks with a piece of cardboard; take
care to protect hands and body from highpressure fluids. Wear a face shield or goggles for
eye protection.
SA0017

- In an accident occurs, see a doctor familiar with


this type of injury immediately. Any fluid injected
into the skin must be surgically removed within a
few hours or gangrene may result.

SA0018

PREVENT PARTS FROM FLYING OFF


Grease in the track adjuster is under high pressure.
Failure to follow the precautions below may result
in serious injury, blindness, or death.
- NEVER attempt to remove GREASE FITTING
or VALVE ASSEMBLY.
- As pieces may fly off, be sure to keep body and
face away from valve.

Travel reduction gears are under pressure.


- As pieces may fly off, be sure to keep body and
face away from AIR RELEASE PLUG to avoid
injury. REDUCTION GEAR OIL is hot. Wait for
gear oil to cool down, then gradually loosen the air
release plug to release pressure.

F3635

S0178

EX255-EX285

S-23

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
PROTECT AGAINST FLYING DEBRIS
If flying debris hit eyes or any other part of the body,
serious injury may result.
- Guard against injury from flying pieces of metal or
debris; wear goggles or safety glasses.
- Keep bystanderds away from the working area
before striking any object.

S0046

HANDLE FLUIDS SAFELY - AVOID


FIRES
Handle fuel with care: it is highly flammable. If fuel
ignites, an explosion and/or a fire may occur,
possibly resulting in serious injury or death.
- Do not refuel the machine while smoking or when
near open flame or sparks.
- Always stop the engine before refuelling the
machine.
- Fill the tank outdoors.

S0050

All fuels, most lubrificants, and some antifreeze


fluids are flammable.
- Store flammable fluids well away from fire
hazards.
- Do not burn or puncture pressurized containers.
- Do not store oily rags; they can ignite and burn
spontaneously.

S0051

S-24

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
PREVENT FIRES
Check for Oil Leaks:
- Fuel, hydraulic oil and lubricant leaks can lead to
fires.
- Check for missing or loose clamps, kinked hoses,
lines or hoses that rub against each other,
damage to the oil-cooler, and loose oil-cooler
flange bolts which may cause oil leaks.
- Tighten, repair or replace any missing, loose or
damaged clamps, lines, hoses, oil-cooler and oilcooler flange bolts.
- Do not bend or strike high-pressure lines.
- Never install bent or damaged lines, pipes, or
hoses.
Check for Shorts circuits which could cause fires:
- Clean and tighten all electrical connections.
- Check before each shift or after about ten (10)
hour operation for loose, kinked, hardened or
frayed electrical cables and wires.
- Check before each shift or after about ten (10)
hour operation for missing or damaged terminal
caps.
- DO NOT OPERATE MACHINE if cable or wires
are loose, kinked, etc..
Clean up Flammables:
- Spilled fuel and lubricans, and trash, grease,
debris, accumulated coal dust, and other
flammables may cause fires.
- Prevent fires by inspecting and cleaning the
machine daily and by removing spilled or
accumulated flammables immediately.
Check Key-start Switch:
- If a fire breaks out, failure to stop the engine will
escalate the fire, hampering fire fighting.
- Always check key-start switch function before
operating the machine every day:
1. Start the engine and run it at slow idle.
2. Turn the key-start switch to the OFF position
to confirm that the engine stops.
- If any abnormalities are found, be sure to repair
them before operating the machine.
Check Heat Shields:
- Damaged or missing heat shields may lead to
fires.
- Damaged or missing heat shields must be
repaired or replaced before operating the
machine.

S0051

EX255-EX285

S-25

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
EVACUATING IN CASE OF FIRE
If a fire breaks out, evacuate the machine in the
following way:
- Stop the engine by turning the key-start switch to
the OFF position if there is time.
- Use a fire extinguisher if there is time.
- Exit the machine.

S0060

BEWARE OF EXHAUST FUMES


Prevent asphyxiation. Engine exhaust fumes can
cause sickness or death.
- If you must operate in a building, be sure there is
adequate ventilation. Either use an exhaust pipe
extension to remove the exhaust fumes or open
doors and windows to bring enough outside air
into the area.

S0061

USE APPROPRIATE TOOLS


Use tools appropriate for the job to be performed.
- Inappropriate tools, parts and procedures might
generate dangerous conditions.
- Use tools of correct size to tighten or loosening
securing elements, in order to avoid injuries
caused by a wrench getting out of control.
- Do not use U.S. Standard or British Standard
tools on metric fasteners and vice versa.
Use only FIAT KOBELCO genuine spare parts
(please refer to the PARTS CATALOG).

S0120

S-26

EX255-EX285

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AVOID HEATING NEAR PRESSURIZED
FLUID LINES
Flammable spray can be generated by heating near
pressurized fluid lines, resulting in severe burns to
yourself and bystanders.
Do not heat by welding, soldering, or using a torch
near pressurized fluid lines or other flammable materials.
Pressurized lines can be accidentally cut when heat
goes beyond the immediate flame area. Install temporary fire resistant guards to protect hoses or other
materials when welding, soldering, etc.
S0062

AVOID APPLYING HEAT TO LINES


CONTAINING FLAMMABLE FLUIDS
- Do not weld or flame cut pipes or tubes that contain
flammable fluids.
- Clean them thoroughly with non-flammable solvent
before welding or flame cutting them.

REMOVE PAINT BEFORE WELDING OR


HEATING
Hazardous fumes can be generated when paints is
heated by weiding, soldering, or using a torch. If
inhaled, these fumes may cause sickness.
- Avoid breathing potentially toxic fumes and dust.
- Do all such work outside or in a well-ventilated
area.
- Dispose of paint and solvents properly.
- Remove paint before welding or heating:
1. If you sand or grind paint, avoid breathing the
dust.
Wear an approved respirator.
2. If you use solvent or paint stripper, remove
stripper with soap and water before welding.
Remove solvent or paint stripper containers
and other flammable material from area. Allow
fumes to disperse at least 15 minutes before
welding or heating.

S0063

WORKSHOP MANUAL

EX255-EX285

ESCAVATOR

SECTION AND GROUP CONTENTS

Section 1 - GENERAL INFORMATION


Group 1
Group 2

- Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly


- Tightening Torque

Section 2 - UPPERSTRUCTURE
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 5
Group 6
Group 7
Group 8
Group 9
Group 10
Group 11

Cab
Counterweight
Main Frame
Pump Device
Control Valve
Swing Device
Pilot Valve
Pilot Shut-Off Valve
Shockless Valve
Solenoid Valve Unit
Pilot Relief Valve Unit

Section 3 - UNDERCARRIAGE
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 5
Group 6
Group 7

Swing Bearing
Travel Device
Center Joint
Track Adjuster
Front Idler
Upper and Lower Roller
Tracks

Section 4 - FRONT ATTACHMENT


Group 1
Group 2

- Front Attachment
- Cylinders

Section 5 - ENGINE AND ACCESSORY


Group 01
Group 02
Group 03
Group 04
Group 05
Group 06
Group 07
Group 08
Group 09
Group 10
Group 11
Group 12

General Information
Maintenance
Engine Disassembly
Engine Inspection and Repair
Engine Reassembly
Lubricating System
Cooling System
Fuel System
Turbocharger
Starting and Charging
Troubleshooting
Repair Standards

SECTION 1

EX255-EX285

GENERAL INFORMATION

CONTENTS
Group 1 - Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly
Precautions for Disassembly and
Assembly ............................................. W1-1-1

Group 2 - Tightening Torque


Tightening Torque Specification .............. W1-2-1
Torque Chart .......................................... W1-2-2
Piping Joint ............................................ W1-2-5

EX255-EX285

W1-1-1

PRECAUTIONS FOR DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


PRECAUTIONS FOR DISASSEMBLY AND
ASSEMBLY
Preparations for Disassembly

Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly

Clean the Machine

- To prevent dirt from entering, cap or plug the


removed pipes.
- Before disassembling, clean the exterior of the
components and place it on a work bench.
- Before disassembling, drain gear oil from the
reduction gear.
- Be sure to provide appropriate containers for
draining fluids.
- Use matching marks for easier reassembling.
- Be sure to use the specified special tools, when
instructed.
- If a part or component cannot be removed after
removing its securing nuts and bolts, do not
attempt to remove it forcibly. Find the cause(s),
then take the appropriate measures to remove it.
- Orderly arrange disassembled parts. Mark and
tag them as necessary.
- Store common parts, such as bolts and nuts with
reference to where they are to be used and in a
manner that will prevent loss.
- Inspect the contact or sliding surfaces of disassembled parts for abnormal wear, sticking, or
other damage.
- Measure and record the degree of wear and
clearances.

Thoroughly wash the machine before bringing it


into the shop. Bringing a dirty machine into the
shop may cause machine components to be contaminated during disassembling/assembling, resulting in damage to machine components, as well
as decreased efficiency in service work.

Inspect the Machine


Be sure to thoroughly understand all disassembling/assembling procedures beforehand, to help
avoid incorrect disassembling of components as
well as personal injury.
Check and record the items listed below to prevent
problems from occurring in the future.
- The machine model, machine serial number, and
hour meter reading.
- Reason for disassembly (symptoms, failed
parts, and causes).
- Clogging of filters and oil, water or air leaks, if
any.
- Capacities and condition of lubricants.
- Loose or damaged parts.

Prepare and Clean Tools and Disassembly Area


Prepare the necessary tools to be used and the
area for disassembling work.

Precautions for Disassembly

Precautions for Assembly


- Be sure to clean all parts and inspect them for
any damage. If any damage is found, repair or
replace it.
- Dirt or debris on the contact or sliding surfaces
may shorten the service life of the machine. Take
care not to contaminate any contact or sliding
surfaces.
- Be sure to replace O-rings, backup rings, and oil
seals with new ones once they are disassembled. Apply a film of grease before installing.
- Be sure that liquid-gasket-applied surfaces are
clean and dry.
- If an anti-corrosive agent has been used on a new
part, be sure to thoroughly clean the part to
remove the agent.
- Utilize matching marks when assembling.
- Be sure to use the designated tools to assemble
bearings, bushings and oil seals.
- Keep a record of the number of tools used for
disassembly/assembly. After assembling is
complete, count the number of tools, so as to
make sure that no tools are missing.

W1-1-2

EX255-EX285

PRECAUTIONS FOR DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


Bleeding Air from Hydraulic System
When hydraulic oil is drained, the suction filter or the
suction lines are replaced, or the removal and installation of the pump, swing motor, travel motor or
cylinder is done, bleed air from the hydraulic system
in the following procedures:

Bleeding Air from Hydraulic Pump

IMPORTANT - If the engine is started with air trapped


in the hydraulic pump housing, damage to the pump
may result. Be sure to bleed air before starting the
engine.

- Remove the air bleeding plug from the top of the


pump and fill the pump housing with hydraulic oil.
- After the pump housing is filled with hydraulic oil,
temporarily tighten the plug. Then, start the
engine and run at slow idle speed.
- Slightly loosen the plug to bleed air from the
pump housing until hydraulic oil oozes out.
- After bleeding all the air, securely tighten the
plug.

Bleeding Air from Travel Motor / Swing Motor


- With the drain plug / hose on travel motor / swing
motor removed, fill the motor case with hydraulic
oil.

Bleeding Air from Hydraulic Circuit


- After refilling hydraulic oil, start the engine. While
operating each cylinder, swing motor and travel
motor evenly, operate the machine under light
loads for 10 to 15 minutes. Slowly start each
operation (never fully stroke the cylinders during
initial operation stage). As the pilot oil circuit has
an air bleed device, air trapped in the pilot oil
circuit will be bled while performing the above
operation for approx. 5 minutes.
- Reposition the front attachment to check hydraulic oil level.
- Stop the engine. Recheck hydraulic oil level.
Replenish oil as necessary.
SM1000

EX255-EX285

W1-1-3

PRECAUTIONS FOR DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


Floating Seal Precautions

1. In general, replace the floating seal with a new one.


If the floating is to be reused, follow these procedures:
(1) Keep seal rings together as a matched set with
seal ring faces together. Insert a piece of
cardboard to protect surfaces.
B

(2) Check the seal ring face (A) for scuffing, scoring, corrosion, deformation or uneven wear.

SM1001

(3) Check O-ring (B) for tears, breaks, deformation


or hardening.

2. If incorrectly assembled, oil leakage or damage will


occur. Be sure to do the following, to prevent
trouble.
(1) Clean the floating seal and seal mounting bores
with cleaning solvent.
Use a wire brush to remove mud, rust or dirt.
After cleaning, thoroughly dry parts with compressed air.

CORRECTLY

INCORRECTLY

(2) Clean the floating seal and seal mounting bores,


as dust on them tends to enter the floating seal
when installing it.
(3) Check that the O-ring is not twisted, and that it
is installed correctly on the seal ring.
(4) After installing the floating seal, check that seal
ring surface (C) is parallel with mating face (A)
by measuring the distances (a) and (b), as
illustrated. If these distances differ, correct the
O-ring seating.

SM1002

CORRECTLY

INCORRECTLY

A
a

C
B

b
a=b

b
ab
SM1003

W1-1-4

EX255-EX285

PRECAUTIONS FOR DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY


NOTES:

EX255-EX285

W1-2-1

TIGHTENING TORQUE
TIGHTENING TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
No. Descriptions

Bolt Diam.
mm

Wrench
Size
mm

Torque
Nm

kgf m

lbf ft

Engine cushion rubber mounting bolt

18

27

392

40

290

Engine bracket mounting bolt

10
12

17
19

64
108

6.5
11

47
80

Hydraulic oil tank mounting bolt

20

30

390

40

290

Fuel tank mounting bolt

16

24

205

21

152

ORS fittings for hydraulic hoses and piping

* 1-3/16"-12
* 1-7/16"-12
* 1-11/16"-12

36
41
50

175
205
324

18
21
33

130
152
239

Pump device mounting bolt

10

17

49

36

Control valve mounting bolt

16

24

205

21

152

Control valve bracket mounting bolt

16

24

205

21

152

Swing device mounting bolt

22

32

665

68

490

10

Battery mounting bolt

10

17

9.8

11

Cab mounting nut

16

24

205

21

152

12

Swing bearing mounting bolt to upperst.


Swing bearing mounting bolt to undercar.

27
27

41
41

1230
1205

125
123

900
890

13

Travel device mounting bolt

20

30

620

63

456

14

Sprocket mounting bolt

20

30

490

50

362

15

Upper roller mounting bolt

16

24

265

27

195

16

Lower roller mounting bolt

20

30

500

51

369

17

Track shoe mounting bolt

22

32

940

96

694

18

Low pressure coupling and clamp

8
5
6

13
8
10

10.3to12.4
2.90
4.40

1.05to1.26
0.30
0.45

8 to 16
2
3

*: UNF thread

NOTE - (1) Apply lubricant (e.g. white zinc B dissolved into spindle oil) to bolts and nuts to stabilize friction
coefficient of them.
(2) Make sure bolt and nut threads are clean before installing.
(3) Apply Loctite to threads before installing and tightening swing bearing mounting bolts.

W1-2-2

EX255-EX285

TIGHTENING TORQUE
TORQUE CHART
WARNING
Use tools appropriate for the work to be done.
Makeshift tools and procedures can create safety
hazards. For loosening and tightening nuts and
bolts, use the correct tools. Avoid bodily injury
caused by slipping wrenches.

Bolt Types
Tighten nuts or bolts correctly to torque specifications.
Four kinds of bolts, hexagon bolts T, H, M and socket
bolt, each made of different material, are used. Make
sure to employ the correct bolts and tighten them to
specification when assembling the machine or components.

Hexagon T Bolt

Hexagon H Bolt

SM1004

Hexagon M Bolt

Socket Bolt

SM1005

Specified Tightening Torque Chart


Bolt
Dia.

M8
M10
M12
M14
M16
M18
M20
M22
M24
M27
M30
M33
M36

Wrench Hexagon
Size
Wrench

13
17
19
22
24
27
30
32
36
41
46
50
55

T Bolt, Socket bolt

H Bolt

M Bolt

Size

Nm

kgf m

lbf ft

Nm

kgf m

lbf ft

Nm

kgf m

lbf ft

6
8
10
12
14
14
17
17
19
19
22
24
27

29.5
64
108
175
265
390
540
740
930
1 370
1 910
2 550
3 140

3
6.5
11
18
27
40
55
75
95
140
195
260
320

22
47
80
130
195
290
400
540
690
1 010
1 410
1 880
2 310

19.5
49
88
137
205
295
390
540
690
1 030
1 420
1 910
2 400

2
5
9
14
21
30
40
55
70
105
145
195
245

14.5
36
65
101
152
220
290
400
505
760
1 050
1 410
1 770

9.8
19.5
34
54
78
118
167
215
275
390
540
740
930

1
2
3.5
5.5
8
12
17
22
28
40
55
75
95

7.2
14.5
25.5
40
58
87
123
159
205
290
400
540
690

EX255-EX285

W1-2-3

TIGHTENING TORQUE
IMPORTANT
(1) Apply lubricant (i. e. white zinc B dissolved into
spindle oil) to nuts and bolts to stabilize their
friction coefficients.
(2) Torque tolerance is 10 %.
(3) Be sure to use bolts of correct length. Bolts that are
too long cannot be tightened, as the bolt tip comes
into contact with the bottom of the bolt hole. Bolts
that are too short cannot develop sufficient tightening force.
(4) The torques given in the chart are for general use
only.
Do not use these torques if a different torque is
given for a specific application.
(5) Make sure that the nut and bolt threads are clean
before installing. Remove dirt or corrosion, if any.

Bolt Tightening Order


When tightening two or more bolts, tighten them
alternately, as shown, to ensure even tightening.

