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IS B N 978-5-91134-742-0 ( )
IS B N 978-5-16-006732-2 ( - )

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004.2(075.32)
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Double Word String


///
Unsigned Byte/
Word/Double Word/ (8/16/32/64 )
QuadWord

Integer Byte/
/// .
Word/Double Word/ ()
,
QuadWord

2. - (BCD Binary Coded Decimal)

8-

Packed BCD

8-
Unpacked BCD

^ ^ |)^
(
7 :4 ,
)
7

43

1.2. ,

47

. 1.9
|

( )

18

- 80-

, (/)
1.


| (8 )
(24 )
* ............
' ..............."""
' ' ' ......................

|
|
'1 I

3*1 30

IEEE-754,

Single Precision
32 24
, 8

IEEE-754,

Double Precision
64 52
, 11

Extended Precision 80 64 , 15

232


| (11 )

63 62

(52 )

52 51

...........................
2. ,
(64 )

Packed byte ()

Packed word (W)

63

Quadword (Q)

63

| |
0

|
| |

i
3. (64 3DNow!)


63

|
0

4.
(128 SSE, AMD64)
SSE

31 2 1 1 | 0 |

63

Packed
doubleword (D)

!
I

| 7 | 6 | 5 | 4 |

2 32 .

IEEE-754

63

48

1. ..

. 1.9

( )

SSE2

127

128

127


(2 64 )

127


(4 32 )

127

0I

127
(8 x 1 6 )

127

SSE2

16
(1 6 x 8 )

*
(48 )

16- ( ) 32-

32-

32 , 8086 80286.
16- ( ) 16-

............... ......... .... i

* (, pointer) ,
.
() , .


.
-
() .
,
(. . 2.112.13).
, ( )
.
(
),

1.2. ,

49

.
.
:
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1

0 1 1 10
,
( )
.

:
1 + 1 =2 2 +2 =4 6 + 3=9 10 + 5=15 37 + 22 =59
1
10
110
1010
100101
+11
+10110
1
10
+101

100
1111
111011
1001
, ,
:
0 1(0) 1 1
0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0
,
, .

:
- 1=1
10
-1
10

5-3=2
101
-10
100

1 0- 2 =8 1 5 - 9 = 6
1010
1111
-10
1001
1001

43-18=:
101011
-10010
11001



: (
, )

50

1. ..

,
; ,
.
,

.
. ,

. ,
623 842, 842 377 , ,
219 (842 - 623 = 219).
,
,
,
.
- .

( ) . ,
.
.
- .
-
. 1.8.
-
,
- .

-
,
- .
-
- (
) ,
. :
1)18 + 13 = 31
I
I


0001 1000
0001 0011

0010 1011

. 0010 1011
0000 0110
0011 0001

2)19 + 19 = 38

0001 1001
0001 1001
0011 0010

0011 0010
0000 0110
0011 1000

1.2. ,

51

(WrapAround).
(, 8- )
:
111111102
+000000112
1000000012
0000000012
(
8 ),
( 1)
( 28 = 256).

.
( )
, . N
(mod N),

N ( 1.5, a N= ).

. 1.5. ()
(6)

Saturation arithmetic SArith ( )


,

. ,
(clamped) ,

52

1. ...

.
(. 1.5, ).
,
-100 +100,
(. . 1.10):
60 + 43 = 100; (60 + 43) - 150 = -50; 4 3 - 150 = -100;
60 + (43 - 150) = -40;
10x11 = 100; 9 9 x 9 9 = 100; 30 (5 - 1) = 100;
30 5 - 30 1 = 70.
1.10.
[

-1 2 8

+127

]6
0

?Fi6

255

-3 2 7 6 8

+32767

8 0 0 0 1

65535

Fl'16
7^

16
1

(
packed arithmetic).

( MMX, 3DNow!, SSE).
16-
CD (. . 1.1). 64- .
/ j ,

(, +),
(. 1.6, MMX- p a d d u s [W],
).

. 1.6. :
p a d d u s ; k s u b p s

1.2. ,

53

* .

(
) (. 1.6, ), SSE3
( ).
/
() ,
,
(. 1.6,
SSE3-KOManaa h s u b p s Horizontal-Subtract-Packed-Single
).
, h a s u b p s

(. . 1.2, ) (. . 1.2, ).
,
,
(
), , . 1.6
(. . 1.21).

-
80- .
.

, , ,
, . .


.

, ().
(
),
.

: 16 , 256 , 65 536 (high color),
16 777 216 (true color) . 1.11. ,
(), , true color :
/ = log265 536 - 16 = 2 .

1. ..

54

1.11.

16

256

65 536

16 777 216

640 480

150

300

600

900

800 600

234,4

468,8

937,5

1,4

1024 768

384

768

1,5

2,25

1280x 1024

640

1,25

2,5

3,75


800 600 , . . 480 000 .
true color
:
V= 2 480 000 = 960 000 = 937,5 .
,

.

(bit map), ,
( 50 )
.
. 90- .

. ,
,
.
( )
,
.
.
8-,
16- .
8-
256
, 16- 65 536 .
(
)
(5,5, 11, 22 44 ). ,
(
) 8 5,5 (
) 16 44 .

1.2. ,

55


1 (16 , 22 ).
16 22
, 43 .
~ .
.
,
, .
( d a t a c o m p r e s s i o n ) ,
.
,
, ( ) .
.
,
.

, .
,
.
.
,

- . ,
, .
,

. .
( i m a g e c o m p r e s s i o n )
, .
,
,
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() .
,
.
:
,
, ;
,

;

56

1. ..


,
.
,
. ,

, ,
( 10 , 256 ).

.
.
(
, ).

: ,
, ,
.

.
( )
.
, .
,

.
-
. ,
. ,

,
.

.
,
, .
,

.
/
.
(JPEG)

1.2. ,

57

1020 .

.
.
, ( 6 /),


MPEG/JPEG (. 1.12).
1.12.

( )

(CD/DVD),

VCD

288 384

63

S-VCD

480 576

32

DVD

576 720

59

VHS

288 384

S-VHS

540 720

Internet High Speed

193x144

MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group)


: ,
- , MPEG-video
MPEG-audio.
MPEG-video
.
1. YUV RGB
(, , ).
(luminance,
Y) (chrominance, U & V),
2
().
RGB
YUV, .
2. -
.
(8 8)
- (DCT),
,
(

58

1. ..

, DCT ).
.
, . .
,
,
, .

, .
.
3.
.
, ,
,
.
Intra (/), ,
Predicted (), / -, Bidirectional (),
{reference) I- / -,
. /- 1 2 ,
24 -.
(GOP Group of Pictures) :
IBBPBBPBBPBBIBBP.

.
, , . .
()
. (16 16
, 8 8 ),
.
4. .
, DCT,
.
,
,

.
MPEG-1 120 /
288 354 25 ,

.

1.2. ,

59

MPEG-2
MPEG-1 ,
.
MPEG-audio
.
,

. .

(. 1.13).
, , :
,
- ,
, ;

;


.
1.13.

, ,

Cobol

PL/1

FoxBase/
Clipper

Adabas/
Natural

Oracle/ SQL


(2 )

Smallint


(4 )

Integer

Computa

I nt

N (x)

N (x)

Int

-
.
X

(8 )

S
1
!

STAIRS,
IRBIS,
ISIS I

Algol

tional

Double

Real

Computa

Float

N (x.y)

N (x.y)

Float

tional

(4 )

(8 )

Real

Float

Double

Binary

(x)

60

1. ..
. 1.13
, ,

X
X
3

Cobol

11


(2
)

P I C (9 )

Decimal

(1 )

PIC(X)

3
i=

Algol

PoxBase/
Clipper

Adabas/
Natural

Oracle/ SQL

STAIRS,
IRBIS,
ISIS

P(x)

N(x)

U(x)

Boolean

Logical

P i c (A)

Char

(x)

A (x)

Char

Memo

VarGrafic
VarChar

(BLOB)

Date

Array

Dim

Date

Time

Dimen

VAR(n)

tion

()
I2
1

()

MU


(,
,
)

GR

PE

(), ,
() Fortran, Algol,
,
.
Algol
, (

1.2. ,

61

)
.
Algol: integer ( ),
Real () ,

(
).
boolean , {true,
false}.

() Cobol, PL/1, Pascal


:
(, , .);
;
;
( 0--9)
.

( )
. ,
(2 ),
( )
().

.
13510= 2078= 87,6= 1000001112, :
( B inary
)
(1000001112>. 1 , 8 ;
-
( Decimal,
-, 4 , ).
135 001 011 1012. 2,5 , 12
;
( A lphabetic,
)
ASCII (. 2). 135
- 00110001 00110011 001101012. - 3 .
(Fortran IV,
)
Z=A + Bi ( , , i
). ,

62

1. ..

(

).
, ,
,

.


:
',
(Binary Large Object BLOB)
(
).

, ,
(::) (//)
,
(/
/ ).
2000 . (Problem Y2K)
,
( )
Date - //.
. Algol
: (, ,
,
). ,
Cobol, ( PL/1, Pascal .)
(, ),
,

.
(
), ,
().

, (),
,
,
().

1.3.

63


:
;
;
(),
(, , , ).

1.3.

IV . .
.
.
( ) ,
( ) .
.
(, , ).
.
,
, .
, ,
, 5 < 2 .
( )
(
): , , , ..., X, Y, , , , ..., , , , ( 2, ..., ...) . .
, = 1 (= t,
t ru e) , , = ( = f , f a l s e ) .


,
.

.
.
) () :
;
( ).

64

1. ..


.

,
, .

. ,
,
.

,

,
.
,
, ,
, , .

, .

, , , -, -HE (
), . ,

, .
.

, ,
, .

.

.
. ( )
(or)
, .
, & .
,
.
. 1.14.

. -

1.3.

65

1.14.

Av


. 1.7, .
,
.
, .
z
z = x & ( ).
&.
. ( )
(or)
, .
| , v +.
A v ,
(. . 1.14).
. 1.14
(XOR).
(. . 1.7, ).

.
, .

. 1.7, . 1
>
(. . ,
1). z
z = v (
).
. (not)
^ ()
( -). ,
, (. 1.15).

66

1. ..
&

X------

1
X vy

2 = D ~ / = **2

Z > / = *1 +*2

&

X > f - X

=1

1
<S

Xvy

. 1.7. :
; ; ; -; -HE;
( 2)
1.15.

( )
. z
z = ,
.
, 1, .

. 1.7, .
. ,
,
, ,
, .

67

1.3.

-
(. 1.16).
z ,
.
- . 1.7, .
1.16. -, -

- HE

(. 1.16). z
x v , .
-HE
. 1.7, .
(. 1.7, )
(. . 1.14).
, , ,
. ,
() ~ ( As ,
A eqv ) (. 1.17).
1.17.

0
0

1 .
1


( -> , A imp ),
, , (. 1.17).

1. ..

68

,
, .
, . ,
. 1.18.
1.18.

1
1

, ,
.
_ = ( = ).
( ) v ( ) . 1.19.
1.19. ( )

( ) v ( 1

<

( )

1
1

0
1

-1
j


5 J ._. 1.17),
, ( ) v ( ) ~
, . . ( ~ ) = ( ) v ( ).


,
.
. ,
,
.
:
():

= ,
Aw = v ;

1.3.

69

:
= , A v - ;
:
= ;
( ) :
A v ( v ) = (A v B )v = A v v ,
( ) = ( ) = ;
( ) :
( v ) = ( B) v ( A a C),
A v ( a C ) = ( A v B ) a ( A v );
:
A v ( ) = ,
A a ( A v ) =;
:
( ) v ( ) = ,
(A v ) a (A v ) = ;
:
=0,
A v =1;
(0 f a l s e , 1 t r u e ) :
A a I , A v 1-=1,
0 = 0, A v 0 = ;
:
= A v ( 1-);
A v = (2-)
, , .
,
, ,
.
.
, (true)
, - . , -
, false
.
. 1.20
.
.

1. ..

70

1.20.

0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

BvC

( v )

0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1

<
3
>
<
3

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
1

1
1

. 1.8,
(
)
(),
() .
. 1.8, , .
.
/
( , ,
, , . ).
,

(. 1.21).
1.21.
X

X&

XV

jcIMP

jcEQV

.
N O T . not (), ,
,
,

1.3.

71

. 1.8. :
(and);
(or); (x o r); ( );
( );
( )

. , ,
1, . :
1 0 0 0 = NOT 0 1 1 1

( ),
n o t ~ ().
(!
),
.
OR. o r ( , )

( ),
. :
0111

= 0 1 0 1 OR

OR |
( ). ||.
X R ( )
x o r
. :
0 1 1 0 = 0 1 0 1 XOR 0 0 1 1


().

xor

1. ..

72


.
XOR
,
,
,
.
A N D . a n d ( )
a n d
. :
XOR

0001

= 0 1 0 1 AND

a n d &
(). && (
).
(bi t shifts).
.
( ).
,

,
.
, /.
.
,
.
,
, (. 1.9, , ).

2" ( ),
2".
.
, , (
) . 1.9, , . ,
.
0
. ,
,
.
.
, ,

1.3.
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

il y W

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

73
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

i^

i m n i


. w W j
101010111011I lololilohlililoMol 0 0 0 0 0 101 I0 I0 I1 I0 I1 I1 I1 I0 M0 I

'

| ; |

. 1.9. :
; ;
; ;
(); ;
;

(. 1.9, , ).
,
, .
.
( )
, (
. 1.9, , ). , (
), , ,
( )
.

,
. ,
0,
,
, .

.
, ,
( ).
, ,
, .


- .

1. ..

74

. ,
,

/ (bit manipu
lation, bit twiddling, bit bashing).
,
, ,
. , Motorolla 68000
bset ( 1), bclr ( 0)
BTST ( ); SSE4
popcnt (Population Count ,
, 1) . .
ABM (Advanced Bit Manipulation Instruction
Set Architecture) (, subwords) 8, 16, 32 64 (
, ).
. 1.22, 1.23. , ,
2 , /*3 (,
). :
/ , ,
/ .
1.22. ()

bfly
Butterfly
Inverse Butterfly ibf ly

b fly ( ) ibf ly
( )

( , .
. 1.10, , ),
\

Group

grp

(, ) Pi
/?1 ,
13. , P^,
1 3, , ,
0, (. 1.10, )

mix
Mix

P^ Pi3
2.

(mix. mix. 1, . 1.10, )

1.3.

75
. 1.22

Check,
Excheck

check
excheck

check excheck
( 1 ,2 4 ) Pi 13.

2, check
Pi (. 1.10, )
excheck (. 1.10, )

Mux

mux

5 :
(. 1.10, ),
(. 1.10, ), 2
P^ . .

Pi

1 $ S

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
b d e f[g h
1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1

b d g a 1 e

i.
f h

\ , 2 , A r

3^

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
d

JL 0
^ O O O a c e f h i ^

L JL JL JL JL
e 0 f g 0 h

. 1.10. ():
butterfly; inverse butterfly;
grp; m i x .2.1 (64- );
check.2; excheck.2; m u x . 1 . rev operation;
mux. 1 .mix; 8- ; pdep

76

1. ..

1.23. (- )

Parallel Extract

Static
Variable .v

/ Ph 1
P13,
Pi2.

(. 1.10, )

1 3

Parallel Deposit

Static pdep
Variable p d e p .v


( ^
( Pi2),
1 3.
2
(. 1.10, )

1 3

Population Count

popcount

Pi,
1

Dot Product

dotprod

b m m .1rR


/7-
.
dotprod

1 ( = 64)

b m m .2 rR

2-
-

bmm.2r

Bit Matrix Multiply

()
10 (AMD) . . 3.35.

,
, ( )
.

, 1
. , -

1.3.

77

, . ,
1,
,
.
, 1,
, ,
,
. ,
,
.

, 1.
.
, . 1.24.
1.24.

0
1

1
0

1
0

1
0

0
0

0
0

78

1. ..

, ,
, .
() S2 . 1.11.
,
. , 2,
,
. S}.

&

&

&

&

&

&

4
*3

. 1.11. (. 1.24)

,
1 =(*i 2 3 4) V (*. 2 3 4) V

V(*, 2 } 4)..
.
,
.

.
,
, ,
,

,
.

79

1.3.