Equally tighten upper


and lower alternately

Tighten diagonally

1
1,4

2,3

Tighten from center and diagonally

12

14

13

10

11

3
5
2

SM1006

W1-2-4

EX255-EX285

TIGHTENING TORQUE
Service Recommendations for Split Flange

IMPORTANT
(1) Be sure to clean and inspect sealing surfaces.
Scratches / roughness cause leaks and seal wear.
Unevenness causes seal extrusion. If defects
cannot be polished out, replace the component.
(2) Be sure to use only specified O-rings. Inspect Orings for any damage. Take care not to file O-ring
surfaces. When installing an O-ring into a groove,
use grease to hold it in place.
(3) Loosely assemble split flange halves. Make sure
that the split is centrally located and perpendicular
to the port. Hand-tighten the bolts to hold the parts
in place. Take care not to pinch the O-ring.
(4) Tighten bolts alternately and diagonally, as shown,
to ensure even tightening.
(5) Do not use air wrenches. Using an air wrench often
causes tightening of one bolt fully before tighten
the others, resulting in damage to O-rings or uneven tightening of bolts.

SM1007

WRONG

SM1008

Nut and Bolt Lockings

Lock Plate
SM1009

IMPORTANT- Do not reuse lock plates. Do not try to


bend the same point twice.
RIGHT

Cotter Pin

IMPORTANT- Do not reuse cotter pins. Match the


holes in the bolt and nut while tightening, not while
loosening.

Bend along edge sharply

RIGHT

WRONG

RIGHT

Do not bend it round

WRONG

Lock Wire

IMPORTANT - Apply wire to bolts in the bolt-tightening


direction, not in the bolt-loosening direction.

Bend along edge sharply


SM1010

RIGHT

RIGHT

RIGHT

WRONG

WRONG
Loosen

Tighten

SM1011

EX255-EX285

W1-2-5

TIGHTENING TORQUE
PIPING JOINT
Pipe Thread Connection / Union Joint Tightening
Torque Specifications

Union Joint
Metal sealing faces (4) and (5) of adaptor (1) and hose
(2) fit together to seal pressure oil. Union joints are
used to join small-diameter lines.
Joint Body

IMPORTANT
(1) Do not over-tighten union nut (3). Excessive force
will be applied to metal sealing surfaces (4) and (5),
possibly cracking adaptor (1). Be sure to tighten
union nut (3) to specifications.

SM1012

37

(2) Scratches or other damage to sealing surfaces (4)


or (5) will cause oil leakage at the joint. Take care
not to damage them when connecting /disconnecting.

37

Male Union Joint

Female Union Joint


SM1013

Wrench Size

Type

37 Union Joint

Tightening Torque

Union Nut

Joint Body

Nm

kgf m

lbf ft

19
22
27
36
41
50

17
19
22
30, 32
36
46

29
39
78.5
157
205
255

3
4
8
16
21
26

22
29
69
116
152.5
188

NOTE - Tightening torque for the non-union type 37 male joint is the same as the 37 female union joint.

W1-2-6

EX255-EX285

TIGHTENING TORQUE
O-ring Seal Joint
O-ring (6) seats against the end face of adaptor (7) to
seal pressure oil.
7

IMPORTANT
(1) Be sure to replace O-ring (6) with a new one when
reconnecting.
(2) Before tightening union nut (9), confirm that Oring (6) is seated correctly in O-ring groove (8).
Tightening union nut (9) with O-ring (6) displaced
will damage O-ring (6), resulting in oil leakage.

10

Joint body
SM1014

(3) Take care not to damage O-ring groove (8) or


sealing face (10). Damage to O-ring (6) will cause
oil leakage.
(4) If union nut (9) is found to be loose, causing oil
leakage, do not tighten it to stop the leak. Instead,
replace O-ring (6) with a new one, then tighten union
nut (9) after confirming that O-ring (6) is securely
seated in place.

Wrench Size

Tightening Torque

Union
Nut

Joint
Body

Nm

kgf m

lbf ft

27

22
30, 32
36
46

93
175
205
320

9.5
18
21
33

69
130
152
240

36
41
50

EX255-EX285

W1-2-7

TIGHTENING TORQUE
Screwed-In Connection

PT

PF
30

IMPORTANT - Many types of screwed-in connections are used for hose connections.
Be sure to confirm that the thread pitch and thread type
(tapered or straight) are the correct type before using
any screw-in connection.
Male Tapered Thread

Male Straight Thread


SM1015

Male Tapered Thread


Wrench

Tightening Torque

Joint Body

Nm

kgf m

lbf ft

17, 19
19, 22
27, 22
36, 32
41
50
60

34
49
93
157
205
320
410

3.5
5
9.5
16
21
33
42

25
36
69
116
152.5
240
300

Internal Thread

Seal Tape Application


Seal tape is used to seal clearances between male and
female threads, so as to prevent any leakage between
threads.
Be sure to apply just enough seal tape to fill up thread
clearances. Do not overwrap.

Clearance

External Thread

SM1016

Leave one to two pitch threads uncovered

Application Procedure
Confirm that the thread surface is clean, free of dirt
or damage.
Apply seal tape around threads as shown. Wrap
seal tape in the same direction as the threads.

SM1017

Low-Pressure-Hose Clamp Tightening Torque

T-Bolt Type

Worm Gear Type

Low-pressure-hose clamp tightening torque differs


depending on the type of clamp.
See below for correct tightening torque of each type of
low-pressure-hose clamp.
T-Bolt Type Band Clamp:
4.4 N m (0.45 kgf m, 3.25 lbf ft )
Worm Gear Type Band Clamp:
5.9 to 6.9 N m (0.6 to 0.7 kgf m, 4.3 to 5.1 lbf ft )
SM1018

SM1019

W1-2-8

EX255-EX285

TIGHTENING TORQUE
WRONG

Connecting Hose

RIGHT

WARNING
1) When replacing hoses, be sure to use only
genuine parts. Using hoses other than genuine
hoses may cause oil leakage, hose rupture or
separation of fitting, possibly resulting in a fire
on the machine.
(2) Do not install hoses kinked. Application of high
oil pressure, vibration, or an impact to a kinked
hose may result in oil leakage, hose rupture or
separation of fitting. Utilize print marks on
hoses when installing hoses to prevent hose
from being installed kinked.
(3) If hoses rub against each other, wear to the
hoses will result, leading to hose rupture.
Take necessary measures to protect hoses
from rubbing against each other.
Take care that hoses do not come into contact
with moving parts or sharp objects.

SM1020

WRONG

RIGHT

Rubbing Against Each Other

SM1021

WRONG
Clamp

RIGHT
Clamp

Rubbing
SM1022

WRONG

RIGHT

Rubbing
Clamp
SM1023

SECTION 2

EX255-EX285

UPPERSTRUCTURE

CONTENTS
Group 1 -

Cab

Remove and Install Cab ....................... W2-1-1

Group 2 -

Counterweight

Remove and Install Counterweight ....... W2-2-1

Group 3 -

Main Frame

Remove and Install Main frame ............ W2-3-1

Group 4 -

Pump Device

Remove and Install Pump Device ........ W2-4-1


Disassemble Pump Device .................. W2-4-2
Assemble Pump Device ..................... W2-4-10
Disassemble Regulator ...................... W2-4-22
Assemble Regulator ........................... W2-4-24
Disassemble and Assemble
Pilot Pump ......................................... W2-4-26
Maintenance Standard ....................... W2-4-28

Group 5 -

Control Valve

Remove and Install Control Valve ......... W2-5-1


Disassemble Control Valve 1 ................ W2-5-2
Assemble Control Valve 1-1 ................. W2-5-6
Assemble Control Valve 1-2 ................. W2-5-8
Disassemble Control Valve 2 .............. W2-5-10
Assemble Control Valve 2-1 ............... W2-5-14
Assemble Control Valve 2-2 ............... W2-5-16
Disassemble Control Valve 3 .............. W2-5-18
Assemble Control Valve 3-1 ............... W2-5-22
Assemble Control Valve 3-2 ............... W2-5-26
Disassemble Control Valve 4 .............. W2-5-28
Assemble Control Valve 4-1 ............... W2-5-32
Assemble Control Valve 4-2 ............... W2-5-34
Disassemble Control Valve 5 .............. W2-5-38
Assemble Control Valve 5 .................. W2-5-40

Group 6 -

Swing Device

Remove and Install Swing Device ........ W2-6-1


Disassemble Swing Device (EX255) .... W2-6-2
Assemble Swing Device (EX255) ......... W2-6-6
Disassemble Swing Device (EX285) .. W2-6-12
Assemble Swing Device (EX285) ....... W2-6-16
Disassemble Swing Motor (EX255) .... W2-6-22
Assemble Swing Motor (EX255) ......... W2-6-26
Disassemble Swing Motor (EX285) .... W2-6-30
Assemble Swing Motor (EX285) ......... W2-6-34
Disassemble and Assemble
Parking Brake Release Valve (EX285) W2-6-38
Maintenance Standard ....................... W2-6-39

Group 7 -

Pilot Valve

Remove and Install Right Pilot Valve .... W2-7-1


Remove and Install Left Pilot Valve ...... W2-7-4
Remove and Install Travel
Pilot Valve ............................................ W2-7-7
Disassemble Right and Left
Pilot Valve ............................................ W2-7-8
Assemble Right and Left
Pilot Valve .......................................... W2-7-10
Disassemble Travel Pilot Valve ........... W2-7-14
Assemble Travel Pilot Valve ............... W2-7-16
Positioning Pilot Valve
(Triple Articulation Version) ................. W2-7-20
Special Tools ...................................... W2-7-31

Group 8 -

Pilot Shut-off Valve

Remove and Install Pilot


Shut-off Valve ...................................... W2-8-1
Disassemble Pilot Shut-off Valve ......... W2-8-2
Assemble Pilot Shut-off Valve .............. W2-8-4

Group 9 -

Shockless Valve

Remove and Install Shockless Valve ... W2-9-1


Disassemble and Assemble
Shockless Valve .................................. W2-9-2

Group 10 -

Solenoid Valve Unit

Remove and Install Solenoid


Valve Unit .......................................... W2-10-1
Disassemble Proportional
Solenoid Valve ................................... W2-10-2
Assemble Proportional
Solenoid Valve ................................... W2-10-4

Group 11 -

Pilot Relief Valve Unit

Remove and Install Pilot Relief


Valve Unit .......................................... W2-11-1
Disassemble Pilot Relief Valve ........... W2-11-2
Assemble Pilot Relief Valve ............... W2-11-4

EX255-EX285

W2-1-1

CAB
REMOVE AND INSTALL CAB
Remove Cab
1. Remove nuts (2) and seat (1).
: 13 mm

1
2
SM1125

2. Loosen bolts (6) (3 used) and bolts (4) (4 used)


behind the cab and remove rear cover (5).

: 13 mm
4

3. Loosen bolts (8) to remove rear under cover (7).


: 13 mm

6
SM1126

4. Remove filter (20). Loosen screws (9) to remove


duct (10) from the cab.

20
9
10
SM1127

W2-1-2

EX255-EX285

CAB
5. Disconnect cable connectors (11, relais), (12, antenna, ceiling lamp and windshield wiper), (13,
loudspeaker) behind the cab and ground (14) inside
the cab.

12
13

11

SM5526

6. Remove washer vinyl hose (15) behind the cab.

SM5509

7. Remove cap (21) from duct cover (16). Loosen


screws (17) to remove duct cover (16).

21

17

16

SM1130

8. While pushing the mating surface of duct (18)


toward the rear side of the cab, remove duct (18).

Mating surface of duct

18

SM1131

EX255-EX285

W2-1-3

CAB
9. Attaccare la cabina al paranco utilizzando cinghie
di sollevamento.

WARNING
The approximate weight of cab:
250 kg (551 lb)

SM1132

10. Remove bolts (19) and nuts (22).


: 17 mm
19

: 24 mm
: 8 mm
22

SM1133

11. Carefully remove cab.

SM1134

W2-1-4

EX255-EX285

CAB
Installation

WARNING
The approximate weight of cab:
250 kg (551 lb)

1. Attach cab to hoist using straps.


Install cab onto frame.
SM1134

2. Tighten bolts (19) and nuts (22).


: 17 mm

19

: 49 N m (5 kgfm, 36 lbf ft)


22
: 24 mm
: 205 N m (21 kgf m, 152 lbf ft)
: 8 mm
SM1133

: 64 N m (6.5 kgf m, 47 lbf ft)

3. Install duct (10) to the cab with screws (9).


Install filter (20) into duct (10).

: 4.9 N m (0.5 kgf m, 3.6 lbf ft)

20
9
10

4. Install harness connectors (11, relais), (12, antenna, ceiling lamp and windshield wiper), (13,
loudspeaker) behind the cab and ground (14)
inside the cab.

SM1127

12
13

: 19.5 N m (2 kgf m, 14.5 lbf ft)

11

SM5526

EX255-EX285

W2-1-5

CAB
5. Connect washer vinyl hose (15) at the rear of the
cab inside.

SM5509

6. Install rear under cover (7) with bolts (8).

: 13 mm
: 19.5 N m (2 kgf m, 14.5 lbf ft)
4

7. Install rear cover (5) with bolts (6) (3 used) and


bolts (4) (4 used).
: 13 mm
: 19.5 N m (2 kgf m, 14.5 lbf ft)
6
SM1126

8. Push duct (18) toward the front of the cab to insert


it into the front duct.

Mating surface of duct

18

SM1131

W2-1-6

EX255-EX285

CAB
9. Install duct cover (16) with screws (17).
Install caps (21) onto duct cover (16).

21

17

16

SM1130

10. Secure seat (1) with nuts (2).


: 13 mm
: 19.5 N m (2 kgf m, 14.5 lbf ft)

1
2
SM1125

EX255-EX285

W2-2-1

COUNTERWEIGHT
REMOVE AND INSTALL COUNTERWEIGHT
1

Removal

WARNING
Approximate weight of counterweight:
5 700 kg (12 566 lb)

1. Remove caps (1) from counterweight.


Install eye-bolts to the counterweight.

SM1135

Eye-bolts: M36, Pitch 4.0

2. Attach wire rope (2) to eye-bolts using shackles.


Take out slack of wire rope by applying tension
slowly with a crane or hoist.

SM1136

3. Remove bolts (3).


Lift counterweight using a crane or hoist.
: 46 mm

SM1137

4. Lower the counterweight on proper stand.

SM1138

W2-2-2

EX255-EX285

COUNTERWEIGHT
Installation

WARNING
Approx. weight of counterweight:
5 700 kg (12 566 lb)

1. Attach lifting tools to counterweight.


Lift counterweight (4) and install it onto the frame.
Install bolts (3) and washers to counterweight and
tighten temporarily.

4
3

: 46 mm

SM1137

2. Remove wire rope.


Tighten the bolts with a power wrench (6) and
torque wrench (7).
: 46 mm
: 1 570 N m (160 kgf m, 1 157 lbf ft)

3. Remove the eye-bolts.


Install caps (1) to counterweight.

SM1139

SM1135

EX255-EX285

W2-3-1

MAIN FRAME
REMOVE AND INSTALL MAIN FRAME
WARNING
Escaping fluid under pressure can penetrate the skin, causing serious injury.
Avoid the hazard by relieving pressure before disconnecting hydraulic or other lines.
Hydraulic oil may be hot just after operation. Hot hydraulic oil may spout, possibly causing severe burns.
Be sure to wait for oil and components to cool before starting work.
The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly off if removed without releasing internal pressure first. Push the air release
valve on top of the hydraulic oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
Preparation
1. Park the machine on a firm, level surface.
2. Stop the engine. Push the air release valve on top
of the hydraulic oil tank to release any remaining
pressure.
Refer to "Hydraulic Circuit Pressure Release Procedure" on page W4-2-12.

3. Remove hydraulic oil tank cap. Connect a vacuum


pump to maintain negative pressure in the hydraulic oil tank.

NOTE - Be sure to run the vacuum pump continuously


while working.

Removal
WARNING
Approximate weight of cab: 250 kg (551 lb)

1. Remove cab assembly. (See Cab section)

: 24 mm, 17 mm, 13 mm
: 8 mm
SM1134

WARNING
Approximate weight of counterweight:
5 700 kg (12 566 lb)

2. Remove the counterweight.


(See Counterweight section)
: 46 mm
SM1136

W2-3-2

EX255-EX285

MAIN FRAME

WARNING
Approx. weight of front attachment assembly:
EX255 monobloc: 4550 kg (10 031 lb)
EX255 triple articulation: 4890 kg (10 780 lb)
EX285 monobloc: 5600 kg (12 346 lb)
EX285 triple articulation: 5900 kg (13 007 lb)

3. Remove front attachment assembly from the


upperstructure. (See Front Attachment section)
: 19 mm, 30 mm, 36 mm, 41 mm

SM1140

4. Drain hydraulic oil from the hydraulic oil tank, and


disconnect hydraulic lines from the control valve to
the center joint on top of the center joint.
Disconnect drain hose, and remove the fitting and
stopper from the center joint.
: 19 mm, 22 mm, 27 mm, 36 mm
SM1141

EX255-EX285

W2-3-3

MAIN FRAME

WARNING
Approximate weight of main frame:
EX255: 4000 kg (8818 lb)
EX285: 4500 kg (9921 lb)

5. Attach wire ropes to the front and rear of main


frame. See wire ropes taut using a crane. Use chain
blocks for easy adjustment of wire rope lengths and
to level the frame.

Rear
SM1142

IMPORTANT - Make sure rear slings do not touch


engine.

Front

SM1143

SM1144

6. Put matching marks on swing bearing and main


frame.
Remove bolts (14) from the swing bearing.
: 32 mm

14
SM1380

W2-3-4

EX255-EX285

MAIN FRAME
7. Lift main frame slightly from undercarriage.
Level main frame by adjusting the chain blocks.
Remove main frame.

SM1146

EX255-EX285

W2-3-5

MAIN FRAME
Installation
13

WARNING
Approximate weight of main frame:
EX255: 4000 kg (8818 lb)
EX285: 4500 kg (9921 lb)

1. Fasten hoist to front and rear of main frame.


Level main frame by adjusting chain blocks (13)
and lower main frame onto undercarriage.
Align the matching mark on the swing bearing with
that on the main frame.
SM1146

2. Install bolts (14) on the swing bearing and tighten


temporary.
Install main frame and tighten bolts to specification.
: 32 mm
Upperstructure side
: 640 N m (65 kgf m, 470 lbf ft)

14
SM1380

3. Install fitting (10) and connect hose (8) to the


center joint.

: 19 mm

: 34 N m (3.5 kgf m, 25 lbf ft)

Connect lines (4 to 7).


: 22 mm, 27 mm, 36 mm
: 39 N m (4 kgf m, 29 lbf ft)

: 93 N m (9.5 kgf m, 69 lbf ft)

Install stopper (9).


: 36 mm
: 175 N m (18 kgf m, 130 lbf ft)

10
SM1141

W2-3-6

EX255-EX285

MAIN FRAME

WARNING
Approx. weight of front attachment assembly:
EX255 monobloc: 4550 kg (10 031 lb)
EX255 triple articulation: 4890 kg (10 780 lb)
EX285 monobloc: 5600 kg (12 346 lb)
EX285 triple articulation: 5900 kg (13 007 lb)

4. Install front attachment assembly (3).


(See Front Attachment section)
: 19 mm
: 29.5 N m (3 kgf m, 21.5 lbf ft)
: 30 mm
: 540 N m (55 kgf m, 400 lbf ft)
: 36 mm
: 137 N m (14 kgf m, 101 lbf ft)
3

: 41 mm

SM1140

: 205 N m (21 kgf m, 152 lbf ft)

WARNING
Approximate weight of counterweight:
5 700 kg (12 566 lb)
1
5. Install counterweight (1).
(See Counterweight in this section)
: 46 mm
: 1 570 N m (160 kgf m, 1 157 lbf ft)

SM1136

WARNING
Approximate weight of cab: 250 kg (551 lb)

6. Install cab (2).


(See Cab in this section)
2
: 24 mm
: 205 N m (21 kgf m, 159 lbf ft)
: 17 mm
: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 lbf ft)
: 13 mm
: 20 N m (2 kgf m, 14 lbf ft)
: 8 mm
: 64 N m (6.5 kgf m, 47 lbf ft)

SM1134

EX255-EX285

W2-3-7

MAIN FRAME
7. Fill the hydraulic oil tank with hydraulic oil to the
specified level.
Run the engine at slow idle. Check hose connections for any oil leakage.

SM1147

W2-3-8

EX255-EX285

MAIN FRAME
NOTES:

EX255-EX285

W2-4-1

PUMP DEVICE
REMOVE AND INSTALL PUMP DEVICE
WARNING
Escaping fluid under pressure can penetrate the skin, causing serious injury.
Avoid the hazard by relieving pressure before disconnecting hydraulic or other lines.
Hydraulic oil may be hot just after operation. Hot hydraulic oil may spout, possibly causing severe burns. Be
sure to wait for oil to cool before starting work.
The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly off if removed without releasing internal pressure first. Push the air release
valve on top of the hydraulic oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
Preparation
1. Park the machine on a firm, level surface.
2. Stop the engine. Push the air release valve on top
of the hydraulic oil tank to release any remaining
pressure.

3. Remove hydraulic oil tank cap. Connect a vacuum


pump to maintain negative pressure in the hydraulic oil tank.
NOTE - Be sure to run the vacuum pump continuously
while working.

Removal

Air bleed plug

1. Disconnect connectors.
WARNING
Pump device weight: 170 kg (375 lb)

10
3

9
2. Disconnect hoses (1 to 4, 6 to 10) and pipe (5) from
the pump device.
: 19 mm, 22 mm, 27 mm, 36 mm
: 8 mm, 10 mm

4
8

7
3. Attach eyebolts (M12, Pitch 1.75, Length 22) to the
pump device, then connect to a hoist.
4. Remove pump device mounting bolts to remove
pump device.

Installation
1. Install the pump device with pump device mounting
bolts.
2. Connect hoses (1 to 4, 6 to 10) and pipes (5).
3. Connect connectors.
IMPORTANT - Be sure to check hydraulic oil level and
oil leakage, after assembling.
Bleed the air from the pump. (Refer to W1-1-2)
: 41 mm

SM1044

: 17 mm
Wrench
Size (mm)

Tightening Torque
Nm

Remark

kgf m lbf ft

: 27

93

9.5

69

Hose

: 36

69

51

Hose

: 10

108

11

80

Bolt

: 17

49

36

Bolt

:8

49

36

Bolt

: 19

29

22

Hose

: 22

49

36

Pipe

: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)

W2-4-2

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
DISASSEMBLE PUMP DEVICE
69

97

79

81

97
70

98

98

68
65
66
17

24

21
22

87
20
74 8
87 9

67
73
38
72

66 68

74
19

83

11
24
84

12

62
82
2

20
8
9

13

38
67

38
49

18
12

38
49

61

13

55

SM1045

52

36
47

23

48
15
34

45

37

46
1

32
16

31

30

40
14

39

41

28

43

3
54
53
55

26 25

SM1046

5 4

19

EX255-EX285

W2-4-3

PUMP DEVICE
88
51

96

50

74

74

85

75

86

64

60

93
38

38

71
89
44
92

35
75

35

64

75

35 33

57

58

42

29 33
27
77
76

91
56 59

33

78

96

35
77
76

35 90

29

88
33 75

78
SM1047

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

Gear Casing
Pump Casing
Pilot Gear
Gear Shaft
Bearing (2 Used)
Retaining Ring
Retaining Ring
Bearing (2 Used)
Bearing Nut (2 Used)
Drive Disc
Oil Seal (2 Used)
Retaining Ring (2 Used)
Gear
Gear
Retaining Ring (2 Used)
Drive Disc
Spring Pin (2 Used)
Plunger (14 Used)
Spacer Ring (2 Used)
Bolt (6 Used)
Spring Washer (6 Used)
Packing
Bearing (2 Used)
Oil Seal
Retaining Ring
Valve Plate
Pilot Pump
Pin (4 Used)
Socket Bolt (2 Used)
Spring Washer (2 Used)
Washer (2 Used)
Pin (4 Used)

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
64

Adapter (2 Used)
Retaining Ring (12 Used)
Plug
Level Gauge
O-Ring (6 Used)
Pipe Gauge
Socket Bolt (2 Used)
Packing
Servo Piston (2 Used)
Plug
Set Screw (2 Used)
N sensor
(Engine Speed Sensor)
O-Ring
Washer
Socket Bolt
Plug (2 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
Stopper (2 Used)
Plug (2 Used)
Adapter
Plug
Fitting plug (2 Used)
Servo Pipe
Clamp (2 Used)
Bolt
Spring Washer
Socket Bolt (12 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
Thrust Ring
Pump Pressure Sensor
(2 Used)

65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
96
97
98

Pin (2 Used)
Center Shaft (2 Used)
Plug (2 Used)
Spring (2 Used)
Regulator (2 Used)
Cylinder Block (2 Used)
Valve Plate
Spring Pin (4 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
O-Ring (20 Used)
Lever (4 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Link (2 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Pipe
Adapter (2 Used)
Clamp
Socket Bolt
Spring Washer
Backup Ring
O-Ring
O-Ring (4 Used)
Socket Bolt (16 Used)
Spring Pin (2 Used)
Stopper (2 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Selector Head
Spring Washer(16 Used)
Socket Bolt (8 Used)
Spring Washer(8 Used)

W2-4-4

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
69

79

81

97

SM1045

83

84

82
2
88
51

96

50

74

74

60

93
64

44
92

64

36
47

57

58

42

48
91
56 59
96

34
45

90
88

46
1

43
53
55
SM1046

SM1048

EX255-EX285

W2-4-5

PUMP DEVICE
Disassemble Pump Device
1. Remove plug (43) to drain oil.
Drain oil: Approx. 1.0 L (1.06 US qt)

8. Remove socket bolts (88), spring washers (96),


stoppers (90), (51) and O-rings (91), (50), (74) from
selector head (93).
: 6 mm

: 8 mm

2. Remove plug (36) and adapters (34).

IMPORTANT - Be sure to heat set screw (44) to


remove it. LOCTITE 829 was applied to set screw (44)
when installed.

: 17 mm, 36 mm
9. Remove set screws (44), pins (92) and servo
pistons (42) from selector head (93).
3. Loosen socket bolt (83) and then remove spring
washer (84), clamp (82) and N sensor (45) connectors from pump casing (2).
: 5 mm

: 6 mm

10. Remove socket bolt (48), spring washer (47), N


sensor (45) and O-ring (46) from gear casing (1).
: 5 mm

WARNING
Pump device weight: 170 kg (375 lb)

4. Place the pump device with the transmission side


positioned to the bottom side and secure it.

5. Remove bolt (58), adapter (53) and fitting plug (55).


Remove spring washer (59), clamp (57) and servo
pipe (56) from selector head (93).
: 13, 17, 19 mm

WARNING
Selector head weight: 30 kg (66 lb)

6. Remove socket bolts (60) from selector head (93).


Remove selector head (93) assembly from pump
casing (2).
: 10 mm

7. Remove pump pressure sensors (64) from selector


head (93).
: 27 mm

11.Remove pipe (79) and adapters (81) from regulators (69).


: 22 mm

W2-4-6

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE

85

75

86

71

35

89
75

35
75

35 33
29 33

27
77
76

33

78

35
77

35

29

SM1047

76

33

75

78

69

97

81

97
70

98

98

68
65
66

74
21
22

73
87

66 68

74
19

SM1045

19

EX255-EX285

W2-4-7

PUMP DEVICE
12. Loosen socket bolts (97) and remove spring washers (98), regulators (69) and O-rings (73), (74), (87)
from pump casing (2).
: 8 mm

13. Remove backup ring (85), O-ring (86) and spring


pins (89).

IMPORTANT - Valve plates (27) and (71) are exclusively used in the right and left pumps respectively.
Take care not to mistake the up and down positions.

14. Remove retaining rings (35) and pins (29) to


remove valve plates (27), (71).
: 7 mm

15. Remove cylinder blocks (70), center shafts (66),


springs (68) and plungers (19) from pump casing
(2).

16. Remove links assemblies (77) from pump casing


(2).

17. Remove retaining rings (35), pins (78), (33), (76)


and levers (75) from links (77).

WARNING
Pump casing weight: 43 kg (95 lb)

18. Attach the pump casing to crane or hoist using


wire ropes.
Loosen bolts (21) and remove pump casing (2)
from gear casing (1).
: 24 mm

W2-4-8

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE

17
24
20
8

SM1045

11
24
62
12

20
2

8
9

13

18
12
61

13

52

23
15

32

31

30

16
1
14
28
5

26 25

SM1046

5 4

EX255-EX285

W2-4-9

PUMP DEVICE
19. Remove spring pins (18) from pump casing (2).
Remove packing (23) from gear casing (1).

15

Aligning Mark

14

IMPORTANT - If aligning marks are not made, it is


very hard to align pump timing when reassembling.
17
20. Put three aligning marks on each mashed parts:
between gear (14) and drive disc (11) spline, gear
(15) and drive disc (17) spline, gears (14) and (15),
as illustrated.

11
16

16

SM1049

21. Remove retaining rings (16) and gears (14) and


(15) from to drive discs (11) and (17).

22. Remove retaining rings (13) and oil seals (12) from
drive discs (11) and (17).
75301492
23. Loosen plugs (52) to remove O-rings (61). Using a
press, pull drive discs (11) and (17) assembly out
of pump casing (2). Then, remove thrust ring (62).

24. Using special tool (75301492), remove bearing


nuts (9) from drive discs (11) and (17).
SM1050

25. Using a press, remove bearings (8), (24) and


spacer rings (20) from drive discs (11) and (17).

26. Loosen bolts (30) to remove pilot pump (28) from


gear casing (1).
: 6 mm
75301488
27. Remove retaining rings (6) and (7) from gear
casing (1). Pull off upper side bearing (5) and gear
shaft (4) using special tool (75301488).

28. Remove pilot gear (3) from gear casing (1). Then,
pull off the other side bearing (5).

29. Remove retaining ring (26) and oil seal (25) from
gear casing (1).

SM1051

W2-4-10

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
ASSEMBLE PUMP DEVICE
34

36

59

58
10

57

56

55

SM3017

53

37

39 40

41

43

64

28

60

30

31

32

1
3
4
5
6
7
16
14
15
18
23
45-46
47-48

98

97

82

83

84

SM1053

EX255-EX285

W2-4-11

PUMP DEVICE

74 51

50 88 79

86
35
81 85 87 74 69 73 76 78 77 65 66 2 8 9 12

13
16
17

68

11

75

72

44
92
25
26
62
29 35
42
93

38
49
71
27

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Gear Casing
Pump Casing
Pilot Gear
Gear Shaft
Bearing (2 Used)
Retaining Ring
Retaining Ring
Bearing (2 Used)
Bearing Nut (2 Used)
Main pump
Drive Disc
Oil Seal (2 Used)
Retaining Ring (2 Used)
Gear
Gear
Retaining Ring (2 Used)
Drive Disc
Spring Pin (2 Used)
Plunger (14 Used)
Spacer Ring (2 Used)
Bolt (6 Used)
Spring Washer (6 Used)
Packing
Bearing (2 Used)
Oil Seal
Retaining Ring
Valve Plate
Pilot Pump
Pin (4 Used)
Socket Bolt (2 Used)
Spring Washer (2 Used)
Washer (2 Used)

91 96 90 89 33 70 19 52 24 20
61
35

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
64

Pin (4 Used)
Adapter (2 Used)
Retaining Ring (12 Used)
Plug
Level Gauge
O-Ring (6 Used)
Pipe Gauge
Socket Bolt (2 Used)
Packing
Servo Piston (2 Used)
Plug
Set Screw (2 Used)
N sensor
(Engine Speed Sensor)
O-Ring
Washer
Socket Bolt
Plug (2 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
Stopper (2 Used)
Plug (2 Used)
Adapter
Plug
Fitting plug (2 Used)
Servo Pipe
Clamp (2 Used)
Bolt
Spring Washer
Socket Bolt (12 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
Thrust Ring
Pump Pressure Sensor (2 Used)

SM1054

22-21

65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
96
97
98

Pin (2 Used)
Center Shaft (2 Used)
Plug (2 Used)
Spring (2 Used)
Regulator (2 Used)
Cylinder Block (2 Used)
Valve Plate
Spring Pin (2 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
O-Ring (20 Used)
Lever (4 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Link (2 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Pipe
Adapter (2 Used)
Clamp
Socket Bolt
Spring Washer
Backup Ring
O-Ring
O-Ring (4 Used)
Socket Bolt (16 Used)
Spring Pin (2 Used)
Stopper (2 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Selector Head
Spring Washer(16 Used)
Socket Bolt (8 Used)
Spring Washer(8 Used)

W2-4-12

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
34

1
3

SM3017

4
5

43

SM1053

8
17
11

SM1055

24

20

EX255-EX285

W2-4-13

PUMP DEVICE
Assemble Pump Device

1. Drive bearing (5) into gear casing (1). Install pilot


gear (3). Drive in gear shaft (4) so that the spline
aligns with that of pilot gear (3).

1
3

2. Drive the other bearing (5) onto gear shaft (4).


5
3. Install retaining ring (7) to gear casing (1) and
retaining ring (6) to gear shaft (4).

4. Wind seal tape around adapters (34) (2 used) and


tighten them to gear casing (1).
: 36 mm

SM1056

20

20

: 69 N m (7 kgf m, 51 Ibf ft)


24

24

5. Tighten plug (43).


: 8 mm

11

17

: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 Ibf ft)


SM1057

6. Heat inner race of bearings (24) and (8) to 50 to


80 C (122 to 176 F). Apply a film of hydraulic oil
to inner race of bearings (24), then install bearings
(24) onto drive discs (11) and (17) using a press.
75301492

7. Apply a film of hydraulic oil to inner race of


bearings (8), then install spacer rings (20) and
bearings (8) onto drive discs (11) and (17) using a
press.

8. Apply a film of hydraulic oil to bearing nuts (9) (2


used) thread.
Tighten bearing nuts (9) until they come in contact
with bearings (8), using special tool (75301492).

SM1050

9. Rotate bearings (8) 2 to 3 turns for break-in, using


special tool (75301491).
10. Follow the above three steps to adjust starting
torque to specification.
Starting torque specification:
2.160.49 N m (0.220.05 kgf m, 1.590.36 Ibf ft)

75301491
9
8

20
IMPORTANT - If starting torque is increased over the
specification, loosen bearing nut (9) then tap drive
discs (11) and (17) shaft end to release load. Retry
steps 8. to 10. to adjust the starting torque.

24
11-17
SM1058

W2-4-14

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
2

62

11

17

SM1059

24

16

14
15

SM1053

12

13

SM1055

52-61

EX255-EX285

W2-4-15

PUMP DEVICE
11. Install thrust ring (62) into pump casing (2). (Drive
disc (11) side only.)
12. Heat pump casing (2) to 50 to 80 C (122 to 176 F).
Apply a film of hydraulic oil to the outer circumference of roller bearings (8) and (24). Install drive
disc (11) and (17) assemblies into pump casing (2).

75301490
12

13. Apply a film of grease to O-rings (61) (2 used) then


install them onto plugs (52) (2 used).
Tighten plugs (52) to pump casing (2).
: 19 mm
: 34 N m (3.5 kgf m, 25 Ibf ft)
14. Install special tools (75301489 and 75301490)
over the spline parts of drive discs (11) and (17) to
protect oil seals (12) from being damaged. If the
special tools are not available, wind adhesive
tapes over the spline parts.
IMPORTANT - Apply a film of grease to oil seal (12) (2
used) lip.