(
,
. .),
,
(
, ,
.).
, ,
:
1)

X V ^ ( ) = X (X )

= 0 =0

(
: , ,

);
2)

X V XV ^ V X = X V X V X =
= X ( V ) V X = X V X =1

( ,
,
);
3)

XAyvXAyAZVXAZ =
=X A y V X A y A Z V X A Z * ( y v y )

= X A y v X A y A Z V X A y A Z V X A y A Z =
= ( X A y v X A y A Z ) v ( X A y A Z V X A y A Z ) = X A y v y A Z

( ( v ) ,

);
4)
= X V

X v y A Z V X v y v Z = X v y v Z V X A y A Z =
j?V Z V

A Z = X V

Z V

( V X A y

A Z ) = X V Z V

(
, );

1. ..

80
5)

X ZV X A Z =

X A y v X A ^ A ^ V

=X A ( y v y A Z v y A Z v y A Z ) =
= X

(( V A z ) V 0> z V A Z ) ) =

= A( yv

ZV 1) = X 1 = X

( ,
,
z v z
);
( V

6)

z)

= XV

V z

V z =

XV Z

V z

= 0 v 0 v Z X V ?A}V Z = Z A X v ( Z V z) ( V z) =
= Z a x v 1 a (>' v 2) = ^ a X v ^ v 2 = ( 2 a X v z ) v >' =
= (z V z) A (x V z) V = 1 (x V ) V .v = X V V '
( ,
,
,
);

7)

(X A Z

A Z

Z V Z At )

V X V z

0 =

VX V ZV z

At)

= X A y w X A y A Z V X A y A Z A t = X A y

( ,
).
.
,
, (
).
.
,
.
.
, ,
, .

1.3.

81


(
), ,
. 1.12.
~*i
*2
*3

. 1.12.

(. 1.12, ) 21:
5 16 .
.
(. 1.12, ) 9:
3 6 .
:
,
.

. -
, ,
(5), (jc).

, - + , 1.
,
; ( . 1.12, ),
/ i = ( * . A 2 A JC3) V ( * . A 2 3) V ( * ! 2 A X 3) v

(:, 2 '3) =

= 2 ( V ) V ({ X ,) 2 =
= | 2 1 V 1 2 A X j
= .Xj

jc2 V JC2 3.

.
1.12, .

82

1. ..


( . trigger , )
,
.
,
, .

flip-flop, .

()
.

- (S R, , . set
reset ). S R
Q Q, Q
Q.
&- . 1.13, .

. 1.13. - (), ()

S R
(. 1.13, ).
. 1.13,
-HE -.
R S
,
-HE (. 1.25).
1.
S= 1, R = 0, (
) Q .
R = , Q = 0
Q 1.

83

1.3.
1.25. -
5

2. S 1 R Q
, Q 1.
3. R S ,
Q Q .
4. R = 1 S = 1
,
.
R S = 0.

, 8 ,
, , 8 2 10= 8192 .

.
/^- JK-, - D-.
/- ,
1 .
- (), 1
. -
(,
,
).
D- D
. D-
,
.
.
2
( , . . 1.14).
2
. 1.14.

84

1. ..,

Sx

. 1.14. 2:
;

. ,

. (, ),
(), (S)
. 1.26.
1.26.
()
1 -------|--------------------'-L - 1--
1

1 ..........

,

= .

.

( , ,
).
,
.
, (.
2):
S = A v .

1.3.

85


.
,
,
.
, . .
.

, . .
,
.
,

(. 1.15).

Si
& 1

&

HS

&

. 1.15. :
;

.
: ;

: Si
Pj. . 1.27.

, .
:
Pi =(<, a A, ) v ((. p i A ) v (b,

).


:
S , = ( v b, v

) _, v

(,,

).

86

1. ..

1.27.

bi

Si

/>!-.
0

Pi


(. . 1.24, . 1.11)

(. 1.16, ).

. 1.16. :
;

1.4.

87

1.4.

(semiconductors) ,

.

.

, ,
, :
, ;
, ;
( ),
,
;
,
;
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;
.

:
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-
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-
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, :
, ;
, ;
.

1, .
,
, ,
. ,
-HE,
-.

88

1. ..

. 1.17,
(
) ( ).
1
(
). , ,
.
1

----

()

lb

------
ii

()

()

-------

----------- 2

. 1.17. () ()

, ,
3,3
( , Pentium 5 ), 1
3,3 .
. 1.18
/ ,
1824 .
.

(. 1.19).

(. 1.19) , 130 ,
0,5 . . ,
(, node)
130 (1 = 10'9 )
0,5 (1 = 6 ) . 1.20.
Intel 4004 (1971 .)
10 ; Pentium II (1998 .) 0,25 \
Intel Atom AMD Shanghai (2008 .)
0,045 (45 ) (. . 3.3 3.6).

1.4.

89

. 1.18. (
18 .)

1000

0,01
1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

. 1.19.

(90 ).
50 ,
1,2

. 1.20.
:
(90 );
(100 )

90

1. ..

Microprocessor ,
.
.
,
, ,
, .
,
,
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,
, .
,
, .
, .
-- (siliconon-insulator SOI). ,
, .
, .

. 1.21. (), - ()

.

:

;

1.4.

91

;
(Si02);
;
;
;
;
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,

(CMOS-)
.


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.

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),
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.

,
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.


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-,
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.
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92

1. ..

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100 , EUV-

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(etching) .
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,
.


.
,
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.
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.

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1.4.

93

.

.
.
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. , 0,25-

.
,
.
,
(dice), .
50 % ,
, 100 %.

, ,
(pin grid arrays PGA) ,

(socket) (
slot).
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(Socket 940, AMD Opteron).

- 3
(L3-cache), (
) .

(micro pin grid array ^PGA),
.

, SOI- (Silicon On Isolator
),
,
,

.
DRAM ,
,

94

1. ..

,
,
1 .
, ,
, SRAM,
2 (
,
).
-.

( )
.
.
2002 . Intel Corporation ,

,
. Intel TeraHertz
transistor (-),
.
,
25 , 20 (
250 )
.
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(. . 1.21, ):

,
, ;

.

. ,
( 10 .
SOI).

;
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, ,
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.

1.4.

95

- .

(High-k Gate Dielectrics)
(Metal Gate Electrodes)
Intel Penryn ( 45 )

.


.


,
.
.
(high-k dielectric
)

45 5 65 .


.
,
, ,
(. 1.22, ).

. 1.22. (); ()

96

1. ..

Penryn
;
,

(. 1.22, ).
.
-- ,
, ,
.
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.

, 1990- . ,

.

.

.

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) .
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.

1.4.

97


.
1998 . IBM
,
(Damascene 0,18 CMOS 7SF).

, . ,
,
.
. ,
,
(diffusing
barrier),
.
10 .
, ,
(. 1.23).

. 1.23. :
;
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;


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^, .
,
,
,
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,
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98

1. ..

,

.
.
65 . Intel
2005 .
65- Intel -
193 , .
35
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, 90 .

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()


.
. 90-

65-

1,2 15 %
. ,
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.

. , ,
, 90- (. 1.24, ).
Intel
.

1.4.

99

45 .
> ,
,
. 1960- .

(high-k).

(. . 1.22).


. ( 510 )
. ,
45- 300-
193- -,
.
45 Intel
Wolfdale, Kentsfield, Atom (. 1.25, ), AMD
Shanghai, Propus, Regor, Deneb ( Stars/3ee3flbi).
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,
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(SRAM) ,
32 (2007 ., IBM ).
(6 ,
. . 4.9), 1,6 .

. 1.25. :
Intel Atom N270 (45 , 13x14 ,
19 ); SRAM ( 32 )

100

1. ..


, printed circuit board, ,

, ,
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, ,
().
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.

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) .
.
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() -.

1.5.

.
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1.5.

101


.

.

().
,
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.

-, IX . (825 .)

.
.
1747 . ,

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1950 . .

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()
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:
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102

1. ..



.

.

,

, .

:
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,
.
-
.
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.
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-,
,
.

( = ! =
= 1 X2 X3 X4 X... X).

():
1.
.
2. i
.
3. = /
.
4. , / . / = ,
. / < , i
3.

1.5.

103


,
,
.
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.
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,
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104

1. ..,

-
,
.
,
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,
.
,
,
,
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+ bx2 + + d = 0,
, . .

, , , d. ,
.
. , ,
; ,
( ).
-
-. ,
,
.
,
, . . .
,
.

.
19.00280
(. 1.28).

.
( ),
.
. ,
.

1.5.

10!

1.28. -

19.003 80
(): = 10,15,20 ;

=\,
:= b
b :=

1. 1 /4
() (

).
2. ,

()

T V

= /4

V-

/2


(
)


,
(, )

d=a/ 2
/2

0,2

\ /

0,6

106

1. ..




. ,
, (. 1.26).
( )
/ , ~ 7

7 3 Z L
:=*

/ X /
[ ]

( j

. 1.26. :
; ;

,
.
- . 1.26, (
).
, ,
, ,

. ,
.
,
- (. 1.26, ).
, ,
X. > ,
X := , X := + .
X,
.

1.5.

107

,
( ) .
.
,
,
.

.
,
.
( ), ,
.
, ,
/WHILE (
).
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,
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, .

, , .
,
. 1.26 ( ). N
, .
N\,
,
1. 1.
, N > .
N\ = N \x = + 1.
,
, .
.

.

108

1. ..

, .

- .

.
(),
( )
.
,
, .


1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. .
5. 32 451
.
6. 32 4 5 1 i6 .
7. ?
8. 1 FAi 6 2BCi6 8.
9. 4 5 7 8 3 7 5 8 3.
10. .
11. ?
12. (-.( )) (-- v ->)
1- . .
13. (-.( v )) ( - - v - i )
2- . .
14. ,
, 16 = 24 1 . ,
16
, .
9
.
15. .

,
.
:
();
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);
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.
,
. . 2.1
,
.
,
,
(. 2.2),
:
-
;

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,
().
, ,
.
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, ,
.

. 2.1. ()

110
2.

2.

111

ttU

ft J] ft -II

()

*
ft Jj ff J]

1) I)

. 2.2.

2.1.

, -

,
-,

AMD 7-8, Intel 5-6

IA-32, IA-64, AMD64

112

2.

2.1.
(, )
,

.

,
, . 2.2. . 2.3
, ,
.
2.2.

(
, , )
.

,


( )
.

,
,


(),

, .

,

, (
() , )

,

(
), .

(), ()

2.1.

113

2.3.
'


()


( )

()

, , ,

1950 1958,


II

1959 1967

III

1968 1978

IV

1979 1993

1994


.

-


,
,
. .,


.
()


(). ,
.
:
; ;

,
, .

j

114

2.

.
.
:
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) , . .
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);
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, .

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,
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(. 2.4).
,
50- . .

(. 2.3, ).

.
, -
,
.

. - , ,

115

2.1.
2.4.
,

50-

60-

70-

80-

- ,

.
1020 . .

. , ,
,
.
.
,
,
, .
,
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, .

,

116

2.

. 2.3.

( );
(); (); Moto
();

rola 68000 ()

,
. , ,
,
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.
: (
), , , , -20.

, 195565 .
,
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-,
(),
() (. 2.5).


CNJ

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5 .

, /

20 .

45

20 .

45

14 15 .

24

5 .

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100 .

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2.5.

2.1.
117

118

2.


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) .

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, (. . 2.3, ).

60- .,
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.
,
.
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IBM-370, PDP-11, VAX, ( ),
( ) .

2.1.

119


.

.

, 70- .
,

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.

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(.
. 2.3, ).


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.
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164 .
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();

;
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.
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(. 2.4, . 2.6).

120

2.

. 2.4.
2.6. ,

,
,

()

Roadrunner

(

mainframe)

Honeywell-Bull DPS7 Mainframe



,

(
,

. .)

PDP-11

2.1.

121

. 2.6
|


"

,


,

.


,


32 64 ,

Sun SPARCstation 1 +
;

(desktop)

()



, ,
,
,
,

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(laptop)

(notebook)


Pentium,

96 ,
9 ,
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-,
,


2 8

IBM PC-

Mid-range HP Laptop

Sony VAIO SZ (Intel Core Duo)

122

2.
. 2.6

(palmtop)





.
.

Windows ,

,

,

PalmOne Tungsten 5

( s u p e r c o m p u t e r )
. 1976 .
Cray Research
, .
Cray Research ,
,
. ,
/
.
-.
,
.
,

.
.

.
. ()
.
, .

.
, ,
,

2.1.

123

.
. IBM
().
( ) m a i n f r a m e
,
,
,
. ,
-
.


. ,
.

,
.

.


.
,
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- m i n i c o m p u t e r
.
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,
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,
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,
.
w o r k s t a t i o n

,
.

124

2.

, (SUN), SUN
Microsystems .
,
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, ,
.
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, .
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.

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:
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).

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,
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SUN Microsystems Silicon Graphics.

2.1.

125

( m i c r o c o m p u t e r ) ,
.
.
,

.
,
.
,
.
().

, .

.
,
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.

() p e r s o n a l
c o m p u t e r (PC) ,

. ,
(),
.
,
.
, .


, :
,
;

;
,
, ,
;

,

;

126

2.

( 5000
).
32-
64-
UNIX .
, ,

. , ,
Microsoft.
(Simple Interactive Personal Computer SIPC).
,
.


(),
.
,
, , .

.

80- . XX .,
Motorola, Zilog Intel
Intel 8086, Z80 68000.

():
Kaypro II (Zilog);
Macintosh 128 (Motorola);
IBM PC XT/AT (Intel INTegrated Electronics).
Kaypro II 1982 . (. 2.5, ).
,
. (Andrew F. Kay) Non-Linear Systems, Inc. (
Kaypro Corporation).
Kaypro II
.

2.1.

127

. 2.5. :
- II; - Macintosh 128; - IBM PC XT

1984 .,
II.

Osborne I, . , HP-85 (HewlettPackard). , , ,
II Osborne 1,
,
-85.
II Zilog Z80
2,5 . 64 , 2 .
9"
80 24,
.
, .
5,25
190 . II
/ (Control Program for Microprocessor)
1795 .
0
128 || Macintosh (. 2.5, ). Apple 1984 .,

128

2.

. ,
,
,
?
Macintosh 128 32-
Motorola 68000 8 , 128
, 64 , - (400 ;
3,5"), 9" -
512 342 , , ,
20 (8 ).

PARC Xerox, 15
1980- .
Apple. PARC
, ,
, .
Macintosh 5 ,
2495 . 500 .,
, 9 . 275 .
.
, ,
Apple .

. ,
, .
Macintosh 128

,
.
Apple ,
1984 . Fat
Macintosh 512 (Macintosh 128
1985 .).
*3:*5= 5 , 5 IBM PC. . 2.5, IBM
5 , s i r s PC XT (eXtendet Tecnology 5* , IBM PC),
(8 1983 .). Intel 8088
4,77 , 256 , 64 , ,
360 MDA (CGA);
/-86, MS-DOS, Minix.

2.2.

129

2.2.

, .

(, ,
). ,
, , .
,
( ), , ,
, , , ,
(), -
( ) .
,
.
,
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;
;

;

;
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:
;
;
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.
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RS-, D- -,
(. 2.6).
.
:
1)
2,
;

130

2.

. 2.6. :
; 0; ;

2) 2~,
;
3)
.
/^
, . 2.7.
0,
D .

, ,
( ).
.
, (. 2.8).

2.2.

131

. 2.7.

. 2.8.

N 1, D
/- Q,_, ,
(/ - 1). , D
/- QM ,
(/ + 1).
,
, .
:
;
;
;
.
:
;
;
;
.
:
;
.
:
( ) (
, ,

132

2.

).

> \og(M + 1);
() ^

;

( )
, .
.
- (. 2.9).

Qx

<-

92

<-

Oi

qn_

[ 2

. 2.9.

= , ,
. ,
,
.
.

(. 2.10).
tpa = + ( - *), .

. 2.10.

= + .

. -

2.2.

133


( 8 ).
, ,

,- , .
.
,
.
.

.
. , ,
( ) . . 2.23.
,
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.
.
.
.

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. .

.
, ,
.
1-
, . 2-
,
.

:
(
, );
(
, , );
- (
,
).

134

2.


:
;
;
;
.

(. . 1.14).

.


.
. ,
,
. ,
S = (s3 s2 sxs0) = (2 0)
= (2 0) , . 2.11.
SM
0

So
Sx
S2
Sz

*1
2

*0

A \P2

A \P2

A \Po

SM

SM

SM

SM

bi *1

S2

1 1, r

P2

Sx

Si

Px

So

1
*0

Pa

S = (s3 s2 j, s0)
a

. 2.11.
(); ( )
()

(),
(. 2.12).
,
(Pi+l) (,) ,
:

2.2.