Shaft side
Long
Shaft
Side

15. Drive oil seal (12) (2 used) as illustrated. Remove


the special tools.
16. Install retaining rings (13) (2 used).

SM1060

75301489

Short
Shaft
Side

75301493

When replacing drive discs (11), (17) and / or


transmission gears (14), (15)
IMPORTANT - Install special tool with the D mark
facing toward long drive disc (11) side.
M8x1,25

SM1061

17. Install special tool (75301493) to drive discs (11),


(17).
18. Rotate drive discs (11), (17) clockwise, as viewed
from the shaft end side to remove circumferential
play between the special tool and drive discs (11),
(17).
15

19. Install gear (15) and retaining ring (16) onto drive
disc (17).
20. Install gear (14) so that both splines on drive disc
(11) and gear (15) teeth, can correctly engage with
those of gear (14). Install retaining ring (16) onto
drive disc (11).
IMPORTANT - Although drive disc (11) is held
unrotable with special tool (75301493), it may be
necessary to jolt drive disc (11) in order to install gear (14).
When not replacing drive discs (11), (17) and/or
transmission gears (14),(15)
21. Align the marks for drive disc (11) and gear (14). Also,
align the marks for drive disc (17) and gear (15).

Aligning Mark

14

17
11
16

16

SM1049

W2-4-16

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE

28

30

31

32

53
39 40
55

41

28

SM3017

14

23
18

22-21
35
76 78 77

17
11

75

33-35

SM1054

SM1053

EX255-EX285

W2-4-17

PUMP DEVICE
22. Install spring pins (18) (2 used) and packing (23) to
gear casing (1).

WARNING
Pump casing weight: 43 kg (95 Ib)

23. Sling pump casing (2) with a crane and install it to


gear casing (1) so that pilot gear (3) engages gear
(14).

24. Tighten bolts (21) (6 used) with spring washers


(22) (6 used).
: 24 mm
: 147 N m (15 kgf m, 109 Ibf ft)

25. Apply THREEBOND 1215 to gear casing (1) surface.


Install pilot pump (28) to gear casing (1), then
tighten socket bolts (30) (2 used) with spring
washers (31) (2 used) and washers (32) (2 used).
: 8 mm
: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 Ibf ft)

26. Install adapter (53) and fitting plug (55) onto pilot
pump (28).
: 27 mm
: 93 N m (9.5 kgf m, 69 Ibf ft)
: 6 mm
: 34 N m (2 kgf m, 15 Ibf ft)

27. Install packing (41) and pipe gauge (39) to gear


casing (1).
Then tighten with socket bolts (40) (2 used).
: 6 mm
: 19.5 N m (2 kgf m, 15 Ibf ft)

28. With retaining rings (35) (2 used) installed to the


one side of pins (76) (2 used), drive pins (76) (2
used) into links (77) (2 used). Then, install
retaining rings (35) (2 used) to the other side of pins
(76) (2 used).

29. Install levers (75) (4 used), pins (33) (4 used), and


retaining rings (35) (4 used) to the U type end of
links (77) (2 used).
30. Install pins (78) (2 used) to links (77) (2 used).

W2-4-18

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE

74

86
85 87 74 69 73

78 77 65 66

68

17

75

11

44
92

35- 29
42
93

SM1054

89

70 19

45-46

47-48

98

97

SM1053

EX255-EX285

W2-4-19

PUMP DEVICE
31. Apply a film of hydraulic oil to the spherical
surface of drive discs (11) and (17) and insert
plungers (19) (7 used).

32. After applying grease to the hole of center shaft


(66) (2 used), install pins (65). Install center shafts
(66) into the center spherical surface section of
drive discs (11) and (17). Then, install springs (68)
(2 used).

33. Assemble plungers (19) (14 used) and center


shafts (66) (2 used) into cylinder blocks (70)
(2 used).

34. Pinch the tip of center shafts (66) with pliers to


rotate the center shaft and install pins (65)
(2 used) into the groove on cylinder blocks (70)
(2 used).

38. Install O-rings (73) (2 used), (74) (10 used), and


(87) (4 used) onto pump casing (2).
Install regulators (69) (2 used) onto pump casing
(2) using socket bolts (97) (8 used) and spring
washers (98) (8 used).
(Refer to "Assemble Regulator" on page W2-4-24.)
: 8 mm
: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 lbf ft)

39. Install backup ring (85), spring pins (89) (2 used)


and O-ring (86) into pump casing (2).
Install O-rings (74) (4 used) to selector head (93).

40. Apply a film of grease to O-ring (46). Install N


sensor (45) to gear casing (1) then tighten with
socket bolt (48) and washer (47).
: 5 mm
: 9.8 N m (1 kgf m, 7.2 lbf ft)

IMPORTANT - Take care not to damage the O-ring


(73) groove when driving in pins (78).

41. Assemble servo pistons (42) (2 used) and pins


(92) (2 used) to selector head (93).

35. After installing links (77) (2 used) assembly into


pump casing (2), drive pins (78) (2 used) into the
groove on the mounting surface of regulators (69)
so that the pin end is flush with the mounting
surface.

IMPORTANT - Apply LOCTITE LI829 to set screws


(44).

36. Apply a film of LOCTITE LI829 to the threads of


pins (29) (4 used). Then, tighten the pins (2 used)
into valve plates (27) and (71).
: 7 mm
: 9.8 N m (1 kgf m, 7.2 lbf ft)

37. Install pins (29) into the hole of levers (75).


Install retaining rings (35) (4 used).

IMPORTANT - Valve plates (27) and (71) are exclusively used in the right and left pumps respectively.
Replacing the right with the left or up-side-down is not
applicable. Install the valve plates so that the suction
port is positioned to the upper side of the center when
viewed from the front.

42. Tighten set screws (44) (2 used) to the smaller


diameter side of servo pistons (42) (2 used) to
secure pins (92) (2 used).
: 6 mm
: 34 N m (3.5 kgf m, 25 lbf ft)

W2-4-20

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
96
88 51

50

74

11

93

25
26

SM1054

91 88 90 89
96

34

56
59
58
57

36

82
83
84

93

55
64
60
SM3017

EX255-EX285

W2-4-21

PUMP DEVICE
43. Apply a film of grease to stoppers (51) (2 used),
(90) (2 used) and O-rings (50) (2 used), (91)
(2 used). Assemble O-rings (50) (2 used), (91)
(2 used) to stoppers (51) (2 used), (90) (2 used).
Install stoppers (51) (2 used), (90) (2 used) to
selector head (93), then tighten with spring
washers (96) (16 used) and socket bolts (88)
(16 used).
: 6 mm
: 19.5 N m (2 kgf m, 15 lbf ft)

50. Connect servo pipe (56) then clamp it using bolt


(58) and clamp (57).
: 13 mm
: 2.9 N m (0.3 kgf m, 25 lbf ft)

51. Fix the N sensor connector on pump casing (2)


using clamp (82), spring washer (84), and socket
bolt (83).
: 5 mm
: 10 N m (1 kgf m, 7.2 lbf ft)

WARNING
Selector head weight: 30 kg (66 lb)

44. Sling selector head (93) assembly with a crane.


Install O-ring (74) (6 used) to pump casing (2).
Install the selector head onto pump casing (2) so
that spring pins (89) (2 used) align with the pin
holes on the selector head. Then tighten socket
bolts (60) (12 used).

52. Install special tool (75301490) to drive disc (11).


Apply a film of grease to oil seal (25) and install the
oil seal to drive disc (11). Remove special tool
(75301490) and drive in oil seal (25). Install retaining ring (26). If special tool (75301490) is not
available, wind tape around the spline of drive disc
(11) to protect the oil seal from being damaged
when installing.

: 10 mm
: 108 N m (11 kgf m, 80 lbf ft)

45. Tighten pump pressure sensors (64) (2 used) to


selector head (93).
: 27 mm
: 98 N m (10 kgf m, 72 lbf ft)

53. Supply oil into gear casing (1) through adapter (34)
about 1.0 liters (1.06 US qt). Tighten plug (36) to
adapter (34).
: 17 mm
: 69 N m (7 kgf m, 51 lbf ft)

54. Install level gauge to pipe gauge (39).

46. Temporarily tighten fitting plug (55) onto pump


casing (2).

47. Temporarily tighten clamps (57) (2 used) to selector head (93) with washer (59) and bolt (58).

75301490

25

48. Insert servo pipe (56) between clamps (57)


(2 used) and tighten the nut for fitting plug (55).
: 19 mm
: 34 N m (3.5 kgf m, 25 lbf ft)
49. Tighten servo pipe (56).
: 17 mm
: 34 N m (3.5 kgf m, 25 lbf ft)

SM1062

W2-4-22

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
DISASSEMBLE REGULATOR

49

24

27

28

20

21

14

34

15
29

17

17
12
16

16
14
SM1063

35

97-98

40

47 48

41

14

15

13

37-38

12

36

SM1064

1
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14

Regulator Casing
Sleeve A
Spool A
Load Cylinder
Load Piston
O-Ring
Backup Ring
O-Ring
Stopper (2 Used)
Stopper
O-Ring (3 Used)

15
16
17
20
21
24
27
28
29
34
35

O-Ring (2 Used)
Nut (2 Used)
Nut (2 Used)
Piston
Cylinder
Inner Stopper
Sleeve B
Spool B
Set Screw
Nut
Cover

36
37
38
40
41
47
48
49
97
98

Cover
Socket Bolt (8 Used)
Spring Washer (8 Used)
Plug
O-Ring
Spring
Spring
Spring
Socket Bolt (4 Used)
Spring Washer(4 Used)

EX255-EX285

W2-4-23

PUMP DEVICE
Disassemble Regulator
IMPORTANT - When disassembling the regulator, do
not disassemble adjusting parts (12), (16), (17), (29),
(34) unless necessary. If disassembled the performance curve of the regulator is changed. To adjust the
regulator, refer to the Operational Perform-ance Test.
Section in the Technical Manual (Troubleshooting).

1. Hold regulator casing (1) of regulator with a vice and


remove plug (40).
: 41 mm

2. Loosen socket bolts (37) to remove covers (36),


(35) assembly.
: 6 mm

3. Remove springs (47), (48) from regulator casing


(1).

4. Remove load cylinder (5) from regulator casing (1)


by pushing spool A (3).

5. Remove load piston (6), O-ring (7), (9) and backup


ring (8) from load cylinder (5).

6. Remove sleeve A (2) with spool A (3) from regulator


casing (1).

7. Remove spool A (3) from sleeve A (2).

8. Remove sleeve B (27), spool B (28) and spring (49)


from regulator casing (1).

9. Remove piston (20), O-ring (14) and cylinder (21)


from regulator casing (1).

W2-4-24

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
ASSEMBLE REGULATOR
49

24

27

28

20

21

14

34

15
29

17

17
12
16

16
14
SM1063

47 48

14

15

13

12

76
SM1066

79

35

97-98

40

41

37-38

36

SM1065

87

1
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
12
13
14
15
16

Regulator Casing
Sleeve A
Spool A
Load Cylinder
Load Piston
O-Ring
Backup Ring
O-Ring
Stopper (2 Used)
Stopper
O-Ring (3 Used)
O-Ring (2 Used)
Nut (2 Used)

17
20
21
24
27
28
29
34
35
36
37
38
40

Nut (2 Used)
Piston
Cylinder
Inner Stopper
Sleeve B
Spool B
Set Screw
Nut
Cover
Cover
Socket Bolt (8 Used)
Spring Washer (8 Used)
Plug

74

73

41
47
48
49
73
74
76
79
81
87
97
98

O-Ring
Spring
Spring
Spring
O-Ring
O-Ring (5 Used)
Pin
Pipe
Adapter
O-Ring (2 Used)
Socket Bolt (4 Used)
Spring Washer (4 Used)

EX255-EX285

W2-4-25

PUMP DEVICE
Assemble Regulator
IMPORTANT - Take care not to mistake the combination and direction of spool B (28) and sleeve B (27).
1. Apply a film of hydraulic oil to spool B (28) and
sleeve B (27).
Install spool B (28) into sleeve B (27) and install into
regulator casing (1).

2. Apply a film of hydraulic oil to spool A (3) and


sleeve A (2), install into regulator casing (1).

10. Install regulator casing assembly to pump casing,


then tighten with socket bolts (97) (4 used) and
spring washers (98) (4 used).
: 8 mm
: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 lbf ft)

IMPORTANT - Install the pin for the link in the groove


for sleeve B (27) and sleeve A (2) in regulator casing
(1). Using tape, hold the grooves for sleeve B (27) and
sleeve A (2) so that both grooves are aligned. Then,
after installing, be sure to remove the tape. Check
through the hole of plug (40) that pin (76) is surely
installed into sleeve B (27) and sleeve A (2).

3. Apply a film of grease to O-ring (7), (9) then install


O-rings (7), (9) and backup ring (8) to load cylinder
(5).

Before operating the pump, bleed air trapped in the


pump casing and fill the pump casing with hydraulic oil.

4. Install load piston (6) into load cylinder (5) and


install into regulator casing (1).

11. Tighten adapter (81) and pipe (79) onto regulator


casing (1).
: 19 mm

5. Apply a film of grease to O-rings (14) (2 used) then


install on stoppers (12) (2 used).
IMPORTANT - Stopper (13) length is different from
that of inner stopper (24).
Inner stopper (24) is the shortest.

6. Install cover (35) with spring (49) onto regulator


casing (1).
Install and tighten socket bolts (37) (4 used) and
spring washers (38) (4 used).

: 34 N m (3.5 kgf m, 25 lbf ft)


: 22 mm
: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 lbf ft)

12. Install O-ring (41) onto plug (40), tighten it onto


regulator casing (1).
: 41 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)

: 6 mm
: 19.8 N m (2 kgf m, 15 lbf ft)

7. Install O-ring (14), piston (20) in cylinder (21), and


install into regulator casing (1).

8. Install cover (36) with springs (48), (47) onto regulator casing (1)
Install and tighten socket bolts (37) (4 used) and
spring washers (38) (4 used).
: 6 mm
: 19.8 N m (2 kgf m, 15 lbf ft)

9. Apply a film of grease to O-rings (73), (74)


(5 used), (87) (2 used) and install them onto the
pump casing (2).

IMPORTANT - Be sure to fill the casing with hydraulic


oil before operating the pump.

W2-4-26

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
DISASSEMBLE AND ASSEMBLE PILOT PUMP

27
13
26

10

10

12

1
9

26
14

27
6
9
2
3

16
15

SM1066

7
12

EX255-EX285

W2-4-27

PUMP DEVICE
Item

Part Name

Q.ty Wrench Size


mm

Tightening Torque
lbf ft
kgf m
Nm

Remarks

Housing

Flange

Oil Seal

Retaining Ring

Seal

Cover

Backup Ring

10

Key

12

O-ring

13

Gear

14

Gear

15

Washer

16

Bolt

26

Bushing

Apply a film of hydraulic oil to


bushing when installing

27

Bushing

Apply a film of hydraulic oil to


bushing when installing

Apply grease to oil seal lip when


installing

Apply grease to seal when


installing

Apply grease to backup ring when


installing

Apply grease to O-ring when


installing

:17

39 to 44 4 to 4.5 29 to 33

W2-4-28

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
MAINTENANCE STANDARD
Pump device
Unit: mm (in)

Gear Backlash

Standard

Allowable Limit

Rimedy

0.68 (0.03)

1.5 (0.06)

Replace

Main Pump
1. Tooth thickness (Driving disc splines).
Unit: mm (in)
Standard

Allowable Limit

5.4 (0.21)

3.8 (0.15)

2. Sleeve diameter (Driving disc).


Unit: mm (in)
Standard

Allowable Limit

45 (1.77)

44.8 (1.76)

55 (2.17)

54.8 (2.16)

55 (2.17)

54.8 (2.16)

SM1068

3. Clearance between plunger and driving disc (b).


Unit: mm (in)
Standard

Allowable Limit

0.058 (0.002)

0.4 (0.016)

SM1069

4. Clearance between plunger (a) and cylinder


block (D).
(D - a)
Unit: mm (in)
Standard

Allowable Limit

0.043 (0.002)

0.08 (0.003)

D
a
SM1070

EX255-EX285

W2-4-29

PUMP DEVICE
5. Clearance between plunger and connecting rod.
Unit: mm (in)
Standard

Allowable Limit

0.15 (0.006)

0.4 (0.016)

Plunger

Connecting rod

SM1071

6. Clearance between small chamber (D) and servo


piston (a).
D-a
Unit: mm (in)
Standard

Allowable Limit

0.083 (0.003)

0.2 (0.008)

Small
Chamber
Side

D
a

7. Clearance between large chamber (D) and servo


piston (a).
D-a
Unit: mm (in)
Standard

Allowable Limit
a

0.079 (0.003)

0.2 (0.008)

8. Clearance between valve plate (D) and servo piston


(a).
D-a
Unit: mm (in)
Standard

Allowable Limit

0.051 (0.002)

0.3 (0.011)

Large
Chamber
Side

SM1072

SM1073

W2-4-30

EX255-EX285

PUMP DEVICE
NOTES

EX255-EX285

W2-5-1

CONTROL VALVE
REMOVE AND INSTALL CONTROL VALVE
WARNING
Escaping fluid under pressure can penetrate the skin, causing serious injury.
Avoid the hazard by relieving pressure before disconnecting hydraulic or other lines.
Hydraulic oil may be hot just after operation. Hot hydraulic oil may spout, possibly causing severe burns.
Be sure to wait for oil to cool before starting work.
The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly off if removed without releasing internal pressure first. Push the air release
valve on top of the hydraulic oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
Preparation
1. Park the machine on a firm, level surface.
2. Stop the engine. Push the air release valve on top
of the hydraulic oil tank to release any remaining
pressure.
Refer to Hydraulic Circuit Pressure Release Procedure on page W4-2-12.