135

. 2.12.

Pt = 0 v b0 0; 2 =, v bt ,; 3 = 2 v 2 2 ...

2 = fl| v ^
0;
3 = V
fl,)v ( ^

fl0) v

1\ 0 0);

^?+i =o,v(b, Aa,_t)v(bi ,., Afl,.j)v ... v(^ ,_, ...

a ^J).

(. 2.13).
,
:
= . , v (A, v ,)

,. = , Bi ,
i- ; Y, = , v :
/- .
-
.

, -

136

2.

. 2.13.

, , 4 8
.
,
. ,

,
. ,
, ,
.
().
,
.
,
()
() (. 2.14, ).
, N = 2" (. 2.7, - 3, N = 8).
,
1,
(
).

(. . 2.7):
Z0 = 3 2 ,; z , = 3 2 ,;
Z2 = 3 2 ,; z 3 = 3 2 ,;
Z4 = 3 2 , ; z$ 3 2 ,;
Z fa X ^ X 2 X | 9 Z 7 = X j X 2 |

2.2.

*1

*2

137

. 2.14. ();
(6)
2.7.

\
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

*2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

*3
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

ZQ
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

z\
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

Z2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

Z3
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

Z4
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

Z5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

Z6
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
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0
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0
1

,, 2, 3
(. 2.14, ).
,

(. 2.14, ).
,
,
.
,
. ,
,
.

138

2.


(. 2.15, ).

. 1 ()
. ,
,
- , 1.
2

1?

?

*
*

*2
*2
\

&

64

ft*

. 2.15. (), ()

,
. 2.15, .
.
.
.

,
(. 2.16, ). ,
.
, .

fo

fi
. 2.16. :
;

2.2.

139


,
(. 2.16, ).
, 3
2 , . 2.8.
2.8.

*3
0

*2
0

*1
1

\
0

?
0

,
(. 2.17).
,

. 2.17. :
, ;

140

2.

, . .
.
, 2*.

, .
,
,
, , .
, ,
, (. 2.18).
,
, . .
.

if
.

% '

DM D \

3I

I;

4)

*0

DMUX

CQ

. 2.18. :
, ;

( ) ,
(),

141

2.2.

(G), ( L )
(. 2.19).
- ,
/- (. 2.9).
2.9. i-
/

bi

gi

1
1

4)
-i

==
G

&

*1

&

L
**-1

&

&

&

&

. 2.19. :
;

142

2.

/- , , :
Si

^ bj 5 tj

- . - ,

. . g, =1, / = 1 ft, =0; /,. =1, ai =0 ft,. =1; , =1,


ai = ft,.
, 1, -
,
;.
=, 2 ... .

G
,
:
G = g n v (g_, A en) v ( g _2 ,., ) ...

...

V g,

(2 ...

L
G:
L = G.
().
,
.
, .
,, 3, ..., {, 2, 3, ...,
, , .
/, 2 (. 2.20).
( )
( ), 2 (
) .
2
.

zk,
:
Z k = , 2 3 ... .

zk
, .

2.2.

*1

*2

143

. 2.20. ()

, 2,
,
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.
.
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.
().


.
(. 2.21):
RG,
;
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/?,, R2, ..., R (/?, =2 Ri+l);
Um;
.

2.

144

*1
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Jh.

1 V 1
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D,

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=
4

. 2.21.

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.
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(. 2.22).

.

PC

&

-1

----------

1
2

3
4

. 2.22.

2.3.

145


,
.
:
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( ).

,
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;
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,

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:
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2.3.

.

.
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.

,
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.

146

2.



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EDVAC:
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2.3.

147

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.

148

2.

()
, ,
(central processing unit CPU)
()
( Main Storage, Core Storage, Random Access
Memory RAM).

,

, ,
. :
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(
);
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( ).


.
- (). Arithmetic and
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.
.
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2.3.

149

(-
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.

.
, ,
, ,
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,
( Hewlett-Packard HP Digital Equipment
Corporation DEC).


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unit ALU)
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, .
:
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;
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;
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,

; .

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,
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, , .

150

2.

2.

>

...

() /

(1, 2 ,...)
(1, 2 ,...)

(1, 2 ,...)
(, )
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()

. 2.23.

(
),
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/ (instruction
Decode);

(Address
Generate, Load)

(Execute);
(Write Back, store).
, ,
() ,
.
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(

2.3.

151

).
.
, ,
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Purpose Registers) ,
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,
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.
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, .
, ,
.

, ,
Status Register (SR)
. SR
(,
, , .).
SR (
, 4170).
i8086.

.

152

2.

1. (
)
. ,
(,
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.
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3. AI, 2 . .
4. ,

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).
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() .
( ,
) ( , 1,
, ).

(branch prediction).

. () (. 2.24, )
(
).
( ) -

2.3.

153

. 2.24. :
; ; ;

( Triton 430 Northbridge/


Southbridge)

154

2.

- (),
, (),
.
.
.

,
.
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-1 (1950 .),
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,
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, -
(I-Cache) (D-Cache).
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, , ),
,
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() ()
( )
, ( DEC, IBM PC-
).

.
,
.

(). ,
(. 2.24, )

,
(Northbridge)
(Southbridge).

2.4. ..

155

2.4.

()
- ,
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156

2.

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2.4. ..

157

. 2.25.

-
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, .
()

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158

2.

()

.

.


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2.4. ..

159

1, 3, 4, 5
.
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, , (1 )
20 % , ,
2 33 % , 4 50 %.
, 1 -
100 %, 2 - 167 %
( 200 %), 4 -
250 % ( 400 %).

2.

160

10 12 14 16 18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

. 2.26.



;
.

(. ; 1966 .)
1966 . . (Flynn)
,
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,
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(. 2.10, . 2.27).

.


.

(.
. 3.1).

.

2.4. ..

^ ^ ^

1
2
3 |

161


lJ

^ ^ V

^2

21

22

lid

11

12

. 2.27. :
- SISD; - MISD; - SIMD; - M1MD
2.10.

SISD Single Instruction


MISD Multiple Instruction
stream/Single Data stream ( stream/Single Data stream (

)
)

SIMD Single Instruction


stream/Multiple Data stream (

)

MIMD Multiple Instruction


stream/Multiple Data stream (

)

, . . ,
, ,
.
.
(), -

162

2.

,
, .
()
,

.
.
,
,

.
.
,

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.

.

,
(MIMD),
. 4- SX-5
NEC 1000- Cray MIMD.
.
. .
MIMD-

.

:
, ,
,
.


. ,
MIMD-,
(. 2.11).

2.4. ..

163

2.11. MIMD

GMSV General Memory-Shared variables


DMSV Distributed Memory, Shared
( ) variables (
)
1. 2.

GMMP General Memory, Message

propagation (
)

DMMP Distributed Memory,


Message propagation (
)
3.

,
:
,

,
, CRAY Y-MP (
1);
, ,

,
, NCube ( 3);

, BBN Butterfly,
( 2).

:
, , . .
. . (A. Basu),

,
,
. (. 2.28)
, ,
,
, ,
.

164

2.

( )

()

-4-

( )
(P i)
( )
( )
(P i)

. . .

DCPaS

DCPaA

DPPiS

DPPaS

( )

. . . .


OCPaS OCPaA

OPPiS

OPPiA OPPaS OPPaA

. 2.28.

,
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,
( D
. 2.28).
().
,
,
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.
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().
,
,

2.4. ..

165

() ()
().
,
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.

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, ,
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2.

166

), , -,
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:
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MIMD.
.

SIM D

MIMD

MIMD / SIMD
,

MIMD

Dadaflow
Reduction
------ Wavefront

. 2.29.

2.4. ..

167

,
.
(
) ,
(, WARP).

.

.
.
.
MIMD/SIMD-,
dataflow, reduction wavefront
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,
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.

. Dataflow- ,
,
. ,

, , , .
, reduction -,
:
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,
.
wavefront array
,
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,
, . ,
,

168

2.


(handshaking), -

.
. .

,
. (. 2.30):
;
;
;
.
.

.

.
(. . 2.30),
,
,

.

2.4. ..,

169


. . (
) .
,
(, ,
, , . .)
(, ),

.
, ,

: ,
dataflow ( ).
, ,
,
:
, dataflow .


.
- :
;

;

;
.
:


;

;
.
:

;
;

;
.
:

;
;

170

2.


;
.
wavefront:

;
;

;
dataflow.
dataflow:

;
;

dataflow,
>-dataflow.
, .
,
,
, dataflow wavefront.

:
,
.
,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,

.
. .
,
, ,
dataflow- reduction-.

, :
(IP Instruction Processor)
,
( , , );

2.4. ..

171

(DP Data Processor)


, ,
;
(IM Instruction Memory, DM Data
Memory) ,
, ;
,
.

,
. , :
DP
IP ,
;
IM ;
;
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DP;
DP
.

:
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DM;
;
DM;
IP
.

-
. 2.31.
,
.
,
- ,
:
11
;

172

2.

. 2.31. -

. _ /-
i-
, . . ;
\

;
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.

. ,
1
. Connection
Machine
, , .

, .
. .
:
(IP);
( )
(IM);
IP IM;
(DP);
( )
(DM);
DP DM;
IP DP;
DP DP.

2.4. ..

173

,

: 0, 1 (. .
), 28 .
.. 15 dataflow
reduction,
. 6 -
.
710. 11 12
MISD
, -, . 13-
28- ,
1320
, , 2128
.
. .

.

,

(. 2.32).


:
:
,
w

' /

. 2.32.

174

2.

()
;
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() ,
;
:
() ,

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,
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-
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, ).
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)
,
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.
(. ),
MIMD ,

. ,
, ,
. 2.33.
.

: ,
,
.

2.4. ..

175

. 2.33. MIMD ()

MIMD-,
(,
Denelcor HEP). ,
, :
MIMD-,
,
;
MIMD-,
,

-.
, MIMD-
,
(, PASM, PRINGLE).

,
. MIMD-
.
, ,
MIMD-
(CRAY -, BBN Butterfly).
:
, , .

, .
MIMD .

176

2.

MIMD-
, ,
:
(1),
(Intel Paragon, CRAY T3D), (NCube, Intel
iPCS), , , ,
, (Cm, CEDAR) , , ,
.
,
,
MIMD
MIMD,
MIMD.
, ,
Connection Machine 2,
, .
. . ,
70- ., ,


: , -
, .
,
, . . , /

(
). ,

,

. ,
, :
I, II . .
I ,
, -
,
(. 2.34, ).

- .
,
, , . -

2.4. ..

177

. 2.34. I () II ()


(IBM 701, PDP-11, VAX 11/780),
(CDC 7600) - (CRAY-1).
I ,
,
II (. 2.34, ). -
,
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, II

.
II
(, STARAN),

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ICL DAP,
4096 .
I II,
III (. 2.35, ).
-
, , *
, .
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, ,
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178

2.

. 2.35. III () IV ()

,
. III
OMEN-60
Sanders Associates,
.
I -
(
), IV (. 2.35, ).

. ,

,

. ,
288 .

IV,
, V
(. 2.36, ).
, -

. 2.36. V () VI ()

2.4. ..

179

. ,
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, IV
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, -
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( ),
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.
,
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, :
;
(
);
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, ,

() ,
().


.
Symmetric
Multiprocessing (SMP). SMP ,


(. 2.37).

,

.

180

2.

. 2.37.


.
-.

.
,
. ,
.
,

.
(48) .

.

,

. , -
,
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, . ,
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SMP
- . ,

. , SMP ,
,
.

2.4. ..

181

,
, ,
(Uniform Memory Access
UMA) .
ASymmetric
Multiprocessing (ASMP) ,

.
ASMP (. 2.38).
,
-, . . .

(. 2.38, , . -)
.
(. 2.38, ),
(. 2.38, ).
.
,
. , ,
,
.

. 2.38.

182

2.

. , ,
.

. ,
.
.


,
(), .
- (massive parallel processing) - (. 2.38, ).
, :
;
();
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, .
.
.
,
,
.
(NVMA).
NUMA (nonuniform memory access)
.


.
, :
, ,
.
(),
.
.
,
, . . .

2.4. ..

183

, . NUMA
- (-),
SMP-.

(. 2.39):
SMP-.
(Butterfly).


(. 2.40). ,

(. 2.40, ).
() ().

(. 2.40, ).
, Burroughs,
Convex Computer ( HP), SGI, Sequent Data
General 1990- .
Unix- ,
Windows NT.
UMA, NUMA

, . ,

(. . 2.26).

184

2.

. 2.40. ();
()

, ,
2468 .
PVP-. PVP (Parallel Vector Process)
.
PVP- -
,
,
. ,
(1 16)
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.
( ).
. , ,
, .
, ,
.
:
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;
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,

2.4. ..

185

,
.
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- - ;

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.
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.

186

2.
/
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. 2.41. (),
CRAY YMP ()

,
(. 2.41).

6 (
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.
,
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(. 2.42, ).
, ,
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2.4. ..

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1110

187
1111^

011

. 2.42. :
;


(fat-tree). ,

(. 2.43). ,
.

,
,
,
. , ,
,
, Linux,
FreeBSD.

. 2.43. Fat-tree:
;

2.

188

( )
.

,

, .
,
, SMP
, .
(Uni
f o r m D i s k M e m o r y A c c e s s U D MA ) . UDMA
(. 2.44, ),

~~| ~| [~|

^
/

. 2.44. :
(UDMA); (NUDMA)

2.4. ..

189

. 2.44, SMP-.

SCSI
Fibre Channel .
UDA:
;
, ;
.
(Non-Uniform
D i s k M e m o r y A c c e s s N U D M A ) .

,
.


. ,
,
,
.
:

;

.
.
(constel
lation).
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(N ) .

. 2.45. :

190

2.

,
(N < ), ,
(N > ) .
Columbia ( 20 SGI Altix,
512 ) .
.
,
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,
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.

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.
,
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,
;
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(link),
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,
;
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(TRAM ) ,
, , ,

191

2.4. ..,

(.

4 71
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; (. 2.41);
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.

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,
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Inmos.

,
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192

2.

Inmos (, Texas Instruments


TMS320C40 50 Mflops).



.
, -


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,

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,
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2.4. ..

193

1015 ,
,

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194

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,
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:
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20 / SHARC
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( Myricom, )
2 160 /. ,

29 .

195

2.4. ..

64
-1000 24 -1000.

.

:
Fortran (C++),
;
PVM MPI (
);

.
IBM. 2000 . IBM
Linux- IBMxSeries,
,
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. 2001 . 1300 IBM
1350 Intel (. 2.12).
2.12. 1350


, ,

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2,0

0,512

18

10/100 Ethernet

32

2,4

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128

2,8

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Gigabit Ethernet

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2,8

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1350
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196

2.

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, 1350

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Myrinet (. ,
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MPICH, PVM, Maui Scheduler, ,
, . .
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. 1350 Red Hat Linux.
SuSE (4Q02).
,
, IBM
.
, . ,
xSeries
.
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Linux (CSM)
IBM.
,
(Parallel System Support
Programs PSSP) AIX- RS/6000
SP. CSM
1350.
CSM Linux , PSSP,
AIX ,
xSeries Linux,
IBM pSeries, AIX,
.

2.4. ..

197

,
, ,

.
Portable Batch Scheduler (PBS) Maui Scheduler,
. MPICH
,
,

.
HP. HP Compaq
HP Linux-,
IA-32 IA-64.
Linux
Itanium, .
Linux HP
HP, Intel (IA-32 1-64),
HP ProLiant,
-, HP,
Evo, ,
ProLiant
iPAQ. HP
Linux AlphaServer,
Compaq.
Linux Itanium. HP
Red Hat SuSE,

UnitedLinux . HP
Linux
ProLiant Evo.

.
HP

Linux.
,
.
:
Intel C++ Compiler Linux;
Intel Fortran Compiler Linux;

198

2.

Intel Math Kernel Library;


Intel Vtune Performance Analyzer
.
SGI. Silicon Graphics
(SGI) 1981 .

.

,
.

, , .
2003 . SGI
64- Linux- ,
SGI Altix 3000. SGI Altix 3000
Intel Itanium 2
SGI Numaflex,
(NUMA).
NUMAflex 1996 .
SGI Origin,
MIPS 64-
IRIX. NUMAflex
, , -, ,
,
.
,

. , SGI
SGI Altix 3000
- (IX- -),
(D-) (
/-).
(-),
Itanium 2.

.

,
. ,
(NUMA).
NUMA,

2.4. ..

199

,
.
,
.
,
,
.
SPECfp_rate_base2000 SGI Altix
3000 (1 )
64-
862. 64-
HP Superdome (875 ) 267
SGI.
32- SGI Altix 3000
, 1,8 , IBM eServer 690 (1,3 ),
3,5 , HP Superdome (750 ). 32- SGI 443 , IBM eServer 690 251,
HP Superdome 128. 32- SGI
Altix 3000 300 %
/ IBM eServer 690.
SM P Power Challenge Silicon Graphics.
R10000
Challenge ( R4000)
PowerChallenge ( R8000)
.
,

.
Silicon Graphics
IRIX ( UNIX ),
SVID (System
V Interface Definition) XPG4.
SCSI (multi-hosted
SCSI), 4- 128-
.
Oracle, Informix Sybase.
Challenge DM/L/XL
, a Power Challenge
L/XL . Challenge DM
.

200

2.

Power Challenge
(SMP-),
MIPS R8000 Silicon
Graphics. :
;
(
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214

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3.1. ...

215

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216

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3. :

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. 3.2. ()

220

3. :

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(. 3.2)
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3.2. ...

221

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222

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2004 ., AMD64. 64
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(Prescott ), Pentium D, Pentium Extreme Edition
Intel Core Xeon (Woodcrest), Intel Core 2.

3.2. ..,

223

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86-64,
86_64 (Linux Apples Mac OS X), 64 (Microsoft Sun Micro
systems).
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.
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3. :

224


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instruction

src

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dest]

i n s t r u c t i o n , d e s t ,
.

3.2. ...

225

,
:
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16).
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;
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226

3. :

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,
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,
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227

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).
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3.2. ..

231

m i

CISC / RISC

VLIW / CISC

CISC / RISC

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232

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3.2. ..

233

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1 __| 2

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Intel
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.

Intel, AMD.


.

234

3. :

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3.2. ...

235


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236

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238

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3.2. ...

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242

3. :

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3.2. ..

243

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, 8080 .
,
, Intel .

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. ,

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. ,

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. 1984 .
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256

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:
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80286, 16
,
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258

3. :

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OS/2 (
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.

3.3.

259

I n t e l 8 0 4 8 6 DX,
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,
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486DX,
16 , 1,6 , 0,6 , 75 , 53
, 100 , 70 .
5. 1993 .,
Pentium (. 3.17) 486 Intel
.

. 3.17. Pentium

260

3. :

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()
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54, 0,6
,
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()
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.
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,
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262

3. :

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2,
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,
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2 .
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.
:
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3.3.

263

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264

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266

3. :

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3.3.

267

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268

3. :

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Pentium 4, .
920 (2,8 ), 930 (3,0 ), 940
(3,2 ), 950 (3,4 ), 960 (3,6 ).
, Pentium D ,
Pentium Intel,
1993 .
Intel Core. (Intel
Development Forum) 2006 . Intel
Intel Core,
NetBurst Pentium ,

274

3. :

, ,
. Intel
Core Intel,
Pentium .
, Intel Core
2006 .
Centrino Duo. Core Duo (
Yonah), ,
Intel,
65 .
Yonah (. 3.24).
1

14

V/

. 3.24. Intel Core


( Intel Pentium )
Intel Pentium IV,
:

(Intel Wide Dynamic Execution) -

3.3.

275


, 14-

,
, ;

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.
,

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, Intel Core
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sion) . . 3.6.
Yon ah
Intel,
65 , Banias/Dothan
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LaGrande. (S1MD)
SSE3
SSE SSE2,

. , Yonah NX bit.
Intel Core Duo
, 2-
2 MiB.
.

276

3. :

Intel Core Solo (


) ,
Core Duo, .
,
,
,
. Intel
486,
486SX 486DX,

.
C o r e Duo. Core Duo 151
, 2- 2 MiB.
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2,332,50 .
L2
, 2-,
(FSB, . . 4.13).
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,
(NorthBridge).
, , AMD 8,
;
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;
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(64);

( 1 ) (
).
S o s s a m a n , Yonah,
14 2006 . Xeon (Dual- LV).
Sossaman Yonah,
(dual-socket configurations), 4-
, , 36- (
mode). Sossaman ,
Yonah, 64,
.
Intel Core
, Intel

3.3.

277

2006 .
. :
(3540 );
(6580 );
- Woodcrest (4080 ).
,
Intel.
Core 2 8- ,
Intel. Core 2
27 2006 . Intel Core,
, Core 2 Duo ()
Solo () .
Extreme ( ) Quad
().
( ) (
), Kentsfield (
) (45 ).
Woodcrest Core,
, Core 2.
(. 3.25),
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D-cache),
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(Instruction Fetch Buffer),
(Instruction Decoders),

278

3. :

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, ,
,
, 86-
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279


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,
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280

3. :

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,
, ,
.
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,
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130 Pentium 4 Prescott).
Intel Core 2 ,
64, Virtualization Technology, Execute Disable Bit SSE3.
, Core 2 LaGrande Technology, Enhanced
SpeedStep Technology Active Management Technology (iAMT2).
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, Pentium 4 Pentium
D. Intel , 40%-
40%-
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( 2 L2).
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(2,13 ), (FSB) 1066 /
.
,
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, 6700 6600
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5,4 ( ).

3.3.

281

, ,
50 FSB 1333 .
C o n r o e X E (Core 2 Extreme)
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition Pentium
Extreme Edition. Core 2 Extreme 2,93
FSB 1066 MT/s, 7580
45 ,
SpeedStep
.
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, Core 2 Extreme
3,6
, 4,1
, 5,5
.
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,
20 % , Core Duo (Yonah).
35 5
(Ultra Low Voltage ULV).
Merom Intel,
64- 64 64-bit exten
sions, 667 MT/s.
FSB 800 MT/s Socket .
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Core 2 Duo), 5200 1,60 ; 5500
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2 , 700 4 .
I n t e l P e n r y n C o r e 2.
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45

(. . 1.22).
, Merom,
.
, Intel Core Quad
582 ,
Penryn 820 .

L2 6 (150 % Core 2) . 3.26.

282

3. :

. 3.26.

:
,
4 2 .
2 ,
4 ;
Deep
Power Down, Deep
sleep ( , -
);
Core 2 Duo
,
, ,


;
, Instructions,
SSE4, -, 40 %
,
.
K e n t s f i e l d . Kentsfield, 2006 .,
(quad core CPU)
Intel Core 2, .
(Core 2 Extreme)
(Core 2 Quad). L2
4 . Core 2 Quad Q6600, 2,4 ,
2007 ., Extreme QX6850
Kentsfield 2007 .

3.3.

283

Pentium D, Kentsfield
(
Core 2 duo),
().
,

, ,
, , AMD Quad FX platform.
95 130 ,
, Core 2 Duo .
Kentsfield
,
(, -/, , ).
Y o r k f i e l d
, L2
6 . , -
. , Intel

,
,
L2.
3 .
Wo I f d a l e 5000 Pentium Dual
Core 7000/8000 Core 2 Duo ,
Penryn Yorkfield
Conroe. 2008 .
45
. 7200, 2,53 ,
L2 3 FSB (
) 1066 / ( ),
, 2,663,33 ,
6 L2 FSB 1333 /.
5200 2,5 , L2 2
Pentium Dual core.
2009 .
(, Core 2 Duo,
Core 2 Quad, Core 2 Extreme)
: Core i3, Core i5 Core i7.
N e h a l e m Intel,
Bloomfield LGA 1366

284

3. :

Lynnfield LGA 1156.


Core i7 Core i5 .
Nehalem 731
, 10 % , Yorkfield.

214 263 2.
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;
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, .
Intel Atom. Intel Atom
Intel,
86 86-64 CPUs, 45
CMOS (high-k metal gate, . . 1.22, )
,
(. 3.27).
2008 . Intel ,
Silverthome ( Atom Z,
Z500Z540) Diamondville (Atom N, N270 230)
.
Silverthome
Internet- (Mobile Internet Devices MID),
Diamondville ,
(Nettops) (Netbooks).
Intel Lenovo, , MID
Atom IdeaPad U8, 280 ,
4,8" -

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. 3.27. Intel Atom

, Netbook,
Internet, (PDA).
Atom L1 56 ,
32 , 24 .
32-
, SSE, SSE2, SSE3 SSSE3.
64- (86-64),
Diamondville Atom 230.
Atom ,
(Hyper-Threading),
.
2008 . Intel
( Dual
Diamondville) Atom 330,

286

3. :

1,6 8 . FSB 533 ,


512 L2.
Intel Atom ( Pentium
1993 .). , 86
,
, Intel 6 Intel 68.
Atom ()
, .
86 ,
.
,
, , .
Celeron.
Intel ,
(),
(Celeron).
. 1998 . Intel
Pentium II , 400 .
Pentium
Pro Pentium II ,
,
. Slot 2,
, Pentium II,
- - L2.
- L2
512 1 .
, .
2 1999 .
Pentium II
, - L2

Slot 1, L2 ,
Intel Burst SRAM
, , SRAM.
,
Slot 2, .
SMP ( )
Pentium II
, ,
Pentium II , ,
.

3.3.

287

Pentium III 1999 .


Pentium III ( Tanner). Pentium
SSE.
, Pentium III
500 - L2 512 (
1,02,0 ). 1999 .
Cascade (0,18 ) ,
667 1 2000 .
2001 . Pentium IV
1,4, 1,5 1,7 . Foster,
Pentium IV,
microPGA Socket 603. Pentium IV
i860, i850,

4 .
, 4- 8-
- L3 512 1 .
C e l e r o n .
( AMD Cyrix,
Socket 7),
1998 . Intel
Celeron.
Celeron 2
.
.
1998 . Celeron 266 300
66 Slot 1.
128
Slot 1, Socket 370 (PPGA),
(, Celeron ).
6,
Pentium II,
0,25 , Celeron
, AGP,
-33, SDRAM ACPI.
Intel Pentium II,
66 440LX,
440 440
.
C o v i n g t o n . Celeron (Covington)
Pentium II, L2.

288

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, 266 300 (
, Pentium ), Celeron
, .
Pentium II Single Edge Cartridge
(SEC), Celeron
, Intel
Single Edge Processor Package (SEPP)
Slot 1,
(. . 1.23, ).
M e n d o c i n o . 300, Celeron
- L2 128 ,
,

66 .
Celeron 300 466
SEPP PPGA (plastic pin grid array).
(
Slot 1),
Socket 370, Socket 7 Slot 1.
C o p p e r m i n e . 2000 .

Celeron, Pentium III Coppermine
(0,18 ). , - FC-PGA (flip-chip pin grid array). ,
, PPGA, Slot 1,
Pentium III,
FC-PGA. Pentium III FC-PGA
reset () VRM 8.4.
Slot 370
,
Slot 370, - FC-PGA,
.
Celeron, Coppermine,
566 ,
766 , 2001 . 800 ,
FSB 100 .
Celeron Coppermine (
2001 .) 1,1 .
C e l e r o n T u a l a t i n . Celeron,
Tualatin Intel 0,13 ,
2002 . 1,2 . ,

3.3.

289

Tualatin Celeron
133 FSB, 1,3
FSB 100
PC 100.
,
FSB 1,5 .
Celeron
Pentium IV Willamette, 1,8 .
C e l e r o n N e t B u r s t .
Celeron Pentium IV 2002 .
Willamette (0,18 ) Celeron
4, L2 128 , 256 512 ,
.

(Celeron 4)
.
2002 . Celeron
Northwood (0,13 ),
2,0 ( Northwood 2- 512 , Intel
128 Celeron).
Celeron,
Northwood, 2004 . 2,8 .
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Intel

. 486 (1989 .),
Cyrix ,
Intel, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD),
Intel.
1990- . AMD Cyrix
486DX, 486DX,
486DX2-66 ( Intel 1992 .)
80 .
486DX2-80 40 ,
Intel DX2, 5 ,
3 . AMD Cyrix
40 80486
(), 120 . AMD

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Intel 486 DX4-100, AMD
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5x86, 33 486DX,
133 . AMD
Intel Pentium 75,
5x86-75. 486DX
, (
) 16 , Intel ,
DX4. Cyrix
5x86, Mlsc,
AMD. -, Mlsc ,
Pentium, ,
i80486.
100 120 , 64-
, (
DX4) .
, , Cyrix 5x86 ,
Intel Pentium,
486-,
.
1999 .
. Cyrix
- ,
National Semiconductor 80x86
VIA Technologies.
MediaGX
National Semiconductor,
Geode --, ,
.
AMD
Athlon ( 7)
Intel,
0,18- Pentium III
Coppermine.
Cyrix 6x86. 1995 ., 6x86
Pentium ,
IBM Micro
electronics Division (. 3.28). 6x86 -

ojOHHnm xoug

. 3.28. Cyrix 6x86:


; 1 , 1; 2, 2; 1 , 1;
2, 2; ;

3.3.
291

292

3. :

, Cyrix
, , ,
Intel,
. Cyrix ,

Pentium.
6x86 Cyrix
, Pentium,
.
Processor Performance Rating P- ( 100+,
, ,
Pentium 100 ). Cyrix ( AMD)
,
P-
. , 133+ (P- 133)
110 , 150+ 166+ 120
133 .
6x86
, 6x86
(Pentium
).
, 6x86- ,
, 8
.
,
90 %.
3,5 ,
0,5- . Socket 7.
3,3 .
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.
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( , ,
, , . . 3.28).

, ,
(
,
). 6x86

3.3.

293

,
80x86 CISC. 16-, 32-
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.
6x86
, ,
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,
Pentium
Intel Pentium .
Cyrix MediaGX. MediaGX
1997 . PC
.
, Cyrix
.
,
,
.

, , (
) , (
) . , ( )
. Cyrix
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. 3.29. Cyrix M ediaG X

294

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, PCI ,

.
MediaGX MediaGX
5510. ,
.
MediaGX 86- ,
PCI EDO DRAM
64- . ,
, .
(16 )
,
Pentium.

,
.
, , (
Unified Memory Architecture UMA),
Cyrix Display Compression Technology
(DCT). VGA
, VGA
Cyrix Virtual System Architecture (VSA).
MediaGX Cx5510
VSA,
.
MediaGX PCI ISA, IDE
-, . .
.
Cyrix 686. Cyrix Intel
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National Semiconductor.
Socket 7
,
,
.
,
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.

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. 1998 . 0,25-
MII-300 MII-333
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86 , AMD
.
5 AMD
Intel Pentium. 1995 .,
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.
4,3
86,
. ,
, ,
Pentium.
5
SSA/5 5k86. SSA/5 75 100 ,
586 90 133 . AMD
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, 116- 586 5
PR166, AMD
Pentium-166.
5 AMD
Intel.
,
.

,
, , Pentium,
,
, Pentium, . .

5
.
AMD . AMD
1996 ., ,

Intel.
Nx686,
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300

3. :

1997 .,
Cyrix 686, .
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20 % , Pentium Pro
3,3 (8,8 5,5 ).

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). Pentium Pro Pentium
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,
, ,
, .
166, 200 233 .
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512 . Cyrix MX

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Pentium .
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0,25- AMD.
100 Super7-, 321-
(ceramic pin grid array package CPGA).
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RISC86, (64 ) (
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.

1998 . 300 , 1999 .
450 .
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301

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.
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Sharptooth 450 .

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(on-chip).

,
(
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-
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AMD.
,
(
Pentium II/III, K6-III,
),
, Intel.
Athlon .
Athlon , AMD

,
.
102 2 22
.
Atlon Slot AMD,

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T h u n d e r b i r d . 2000 .
Athlon Thunderbird.
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256
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306

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AMD, Palomino

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307

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128 L1 256 L2, Socket .
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Palomino
. Thoroughbred
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308

3. :

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Athlon 2800+,
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( 3200+)
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S e m p r o n . 2004 . AMD
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Duron Celeron D
(Intel, 90 ), Sempron
Athlon AMD ,

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AMD 130 .
(3100+)
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309

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Microsoft - Windows 64-Bit

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324

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,
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,

328

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,
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329

32- ,
32- .
P O W E R R S / 6 0 0 0 . IBM,
POWER, 1990 .
RISC System/6000
RS/6000. RS/6000 :
(POWERstation) (POWERserver). RS/6000,
RIOS ( RIOS I POWER1),
11 , , ,
4 , , 2 -
.
RIOS , RSC ( RISC Single
Chip), RS/6000,
RSC 1992 .
P O W E R 2 ( RIOS/POWER1)
1993 .,
256 KiB, (128-
) . , :
4- .