3. Remove hydraulic oil tank cap. Connect a vacuum


pump to maintain negative pressure in the hydraulic oil tank.

Removal

1. Install control valve to frame and tighten the bolts.

NOTE - Attach caps to hoses and pipes.


Attach labels or tags to hoses and pipes, to aid in
assembly.

2. Connect all hoses, pipes and connectors to the


control valve.

1. Disconnect all hoses, pipes and connectors from


the control valve.
: 17 mm
: 9.8 N m (1 kgf m, 7 lbf ft)
: 19 mm
: 34 N m (3.5 kgf m, 25 lbf ft)
: 22 mm
: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 lbf ft)
: 36 mm
: 175 N m (18 kgf m, 130 lbf ft)
: 8 mm
: 64 N m (6.5 kgf m, 147 lbf ft)
: 10 mm
: 108 N m (11 kgf m, 80 lbf ft)

NOTE - Be sure to run the vacuum pump continuously


while working.

IMPORTANT - After completing installation:


Check hydraulic oil level. Add oil if necessary. Run the
engine. Check the engine components for any oil
leakage.
A B

D
E

SM1191

E D

WARNING
Control valve assembly weight: 240 kg (530 lb)
2. Remove control valve mounting bolts.
: 24 mm
: 205 N m (21 kgf m, 150 lbf ft)

Installation
SM1192

NOTE - Refer to Removal section above for wrench


sizes and tightening torques.

A = Swing
B = Arm I
C = Boom II

D = Auxiliary
E = Travel left

W2-5-2

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
DISASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 1

E = Travel Flow Control Valve


F = Pump Control Valve

E
3

4
5

17
17
18

12

19
20
F
21
55

22
39

40

40

51

41

39

39
35
38

38

23

37

24
25
26
27
28
35
29

42

30
43
31
44
34

39
36

32

33
SM1193

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
12
17
18
19
20
21

Plug (Restriction)
O-Ring
Plug
Spool
Seat
Spring
O-Ring
Plug
Pilot Plate
Socket Bolt
Lock Nut
Screw
Washer
O-Ring

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Plug
O-Ring
Spring
Seat
Spool
Sleeve
O-Ring
Spool
Sleeve
O-Ring
Seat
Retaining Ring
Spring
O-Ring

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
51
55

Housing (5-Spool Side)


O-Ring
O-Ring
O-Ring
Spring
Check Valve
Spring
Poppet
Sleeve
Check Valve
Pilot Plate

EX255-EX285

W2-5-3

CONTROL VALVE
Disassemble Control Valve 1

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.

Travel Flow Control Valve


1. Loosen and remove plug (8) from pilot plate
(12).
: 36 mm

2. Remove spring (6), seat (5), and spool (4) from


pilot plate (12).

3. Loosen and remove plug (3) from pilot plate


(12).

4. Loosen and remove plug (1) from pilot plate


(12).
: 5 mm

5. Loosen socket bolts (17) to remove pilot plate


(12) from housing (36).
: 10 mm

6. Loosen socket bolts (17) to remove pilot plate


(55) from housing (36).
: 10 mm

W2-5-4

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE

17
18
19
X
55

40
51

22
40

24

41

25
26
27

Y
29

42

30
43
44
34
36

X = Pump Control Valve


Y = Load Check Valve
Z = Load Check Valve

32

33
SM1193

EX255-EX285

W2-5-5

CONTROL VALVE

Load Check Valve


7. Remove springs (40) and (42), check valves
(41) and (51), poppet (43), and sleeve (44) from
housing (36).

Pump Control Valve


8. Remove plug (22) from housing (36). Take
care not to drop spring (24), seat (25), and
spool (26) at this time.
: 38 mm

NOTE - Do not remove lock nut (18) and screw (19).

9. Attach the nut (M8 Pitch 1.25) to spool (29).


Remove spool (29) together with sleeve (30)
from housing (36).

10. Remove retaining ring (33), seat (32), and


spring (34).

11. Pull out spool (29) and sleeve (27) from sleeve
(30).

W2-5-6

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 1-1

B
A

36

36

51

51

39

39

40

40

55

55

38

40

36
17

17

12

55

39

SM1194

51

SM1195

SM1196

18 21 25 26

28 27 29

32 34 32 33
A=
B=
C=
D=
E=
F=

D
SM1197

19 20 22 23 24

31

Side View of 5 - Spool Control Valve


Swing
Arm I
Pump Control Valve
Boom II
Travel (left)

30
F

36
44
36
43
51
39
39
42
40
12
12
40
38
39
41
SM1199
SM1198

12
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Pilot Plate
Socket Bolt
Lock Nut
Screw
Washer
O-Ring
Plug
O-Ring

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Spring
Seat
Spool
Sleeve
O-Ring
Spool
Sleeve
O-Ring

32
33
34
36
38
39
40
41

Seat
Retaining Ring
Spring
Housing (5-Spool Side)
O-Ring
O-Ring
Spring
Check Valve

42
43
44
51
55

Spring
Poppet
Sleeve
Check Valve
Pilot Plate

EX255-EX285

W2-5-7

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 1-1

Pump Control Valve


1. Insert spool (29) onto sleeve (30).
2. Install seat (32), spring (34), and seat (32) on
spool (29), in that order. Secure with retaining
ring (33).

3. Install O-rings (28) (2 used) on sleeve (27).


Insert sleeve (27) into sleeve (30).
4. Install O-rings (31) (3 used) on sleeve (30).
Install sleeve (30) into housing (36).
5. Install spool (26) onto spool (29).
6. Install spring (24), seat (25), and O-ring (23)
onto plug (22). Install plug (22) onto housing
(36).
: 38 mm
: 84 N m (8.6 kgf m, 62 lbf ft)

Load Check Valve (5-spool side)


7. Install poppet (43) and spring (42) into sleeve
(44). Install sleeve (44) into housing (36).
8. Install pairs of check valve (41) and spring
(40), and check valves (51) and springs (40)
(5 used each) into housing (36).
9. Install O-rings (39) and (38) onto housing (36).
10. Install pilot plate (55) on housing (36).
: 10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)

W2-5-8

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 1-2

36
17

17

12

55

55

51
36
SM1194

SM1196

A = Side view of 5 Spool Control Valve


B = Arm I
C = Cross Section X
D = Auxiliary
E = Travel (left)
F = Travel Flow Control Valve

SM1200

12

36
39

36
F

40

51

12

37

12

38

SM1199
SM1201

1
2
3
4
5

Plug (Restriction)
O-Ring
Plug
Spool
Seat

6
7
8
12
17

Spring
O-Ring
Plug
Pilot Plate
Socket Bolt

36 - Housing
(5-Spool Side)
37 - O-Ring
38 - O-Ring
39 - O-Ring

40 - Spring
51 - Check Valve
55 - Pilot Plate

EX255-EX285

W2-5-9

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 1-2

Load Check Valve (5-spool side)


1. Install check valve (51) and spring (40) into
housing (36).
2. Install O-rings (37), (38), and (39) on housing
(36).
3. Install pilot plate (12) on housing (36).
: 10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)

Travel Flow Control Valve


4. Install spool (4), seat (5), spring (6) into pilot
plate (12). Install O-ring (7) on plug (8). Install
plug (8) onto pilot plate (12).
: 36 mm
: 98 N m (10 kgf m, 72 lbf ft)
5. Install plug (1) onto pilot plate (12).
6. Install O-ring (2) onto plug (3). Install plug (3)
onto pilot plate (12).
: 5 mm
: 15 N m (1.5 kgf m, 11 lbf ft)

W2-5-10

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
DISASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 2

1
61

59

60
3

58

57

5
56

55

21

54

23

53

24

22 6

H
G

52

51

20

50

30

49

29

31

47

48

46

45

26
25
32
27
33
34 28

10

11
12

30
38

13
L

37

14

39
36

35

15
16
19

17
18

19
F=
G=
H=
L =

SM1202

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Housing (4-Spool Side)


Spool
Spring
O-Ring
Plug
O-Ring
Check Valve
Spring
Poppet
Poppet
Spring
Plug
Spring
Spacer

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

O-Ring
O-Ring
Plug
Filter
Socket Bolt
Check Valve
Check Valve
O-Ring
O-Ring
O-Ring
Plug
Screw
O-Ring
Backup Ring

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
45
46
47

Load Check Valve


Load Check Valve
Bucket Flow Control (Restriction)
Bucket Flow Control Valve
(Switch Valves A and B)

Plug
O-Ring
Retaining Ring
Seat
Spring
Spool
Pilot Plate
Spool
Seat
Spring
Pilot Plate
Screw
Lock Nut
Washer

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

O-Ring
Plug
O-Ring
Spring
Seat
Spool
Sleeve
O-Ring
Spool
Sleeve
O-Ring
Seat
Spring
Retaining Ring

EX255-EX285

W2-5-11

CONTROL VALVE
Disassemble Control Valve 2

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.
1. Loosen socket bolts (19) to remove pilot plate
(39) from housing (1).
: 10 mm

Bucket Flow Control Valve (Switch Valve A)


2. Remove plug (29) from pilot plate (35).
: 10 mm
3. Remove spool (34) from pilot plate (35).
4. Remove retaining ring (31), seat (32), and
spring (33) from spool (34).

Bucket Flow Control Valve


(Switch Valve B, Poppet Valve)
5. Remove plug (29) from pilot plate (35).
6. Remove spring (38), seat (37), and spool (36)
from pilot plate (35).
7. Loosen socket bolts (19) to separate pilot plate
(35) from housing (1).

NOTE - Take care not to drop spacer (14) and spring


(13) at this time.
:10 mm
8. Remove plug (12) from housing (1). Remove
spring (11) and poppet (10) from poppet (9).
: 8 mm

Load Check Valve


9. Remove springs (8) and check valves (7), (20),
and (21) from housing (1).

W2-5-12

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE

F
61

59

60

G
3

57
5
56

54
53
52
51

49
46
45

17

SM1202

F = Pump Control Valve


G = Flow Combiner Valve

EX255-EX285

W2-5-13

CONTROL VALVE
Pump Control Valve
10. Remove plug (49) from housing (1). Take care
not to drop spring (51), seat (52), and spool (53)
at this time.
: 38 mm

NOTE - Do not remove lock nut (46) and screw (45).

11. Attach the nut of bolt (M8 Pitch 1.25) to spool


(56). Remove spool (56) together with sleeve
(57) from housing (1).

12. Remove retaining ring (61), seat (59), and


spring (60).

13. Pull out spool (56) and sleeve (54) from sleeve
(57).

Flow Combiner Valve


14. Remove plug (5), spring (3) and spool (2) from
housing (1).
: 36 mm
15. Remove plug (17) from housing (1).
: 19 mm

W2-5-14

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 2-1

A
1
21
1

39

6
8

35
39

8
SM1203

57 54

55 53 50 49

6
21

47 46 45

SM1204

A = Side View of 4 - Spool Valve


B = Arm II
C = Pump Control Valve
D = Boom I
E = Bucket

C
SM1209

61 59 60 56

58

52 51 48

21

6
8
35
39

1
6
7
8
20
21
35

Housing (4-Spool Side)


O-Ring
Check Valve
Spring
Check Valve
Check Valve
Pilot Plate

39
45
46
47
48
49
50

Pilot Plate
Screw
Lock Nut
Washer
O-Ring
Plug
O-Ring

20

SM1206

SM1205

51
52
53
54
55
56
57

Spring
Seat
Spool
Sleeve
O-Ring
Spool
Sleeve

58
59
60
61

O-Ring
Seat
Spring
Retaining Ring

EX255-EX285

W2-5-15

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 2-1

Pump control valve


1. Insert spool (56) onto sleeve (57).
2. Install seat (59), spring (60), and seat (59) on
spool (56), in that order. Secure with retaining
ring (61).

3. Install O-rings (55) (2 used) on sleeve (54).


Insert sleeve (54) into sleeve (57).
4. Install O-rings (58) (3 used) on sleeve (57).
Install sleeve (57) into housing (1).
5. Install spool (53) onto spool (56).
6. Install spring (51), seat (52), and O-ring (50)
onto plug (49). Install plug (49) onto housing
(1).
: 38 mm
: 84 N m (8.6 kgf m, 62 lbf ft)

Check Valve (4-spool side)


7. Install check valve (7), check valve(20), check
valves (21) (3 used) and spring (8) (5 used) into
housing (1).
8. Install O-rings (6) (5 used) on housing (1).

W2-5-16

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 2-2

39

17
19

19

39
35
5
SM1203

10 11

12

SM1204

A=
B=
C=
D=
E=

Side View of 4-Spool Control Valve


Arm II
Bucket
Travel (Right)
Bucket Flow Control Valve A
(Switch Valve)
F = Bucket Flow Control Valve B
(Switch Valve Orifice)
G = Flow Combiner Valve

C
SM1210

1 15 16 18

13-14

36

35

6
26
25
34

37
38
30

22 29
30

Housing (4-Spool Side)


Spool
Spring
O-Ring
Plug
O-Ring
Poppet
Poppet
Spring

SM1207

35

SM1206

1
2
3
4
5
6
9
10
11

27-28
33
32
31

29

17

SM1208

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
22

Plug
Spring
Spacer
O-Ring
O-Ring
Plug
Filter
Socket Bolt
O-Ring

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

Plug
Screw
O-Ring
Backup Ring
Plug
O-Ring
Retaining Ring
Seat
Spring

34
35
36
37
38
39

Spool
Pilot Plate
Spool
Seat
Spring
Pilot Plate

EX255-EX285

W2-5-17

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 2-2

Bucket Flow Control Valve (Switch Valve B,


Poppet Valve)

Flow Combiner Valve


10. Install spool (2) and spring (3) into housing (1).
11. Tighten plug (5) onto housing (1).

1. Attach poppet (10) and spring (11) to poppet (9).


Tighten plug (12) onto poppet (9).
: 8 mm
: 39 N m (4 kgf m, 29 lbf ft)
2. Install poppet (9) into housing (1).
3. Install O-rings (6) and (22) onto housing (1).
4. Install spacer (14) and spring (13) into pilot plate
(35). Install pilot plate (35) onto housing (1).
5. Tighten pilot plate (35) onto housing (1) using
socket bolts (19).
: 10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)
6. Install spool (36), seat (37), and spring (38) into
pilot plate (35). Tighten plug (29) onto pilot plate
(35).
: 10 mm
: 71 N m (7.2 kgf m, 52 lbf ft)

Bucket Flow Control Valve (Switch Valve A)


7. Attach seat (32) onto spool (34) and secure it
using retaining ring (31).

8. Install spring (33) onto spool (34) and insert


them into pilot plate (35).
9. Install O-ring (30) onto plug (29). Tighten plug
(29) onto pilot plate (35).
: 10 mm
: 71 N m (7.2 kgf m, 52 lbf ft)

: 36 mm
: 157 N m (16 kgf m, 116 lbf ft)
12. Install O-rings (15) and (16) onto plug (17).
Tighten plug (17) onto housing (1).
: 19 mm
: 76 N m (7.7 kgf m, 56 lbf ft)

W2-5-18

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
DISASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 3
L = Anti-Drift Valve
M = Travel/Boom Lower
Selector Valve
N = Arm Regenerative Valve

1
4

6
44

7
45

46

47
48

13
49

50

4
12

43

42

41

1
0
40

11

M
26

N
27
39

J
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

38

37

28

29

35

30

32

16
22

33

20
18

21

12

19

34

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

15

23

17
31

10

14

24

36

Plug
Socket Bolt
Pilot Plate
Overload Relief Valve
O-Ring
Housing (5-Spool Side)
Main Relief Valve
Pilot Housing
Bolt (5 Used)
Seat (10 Used)
Spring (5 Used)
Spool (Travel Left)
O-Ring
O-Ring

25

Spool (Swing)
Spool (Arm I)
Spool (Boom II)
Spool (Auxiliary)
Spacer
Backup Ring
O-Ring
Spring
Check Valve
Sleeve
Spool
Spring
O-Ring
Check Valve

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

Spring
O-Ring
Backup Ring
O-Ring
O-Ring
Spacer
Spring
Spacer
Backup Ring
O-Ring
Spool
O-ring
Socket Bolt
Plug

SM1211

42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

O-Ring
Body
Spacer
O-Ring
Spring
Seat
Spool
O-Ring
Plug

EX255-EX285

W2-5-19

CONTROL VALVE
Disassemble Control Valve 3

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.

Arm Regenerative Valve


9. Remove spring (34) and spool (38) from housing (5).
10. Heat spacer (35) mounting part on spool (38)
using a hair dryer to melt adhesive.

5-Spool Side Main Spool


11. Put spool (38) in a vise. Remove spacer (35)
from spool (38).

1. Loosen socket bolts (1), then remove pilot plate


(2) and pilot housing (7) from housing (5).
: 10 mm
2. Pull out five spools (11) , (14 to 17) from housing
(5).

NOTE - Place protectors, such as wooden plates,


between the vise and the spool so as not to damage
the spool.

3. Put the chamfered end of spool (11) in a vise.


Remove bolt (8).

: 14 mm

: 22 mm
4. Remove seat (9), spring (10) and seat (9) from
bolt (8).
5. Disassemble spools (14), (15), (16) and (17),
referring to the steps 3 and 4 above.

Arm Anti-Drift Valve


6. Loosen socket bolts (40) to remove body (43)
from housing (5).

NOTE - Spacer (44) and spring (46) may fly off at this
time.
: 10 mm
7. Pull out spacer (18) from housing (5) using a bolt
(M5, Pitch 0.8).
8. Pull out spring (21) and check valve (22) from
housing (5) using a magnet.

Travel/Boom Lower Selector Valve


12. Remove sleeve (23), spool (24), and spring
(25) from housing (5).

W2-5-20

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE

27

28

33
SM1211

EX255-EX285

W2-5-21

CONTROL VALVE

Check Valve
13. Pull out spacer (33) from housing (5) using a
bolt (M6, Pitch 1.0).
14. Pull out spring (28) and check valve (27) from
housing (5) using a magnet.