;
;
.
1996 . POWER2
P2SC (POWER2 Super Chip).
P O W E R 3 1998 .
64- POWER,
( ).
2 , 3 , 2 2 - . POWER
64- PowerPC POWER.
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PowerPC. 1991 . IBM ,
POWER
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Apple
POWER- . Apple, ,
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,
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601.
1993 .
PowerPC, POWER (
PowerPC 601 RSC). 32-
121 2,

3.3.

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66, 80 .
| (. . 3.36)
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1,6 .
, 80 , 2,5 .

. ,
- 8 (4+4).
1995 .
PowerPC . ,
0,5 ,
98 2 2,8 .
80 100 .
100 3,2 .

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,
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- 64
(32+32), 0,5
311 2 7 . PowerPC
620
,
,
, /
.
.

3.3.

337

- 2-
128 .
75 0 (1998 .) IBM
(. . 1.22). PowerPC 750
,
PowerPC.
, - 2- (
0,5; 1 2 )
(Back Side Bus, . . 4.13), .

( ).
SRAM 233 . PowerPC 750,
200 500 ,
0,25 (PID8t) 0,22 (8) .
PowerPC 750
2- - -
256 . , 8- -
- 1-
32 .
0,18 , .
366, 400 466 .
2001 . IBM PowerPC 750,
256 - 2-

0,18 . IBM
PowerPC 750 400, 500, 600 .
PowerPC 750
533 .
P o w e r P C 9 7 0 F X ( Altair)
PowerPC,
2,5
10 GFLOPS. PowerPC 970FX (. 3.39, )
64- .
, 1998 . PowerPC 620,
,
64- PowerPC-
.
, PowerPC 970
POWER4.
, 1,5 - 2- ,
- 3- 415 2 (

338

3. :

0,18 ) 170 .
0,13 POWER4+ .
POWER4 PowerPC 970
( 52 ), (113 2
0,13 66 2 90 ) (42
1,8 PowerPC 970 125 POWER4
1,3 ).
, - 2-
512 .
,
. , PowerPC 970
AltiVec.
PowerPC 970FX
POWER4, , RISC-
,
, .
PowerPC 970 POWER4 64-
, 64-
(64- ), 64-
, 64-
.
42 .
PowerPC 970 64-,
-
128-. PowerPC 970 32 ,
- 48
. - 1-
64 ,
32 . PowerPC 970
.
- 2-
512 . -
.
- 2-
. - 1-
, L2 .

PowerPC 970.

. 32 ,
4 . 1,8

3.3.

339

, , 450 ,
900 .
7,2 / ( 3,6 /
).
PowerPC 970 .
PowerPC 970 16 (12
POWER4). /
17 , 21 , AltiVec-
25 . 16
.

. POWER4
. ,
.
, PowerPC 970
, POWER4 (. 3.40), - 2-
.
PowerPC 970 POWER4.


. PowerPC 970

. 3.40. PowerPC 970FX

340

3. :

, ,
,
PowerPC- . ,
PowerPC-
(Internal OPerations IOPs), ,
, 86-.
PowerPC ,
(
) IOPs ( to
crack , ) (
). IOPs ,

. ,
. IOPs
,
( ).
PowerPC 970
, /,
, ,
.
,
.
,
IOPs.

, ALU , .
.
.
16 ,
Opteron, 4 , Pentium 4/Athlon .
, 16
, 11- ,
,
( IOPs).
( 16 )
,

. PowerPC +
AltiVec (Opteron + SSE2 Pentium 4 + SSE2)
, PowerPC
FPU 64-

3.3.

341

. AltiVec,
SSE,
32 , SSE2 64-_ . Pentium 4
Opteron, -
( 8087),
CISC,
SSE2.
PowerPC RISC-FPU, a Opteron Pentium 4
SSE2, PowerPC .
RISC-, Power PC
,
Apple ( 1997 . ).
Power PC
-.
Power PC
, MacOS, Darwin
(, MacOS X), OpenBSD, FreeBSD, MorphOS
.

,

.
AMD

,

Intel. , Intel
, -,
,
AMD.
Intel. 2004 .,
Intel
. ,
,
Intel, ,
-, FSB,
.

3. :

342


(
) (
3 7, 5 ) . 3.41.

IIntel Pentium 4 processor ||560|

. 3.41.


.
(, 735, 560
320).
( )
,
. ,
Intel.

Intel
(. 3.10).
3.10. Intel

Pentium IV ( Intel Pentium IV


Hyper-Threading)

5xx

Celeron D

Intel Pentium ( Intel Centrino)

7xx

Intel Pentium 4 processor (


Mobile Intel Pentium 4 processor Hyper-Threading)

5xx

Intel Celeron M


- ,
. ,

3.3.

343


(
).
,
" (,
Intel Pentium IV)
(, 550 540).
, (,
710 , 510 , 7 5!).


.

. 3.11.
3.11.

AMD. ,
Athlon Thoroughbred
(. 3.42).
Opteron
XYZ. (X) ,
AXD 2200 D V 3
t -------- : = 266
--------------- L2: 3 = 256
-------------------- : = 90 , V = 85
------------------------- : L = 1,50 , U = 1,6 , = 1,65
------------------------------- : D = OPGA
--------------------------------------- : 1700 1467 , 1800 1533 ,
1900 1600 , 2000 1667 , 2100 1733 ,
2200 1800
------------------------------------------------ : =
-------------------------------------------------------- : AXD = AMD Athlon 8
Quantispeed

. 3.42. AMD

344

3. :


(Opteron 200
, ,
Opteron 800 4- 8- ).
(YZ)
(Opteron 44 Opteron 42,
,
HyperTransport).
Opteron,
, ,
. 3.12.
3.12. AMD Opteron

Opteron 244

1,80

Opteron 242

1,60

Opteron 240

1,40

3.4. 8.

86 (.
3). , 86,
, ,
, SIMD-.
IA-32 -
, IA-32
64 .

IA-32
IA-32 ( 86-32)
- Intel
,
.

Intel 80386 (1985 .)

3.4. 86.

345

20 (, ,
).
IA-32
i386*.
Intel Architecture, 32-bit (
Intel, 32 ), 86
(16 ) 64 IA-64,
Itanium. IA-32

.
1-32 CISC,

. 86
(7/8, NetBurst )
post-RISC.
64 .
IA-32 64 .
IA-32,
(AMD64/EM64T),
IA-32 ,
(IA-64).



IA-32:
(Real mode)
1 ;
(Protected mode)
( 4 ).
. MS-DOS
, (OS/2, Windows,
Linux .) .
( )

.
,
-
.

346

3. :

.
1 DOS,
:
,
;
,
,
, ;
( ),
(

).

4 , , ,
IA-32. ,
, IA-32
32- ,
64 (
Physical Address
Extension).
,
8 0 8 6
, DOS
,
Protected
mode DOS.
80286 16 ,
IA-32 .

i80x86 .

i80x86

64 ,
, ,
16 . ,
0, 16 ( 101) . .
.
,

3.4. 86.

347

.

.
, ,
,
c s, ,
16, ,
i p (instruction Pointer, PC),

.
, ,

.


i80x86 ( 8086) 220
(1 ). , 0,
.
20- 0 0 0 0 0 16 f f f f f 16.
8 (),
1 0.
0 7:
7


. i80x86

.

, 16 (
0 15).
.
( );
.
( ),
32 .
.
(:).

3. :

348


() ,
.
(16 ),
(, SP . .).

( . 3.13):
(, , , dx, bp , s i , d i , sp );
(cs, d s , ss, e s );
( i p );
(F lags).
3.13. () i80x86

I
I
1

( 15 8)

( 7 0)

Accumulator

AL

Base

BL

Counter

CL

>

Data

DH

DL

Base pointer

SI

Source index

Destination
index

Stack pointer

CS

Code segment

DS

Data segment

SS

Stack segment

ES

Extra segment

IP

Instruction
pointer

( )

01

I SP

I
I
I
I

3.4. 86.

349

(
). ,
,
( dx,
),
.
, a si DI .
SP ,
i80x86.
, , d x ,

; ,
, , AL, . . (
high, ; L low, ) . 3.13.
,
, ,
,
a l . .
,
.
,
(16 )
.
cs, d s , ss e s
,
.
.
i p (
) ,
( cs).
i p
.
. (. 3.14).
, 1 ( )
( ):


(, );

(
, ) . 3.15.

3. :

350

i80x86 9 ,
( z f , C F . .).
3.14.

OF

DF

IF

TF

SF

ZF

AF

PF

CF

15

14

13

12

11

10

3.15.


1,
,
,

. c f , - .
, c f

CF

Carry flag

OF

Overflow
flag

ZF

Zero flag

1,
0

SF

Sign flag

1,

PF

Parity
flag

AF

Auxiliary
carry flag

1,

,

(
)

1,
.
-


DF

Direction
flag

: d f = - I
( ), d f = 1 I

I

3.4. 86.

351

. 3.15

IF

Interrupt
flag

if =
, if = 1

TF

Trap flag

t f = 1

( 1),

IA-32

32- ( ) .
386, IA-32 32- (GPR)
. AMD64 16.
8 (
AMD64).

SIMD , 3DNow!, SSE, SSE2, SSE3 SSSE3.
,
, .
(segment), (control),
(debug) (test).
.
,
.
. 86

. , AMD64
,
.
8- 16- .
8- 16- .
, ,
. 16
8 , , 8
, A L .

352

3. :

(16 ),
BL ( 8 ).
. 3.16 (. . 3.13).
3.16. IA-32

001

EDX

010

, ,
,

011

, 16
(pointer)

**
ESP

100

, ,

EBP

101

, , .

ESI

110

, ,

EDI

111

, ,

L p

* ,
.
8 16 .
** .
16- ( 8 ).


,
. - ,
, .
, i80x86
(
)

3.4. 8.

353

. ,
.
MASM,
h ( ),
, q,
- .
.
,
i80x86
.
i80x86
() . ,

, ,
,
,
, .

,
. 0 255 (28 - 1),
0 65 535 (216- 1),
0 4 294 967 295 (232 - 1).
, .
, 130 10000010b
(82h).


:
() 8
;
8 (
: ,
). , 130 (0082h)
:
82

00

00

82

AL

____

354

3. :


:
8 ,
8 . . , I2345678h
:
78

56

34

12

,
() 16 ,
16 ,
.
,
i80x86
,
,

( ). , i80x86
,

.
.
, .
-128 127, -32 768 32 767,
-2 147 483 648 2 147 483 647.
.

(
).
MASM , ,
.
- , . .
, .
.
- (
) , -
:

(l2h 00l2h);

3.4. 86.

355


, - ,
( 8 i h
F F 8 l h ) .
-
.


i80x86
(. . 3.1).
,
.
28 216 (. . 1.4, ).
,
, ,
. , 128 130
258 ( 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 b ) 9 ,
2 (10),
.
, CF
1 ( , CF 0).

CF.

. ,
(
256, 216),
. , 2 3
256 + 2 = 258 3,
255 ( -1).
, CF
1 ( , CF
0).

, (
).

356

3. :

, 1 -2 :
1 (256 - 2) = 254,
1 + 254 = 255,
-1 (255 = 256 - 1).
,
, , , c f
1.
, :
3 + (-2) = 3 + 254(mod 256) = 257(mod 256) = 1.
( )

, . ,
127 2 129 ( 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 b ),
-127 (256 - 129).
,
, 1 OF
( , o f
). ,
.

, ,
.
. ()
a l ( ),
( ),
( d x ).
. ()
() (
) ( dx ).

() ( d i v ) (m od);
a l ( ),
a h ( d x ).


,
0 255. i80x86
ASCII (. 3).

357

3.4. 8.

( )
( ):
,
. .
.
i80x86
( ).
,
.


, . .
,
, . i80x86
.
, i80x86
:
16- ( offset) ,
() ,
.
,
( - );
20- .
180x86
20- , : ,
(segment) 16
, ,
(offset) 16- ,
( 16
+ ).
:
, ,

. , I234h:5678h :
---- -!
56

78

34

12

358

3. :


MASM
,
DB
( ), DW () DD (
).
,
, -
- ,
.
db, DW DD
,
.
( , ,
) .
:
.
, db, dw dd,
( ).
MASM () 10, 16, 8 2.
:
DB 162

- 162

DB 0A2h

DW -1

- -1

D DW OFFFFh

-, D

DD -1

-1

- db :
( 0 255),
( );
. ,
(2 ASCII):
DB 02Ah
DB
DB "*"

3.4. 86.

359

-, , . ,

ADR DW

, a d r
(),
. DD,

, ,
.
db, DW DD
, . . , .

:
F DW ? ; F,
.


/ ,
.
. :
G DB 200, -5, 10h, ?, 'F '

, ,
.
MASM
<> + <>; ,
-5 G + 1, lOh
G + 2 . .
DB ,
:
S DB ' '

',

,
:
S DB '+'

360

3. :

,
(),

k DUP ( , , . . . ,),
,
, ..., .

,
VI DB 0, 0, 0,0, 0
V2 DW ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ' ' , 1 , 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2,
:
VI DB 5 DUP(0)
V2 DW 9 DUP(?), ' ' , 4 DUP(1,2).

.
. .
i80x86 1 6 . ()
. i80x86
,
256 , .

,
. ,
.
.
0 ,
.
( ).
(
) i80x86
,

. ,
(,
), .

, (), ,

3.4. 86.

361

. ,

opl := opl - 2,

o p l ; 2
, .

. - , bp, s i DI (
).
, s i d i;
s i d i .

( , )
(, )
, s i DI
.
, ,
, s i ,
.
MASM
:
, [] A [Ml] [2] ,

; , , s i d i; mi
, 2 s i d i.
, , = 0.

()
, ,
-,
,
216 ( [] ):
: =
[] : = +[] (mod 216)
A [Ml] [2]: = +[1] + [2]

(mod 216) .

16-
,
() .

3. :

362


( )
20- ,
.


i80x86
.
(. . 3.1).
(2 ):

11

regl

reg2

72

76

53

20

regl :=
reg2 := reg2 - regl.
(-), .
w , d ,
:
regl - reg2

w = 1
= 0

d = 1

regl

:= regl - reg2

= 0

reg2

:= r e g 2 - r e g l

(
), regl reg2
, , :

reg

w = 1

w = 0

000

AX

AL

001

CX

CL

010

DX

DL

011

BX

BL

100

SP

AH

101

BP

CH

110

SI

DH

111

DI

BH

3.4. 8.

363

(24 ):

mod

reg

mem

(0 2 )

reg := reg - mem


w
(. ), d ,
: (d = 1) (d = 0).
reg - (. ),
mod ,
- (00 0 , 01 1 , 10 2 ),
mem
.
mod mem
( 8 , ! ):
mem := mem - reg.

mod

00

mem

01

10

000

[BX]+[SI]

[BX]+ [SI]+a8

[BX]+ [SI]+al6

001

[BX]+[DI]

[BX] + [DI ]+a8

[BX] + [DI ]+al 6

010

[BP]+ [SI]

[BP]+ [SI]+a8

[BP]+ [SI ]+ a l 6

011

[BP]+[D I ]

[BP]+ [DI]+a8

[BP]+ [DI]+ a l 6

100

[SI]

[SI]+a8

[SI]+al6

101

[DI]

[DI]+a8

[DI]+al6

110

al6

[BP]+a8

[BP]+al6

111

[BX]

[BX]+a8

[BX]+al6

. , .
( 8),
(16). m o d = 00 = 110
-,
( [] m o d = 0 1 m e m =
8 = 0). m o d = 11 .

(34 ):
1 Kon

11

reg

(1 2 .)||

reg := reg ). w
, reg - - (.
).

- immed (immed

3. :

364

(, ), 1
. 1
2 w, - .
i80x86 ,

( 1 s w = 1),

( ) .
(36 ):
|~

mod

(0-2 .)

(1 2 .)

mem :=
,
.
i80x86
; ,
,
( ).
.
mem - immed.

MASM
,

, , i80x86 28
. MASM
,
:
MOV

opl,op2

(1:=2)

,
.
MASM
:
: ;

3.4. 86.

365

,
. ,
.
, .
, , .
.
, :
MOV ,SI ; .


( -), :
MOV ,5

MOV DI,SIZE X

SIZE X ( ,
X)

(,
),
; ,
:
MOV X,
MOV [][DI],5
MOV [],CL.


()
, .
, :
MOV ,5

MOV ,5

, 16-
- (5
,
)

MOV [],300

, 300

366

3. :


, ,
. :
MOV DS,
MOV ,
MOV DL,300

: DL , 300

,
, , ,

MOV [],5.

5 , ,
, .
. ,
ptr:
MOV BYTE PTR [BX],5
MOV WORD PTR [BX],5

MASM,
.
ptr ( )
,
. , ,
X DW 999,


,

MOV , X,

.
:
MOV ,BYTE PTR X.

3.4. 86.

367

b y t e p t r ,
, . (,
,
; PTR ,
.)
, ,
, , ,

MOV AX,80h,

,
0080h (+128)
0FF80h (-128).
, - ,
,
, .
:
MOV ,-128 ; => MOV AX,0FF80h (:=-128)
MOV ,128 ; => MOV ,0080h (:=+128)
MOV ,8Oh ; => MOV ,0080h (:=+128).

. .
i80x86 216 (64 )
16- .
220 (1 = 1000 ),
20- . i80x86
16-
,

.

( ) (. 3.43). i80x86
(20-)
20- ()
, , 16-
D , :

368

3. :
15

()

15
( )

0000

I
J

~J

"1

19

. 3.43.

= + D. (
, D
). S, ,
,
s D ( MASM ,
,
S : D). ,
s : D
s D
.
,
16- ().
s
, ,
: c s , d s , ss e s .
:
c s
c s : D, d s
d s : D . .
,

,
.
,
: ,
.

3.4. 8.

369

,
.
i80x86,
.
20- ?
16 (.
), 4 (
) ,
, .
16 (
)
(
).
s : D
s ( ,
16) D,
220:
6 = 16 [S] +D (mod 220) .

, , cs I234h,
I234h:507h ,
1 6 X 1234h + 507h = 12340h + 507h = 12847h.
no .
,
,
-. ,
,
, ,

, .

,
.
. 3.17.

:
,
cs,
, DS; ,
,

3. :

370

3.17.

CS

,

(
),
CS
,

,
,
CS:IP; IP

CS

DS

(
,
)


DS ,

SS

, ,
,

SS

ES

,
,


SS.
,
,
.
, , :
, ?

,
( )
. ,
MOV ,X ,

,
DS:X.
,
,
JM P

c s : [].
-
, .

3.4. 86.

371

,
- . ,
,
(, ,
), ,
MOV
d s ,
s s ,
:
MOV AH/SS:.


, , .
, MASM
(
, . .),
.
,
( c s :, ds :, SS: ES:).
, -
, ,
. ,

:
SS:

MOV ,X.

, .

, i80x86 , ,
,
.
.
( , , ),
16- ;
16-
() .
(,
),
( ).

372

3. :

,

( 16) ,

() 20- ,
(. . 3.22).
,
,
16- . ,
, ,
, , i80x86 16-
.
,
, .
:

CS ,
, ,
CS:IP (
).
c s ,
, . ,
,
:
JMP X,
DS, ,
, cs;
, ( sto s ,
v s , scas cmps), ,
:
d s , -
;
s s ,
.
, , [ ] , [s i ], A[Di],
[ ] [ s i ] [ ] [ d i ] ds,
A[BP], A[BP] [ s i ] [] [di] s s ,
. .
;

3.4. 86.

373

stos , movs, scas cmps,


-,
s i DI, (
s i ) d s , (
d i ) ES.
. ASSUME. ,
MASM.
,
,
: segment,
ends ,
,
.
,
end , :
dti segment;

DT1

A DB
DW ?
DTI ENDS
DT2 segment; DT2
DB ' h e l lo '
DT2 ENDS

code segment;


ASSUME CS:CODE, DS:DT1, ES:DT2
PROG: MOV AX,DT2
MOV DS,AX
MOV BH,C

code

CODE ENDS
end prog; .


(
64 ), ,
16. ( 16 )
. MASM

374

3. :

, ,

MOV ,DT2,
,
() DT2,
.
(, , ) ( prog)
,
:
0;
1;
0, prog 0.


,
assume .
, code,
,
CS, DT1 DS,
DT2 ES.
- (
, mov , ), ,
(
DT2), assume ,

( ES),
( ES : 0),
.
i80x86
,
,
,
. , ,

MOV ,,
D S:l,
mov
DS,
, 1.

3.4. 8.

375

, a s s u m e

,
( ), ,
(
). MASM
, -
, ,
,
.

:
a s s u m e
. ,
,
, ,
, ;
a s s u m e
:
,
, .
, ,
.
() .
a s s u m e ,
, ,
,
.
.
,

. i80x86
( , . .
, ),
- , ,
(, ):
MOV ,DT1 ; := DT1
MOV DS, ;DS := .

es.

376

3. :

c s : ,
ip ,
, (
). ss,
, ,
DS ES, MASM
.
. ,
,

.
,
, , ,

. , ,
, ,
,
,

, , .

:
,


;
( ) ,
,

. :
,
,
(,
),
( , 6: Phase error
between passes).

,
?
, ,
,
d s .

3.4. 8.

377

:
, ,
, DS,
. :
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CSrCODE
X DW ?
BEG: MOV AX, X ; CS: X X
MOV CS: Y, AX
; CS: Y
Y DW ?
CODE ENDS.

( )
i80x86
,
. i80x86
, .
,
, CS:IP,
,
( i p ):
i p ,

( );
cs ip ,
(
).

:
()
, ,
',
(),
ip ,
, ,

, .

378

3. :


( ) (-).
:

;
(
), () .
. MASM
:
JMP


.

.
JMP i8 (IP:=IP+i8).

i8
1 , -128
127.
IP , () ,
. cs
.
IP.
, IP
,
.
, i8
, , , ,
, jmp
.

,
MASM : MASM

, ,
,
. , MASM
, .

3.4. 86.

379


, ,
, 128
127 .

.
JMP 116 (IP:=IP+il6).

i l 6
, -32 768
32 767. .
, , ,
( )
,
,
(
) .
, . . ,
, , ,

,
. 3 ,
2 ,
MASM ,
,
,
. s h o r t :
JMP SHORT L.

s h o r t
,
.

.
JMP 16 (1:=[])

JMP ml6 (IP:=[ml6]).

380

3. :

16 16-
, a ml 6 . (
) ,
. , jmp
, .
.
JMP segiofs

(CS := seg, IP := ofs).

seg ( 16 )
, a ofs
. seg:ofs ,
. MASM
f a r p t r <>, ,
, ,
. , ,
,
, . . seg.
.
JMP m32 (CS := [32 + 2 ] , IP := [32]).

m3 2 ,
seg:ofs, ,
.
, i80x86
, ofs
32, seg
( m32+2).
,

, (, ,
64 , . .
).

i p , cs,
.

.
. MASM
,
.

3.4. 8.

381

JMP :
;
, ?
,
? , ,
,
.
( ).

(. . ),
.
,
,
DW, ,
DD.
,
( ),
.

, .

, short ptr
:
jmp short

jmp word ptr


jmp

DWORD

; ;
; ;
; .

,
far ptr (
, ):
JMP FAR PTR

; .

.
(,
ZF) , ,
, .
,

CMP 1,2,

3. :

382

opi - 2,
, ,
.
MASM
:
Jxx ,

,
( ,
).
:
- (jump if equal);
JNL - (jump if not less).
JE


,
, . . IP
, -128
127. MASM
, .

. ,
< ,
L ,
:
MOV ,
, ;
JNL
; > ( jmp)
jmp l
; > L ( )

: . . .


i80x86 ,
.
,
.
, 1 ,

3.4. 8.

383

0, . ,
s 10 - :
MOV , 0
; ( )
MOV si, 0
;
MOV , 10 ;
L: ADD ,X [S I ] ; AX:=AX+X[i]
ADD S I , 2
; SI:=SI+2
LOOP L
MOV S , AX

; CX:=CX-1 ; if C X O 0 then goto L


; S := A X .

l o o p
l o o p z l o o p n z (
l o o p e l o o p n e ) , , ,
ZF; , LOOPZ ,
= 0 ZF = 1 . , ,
,
:
( z f = 1, l o o p z
0),
( = 0).
,
,
,
.
MASM c a l l (
) r e t ( ).


i80x86
.
:
(
);
( W).
:
( , ,
-);
;

384

3. :

,
.

,

. ( r e p .),

( 216 ),
, ,
.
, (
) .
d f ,
s t d ( d f := 1 ) c l d ( d f := 0 ). DF = 0

, d f = 1 .
,
. ,
,
d s s i ES d i ,
,
d s : s i ,
e s : d i . s i /
d i ( d f = 0 ) ( d f = 1 )
1 ( ) 2 ( ).
, d f
.
DS ,
s i
LEA SI,</ >.

DS

s i ,

LDS SI,m32,

s i , DS
, m3 2 (
, 32+2 ,
m3 2 ).

3.4. 8.

385

ES DI
:
LES DI,m32,

LDS.
i80x86:
( lodsb
lodsw) AL
, DS:Si,
( DF = 0) ( DF = 1)
s i 1 2;
( stosb stosw);
AL ,
ES:DI, DI
1 2;
(movsb movsw);
, DS:Si,
, ES:Di,
s i d i ;
(cmpsb cmpsw);
, DS:SI ES:DI,
(, . .)
, SI
di;
( scasb scasw);
, ES:DI,
al
, d i .

, ,
.
( )
.
repz ( re , rep )
1 ZF, ,
1,
, 0 z f
0.
repnz ( repne )
, zf

386

3. :

, 1
.
. 10
, .
,
d s , :
CLD
MOV
MOV
MOV
LEA
LEA
REP

; DF:=0 ( )
,00
,DS
ES,AX
SI,A
DI,B
MOVSB

;
ES:=DS
E S : SI
D S :DI

.
. i80x86
, . . ,

.
, .

, .
LIFO
( ),
/ ( s t a c k ,
).
.
SP .
,
, . .
.
( t o s ).
.
, 64 ,
16.
, ;
. ( 16

3.4. 8.

387

)
ss.
,
, i80x86
.
,
.
i80x86 ,
:
, ,
. . ,
.
, . ,
, ,
. ,
, SP.
,
s s : SP.
SP ,
(
).
SP = 0 080x86
). sp
, . . S S : S P ,
.
, , .
SS SP
, MASM
.
s e g m e n t , ,
s t a c k , (, ) ,
,
SS SP . ,
:
ST SEGMENT STACK

db 256 DUP ( ? ) ; 256


ST ENDS,

,
1234Oh,

388

3. :

s s I234h,
SP lOOh (=256).
, .
.
,
.
.
:
PUSH op

op 16- (
) .
s p 2 (
216),
s s : s p .
:
POP op

, ,
(, , c s,
), SP 2.

:
CALL


,
.
.
(
jm p):

(
, MASM
(. ));

ip , . . ;

( ,

3.4. 8.

389

() ,
);
;

- ( SEG:OFS,
MASM f a r p t r <>
); CS
IP ( cs), . .
, cs
ip;


( ,
s g : f s, );
s i p .
() :
RET

.
(
),
( s p ).
,
c a l l ,
,
.
r e t ( MASM
):

;
seg:ofs,
.
, ,
.
i80x86
.
, . ,

, (,
) ,
. 64 .

390

3. :


.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,

.

.
, ,
. :
, . .,
- -.

,
.

,
,
.

,
,
( i p ),
, . ,
,
, .
.
256 .
, ,
.
.
, , .

, . ,
, ,
,
.
, ,

3.4. 86.

391

, .

, .
.

, . (
.)

, ,
,
, .

.
. ,

( ,
), .

,
:
PUSH paraml

; 1-

PUSH paramk
c a l l subr

; (-)
; .


,
.

:
push
mov s p , bp
sub

sp,m

;
;
; ( )
.

.
, ,
( ) :
,
i [] , , [BP+i] . (

392

3. :

, - , si di
,
DS,
ss.)
,
BP,
, ,
.
.
,
,
[+4],
[+6] . .

. (
) ,
. ,

SP , 3-
.
[- i ] .
,
.

:
mov s p ,

;
;
ret 2xk
;
(, 2 ).
pop

SP
,
, . .
( , ).
,
.
, .
( SP
2 ), s p ,
,

3.4. 86.

393

, .
,
.


1.

? ? ?

2. ?
3. -, -, .
4 .
?
5. .

6.

7. ?

8.

9. ?
10. ?

11.
12.

?
.

13. 3D Now?
14. In te l, AMD, Cyrix.

4
.

. 2.2, ,

-.

(),
,
.

4.1.
(),
, .
:
, ;
;
( ).


,
, ,
, ,

( swap)
.
, .

4.1.

395


.
. ,
,
; .
,
( 0 1). ,
, , .
,
.
, .
(. 4.1).
--------------------*31

32 --------------------------------

*30

31 = 0
b^\ 1

bo

ASCII

ASCII

ASCII

ASCII

. 4.1. () ()


16 64 . 32 ,
32-
ASCII, 8 .
.
.

.
( ).
() ,
( ),
. ,
1985 . Intel 386 32- ,

396

4. . ..

4 . Pentium (1993 .)
64 , 8
.
. , ,
. ,
,
.
0, 1, 2 . . ,
32
1, 4, 8, ..., 4 .
.
:
(. 4.2, )\
(. 4.2, ).
(big-endian)
, ,
( )
.
( little-endian)
,
,
( ).
, . . ,
, .
80x86 ,
Motorola 68000 .
0, 4, 8 . .
.

2 - 4 2* - 4 2 * - 3 2 * - 2 2 - 1

2 ~ 4 2 - 1 2 - 2 2 - 3 2 - 4

. 4.2.

4.1.

397


.
(
) : 32, ..., , 0.
,
.
. 32-
0, 4, 8 . .
, .
,
,
. ,
- ,
. ,
16 (2 ),
0, 2, 4, ..., 64
(23, . . 8 ),
0, 8, 16, ....
,
.
. ,
, .
,
, ,
.
.
.
,
.
0 2* - 1 ,
. 2*
. , 2*
. , 24-
( 80286) 224
(16 777 216) .
16 (1 = 220 =
= 1 048 576 , 8086 80186).
80386, 80486 Pentium 32- , 232 ,
4 .

4. . ..

398


,
() ,

.
.
() 0,
=2" -1.

64

64

16
1

4
3
2

2
1

0
7

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

. 4.3. ();
16- ()

16- 65 535 (64 ) . 4.3, .



. 4.3, .




, . .
.

4.1.

399

( )
/.
,

,
.
,

. ,
,
.

(hit)
(miss).
, ,
, .
(hit a t )
, .
( miss r ate) ,
.
(hit t i me )
,
, , ,
,
. (miss p e n a l t y )


( ).
:
( a c c e s s t i me)
;
( t r a n s f e r t i me)
.
,

.
- c a c h e m e m o r y
,
,
(. 4.4).

400

4. . ..

. 4.4.

- ,
.

.
.

, -.
(on-die)
(on-motherboard).
1 - ( L e v e l 1 c a c h e , L 1). 1-
, ,

, 32 .
. ,
,
. L l- ,
(SRAM),
16 .
55 Pentium , 1997 .,
1- 32 .
AMD Cyrix 2, ,
64 1- .
2 - ( L e v e l 2 c a c h e , L2). 2-
( )
, 1- , SRAM.
2- 256
512 Card
Edge Low Profile (CELP) -- (cache on
a stick COAST). SIMM,
COAST,
PCI.
Pentium, , 2-

4.1.

401

. -
, , .
2- ,
-
( ).
,
( ) (burst mode).
,
. ,
64 .
2- - (Pipelined Burst Static RAM PB SRAM) [16].
, ,
- ,
.
,
, -.
,

. ,
() ,
{ )
- ,
-.



.
-
. :
;
;
-.
.
() :
- ( d i r e c t - m a p ped cache);

402

4. . ..

- (fully asso
ciative cache);
(
, partial associative, set-associative cache) -.
.

, -.
,
, -.
:
( -) = (
) mod ( -).

,
,
- ,
.

,

.


.
( , -way)
.

.
, ,
- , - (-)
-. ,
7 8 16-
L2.
,
.