Overload Relief Valve


15. Remove overload relief valve (3) from housing
(5).
: 32 mm

Main Relief Valve


16. Loosen plug (J) to remove main relief valve (6)
from housing (5).
: 32 mm

W2-5-22

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 3-1
B

A
34

39

41-42
35
36
37

M
M

38
SM1212
SM1214

SM1213

3 43 40

A=
B=
C=
E=
F=
G=
H=
I =

Cross section
M-M

H
26

Top View of Control Valve


Arm Regenerative Valve
Bottom View of Control Valve
Arm I
Anti-Drift Valve
Boom II
Travel/Boom Lower Selector Valve
Main Relief Valve

24
23
25

G
SM1215

I
6

E
43 48 50

49

47
46
45- 44
12
20-19
18
21
22

J
3

12
32
31
33
30
29
28
27

5
2
3

SM1198

SM1196

J
1
2
3
4
5
6
12
18
19
20

Plug
Socket Bolt
Pilot Plate
Overload Relief Valve
O-Ring
Housing (5-Spool Side)
Main Relief Valve
O-Ring
Spacer
Backup Ring
O-Ring

SM1216

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Spring
Check Valve
Sleeve
Spool
Spring
O-Ring
Check Valve
Spring
O-Ring
Backup Ring
O-Ring

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

O-Ring
Spacer
Spring
Spacer
Backup Ring
O-Ring
Spool
O-Ring
Socket Bolt
Plug
O-Ring

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Body
Spacer
O-Ring
Spring
Seat
Spool
O-Ring
Plug

EX255-EX285

W2-5-23

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 3-1

Overload Relief Valve


1. Install two overload relief valves (3) to housing (5).
: 32 mm
: 83 N m (8.5 kgf m, 62 lbf ft)
2. Install five O-rings (4) onto housing (5).
3. Install pilot plate (2) onto housing (5) using
socket bolts (1) (6 used).
: 10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)

Check Valve
4. Install check valve (27) and spring (28) into
housing (5).
5. Install O-rings (29), (31), and (32) and backup
ring (30) onto spacer (33). Install spacer (33)
into housing (5).

Arm Regenerative Valve


6. Install O-ring (37) and backup ring (36) onto
spacer (35).
7. Apply LOCTITE 271 to the threads of spacer
(35). Install spacer (35) onto spool (38).
8. Put spool (38) in a vise. Tighten spacer (35)
onto spool (38).

NOTE - Place protectors, such as wooden plates,


between the vise and the spool so as not to damage
the spool.
: 14 mm
: 18.6 N m (1.9 kgf m, 14 lbf ft)
9. Install spool (38) and spring (34) into housing
(5).
10. Install O-ring (39) onto housing (5).

W2-5-24

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE

M
M

SM1212
SM1214

SM1213

43 40

Cross section
M-M

H
26

A=
B=
C=
E=
F =
G=
H=
I =

Top View of Control Valve


Arm Regenerative Valve
Bottom View of Control Valve
Arm I
Arm Anti-Drift
Boom II
Travel/Boom Lower Selector Valve
Main Relief Valve

24
23
25

G
SM1215

I
6

E
43 48 50

49

47
46
45- 44
12
20-19
18
21
22

J
5

12
5

5
SM1196

SM1198
SM1216

EX255-EX285

W2-5-25

CONTROL VALVE

Arm Anti-Drift Valve


11. Install check valve (22) and spring (21) into
housing (5).
12. Install O-rings (12) and (20) and backup ring
(19) on spacer (18). Install spacer (18) into
housing (5).
13. Install spool (48), seat (47), and spring (46) into
body (43).
14. Install O-ring (45) onto spacer (44). Install
spacer (44) into body (43).
15. Install O-rings (12) (3 used) onto housing (5).
16. Install body (43) onto housing (5).
: 10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)
17. Install O-ring (49) onto plug (50). Install plug
(50) onto body (43).
: 6 mm
: 29 N m (3 kgf m, 22 lbf ft)

Travel/Boom Lower Selector Valve


18. Install spring (25), spool (24), and sleeve (23)
into housing (5).
19. Install O-ring (26) onto housing (5).

Main Relief Valve


20. Install main relief valve (6) onto housing (5).
21. Tighten plug (J) of main relief valve (6).
: 32 mm
: 83 N m (8.5 kgf m, 62 lbf ft)

W2-5-26

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 3-2

A=
B=
C=
D=
E=
F=

Top View of Control Valve


Travel (left)
Auxiliary
Boom II
Arm I
Swing

SM1212

F
9
10
8
9
4

7
13
5
11

14
15
16

17

SM1217

Cross section A-A

1
4
5
7
8

Socket Bolt
O-Ring
Housing (5-Spool Side)
Pilot Housing
Bolt (5 Used)

9
10
11
13
14

Seat (10 Used)


Spring (5 Used)
Spool (Travel Left)
O-Ring
Spool (Swing)

15 - Spool (Arm I)
16 - Spool (Boom II)
17 - Spool (Auxiliary)

EX255-EX285

W2-5-27

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 3-2

5-Spool Side Main Spool


1. Put the chamfered end of spool (11) in a vise.
2. Install seat (9), spring (10), and seat (9) on spool
(11) in that order.
Install bolt (8).
: 22 mm
: 15 N m (1.5 kgf m, 11 lbf ft)
3. Assemble spools (14) to (17) referring to steps
1 and 2 above.
4. Install spools (11), (14), (15), (16), and (17) into
housing (5).
5. Install O-rings (4) (5 used) and O-rings (13)
(3 used) onto housing (5).
6. Install pilot housing (7) onto housing (5).
7. Tighten socket bolts (1) (6 used).
:10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)

W2-5-28

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
DISASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 4
3

A = Boom Anti-Drift Valve

16

15
1

14

18

13

10
5
17

12 5

11

19

22

17

21

22 20 19

23
24
25

41

40

39

38

37
36

42

52

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

51

Pilot Plate
Socket Bolt
Body
Socket Bolt
O-Ring
Plug
Lock Nut
Poppet
O-Ring
Plug
Plug
Spool
Seat

43

50

44

49

26

34
35

45

48

46

34

20

33

29
32

31

28

30

47

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

27

SM1218

Spring
O-Ring
Spacer
O-Ring
Housing (4-Spool Side)
O-Ring
O-Ring
Pilot Housing
Overload Relief Valve
Spool (Travel Right)
Spool (Bucket)
Spool (Boom I)
Backup Ring

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Plug
O-Ring
Spring
Washer
Sleeve
Poppet
Bolt (4 Used)
Seat (8 Used)
Spring (4 Used)
Spool (Arm II)
Poppet
Spring
O-Ring

40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Backup Ring
Plug
Check Valve
Spring
O-Ring
Backup Ring
Spacer
Check Valve
Spring
O-Ring
Backup Ring
O-Ring
Spacer

EX255-EX285

W2-5-29

CONTROL VALVE
Disassemble Control Valve 4

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.

Boom Anti-Drift Valve


10. Loosen socket bolts (4) to remove body (3)
from housing (18).

NOTE - Spacer (16) and spring (14) may fly off at this
time.

4-Spool Side Main Spool


: 10 mm
1. Loosen socket bolts (2), then remove pilot plate
(1) and pilot housing (21) from housing (18).
: 10 mm
2. Pull out four spools (36), (23 to 25) from housing
(18).

11. Pull out spacer (46) from housing (18) using a


bolt (M5 Pitch 0.8).
12. Pull out spring (43) and check valve (42) from
housing (18) using a magnet.

3. Put the chamfered end of spool (36) in a vise.


Remove bolt (33).
: 22 mm
4. Remove seat (34), spring (35) and seat (34)
from bolt (33).
5. Disassemble spools (23), (24), (25), referring to
the steps 3 and 4 above.

Boom Regenerative Valve


6. Heat plug (27), (41) mounting part on spool (25)
using a hair dryer to melt adhesive.

75301502

7. Put spool (25) in a vise. Remove plugs (27),


(41) from spool (25) using special tool
(75301502).
NOTE - Place protectors, such as wooden plates,
between the vise and the spool so as not to damage
the spool.
8. Remove spring (29), washer (30), sleeve (31),
and poppet (32) from one end of spool (25).
9. Remove spring (38) and poppet (37) from the
other end of spool (25).

SM1219

W2-5-30

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE

A = Emergency Boom Lower Mechanism

A
3

7
8
18
10

22

52
48

47
SM1218

EX255-EX285

W2-5-31

CONTROL VALVE

Check Valve
13. Pull out spacer (52) from housing (18) using a
bolt (M6 Pitch 1.0).
14. Pull out spring (48) and check valve (47) from
housing (18) using a magnet.

Overload Relief Valve


15. Remove overload relief valves (22) from housing (18).
: 32 mm

Emergency Boom Lower Mechanism


16. Loosen lock nut (7) to remove poppet (8) from
body (3).
: 13 mm
: 4 mm
17. Remove plug (10) from body (3).
: 19 mm

W2-5-32

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 4-1
A=
B=
C=
D=
E=

11

Top View of Control Valve


Emergency Boom Lower Mechanism
Bottom View of Control Valve
Boom I
Boom Anti-Drift Valve

22

12

13

10

14

22
16
4

15

5
SM1220

18

3
20
20
44-45
46

SM1212

43
C

42

18
22
18

SM1205

SM1214

22

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Body
Socket Bolt
O-Ring
Plug
Lock Nut
Poppet
O-Ring
Plug

11
12
13
14
15
16
18

Plug
Spool
Seat
Spring
O-Ring
Spacer
Housing
(4-Spool Side)

20
22
42
43
44
45
46

O-Ring
Overload Relief Valve
Check Valve
Spring
O-Ring
Backup Ring
Spacer

EX255-EX285

W2-5-33

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 4-1

Overload relief valve


1. Install four overload relief valves (22) to housing
(18).
: 32 mm
: 83 N m (8.5 kgf m, 62 lbf ft)

Emergency Boom Lower Mechanism


9. Install O-ring (9) onto poppet (8). Install poppet
(8) into plug (10).
10. Install O-ring (5) onto plug (10). Install plug (10)
onto body (3).
11. Tighten poppet (8) until it comes in contact with
body (3) inside. Then, install lock nut (7).

Boom Anti-Drift Valve


2. Install check valve (42) and spring (43) into
housing (18).
3. Install O-rings (20) and (44) and backup ring (45)
on spacer (46). Install spacer (46) into housing
(18).
4. Install spool (12), seat (13), and spring (14) into
body (3).
5. Install O-ring (15) onto spacer (16). Install
spacer (16) into body (3).
6. Install O-rings (20) (3 used) onto housing (18)
and tighten socket bolts (4).
7. Install body (3) onto housing (18).
: 10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)
8. Install O-ring (5) onto plug (11). Install plug (11)
onto body (3).
: 6 mm
: 29 N m (3 kgf m, 22 lb ft)

NOTE - Use an alien wrench so that poppet (8) does


not turn when tightening lock nut (7).
: 13 mm
: 29 N m (3 kgf m, 22 lbf ft)
: 4 mm

W2-5-34

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 4-2

A=
B=
C=
D=
E=
G=
H=

Top View of Control Valve


Travel (right)
Bucket
Boom I
Arm II
Bottom View of Control Valve
Boom Regenerative Valve

33

34

21

35
19

34

18
17

23

36

18

25

47

21

48
49-50
51

24

52

1
Cross Section A-A

17
SM1221

34
SM1212

35
33

34

27

29

26

30

28

32

31

25
37

38

39-40
1
41
18

1
2
17
18
19
21
23
24
25
26
27

Pilot Plate
Socket Bolt
O-Ring
Housing (4-Spool Side)
O-Ring
Pilot Housing
Spool (Travel Right)
Spool (Bucket)
Spool (Boom I)
Backup Ring
Plug

SM1214

SM1222

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

O-Ring
Spring
Washer
Sleeve
Poppet
Bolt (4 Used)
Seat (8 Used)
Spring (4 Used)
Spool (Arm II)
Poppet
Spring

39
40
41
47
48
49
50
51
52

O-Ring
Backup Ring
Plug
Check Valve
Spring
O-Ring
Backup Ring
O-Ring
Spacer

EX255-EX285

W2-5-35

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 4-2

Check Valve
1. Install check valve (47) and spring (48) into
housing (18).
2. Install O-rings (49) and (51) and backup ring
(50) on spacer (52). Install spacer (52) into
housing (18).
3. Install O-rings (17) (4 used) onto housing
(18).
4. Install pilot plate (1) onto housing (18) using
socket bolts (2) (7 used).
: 10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)

Boom Regenerative Valve


5. Attach poppet (32) and spring (29) to sleeve
(31).
6. Install O-ring (28) and backup ring (26) onto
plug (27). Apply LOCTITE 271 to the threads
of plug (27).

75301502

7. Put spool (25) in a vise. Tighten plug (27)


onto spool (25) using special tool
(75301502).
SM1219

NOTE - Place protectors, such as wooden plates,


between the vise and the spool so as not to damage
the spool.
: 14 mm
: 15 N m (1.5 kgf m, 11 lbf ft)
8. Attach poppet (37) and spring (38) to spool
(25).
9. Install O-ring (39) and backup ring (40) onto
plug (41). Apply LOCTITE 271 to the threads
of plug (41).

75301502

10. Put spool (25) in a vise. Tighten plug (41)


onto spool (25) using a special tool
(75301502).
NOTE - Place protectors, such as wooden plates,
between the vise and the spool so as not to damage
the spool.
: 14 mm
: 15 N m (1.5 kgf m, 11 lbf ft)

SM1219

W2-5-36

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE

A=
B=
C=
D=
E=
G=

Top View of Control Valve


Travel (right)
Bucket
Boom I
Arm II
Bottom View of Control Valve

33

34

21

35
19

34

18
18

17

23

36

25

21
A

24

Cross Section A-A


SM1221

SM1212

34
35
33

34

25

18

SM1214

SM1222

EX255-EX285

W2-5-37

CONTROL VALVE

4 - Spool Side Main Spool


11. Install seat (34), spring (35), and seat (34) on
spool (36) in that order.
12. Put the chamfered end of spool (36) in a vise.
Install bolt (33).
: 22 mm
: 15 N m (1.5 kgf m, 111 lbf ft)
13. Assemble spools (23) to (25) referring to steps
11 and 12 above.
14. Install spools (36), (23), (24), and (25) into
housing (18).
15. Install O-rings (17) (4 used) and O-rings (19) (3
used) onto housing (18).
16. Install pilot housing (21) onto housing (18).
17. Tighten socket bolts (2) (7 used).
: 10 mm
: 78 N m (8 kgf m, 58 lbf ft)

W2-5-38

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
DISASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 5
A=

Hydraulic Timer

1
8
7

8
7
6
4

15
13

14

12
10

11

2
3
SM1223

1
2
3
4

Housing (5-Spool Side)


O-Ring
Plug
Check Valve

5
6
7
8

Spring
O-Ring
Cover
Socket Bolt

9
10
11
12

Housing (4-Spool Side)


Spring
Filter
Restriction

13 - Poppet
14 - O-Ring
15 - Plug

EX255-EX285

W2-5-39

CONTROL VALVE
Disassemble Control Valve 5

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.

Hydraulic Timer
1. Remove plug (15) from housing (9).
: 22 mm
2. Remove poppet (13) and spring (10) from housing (9). Note that filter (11) cannot be removed
as it is fixed to poppet (13).

Check Valve
3. Loosen socket bolts (8) to remove covers (7)
from housings (1) and (9).
: 8 mm
4. Remove springs (5) and check valves (4) from
housings (1) and (9).
5. Remove plugs (3) from housings (1) and (9).
: 19 mm

W2-5-40

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
ASSEMBLE CONTROL VALVE 5
A = Hydraulic Timer

1
7

8
6
7
6

5
4

SM1217
SM1221

A
15
2

14

12
11
13
10

SM1227

SM1224

8
8

7
9
1

SM1226

SM1225

1
2
3
4

Housing (5-Spool Side)


O-Ring
Plug
Check Valve

5
6
7
8

Spring
O-Ring
Cover
Socket Bolt

9 - Housing
(4-Spool Side)
10 - Spring
11 - Filter

12
13
14
15

Restriction
Poppet
O-Ring
Plug

EX255-EX285

W2-5-41

CONTROL VALVE
Assemble Control Valve 5

Check Valve
1. Install check valves (4) (3 used) and springs (5)
(3 used) into housings (1) and (9).
2. Install O-rings (6) (3 used) onto housings (1) and
(9). Install cover (7) onto housing (1) and tighten
socket bolt (8).
: 8 mm
: 61 N m (6.2 kgf m, 45 lbf ft)

Hydraulic Timer
3. Attach poppet (13) and spring (10) to plug (15).
4. Install O-ring (14) onto plug (15). Install plug (15)
onto housing (9).
: 22 mm
: 76 N m (7.7 kgf m, 56 lbf ft)
5. Install O-ring (2) on each plug (3) (2 used).
Install plugs (3) on housings (1) and (9).
: 19 mm
: 34 N m (3.5 kgf m, 25 lbf ft)

W2-5-42

EX255-EX285

CONTROL VALVE
NOTES

EX255-EX285

W2-6-1

SWING DEVICE
REMOVE AND INSTALL SWING DEVICE
WARNING
Escaping fluid under pressure can penetrate the skin, causing serious injury.
Avoid the hazard by relieving pressure before disconnecting hydraulic or other lines.
Hydraulic oil may be hot just after operation. Hot hydraulic oil may spout, possibly causing severe burns.
Be sure to wait for oil to cool before starting work.
The hydraulic oil tank cap may fly off if removed without releasing internal pressure first. Push the air release
valve on top of the hydraulic oil tank to release any remaining pressure.
Preparation
1. Park the machine on a firm, level surface.
2. Stop the engine. Push the air release valve on top
of the hydraulic oil tank to release any remaining
pressure.

3. Remove hydraulic oil tank cap. Connect a vacuum


pump to maintain negative pressure in the hydraulic oil tank.
NOTE - Be sure to run the vacuum pump continuously
while working.

Removal
1. Disconnect hoses (1, 3, 5 to 8).
: 41 mm
: 205 N m (21 kgf m, 152 lbf ft)
: 36 mm
: 175 N m (18 kgf m, 130 lbf ft)
: 22 mm
: 39 N m (4 kgf m, 29 lbf ft)
: 19 mm
: 29.5 N m (3 kgf m, 22 lbf ft)
: 8 mm
: 64 N m (6.5 kgf m, 147 lbf ft)

2
3

NOTE - Attach caps to hoses and pipes.

2. Remove adapter (2) and install an eyebolt to the


swing device assembly to sling it with a wire rope.
Eyebolts: (M27 Pitch 2.0)
: 36 mm
: 108 N m (11 kgf m, 80 lbf ft)

7
6
5
4

WARNING
Swing device assembly weight: 330 kg (730 lb)
3. Remove swing device mounting bolts (4).
4. Sling the swing device assembly with a crane or
hoist.
: 32 mm
: 640 N m (65 kgf m, 470 lbf ft)

SM1024

Installation
1. Install the swing device assembly to frame and
tighten bolts (4).
IMPORTANT - Before installing the swing device
assembly, apply liquid packing to both mounting
surfaces on the swing reduction gears and frame.

2. Install adapter (2). Connect hoses (1, 3, 5 to 8).


IMPORTANT - Be sure to fill the swing motor with
hydraulic oil after installing it. Check hydraulic oil
level. Add oil if necessary. Run the engine. Check the
components for any oil leakage.

W2-6-2

EX255-EX285
EX255

SWING DEVICE
DISASSEMBLE SWING DEVICE (EX255)

31
2
3
4
5
30
29

22

28

23

27

21

20

19

9
7

26

18

10

17

11

16

12

15

13

24

25

14
13
SM3501

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Swing Motor
Socket Bolt (8 Used)
First Stage Sun Gear
Thrust Plate (2 Used)
Pin (3 Used)
Spring Pin (3 Used)
Thrust Plate (6 Used)
Needle Bearing (3 Used)
First Stage Planetary Gear (3 Used)
Socket Bolt (12 Used)
Pin (3 Used)

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Spring Pin (3 Used)


Thrust Plate (6 Used)
Second Stage Planetary Gear (3 Used)
Bearing
Retaining Ring
Second Stage Carrier
O-Ring
Ring Gear
Second Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Carrier
Drain Pipe

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Drain Plug
Bolt (10 Used)
Oil Seal
Cover
Shaft
O-Ring
Sleeve
Bearing
Housing

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-3

SWING DEVICE
Disassemble Swing Device

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.

1. Remove plug (23) to drain oil and disconnect drain


pipe (22).
Drain oil: 13.2 L (13.95 US qt)
: 27 mm
WARNING
Swing motor weight: 60 kg (132 Ib)
2. Put matching marks on swing motor, ring gear
(19), and housing (31). Remove socket bolts (2).
Remove motor (1) using a crane.
: 10 mm
NOTE - Insert a screwdriver between the motor and
ring gear (19) to pry the motor up for easy separation.
3. Remove first stage sun gear (3). Remove first
stage carrier (21) assembly from ring gear (19).
WARNING
Ring gear weight: 29 kg (64 lb)
4. Remove socket bolts (10). Remove ring gear (19)
using a crane.
: 14 mm

NOTE - Insert a screwdriver to the notches on housing (31) to pry ring gear (19) up for easy separation.
5. Remove O-ring (18) from housing (31).

WARNING
Second stage carrier assembly weight:
30 kg (66 lb)

6. Remove second stage sun gear (20) and second


stage carrier (17) assembly.
7. Remove retaining ring (16) from shaft (27).

WARNING
Remaining component weight
(Housing, shaft,etc.): Approx. 160 kg (350 lb)

8. Turn over housing (31). Loosen bolts (24). Remove cover (26).
: 19 mm
9. Remove oil seal (25) from cover (26).
10. Push shaft (27) out of housing (31) using a press.

W2-6-4

EX255-EX285
EX255

SWING DEVICE

31
2
3
4
5
30
29

22

28

23

27

21

20

19

9
7

26

25

18

10

17

11

16

12

15

13

24

14
13
SM3501

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-5

SWING DEVICE
11. Pull bearing (30) out of shaft (27) using a press.
12. Remove sleeve (29) from shaft (27). Remove
O-ring (28) from sleeve (29).
13. Remove bearing (15) from housing (31).
14. Drive spring pins (6) (3 used) out of first stage
carrier (21) using a round bar and a hammer.
15. Remove pins (5) (3 used), first stage planetary
gears (9) (3 used), thrust plates (7) (6 used), and
needle bearings (8) (3 used) from first stage
carrier (21).
16. Remove thrust plate (4) from first stage carrier
(21).
17. Disassemble second stage carrier (17) assembly
referring to steps 14 to 16 above. (Note that no
needle bearings are used on the second stage
planetary gears).

EX255
EX255-EX285

W2-6-6

SWING DEVICE
ASSEMBLE SWING DEVICE (EX255)

21

8
9
7

12
19

14

20
10
18
13
17
11
16
4
15

22

30
31

24
26

25

23

29

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Swing Motor
Socket Bolt (8 Used)
First Stage Sun Gear
Thrust Plate (2 Used)
Pin (3 Used)
Spring Pin (3 Used)
Thrust Plate (6 Used)
Needle Bearing (3 Used)
First Stage Planetary Gear (3 Used)
Socket Bolt (12 Used)
Pin (3 Used)

SM3518

27

28

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Spring Pin (3 Used)


Thrust Plate (6 Used)
Second Stage Planetary Gear (3 Used)
Bearing
Retaining Ring
Second Stage Carrier
O-Ring
Ring Gear
Second Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Carrier
Drain Pipe

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Drain Plug
Bolt (10 Used)
Oil Seal
Cover
Shaft
O-Ring
Sleeve
Bearing
Housing

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-7

SWING DEVICE
Assemble Swing Device
1. Install needle bearing (8) in each of first stage
planetary gears (9) (3 used).

WARNING
Housing weight: 92 kg (203 lb)

IMPORTANT - Set thrust plate (4) with the grooved


side upwards.

9. Attach housing (31) to a crane using eye bolts. Lift


and mount housing (31) onto shaft (27).

2. Install thrust plate (4) in first stage carrier (21).

IMPORTANT - Set thrust plates (7) with the grooved


sides facing toward the planetary gear end. Also, set
the thrust plates so that the bent parts fit along the
periphery of the carrier flange.

3. Install first stage planetary gears (9) (3 used) and


thrust plates (7) (6 used) into first stage carrier
(21).

4. Aligning the hole on pin (5) with spring pin hole on


first stage carrier (21), drive pins (5) (3 used) into
first stage carrier (21).

5. Tap spring pins (6) (3 used) into first stage carrier


(21) and pin (5).

NOTE - Be sure that the slit part of spring pin (6) faces
upwards as shown.when driving it into the first stage
carrier and the pin.

5
6

Slit

6. Assemble second stage carrier (17), referring to


steps 2 to 5 above.

NOTE - Thrust plates (13) do not have any bent parts.

7. Install O-ring (28) on sleeve (29). Install sleeve


(29) onto shaft (27).

8. Install bearing (30) onto shaft (27) using a press.

10. Install bearing (15) into housing (31) using a


press.

11. Install retaining ring (16) onto shaft (27).

EX255
EX255-EX285

W2-6-8

SWING DEVICE

21

10
19
20
18
17

31

24
26

25

27

SM3518

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-9

SWING DEVICE
12. Apply THREEBOND 1215 to oil seal (25) mounting part of cover (26). Install oil seal (25) onto
cover (26).

18. Install first stage carrier (21) into ring gear (19).

IMPORTANT - Be sure to position the sun gear with


the stepped end facing downward.
13. Apply THREEBOND 1215 on cover (26) mounting part of housing (31).
19. Install first stage sun gear (3) into first stage
carrier (21).
WARNING
Total weight assembled so far
(housing, shaft, etc.): Approx. 145 kg (320 lb)

IMPORTANT - Be sure that the lip part of oil seal (25)


does not come into contact with the tooth end of shaft
(27) when installing the cover.

14. Turn over housing (31). Install cover (26) using


bolts (24).
: 19 mm
: 88 N m (9 kgf m, 65 lbf ft)

WARNING
Second stage carrier weight: 30 kg (66 lb)

15. Turn over housing (31). Install second stage


carrier (17) assembly into housing (31). Install Oring (18) on housing (31).

16. Install second stage sun gear (20) into second


stage carrier (17).

WARNING
Ring gear weight: 29 kg (65 lb)

17. Attach ring gear (19) to a crane using eye bolts


(M12 Pitch 1.75).
Lift and install ring gear (19) into housing (31).
Tighten socket bolts (10).
NOTE - Be sure to align the matching mark on ring
gear (19) with that on housing (31).
: 14 mm
: 205 N m (21 kgf m, 152 lbf ft)

W2-6-10

EX255-EX285
EX255

SWING DEVICE

19

22
31

23

SM3518

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-11

SWING DEVICE
20. Install drain plug (23) on drain pipe (22). Install
drain pipe (22) onto housing (31).
: 10 mm
: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 Ibf ft)
: 27 mm
: 93 N m (9.5 kgf m, 69 Ibf ft)

21. Fill the swing reduction gear with proper oil.


Proper Oil: 13.2 L (13.95 US qt)

22. Apply THREEBOND 1102 to the swing motor


mounting surface of ring gear (19).

WARNING
Swing motor weight: Approx. 60 kg (132 lb)

23. Lift and mount motor (1) onto ring gear (19).
Tighten socket bolts (2).

NOTE - Be sure to align the matching mark on motor


(1) with that on ring gear (19).
: 10 mm
: 88 N m (9 kgf m, 65 Ibf ft)

W2-6-12

EX255-EX285
EX285

SWING DEVICE
DISASSEMBLE SWING DEVICE (EX285)

1
2
16
15

3
4

5 6

21
31
7
8
9
7

20
12 11
22

30
33

23

17

26
24
29

25

13

28

14
13

32

10
19

27

18
SM5102

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Swing Motor
Socket Bolt (12 Used)
First Stage Sun Gear
Thrust Plate (2 Used)
Pin (3 Used)
Spring Pin (3 Used)
Thrust Plate (6 Used)
Needle Bearing (3 Used)
First Stage Planetary Gear (3 Used)
Socket Bolt (12 Used)
Pin (3 Used)

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Spring Pin (3 Used)


Thrust Plate (6 Used)
Second Stage Planetary Gear (3 Used)
Bearing
Retaining Ring
Second Stage Carrier
O-Ring
Ring Gear
Second Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Carrier
Drain Pipe

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

Drain Plug
Bolt (10 Used)
Oil Seal
Cover
Shaft
O-Ring
Sleeve
Bearing
Housing
O-Ring
O-Ring

EX255-EX285
EX285

W2-6-13

SWING DEVICE
Disassemble Swing Device

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.

1. Remove plug (23) to drain oil and disconnect drain


pipe (22).
Drain oil: 17 L (17.96 US qt)
: 27 mm
WARNING
Swing motor weight: 70 kg (154 Ib)
2. Put matching marks on the swing motor, ring gear
(19), and housing (31). Remove socket bolts (2).
Remove motor (1) using a crane.
: 10 mm
NOTE - Insert a screwdriver between the motor and
ring gear (19) to pry the motor up for easy separation.
3. Remove first stage sun gear (3). Remove first
stage carrier (21) assembly from ring gear (19).
Remove O-ring (32) from ring gear (19).

WARNING
Ring gear weight: 35 kg (77 lb)
4. Remove socket bolts (10). Remove ring gear (19)
using a crane.
: 17 mm
NOTE - Insert a screwdriver to the notches on housing (31) to pry ring gear (19) up for easy separation.
5. Remove O-ring (18) from housing (31).

WARNING
Second stage carrier assembly weight:
35 kg (77 lb)

6. Remove second stage sun gear (20) and second


stage carrier (17) assembly.
7. Remove retaining ring (16) from shaft (27).

WARNING
Remaining component weight
(housing, shaft,etc.): approx. 210 kg (463 lb)

8. Turn over housing (31). Loosen bolts (24). Remove cover (26).
: 19 mm
9. Remove oil seal (25) and O-Ring (33) from cover
(26).
10. Push shaft (27) out of housing (31) using a press.

W2-6-14

EX255-EX285
EX285

SWING DEVICE

1
2
16
15

3
4

5 6

21
31
20
12 11
30
33

22
23

7
8
9
7
17

26
24
29

25

13

28

14
13

32

10

27

19
18
SM5102

EX255-EX285
EX285

W2-6-15

SWING DEVICE
11. Pull bearing (30) out of shaft (27) using a press.
12. Remove sleeve (29) from shaft (27). Remove
O-ring (28) from sleeve (29).
13. Remove bearing (15) from housing (31).
14. Drive spring pins (6) (3 used) out of first stage
carrier (21) using a round bar and a hammer.
15. Remove pins (5) (3 used), first stage planetary
gears (9) (3 used), thrust plates (7) (6 used), and
needle bearings (8) (3 used) from first stage
carrier (21).
16. Remove thrust plate (4) from first stage carrier
(21).
17. Disassemble second stage carrier (17) assembly
referring to steps 14 to 16 above. (Note that no
needle bearings are used on the second stage
planetary gears).

W2-6-16

EX255-EX285
EX285

SWING DEVICE
ASSEMBLE SWING DEVICE (EX285)

6
5

1
2
4
19

32

8
9
7
12
14

21

20

10

17

13
18
11

16

4
15
22

30
31
33

26
25

24
29

23

28

27
SM5103

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Swing Motor
Socket Bolt (8 Used)
First Stage Sun Gear
Thrust Plate (2 Used)
Pin (3 Used)
Spring Pin (3 Used)
Thrust Plate (6 Used)
Needle Bearing (3 Used)
First Stage Planetary Gear (3 Used)
Socket Bolt (12 Used)
Pin (3 Used)

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Spring Pin (3 Used)


Thrust Plate (6 Used)
Second Stage Planetary Gear (3 Used)
Bearing
Retaining Ring
Second Stage Carrier
O-Ring
Ring Gear
Second Stage Sun Gear
First Stage Carrier
Drain Pipe

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Drain Plug
Bolt (10 Used)
Oil Seal
Cover
Shaft
O-Ring
Sleeve
Bearing
Housing

EX255-EX285
EX285

W2-6-17

SWING DEVICE
Assemble Swing Device
1. Install needle bearing (8) in each of first stage
planetary gears (9) (3 used).

WARNING
Housing weight: 107 kg (236 lb)

IMPORTANT - Set thrust plate (4) with the grooved


side upwards.

9. Attach housing (31) to a crane using eye bolts.


Lift and mount housing (31) onto shaft (27).

2. Install thrust plate (4) in first stage carrier (21).

IMPORTANT - Set thrust plates (7) with the grooved


sides facing toward the planetary gear end. Also, set
the thrust plates so that the bent parts fit along the
periphery of the carrier flange.

3. Install first stage planetary gears (9) (3 used) and


thrust plates (7) (6 used) into first stage carrier
(21).

4. Aligning the hole on pin (5) with spring pin hole on


first stage carrier (21), drive pins (5) (3 used) into
first stage carrier (21).

5. Tap spring pins (6) (3 used) into first stage carrier


(21) and pin (5).

NOTE - Be sure that the slit part of spring pin (6) faces
upwards as shown.when driving it into the first stage
carrier and the pin.

5
6

Slit

6. Assemble second stage carrier (17), referring to


steps 2 to 5 above.

NOTE - Thrust plates (13) do not have any bent parts.

7. Install O-ring (28) on sleeve (29). Install sleeve


(29) onto shaft (27).

8. Install bearing (30) onto shaft (27) using a press.

10. Install bearing (15) into housing (31) using a


press.

11. Install retaining ring (16) onto shaft (27).

W2-6-18

EX255-EX285
EX285

SWING DEVICE

32
21
19
20
10

17
18

31
33
24

26
25

27
SM5103

EX255-EX285
EX285

W2-6-19

SWING DEVICE
12. Apply THREEBOND 1215 to oil seal (25) mounting part of cover (26). Install oil seal (25) and Oring (33) onto cover (26).

18. Install first stage carrier (21) and O-ring (32) into
ring gear (19).
19. Install first stage sun gear (3) into first stage
carrier (21).

13. Apply THREEBOND 1215 on cover (26) mounting part of housing (31).

WARNING
Total weight assembled so far
(Housing, shaft, etc.): Approx. 190 kg (420 lb)

IMPORTANT - Be sure that the lip part of oil seal (25)


does not come into contact with the tooth end of shaft
(27) when installing the cover.

14. Turn over housing (31). Install cover (26) using


bolts (24).
: 19 mm
: 88 N m (9 kgf m, 65 lbf ft)

WARNING
Second stage carrier weight: 35 kg (77 lb)

15. Turn over housing (31). Install second stage


carrier (17) assembly into housing (31). Install Oring (18) on housing (31).

16. Install second stage sun gear (20) into second


stage carrier (17).

WARNING
Ring gear weight: 35 kg (77 lb)

17. Attach ring gear (19) to a crane using eye bolts


(M12 Pitch 1.75).
Lift and install ring gear (19) into housing (31).
Tighten socket bolts (10).
NOTE - Be sure to align the matching mark on ring
gear (19) with that on housing (31).
: 14 mm
: 205 N m (21 kgf m, 152 lbf ft)

IMPORTANT - Be sure to position the sun gear with


the stepped end facing downward.