, :
,
.

4.1.

403


.

- ,
. ,
:
( R a n d o m ) -
( ).

;
,
( LRU L e a s t - R e c e n t l y Used).
,
, ,
.
,
.
, LRU
.
- ()
:
(Write Through)
(Store Through);
(Simple Swapping)
(Write Back);
(Flag Swapping)
(CUX);
(FRS).

.

, ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
,

404

4. . ..

(
),
.
,
-.

.
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
- ,
.
-
, .
,
.
.
.
, -
,

. ,
, , . .
(
),
, ;

. , ,
,
,
. ,
() - .
- ,

4.1.

405

.
,
.
.

,
()
- . ,

, ()
;
, ,
, .
, .

,
.
() -
.
- .
E S I (Modified, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid)
-.
-, (Exclusive)
(Shared).
Shared-,

(Invalid). Exclusive, .
Modified,
.
E S I (Modified, Owner, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid).
Modified, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid
MESI. Owner ,
,
. MESI
, MOESI

,
;
, - Owner.

406

4. . ..

4.2.
.

RAM (Random Access Memory, . e.
)
( DRAM D y n a m i c R a n d o m A c c e s s Memor y) ,
()
, .

(
,
), (
,
, ) . .

( ) ,
.
. ,
1, 0.
, .

,
(
).
.
,
. ( S t a t i c RAM
SRAM),
, ,
.
, .
SRAM ,
, . SRAM
,
, SRAM
DRAM, (
) .
, SRAM
,

4.2.

407

,
, SRAM
DRAM.

. ,
,
, .


/ ( ) .

. ,

, .
, SRAM (
12 20 50 66 )
3 , 4 ,
3-2-2-2
( , 1-
3 , 2 ,
2 ), 4-3-3-3.

(DRAM)
,
.
.

,
, ,
.
(row) (column) ,
(wordlines)
(bitlines). ,
. ,
, :
, ,
;
;

408

4. . ..

(Row address select /RAS)


(Column address select /CAS),
,
;
;
,
;
(Output enable ).
(),
.
Pentium 60 70 .
,
DRAM -.
200 ,
DRAM

.
(. 4.5,
EDO DRAM):
. /RAS
.
.
/RAS
, . . /RAS
. /RAS
;
. /CAS
-.
/CAS
;
(Write enable /WE). /WE
;
, ;
(Output enable /).

.
, ,
.
;
- . DQ ( - I/Os)

409

4.2.

.
(1) (0) DQ.

DQ, / .
- DQ (
)
.

.
FPM DRAM (Fast page mode DRAM)
, 60
70 .
, ,
.
,
.

5-3-3-3.
EDO RAM (RAM ).
, FPM,
, /CAS
,
, CAS .

.
EDO . 4.5.
, CPU,
RAS

CAS

~ \ ___ ' ~ \

<ROW>.................. <COL1>........j<COL2>....... (COL3)- -


DQ

(COL4)-.......(COL5)

-
DATA1
.....
" -
DATA4
DATA2
DATA3


*CAS

. 4.5. EDO DRAM

410

4. . ..

Pentium;

, FPM RAM.
27 % , FMP DRAM.
1# FPM
RAM
/CAS . EDO DRAM
, DRAM.
EDO RAM 5-2-2-2
(//
). 70, 60 50 . EDO
RAM ,
66 , .
BEDO RAM (Burst extended data out DRAM
), , ,

,
5-1-1-1.
100 % FPM 50 % EDO DRAM.
SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM
). ,

,
( ,
10 ). SDRAM
,

.
(. 4.6).
EDO
RAM 18 %.
DDR SDRAM (SDRAM II).

(clock tick).
1 0,
( 0 1),
( 1 0). DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM
SDRAM II
,
(. 4.1).

4.2.

411

. 4.6. SDRAM

DDR2 SDRAM. DDR2


(DDR1) ,
2 4 , ,
.
, 100 400 /.
DDR3 SDRAM
( 3),
DDR2 SDRAM.
,
- 4 (. 4.1)
, .
(
). DDR3
512 Mib 8 Gib,
16 GiB.
DDR3 30 %
1,5 (1,8
DDR2 2,5 DDR).
90 , -

412

4. . ..

4.1. DDR SDRAM, DDR2, DDR3


(
MT/s)


,
/

i
DDR (0DR1)
DDR-200

100

10

100

200

-1600

1600

DDR-266

133

7,5

133

266

-2100

2133

DDR-333

166

166

333

-2700

2667

DDR-400

200

200

400

-3200

3200

DDR2
DDR2-400

100

10

200

400

2-3200

3200

DDR2-533

133

7,5

266

533

2-4200

4264

DDR2-667

166

333

667

2-5300

5336

DDR2-800

200

400

800

2-6400

6400

DDR2-1066

266

3,7

533

1066

2-8500

8500

DDR3
DDR3-800

100

10

400

800

-6400

6400

DDR3-1066

133

7,5

533

1066

-8500

8533

DDR3-1333

166

667

1333

-10600

10 667

DDR3-1600

200

800

1600

-12800

12 800

DDR3.

, .
DDR3
8- ( DDR2
4, DDR 2 ).

8001600 MT/s ( ),

- 400800 (DDR2 400800 MT/s
200400 DDR 200400 MT/s

4.2.

413

100200 ).
.
2005 .,
2007 .
Intel 35 Bearlake
DIMM DDR3 1600. DDR3 DIMM
240 , DDR2, ,
,
.
DDR3 DDR2:
( 1600
);

( );
().
DDR2:
CAS;
,
DDR2.
SLDRAM (Synchronous linked DRAM).

(
Linked SDRAM). SLDRAM
, ,
Command Link.
ESDRAM (Enhanced SDRAM SDRAM)
SDRAM,
JEDEC Enhanced Memory Systems (EMS).
ESDRAM
2 SDRAM.
ESDRAM,
SDRAM ,
, DDR SDRAM.
CDRAM (Cached DRAM DRAM -)
ESDRAM. Cached DRAM

.
,
-, , ,
,

414

4. . ...

, 8 ,
DRAM.
Direct Rambus (DRDRAM). DRAM
300 .
DRDRAM
, Rambus Inc.

DRAM. Direct Rambus DRAM
(. 4.7).
Rambus
:
(RMC Rambus Memory Cont
roller);
(RC Rambus Channel);
(RRC Rambus RIMM Connector);
(RIMM Rambus In-line Memory Module);
(DRCG Direct
Rambus Clock Generator);
(RDRAM Rambus DRAM).
MDRAM (Multibank DRAM, )

2-
SRAM.
( 256 ),
.

Tseng Labs MoSys.
PSRAM ( PSDRAM Pseudostatic RAM,
)
,
(SRAM).
, DRAM,
SRAM. DRAM
,
,
, .
IT DRAM ( )

,
, (
),

4.2.

415

, SOI
(Silicon on Insulator).
,
,
(floating body effect),
.
IT DRAM Innovative Silicon Inc.
Z-RAM ( Zero capacitor RAM).
TTRAM (Twin Transistor RAM
) DRAM,
,
(,
).
, SOI
, , TTRAM
, DRAM.

(SOI),
,
. ,
Z-RAM TTRAM,
, ,
, TTRAM.
VCM (Virtual Channel Memory) ,

( ,
,
. .) ,

. ,
-, VCM
.
Memory Master (
,
, PCI AGP, L2,
. .) ,
, , . .
,
(,
),
.

416

4. . ..

VCM VC SDRAM
(memory master)
.

,
,
(, ,
) . 4.7.

. 4.7. VCM

Active Link NEC, DRAM


( 4 ).
, /
DRAM.
,

DRAM,
, .
IRAM (Intellectual Random Access Memory).
IRAM DRAM
.
( 12816384 ),
.

. RAC/CAS
1030 64256 IRAM.
. ,

,

4.2.

417

().
64 .

.
2000 . IBM
Infineon Technologies AG
MRAM (Magnetic Random Access Memory).
,
,
(. 4.8).
1
0

. 4.8. MRAM:
;

,
,
, ,
.

(SRAM)
- (L2)
.
TTJI-, - -
, .
,
. SRAM

.
15 (33 ) 8 (66 ).

418

4. . ..


, ()
.
.

- SRAM (Pipelined
Burst SRAM),
/ 3 ,
3-1-1-1 1-1-1-1
,
25 %.
. SRAM
_ (. 4.9),
(Q Q) (
, . . 1.12). 2
, 1 .
.
, 6 (MOSFET)
.

. 4.9. SRAM


(, WL),
(5 6),
, (
) (BL) (BL),
, .
,

4.2.

419


.
SRAM
^ 2 2 .
SRAM
(standby), , ,
, , :
. ,
5 6 .

,
;
. , 1,
Q (. . Q 1),

1, WL
6. ,
, Q Q,
, BL
BL , 5 . BL
4 6
VDD, 1.
,
BL 1, a BL ;
. ,
.
, , BL
1, a BL .
-,
. 1
.

, , -. .
Async SRAM ( ). -
, ,
386- -
. , DRAM,
, ,
20-, 15- 10- (
,
). , ,

-4,

420

4. . ..

,
, -
, , DRAM.
SyncBurst SRAM (Synchronous Burst Static RAM
). ,
66 , SRAM
.
,
, SRAM
,
2-1-1-1, . .
SRAM 2-1-1-1.
66 ,
SRAM
3-2-2-2, ,
SRAM.
, SRAM
.
SRAM / 8,5 12 .
SRAM (Pipelined Burst Static RAM
).
SRAM
.

-
75 . SRAM 133 .
, , ,
SRAM :
3-1-1-1.
,
/, 4,5 8 .
1- SRAM. ,
SRAM
().
4 6 (4-, 6-
SRAM). Monolithic System Technology (MoSys)
,
(1- SRAM).
DRAM,
.
SRAM,

4.2.

421

. 1-
5080 %
SRAM,
75 %.

,
(16, 32, 64, 128, 256 512 ), ,
(100 133 ),
() (72, 168 184). 2001 .
12 .
DIP. DRAM
DIP-, DIP Dual In-line
Package ( ).
, (pins)
( ) . 4.10, .
, ,
, .
,
,
.
DIP
2,54 (0,1"), 7,62
(0,3 - Skinny DIP, DIP) 15,24 (0,6").
8
14 24 ( 28) 0,3 24, 28, 32 40
( 36, 48 52) 0,6".
, ,
(,
2,5 2,54 /0,1").
DIP,
:
(Ceramic Dual In-line Package CERDIP);
(Plastic Dual In-line Package PDIP);
(Shrink Plastic Dual In-line
Package SPDIP) PDIP
1,778 (0,07).
DRAM
. DRAM

422

4. . ...

. 4.10. :
DIP-14; 6 SIP; ZIP; SIMM 72 ;
DDR SO-DIMM (2700, 200 )


.
, , SIP-, ZIP SIMM-.
,
, .

, ,
, , .
, Mostek
, ,
Mostek
(MIL STD-833), MKI
.
4 , DRAM.

4.2.

423


: 1 , 4 .
, ,
(64 64 , 256 256 , 1000
1 ). (,
, ).
. ,
44256-70 ,
Mostek,
, 4 256
70 .
SIP-. DRAM
, .
,
,
, ,
,
DRAM ,
.
,
, SMT (Surface Mounting Technology),
.
SMT
SIP-
(Single In-line Package SIP). SIP-

DRAM (. . 4.10, ). 30 ,
8 1,7 .
SIP-
.
,
.
SIMM-
.
ZIP (zig-zag in-line package)
, , DRAM.
DIP. ZIP
, 3 30 10 .
2 .
1,27 (0,05"),
,

424

4. . ..

, (. 4.10, ).

, DIP, .
ZIP ,
TSOP (thin small-outline packages), SIMM
(single-in-line memory modules) DIMM (dual-in-line memory mo
dules).
SIMM-. SIMM-,
,
SIP-. ,
. SIP- SIMM-
PAD ().

, SIMM-
(. 4.10, ).
, SIMM-

, .
PC CPU 80386 CPU 80486
30- SIMM- (DRAM),
4 8.
.
PC CPU 80486 Pentium
72- SIMM- (FPM DRAM).
DIMM-.
168- DIMM
(Dual In-line Memory Module). DIMM
, 72- SIMM-
,
CPU-RAM.
DIMM-

:
10 11
(FPM DRAM
SDRAM);
40 41
(5
3,3 ).
RIMM. Direct RDRAM (DRDRAM) 1999 .
RIMM ( ,

4.2.

425

Rambus Inc). RIMM ,


DIMM,
, DIMM. 184
168 DIMM,
, DIMM 100 . BIOS
, ,
SDRAM- 100 RIMM-
.
SO-DIMM (Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module)

. SO-DIMM
DIMM ,
DIMM (. 4.10, ).
SO-DIMM
, ( Mini-ITX),
(
, ).
SO-DIMM 72, 100, 144 200
, , 32
(100) 64 (144 200). DIMM 168, 184
240 64- .
SO-DIMM
100 , 144-
SO-DIMM ,
200- SO-DIMM .
SO-DIMM ( )
DIMM, SO-DIMM DIMM
( , ,
400 3200 CAS 2,0, 2,5 3,0)
(512 , 1 .).
DDR2 SO-DIMM 800 6400
, 1066 8500.
FB-DIMM (Fully Buffered DIMM)
DIMM, ,
, .
,
, DIMM-.
(
),
,
.

426

4. . ..

Fully Buffered DIMM


(Advanced Memory Buffer AM ),
(. 4.11).

DRAM, FB-DIMM
.
.
D D R 2

. 4.11. FB-DIMM


, ,
. ,
,
. , ,
.
( JESD82-20),
DDR2. FB-DIMM
14 (northbound),
, 10
(southbound),
.

4.3.

427

, 12 ,
( 6 ,
, DDRDDR3). , DDR2-667 DRAM- 667 12/2 = 4000 .
12 : 168 (144
, 72- DDR SDRAM 24
CRC-) 120 (98
22 CRC-). 98 2 , 24 ;
(
) 72 ,
24- , 36
.
,
DDR, ,
(
).
DRAM,
, (/RAS), , .

(/CAS) .
FB-DIMM, 8
FB-DIMM 1 .

4.3 .

,
.
, , ,
(),
.
(. . 2.2)
,
.
IBM PC, IBM PC/XT
PC/AT
, (
) ( ),
,

428

4. . ...

. 4.12. IBM PC:


1 (, , chipset); 2
(ISA, LPC, PCI, AGP, HyperTransport .); 3 (,
, ); 4
(RS-232, Centronics, SCSI, USB, Firewire, , eSATA,
Bluetooth .); 5 (, , ,
.)

. 4.12.
.


:
;
(
) ;
- ;
.

(); () .
,
, ,

() .
.
( ),
(socket) (slot).
(
) , ,
. , ,
,
.

4.3.

429

(),

.
:
(, ) ;
;
.
:
, - 2- ;
-,
.
,
(chipset),
(. 4.13).

. 4.13. -

DIB (Dual independent bus)


:
(Frontside bus FSB),
;
(Backside bus BSB) -.


.
FSB .
, ,
,

430

4. . ..

.
, .
- ,
, - .

, . 4.2,
.
4.2.

ISA/ EISA

, 2 8,33 33 /
, SCSI


, PCI

PCI

,
133 / (32-
SCSI, 33 )

PCI-X

1 / (64-

133 )

PCI,
IBM, HP, Compaq.

PCI Express

16 /


3- (Third
generation
Input/Output 3GI0),
AGP.

AGP/AGP
PRO

,
30-

528 / (2-x-mode)
800 / (4-x-mode)

Intel-PC
Pentium II
PCI

HT ()

32 /

AMD
7-8

ISA. ISA BUS (Industry Standard Architecture)


IBM XT (8 ) AT (16 ).
X T
(. 4.14, )\
8- ;
20- , 220
(1 ) ;

4.3.

.PIN*

431

NOTCH FOR
I A TOP

CONNECTORS

* I UP

6
. 4.14. ISA (a), EISA (6)

(DMA);
8 ;
4 /;
62- .
XT ,
.

. XT
.
. IBM PC/AT
16 24 .

. :
6- ;
24- ,
16 ;
8 (DMA);
816 .

8 / (8 16 = 128 /), 128 / : 2 (
2 8 ) = 64 / = 8 /.
ISA 16 8-.

432

4. . ..