EX285
EX255-EX285

W2-6-20

SWING DEVICE

1
2
19

22

31

23

SM5103

EX255-EX285
EX285

W2-6-21

SWING DEVICE
20. Install drain plug (23) on drain pipe (22). Install
drain pipe (22) onto housing (31).
: 10 mm
: 49 N m (5 kgf m, 36 Ibf ft)
: 27 mm
: 93 N m (9.5 kgf m, 69 Ibf ft)

21. Fill the swing reduction gear with proper oil.


Proper Oil: 17.0 L (18 US qt)

22. Apply THREEBOND 1102 to the swing motor


mounting surface of ring gear (19).

WARNING
Swing motor weight: Approx. 70 kg (154 lb)

23. Lift and mount motor (1) onto ring gear (19).
Tighten socket bolts (2).

NOTE - Be sure to align the matching mark on motor


(1) with that on ring gear (19).
: 10 mm
: 88 N m (9 kgf m, 65 Ibf ft)

W2-6-22

EX255-EX285
EX255

SWING DEVICE
DISASSEMBLE SWING MOTOR (EX255)

7
8

9
10
11

12
13

14
15

33
16

32
31

17

34

17

18

30
17
27

19
20

24

25

26

28

35

29
36
37

21
38

22
39

23
40
41
42

SM1027

43

1 - Roller Bearing
2 - O-Ring
3 - Valve Casing
(Brake Valve)
4 - Socket Bolt (4 Used)
5 - Poppet (2 Used)
6 - Spring (2 Used)
7 - O-Ring (2 Used)
8 - Plug (2 Used)
9 - Valve Plate
10 - Spring (18 Used)

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Brake Piston
O-Ring
Friction Plate (3 Used)
Relief Valve (2 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Push Rod (12 Used)
Spacer (3 Used)
Holder
Socket Bolt (2 Used)
Cover
O-Ring

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Spring
Spool
Plug (3 Used)
Spool
Spring
Rotor
O-Ring
Plug
Spring
Retaining Ring
Plate (4 Used)

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

O-Ring
Plunger (9 Used)
Retainer Plate
Thrust Plate
Shaft (Output Shaft)
Spacer
Roller Bearing
Oil Seal
Seal Cover
Retaining Ring
Casing

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-23

SWING DEVICE
Disassemble Swing Motor

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.

WARNING
Weight of swing motor assembly:
approx. 60 kg (130 Ib)

5. Remove valve casing (3) from casing (43).

NOTE - Valve plate (9) may be stuck on the bottom of


valve casing (3). Take care not to drop valve plate (9)
when removing valve casing (3).
6. If valve plate (9) has not been removed in the
previous step, remove it. Then, remove springs
(10) (18 used ).

1. Remove relief valves (14) (2 used) from valve


casing (3).
NOTE - Never attempt to disassemble relief valves
(14).
: 36 mm

2. Remove plugs (8) (2 used).

IMPORTANT - If a screwdriver or similar tool is used


to separate (pry) valve plate (9) from the rotor side,
take care not to damage the sealing surfaces. (Note
that the top surface of the valve plate differs from the
bottom surface.)

7. Apply two hooks to the notch A and pull the hooks


to remove brake piston (11).

: 14 mm
8. Remove O-rings (12), (33) from casing (43).
3. Remove springs (6) (2 used) and poppets (5) (2
used).

4. Put align marks on valve casing (3) and casing


(43). Loosen and remove socket bolts (4) (4 used).
: 17 mm

11
43

NOTE - Note that valve casing (3) will be raised by


springs (10) as socket bolts (4) are loosened.
SM1028

W2-6-24

EX255-EX285
EX255

SWING DEVICE

13

16

32
31

17

34

17

18

30
17
27
35

29
19
20

25

36

26
37

21
38

22
39

23
40
41
42

SM1027

43

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-25

SWING DEVICE
9. Lay casing (43) on its side. Pull out rotor (27) from
shaft (37).

10. Remove plates (32) (4 used) and friction plates


(13) (3 used) from casing (43).

WARNING
Be sure to press and hold spacer (17) using a press
when removing retaining ring (31).
Attempting to remove retaining ring (31) without
pressing the spacer down may cause the spacer
and/or retaining ring (31) to spring up, possibly
resulting in personal injury.

11. Remove thrust plate (36).

12. Lay casing (43) on its side. Drive shaft (37) out of
casing (43) using a plastic hammer.

18. Press and hold spacer (17) using a press, and


remove retaining ring (31).

19. Remove spacer (17), spring (30), and spacer (17).


13. Remove retaining ring (42) and seal cover (41)
from casing (43).

20. Remove plug (29), spring (26), and spool (25) from
casing (43).
: 6 mm

14. Remove oil seal (40) from casing (43).


21. Remove socket bolts (19), cover (20) and O-ring
(21).
15. Remove the outer race of roller bearing (39) from
casing (43) using a metal bar and a plastic hammer.

: 4 mm

22. Remove spring (22) and spool (23) from casing


(43).
16. Remove the inner race of roller bearing (39), from
shaft (37) using a press. Remove spacer (38) from
shaft (37).

17. Remove plungers (34) (9 used), retainer plate (35),


holder (18), spacer (17), push rods (16)
(12 used) from rotor (27).

NOTE - Although a filter and an orifice are install in


spool (23), do not attempt to remove them unless
restriction or deformation is found.

W2-6-26

EX255-EX285
EX255

SWING DEVICE
ASSEMBLE SWING MOTOR (EX255)

14
Y

29
28

30

17

31

15

10

2
Cross Section Y-Y

26

11

24

12

19

33

20

13

21

22
23

25

32

35

27

36

16

17

34
18
38
40

1 - Roller Bearing
2 - O-Ring
3 - Valve Casing
(Brake Valve)
4 - Socket Bolt (4 Used)
5 - Poppet (2 Used)
6 - Spring (2 Used)
7 - O-Ring (2 Used)
8 - Plug (2 Used)
9 - Valve Plate
10 - Spring (18 Used)

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

41

Brake Piston
O-Ring
Friction Plate (3 Used)
Relief Valve (2 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Push Rod (12 Used)
Spacer (3 Used)
Holder
Socket Bolt (2 Used)
Cover
O-Ring

37

42

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

39

43

Spring
Spool
Plug (3 Used)
Spool
Spring
Rotor
O-Ring
Plug
Spring
Retaining Ring
Plate (4 Used)

SM1029

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

- O-Ring
- Plunger (9 Used)
- Retainer Plate
- Thrust Plate
- Shaft (Output Shaft)
- Spacer
- Roller Bearing
- Oil Seal
- Seal Cover
- Retaining Ring
- Casing

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-27

SWING DEVICE
Assemble Swing Motor
1. Install spacer (38) onto shaft (37).
Install the inner race of roller bearing (39) onto shaft
(37) using a press.

10. Attach plungers (34) (9 used) on retainer plate (35).


Insert plungers (34) into rotor (27).

2. Install retaining ring (42) onto casing (43).


Install the inner race of roller bearing (1) onto shaft
(37) using a press.

IMPORTANT - Be sure to apply a film of hydraulic oil


on the rotor bore surface before inserting plungers (43).

IMPORTANT - Be sure that the lip part of oil seal (40)


faces upwards when installing it.

3. Turnover casing (43). Install seal cover (41) into


casing (43). Install oil seal (40) into casing (43)
using a protection plate and a press.

11. Lay casing (43) on its side.


Install rotor (27) assembly onto shaft (37).

IMPORTANT - On each of plate (32) periphery is a


series of tab-like protrusions with four of the protrusions missing at an interval. Likewise, four teeth are
missing on each friction plate. When installing plates
(32) and friction plates (13), be sure to align these
missing parts.

4. Install the outer race of roller bearing (39) onto


casing (43) a metal bar and a hammer.
12. Stand casing (43) upright. Install plates (32)
(4 used) and friction plates (13) (3 used) one by one
alternately.
5. Lay casing (43) on its side. Install shaft (37) into
casing (43).
13. Install O-rings (12) and (33) on casing (43).
6. Stand casing (43) upright. Install thrust plate (36)
into casing (43).

7. Install spacer (17), spring (30), and spacer (17) into


rotor (27), in that order.

8. Press down spacer (17) to give enough clearance


for retaining ring (31) installation. Install retaining
ring (31).

9. Insert push rods (16) (12 used) into rotor (27).


Install spacer (17) and holder (18) onto rotor (27), in
that order.

14. Install brake piston (11) into casing (43). If brake


piston (11) does not enter the casing smoothly due
to the installation of the O-rings above, tap the
periphery of the brake piston evenly with a plastic
hammer.

15. Install spring (10) (18 used ) on brake piston (11).

EX255
EX255-EX285

W2-6-28

SWING DEVICE

14
Y

29
28

2
Cross Section Y-Y

26

19
20
21

25

22
23

43

SM1029

EX255-EX285
EX255

W2-6-29

SWING DEVICE
IMPORTANT - Be sure that the model stamped end of
roller bearing faces upwards when installing.

21. Install spool (25) and spring (26) into casing (43).
Tighten attached plug (29), O-ring (28).
: 6 mm
: 36 N m (3.7 kgf m, 27 lbf ft)

16. Install roller bearing (1) into valve casing (3) using
a plastic hammer.
22. Install spool (23) and spring (22) into casing (43).
17. Install O-ring (2) and valve plate (9) on valve
casing (3).
NOTE - Be sure to apply grease to the contact surface
of valve plate (9) so as to prevent it from dropping when
installing valve casing (3) onto the casing.

IMPORTANT - Take care not to drop valve plate (9).


Also, be sure to align the matching marks on valve
casing (3) and casing (43).

18. Install valve casing (3) onto casing (43). Tighten


valve casing (3) onto casing (43) using socket
bolts (4)(4 used).
: 17 mm
: 430 N m (44 kgf m, 320 lbf ft)

19. Insert poppets (5) (2 used) and springs (6)


(2 used) into valve casing (3). Tighten attached
plugs (8), O-ring (7).
: 14 mm
: 330 N m (34 kgf m, 245 lbf ft)

20. Install relief valves (14) (2 used) into valve casing


(3).
: 36 mm
: 175 Nm (18 kgf m, 130 lbf ft)

23. Install O-ring (21) and cover (20) onto casing (43).
Tighten socket bolts (19).
: 4 mm
: 7 N m (0.7 kgf m, 5 lbf ft)

IMPORTANT - Be sure to fill the swing motor with


hydraulic oil after installing it.

W2-6-30

EX255-EX285
EX285

SWING DEVICE
DISASSEMBLE SWING MOTOR (EX285)
1

9
10
11
12
13
5

6 7 8

14
44 15
33

16
34
18

17

30

45

19

31
32

38
46

27

35

43

36
37

39

40
41
42
47

SM5507

45
47
48

1 - Roller Bearing
2 - O-Ring
3 - Valve Casing
(Brake Valve)
4 - Socket Bolt (4 Used)
5 - Poppet (2 Used)
6 - Spring (2 Used)
7 - O-Ring (2 Used)
8 - Plug (2 Used)
9 - Valve Plate

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Spring (24 Used)


Brake Piston
O-Ring
Friction Plate (2 Used)
Relief Valve (2 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Push Rod (12 Used)
Spacer
Holder
Socket Bolt (3 Used)

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Spring
Retaining Ring
Plate (3 Used)
O-Ring
Plunger (9 Used)
Retainer Plate
Thrust Plate
Shaft (Output Shaft)
Spacer
Roller Bearing

40
41
42
43
44
45
46

Oil Seal
Seal Cover
Retaining Ring
Casing
Retaining Ring
Spacer (3 Used)
Parking Brake
Release Valve
47 - Retaining Ring (2 Used)
48 - O-Ring

EX255-EX285
EX285

W2-6-31

SWING DEVICE
Disassemble Swing Motor

Be sure to thoroughly read Precautions for Disassembly and Assembly on page W1-1-1 before
starting the disassembly work.

WARNING
Weight of swing motor assembly:
Approx. 70 kg (155 Ib)

1. Remove relief valves (14) (2 used) from valve


casing (3).
NOTE - Never attempt to disassemble relief valves
(14).
: 36 mm

2. Remove plugs (8) (2 used).


: 14 mm

3. Remove springs (6) (2 used) and poppets (5) (2


used).

6. Remove valve casing (3) from casing (43).

NOTE - Valve plate (9) may be stuck on the bottom of


valve casing (3). Take care not to drop valve plate (9)
when removing valve casing (3).

7. If valve plate (9) has not been removed in the


previous step, remove it. Then, remove springs
(10) (24 used ).

IMPORTANT - If a screwdriver or similar tool is used


to separate (pry) valve plate (9) from the rotor side,
take care not to damage the sealing surfaces. (Note
that the top surface of the valve plate differs from the
bottom surface.)

8. Apply two hooks to the notch A and pull the hooks


to remove brake piston (11).

9. Remove O-rings (12), (33) from casing (43).

4. Loosen socket bolts (19) to remove parking brake


release valve (46) from casing (43).
: 10 mm

11
43

5. Put align marks on valve casing (3) and casing


(43). Loosen and remove socket bolts (4) (4 used).
: 17 mm

NOTE - Note that valve casing (3) will be raised by


springs (10) as socket bolts (4) are loosened.

SM1028

EX285
EX255-EX285

W2-6-32

SWING DEVICE

9
10
11
12
13
5

6 7 8

14
44 15
33

16
34
18

17

30

45

19

31
32

38
46

27

35

43

36
37

39

40
41
42
47
45
47
48

SM5507

EX255-EX285
EX285

W2-6-33

SWING DEVICE
10. Lay casing (43) on its side. Pull out rotor (27) from
shaft (37).

11. Remove plates (32) (3 used) and friction plates


(13) (2 used) from casing (43).

12. Remove thrust plate (36).

13. Remove retaining ring (42) and seal cover (41)


from casing (43).

WARNING
Be sure to press and hold spacer (45) using a press
when removing retaining ring (31).
Attempting to remove retaining ring (31) without
pressing the spacer down may cause the spacer
and/or retaining ring (31) to spring up, possibly
resulting in personal injury.

19. Press and hold spacer (45) using a press, and


remove retaining ring (31).

20. Remove spacer (45), spring (30), and spacer (38).

14. Remove oil seal (40) from seal cover (41).

15. Lay casing (43) on its side. Drive shaft (37) out of
casing (43) using a plastic hammer.

16. Remove retaining rings (44) and (47) (2 used).


Remove the outer race of roller bearing (39) from
casing (43) using a metal bar and a plastic hammer.

17. Remove the inner races of roller bearings (39) and


(1), from shaft (37) using a press. Remove spacer
(45) from shaft (37).

18. Remove plungers (34) (9 used), retainer plate (35),


holder (18), spacer (17), push rods (16) (12 used)
from rotor (27).

21. Remove the outer race of roller bearing (1), from


valve casing (3), using a bearing puller.

W2-6-34

EX255-EX285
EX285

SWING DEVICE
ASSEMBLE SWING MOTOR (EX285)
44

3
1

31

15

45

11

12

10

33

30

13

38

32
19

27

46

18

34

35

16
17

36

47

43

45
39
48
41
37

40

42

5
14
7

SM5508

1 - Roller Bearing
2 - O-Ring
3 - Valve Casing
(Brake Valve)
4 - Socket Bolt (4 Used)
5 - Poppet (2 Used)
6 - Spring (2 Used)
7 - O-Ring (2 Used)
8 - Plug (2 Used)
9 - Valve Plate
10 - Spring (24 Used)

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
27
30

Brake Piston
O-Ring
Friction Plate (2 Used)
Relief Valve (2 Used)
Pin (2 Used)
Push Rod (12 Used)
Spacer
Holder
Socket Bolt (3 Used)
Rotor
Spring

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

- Retaining Ring
- Plate (4 Used)
- O-Ring
- Plunger (9 Used)
- Retainer Plate
- Thrust Plate
- Shaft (Output Shaft)
- Spacer
- Roller Bearing
- Oil Seal
- Seal Cover

42
43
44
45
46

Retaining Ring
Casing
Retaining Ring
Spacer (3 Used)
Parking Brake
Release Valve
47 - Retaining Ring (2 Used)
48 - O-Ring

EX255-EX285
EX285

W2-6-35

SWING DEVICE
Assemble Swing Motor
1. Install retaining ring (47) and spacer (45) onto
shaft (37).
Install the inner race of roller bearing (39) onto
shaft (37) using a press.
Install spacer (45) and retaining ring (47) onto
shaft (37).
2. Install the inner race of roller bearing (1) onto shaft
(37) using a press. Install retaining ring (44) onto
shaft (37).

IMPORTANT - Be sure that the lip part of oil seal (40)


faces upwards when installing it.

3. Install oil seal (40) onto seal cover (41) using a


protection plate and a press.

4. Install the outer race of roller bearing (39) onto


casing (43) a metal bar and a hammer.

5. Lay casing (43) on its side. Install shaft (37) into


casing (43).

6. Stand casing (43) upright. Install O-ring (48) into


casing (43).

7. Install seal cover (41) into casing (43). Secure


with retaining ring (42).

8. Install spacer (38), spring (30), and spacer (45)


into rotor (27), in that order.

9. Press down spacer (45) to give enough clearance


for retaining ring (31) installation. Install retaining
ring (31).

10. Insert push rods (16) (12 used) into rotor (27).
Install spacer (17) and holder (18) onto rotor (27),
in that order.

11. Attach plungers (34) (9 used) on retainer plate (35).


Insert plungers (34) into rotor (27).

IMPORTANT - Be sure to apply a film of hydraulic oil


on the rotor bore surface before inserting plungers (34).

12. Lay casing (43) on its side.


Install thrust plate (36) onto rotor (27). Install them
onto shaft (37).

IMPORTANT - On each of plate (32) periphery is a


series of tab-like protrusions with four of the protrusions missing at an interval. Likewise, four teeth are
missing on each friction plate. When installing