EI S A ( E x t e n d e d I n d u s t r y S t a n d a r d A r c h i
t ect ur e) . EISA (. 4.14, )
PC IBM
MCA.
:
32- ;
33 /;
32- (
4 );
(bus master);
(edge-triggered) (
,
(level-triggered) );
.
LPC. Low Pin Count ( ),
LPC, IBM-
, ,
(legacy) - (
, , ,
). LPC
. LPC Intel 1998 .
ISA (. 4.15).
LPC 7
, 4
, 3
(, , ).
LPC 4 8
16 ISA, ISA (33 ).
LPC ,
30 72
ISA.

. 4.15. Low Pin Count IT8705F

4.3.

433

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect bus).


PCI 1992 .
Intel.
(. 4.16, 4.17):
_ 32- 64- (64-
Alpha- Intel ).
( )
, . .
;

1
1
CD |

(0
0.1
1

I
1
1
1
1

USB 2.0

. 4.16. PCI (/); PCI-E (2)

32- PCI
5

32- PCI
3,3

. 4.17. PCI (), PCI-

()

434

4. . ..

33 66 ( 2.1)

( ) 132 /
(32-/33 ); 264 / (32-/66 ); 264 /
(64-/ ); 528 / (64-/66 ).
66 ,
;
(,

);

(, , . .);
PCI-
PCI-Express, , PCMCIA
.
, , ,
SCSI-, .
P C 1-. PCI- PCI-,
.
PCI- 33 ,
66 . PCI- PCI,
64- 133 ,
1 /.


.
P C I E x p r e s s ( P C I -). PCI-
, , , ,
, -
PCI. , PCI-
, AMD,
,
. ,

- .
,
50 %. PCI Express
16 /
PCI- (Host Bridge)
( -).
-

4.3.

435

(, switch) - (.
. 4.14, ).
PCI-
(lane), (1--1)
PCI- 1 (800 /).
, 32 (PCI- 32)
16 /,
,
.
PCI- AGP
(. . 4.18). 8 /

(HDT). , PCI
Express
southbridge.
northbridge.
AGP (Accelerated graphics port).
PCI, ,
, .
CGA (4 = 22 , 320 200 ,
60 ) 2 320 200 60 =
= 7 680 000 / = 960 /, XGA (216 ,
1024 768 , 75 ) 16 1024
758 75 = 9 433 718 400 /* 118 /.
PCI
132 /.
Intel AGP
Accelerated graphics port (
). AGP 1998 .
.
66
. 500 /
(V2.0) DMA Execute.
AGP 4- (
Intel Via),
1 /.
AGP
(Quadro port acceleration, . 4.18):
(- 2- );
;

436

4. . ..,


. 4.18. AGP

AGP;
PCI.
AGP
(FSB). 66 , ( 2 ,
PCI),
264 /. ,
AGP, ,
,
133
528 / (2- ).
AGP 2.0, 4-
.
HyperTransport. AMD ( Hammer)
(HyperTransport),

.
, ,
- (peer-to-peer),

.

4.3.

437

200 /
( 200 2- ) 12,8 / (
800 32- ) . 4.19.
4.20 ,
,
,
AGP 8 2 /
( 6,4 /).
40

41.6

20--

22,4
*

16

3
12 h
10 -8

6.4
5 -

< & 4

|g

32 64 32 64 100 133
33 66
"----------- ----------- '
PCI-X
PCI

3,2

2,1

0 .1 3 0 ,2 6 f 0 T f l

I
(

I
1 .0 6 :

4.2

4.2

0 20,51
I I I

1 ,0 6 1

0,26

1 24816 32 16x32x1x4 8
PCI Express

Express 2.0

AGP

1.6

0.81

I
3.0
800

. 4.19. PCI, AGP

4. . ..

438


8 3,2 /

AMD 8151 Graphic tunnel

. 4.20. AGP

4.3
.
4.3. HyperTransport


( ), /

1.0

2001

800

32

12,8

1.1

2002

800

32

12,8

2.0

2004

1400

32

22,4

3.0

2006

2600

32

41,6

3.1

2008

3200

32

51,2



,
, ,

4.3.

439

,
.

.
, .

, ,
, .

(Socket) (Slot) .
Socket 7, 8. 386, 486,
Pentium Pentium
- ,
(Pin Grid Array, PGA),
.
,
, (

), Socket 7.
Intel Socket 5, ,
. Socket 8
Pentium PRO.
( ),
,
, .
Slot 1, 2. Pentium II Intel
,
SEC (Single edge contact
cartridge) . . 3.16, e. SEC
: ,
-
. SEC-
Pentuim Pro 387 , SEC
242.
, SEC-
(),
,
.
Pentium II -
, .
,

440

4. . ..

. Slot 2,
, Slot 1,
.
Super 7. Intel
Pentium 1998 .,
Socket 7 ,
AMD Cyrix.
AMD ,
Super 7 Socket 7,
100 95 ,
AGP- ,
SDRAM 100 , USB, Ultra DMA (Direct memory access)
ACPI.
AMD K6-2 ( 1998 .)
,
250
Super 7.
Slot . Athlon 1999 . AMD
,
Slot (. . 3.30, ). Slot 1,
(
DEC EV6),
200 . Slot
(Voltage regulator module VRM),

( Slot
1,3 2,05 ).
Socket 370. 1999 . Intel
Pentium
Celeron. PGA, 370
(Socket 370).
Slot 1 Socket 370
, PGA
Slot 1. ,

() Slot 1 Socket 370,
,
.
Socket . Slot 1, Slot AMD
. Athlon
Thunderbird Spitfire, AMD

4.3.

441

PPGA Athlon Duron.


AMD,
Socket . 462 , 453
, EV6 (200 ),
266 .
Socket 423, 478. Pentium IV 2000 . Intel
, Socket 423.

, PGA-
(VRM) 1,0
1,85 .
Socket 423 ,
Intel Socket 478.


( ).
LGA775/Socket . LGA775
Pentium 4 ( Prescott Cedar Mill), Pentium
D ( Smithfield Presler). 2006 . Intel
Core 2 Duo (),
Kentsfield Quad-Core , LGA775.
LGA775 ,
FSB.
.
Socket 2. 2006 . AMD
Socket 2 ( ,
Hammer 2003 .), Socket
754, 939 940. ,
AMD Athlon 64
2
AMD Athlon 64 2 5000+ 4000+.
, 2,

(System Memory Controller Hub MCH),
Northbridge
.
DDR (SDRAM II,
), 2006 .
, Socket 2
DDR-II,
DDR-II-667 DDR-II-800.

442

4. . .


Intel AMD.
Socket F ( Socket 1207, LGA, 1207
) AMD,
DDR2-SDRAM. Socket 940 Opteron
Athlon 64 FX.
Socket F+ AMD-
Quad FX 10,
HyperTransport 3.0
2,6 . Socket F ( Phenom
FX Opteron 8300, 2300, Athlon 64 FX-70).
Socket AM2+ AMD
, DDR2 HyperTransport 3.0
. Socket 2 (PGA,
940 , Socket 2).
Socket (PGA, 940 )
AMD , DDR3
HyperTransport 3.0. 2008 .
Socket 2+ DDR3-SDRAM.
Socket SI (PGA, 638 ) AMD
DDR2-SDRAM. 754
.
Socket FM1, Socket FM2 Socket FM3
Fusion.
Socket Intel Core Solo, Intel Core Duo
Intel Core 2 Duo.
Socket P Intel, Socket 479 Socket M.
Socket (LGA 1366)
Intel, Intel
QuickPath Interconnect.
Socket FL (LGA 715) Socket T (LGA
775),
.
Socket J ( Socket 771 LGA 771)
Intel ( Woodcrest).
Socket N Intel Dual-Core
Xeon LV.
4.4
Socket 1, OverDrive-,
Intel 486 1990- .

4.3.

443

4.4.

Socket 1/
Socket 8

169/387 i486, Pentium OverDrive, Pentium


Pentium Pro

S lo tl

242

- L1 512 ,
256 . Pentium II, Pentium III Celeron

Slot 2

330

Slot 1, 2
-, . Pentium
ll/lll

Slot A

242

AMD Athlon, Slot


1,

Socket 370

370

Slot 1 Celeron 1999 .


Pentium III Coppermine Tualatin , FC-PGA
FC-PGA2

Socket
A/462

462

AMD Athlon (Thunderbird),


- L2

Socket 423

423

Pentium IV,
(FSB).

Socket 603

603

Pentium IV.
, -,

Socket 478

478

0,13 Pentium IV
Northwood 2002 . pPGA (micro Pin Grid
Array)

Socket 754

754

AMD 64- Athlon 64 2003 .

Socket 940

940

AMD Opteron Athlon 64 FX.


Socket 939,

Socket 939

939

AMD 2004 . Athlon 64 (


Socket 754), Athlon 64 FX ( Socket 940)

LGA775/
Socket T

775

Land Grid Array 775 Intel 2004 .


Pentium 4, Celeron D, Pentium 4 Extreme Edition,
Pentium D, Core 2 Duo

Socket 479

479

mPGA479M
Pentium ( )

Socket AM2

940

AMD 2006 . Athlon 64 2 5000-1- 4000+

Socket F

1207

Socket 1207
Opteron Athlon 64 FX

Socket S1

638

AMD
DDR2-SDRAM. Socket 754

444

4. . ..

4.4.


( .,
, [10, 11, 15, 17]), . 4.5.
4.5.

, ,

Samsung SE-W164L

CD/DVD,
DVDR16

,
,

Nikon Coolpix S5

,

6,0 ,
zoom, 135

USB/SCSI
USB, IEEE1394

Plextor -760

Linksys ADSL2MUE


CD/DVD,
DVDR18

ADSL2,

*
IDE/ATAPI/SCS!

,
USB

Hitachi Deskstar 7250

Samsung ML-1610

() , |
- 3,5", 350
|



, USB

ID/ TA/SATA/SCSI

SanDisk Cruzer Micro

HP Scanjet 4890

-,
256 2

USB


, USB

4.4.

445

PC 98, PC 99, PC 2001


Intel Microsoft
,
[2, 3].
, PC 98,
(. . 4.5)
, . 4.6.
4.6. ,
* PC 98

/

()

((

(4

1----

IO IO I

IOIOI)

&

(Thicknet+
Twisted)

SCSI

USB

1 ,2 ...

IEEE 1394


IDE (Integrated Device Electronics)
(. 4.21).

446

4. . ..

M il,
EIDE

C D -R O M ,
EIDE

. 4.21. IDE/EIDE:
; /IDE;

.
.
IDE
(AT Attachment).
IDE
40- ,
.
45 ,
15 .
SCSI. SCSI ( )

, ,
, , CD-ROM CD-R, DVD-ROM
. . (. 4.22). SCSI
, SCSI ( -). SCSI
BIOS (
BIOS ).
SCSI
25-, 50-, 68-
.

4.4.

447

SCSI

CD-

ZIP-

. 4.22. SCSI:
;


,

, .

448

4. . ..

( )

.
Centronics,

, RS-232.

USB FireWire (. 4.7).
4.7.

, /

(RS-232)

1960

0,02

(LPT)

1981

1,1

USB

1995

12

FireWire

1995

400

USB 2.0

2000

480

FireWire 800

2001

850

RS-232-C.

(
), - RS-232-C.
RS-232-C
,

.
IBM PC RS-232-C
1: COM4 :.



, (Start),
(Stop) (. 4.23).
,
,

4.4.


(Start)
ST


(Parity)
1

i I 1

449


(Stop)
SP

. 4.23.
RS-232-C

. ( ) SP
.
( ) , ST, SP
() RS-232.
.
. (Centronics)
8 .

,
,
.
25-
D (DB25). ,
.

5 ,
12 ;
, ,
, .

D- 25- .
D- 25- .
USB (Universal Serial Bus) ,
Compaq, DEC, Microsoft, IBM, Intel, NEC
Northern Telecom (
15 1996 .)

(. 4.24).
,
,
Plug-n-Play .
,
,

450

4. . ..

HUB

--- -1--

. 4.24. USB-

. ,
.
USB 127
USB (hub),
.
, (5 )
, .
FireWire. IEEE 1394
DCR-VX1000 DCR-VX700
(Sony). DV-
IEEE 1394.
USB 1.0,
(
12,5 / 1,6 / ).
FireWire
,
, , ,
(. 4.25).
FireWire

63 .
100, 200 400 / (. . 12,5, 25,
50 /), 800 1600 /.

, 100 400 /.

. ,
,
, .

4.5. ()

1
IEEE 1394

1394

451

1394

2
1

.___

- 4

. 4.25.
IEEE 1394 (); () ()

.
8 40 ( 1,5 ),
.

4.5 .
()
Chipset, PCIset, ,
,
. ,
- , ISA PCI.
,
, IDE.
.

452

4. . ..


, , (
) , ,
, AGP, -
(PCI ) ,
Northbridge. , -
, PCI,
Southbridge. Northbridge Southbridge
. Northbridge Southbridge
Triton 430 (. 2.24, ). . 4.26
AMD 750,
Athlon.
: AMD-751
AMD 756.

Athlon
64 + 8

I 200

. 4.26. ( AMD 750)

4.5. ()

453

(Northbridge):

200 ;
PCI 2.2 - ;
768 SDRAM DIMM;
AGP (1- 2- ).
(Southbridge):
Plug-n-Play
ACPI 1.0 1.2;
;
IDE-
Ultra DMA-33/66;
ISA ISA-PCI,
-97;
USB .
AGPset
AGP
(2- )
.
Pentium II 1998 .,
440GX 440.

. 4.27. AGPSet ( Intel Triton 440GX)

454

4. . ..


Slot 1 Slot 2, 2 AGP, 2-
2 (. 4.27).
,
- 2- Pentium II
.
AMD 8
, 8

.
-, PCI AGP.
VIA- AMD (VIA 8800)
(. 4.28, 4.29)
( )
, 8 V-Link
533 /.
VT8237, :
USB 2.0;
Parallel 133/100/66
;
VIA VIA Vinyl 5.1 & Vinyl Gold 7.1;
SATA RAID;

. 4.28. VIA 8800:


8800; VT8237;
AS US K8 V Deluxe VIA 8800

4.5. ()

455

'

|Opteron/Athlon 64

1,6'/

. 4.29. VIA 8800

10/100 BaseT ;
Gigabit Ethernet.
AMD-8000. AMD
, ,
AMD-8000.
,

. AMD-8000
,
(. 4.30).

456

4. . ...

. 4.30. AMD-8000:
AMD-8151, HyperTransport-AGP tunnel; AMD-8131, HyperTransport-PCI-X ; AMD-8111, HyperTransport ( -, PCI, BIOS IDE-,
USB 2.0, .)

A M D - 8 1 5 1 Gr a p h i c s T u n n e l
AGP 8 2,1 /.
, Hyper
Transport Link () Link ().
(Link ) 16-
6,4 / ( 3,2 / ).
(Link ) 8- 1,6 /
( 0,8 / ).
A MD - 8 1 3 1 I / O Bus T u n n e l ,
.
HyperTransport (Link Link ),
AMD-8151. PCI-
PCI-X-
.
A MD - 8 1 1 1 I / O b -,

.
AMD-8111
I/O Hub ( ,
AGP). AMD-8111 I/O Hub - 8- Hyper Transport
800 /
-,
PCI (32 /33 ),
USB 2.0, IDE 33/66/100/133,
10/100 /, '97,
LPC-.
AMD-8000 ,
, (. 4.31, 4.32).

4.5. ()

1,6 /

Opteron

457

Opteron

1,6 /
<
Opteron

1,6 /

1,6 /
AMD 8131

PCI-X

Opteron

1,6 /
VGA

Ethernet

PCI-X
L

SCSI

1,6 /

AMD 8131

PCI-X

PCI-X

12

CL

Q-

. 4.31. Opteron AMD- 8000


( , . . 2.41)

. 4.32. Opteron

. 4.8
Intel Via.

i865PE

ta

rn
1^-

co

11
l

LO

CO

".

gj
5

AMD Opteron,
Athlon 64 FX,
Socket 940

1
4 DDR
4

AGP/5 PCI

2
no 2 USB 2.0

4 USB 2.0 +
2
PATA/IDE 1

2 USB 2.0
UltraATA 133
RAID

2 PATA
(ATA133),
2 SATA

AGP/5 PCI/
ASUS WiFi

CL

3 DDR

SATA (3 /)
External SATA

8
USB 2.(
.

NVIDIA nForc<
Pro 150

CVJ

DDR2
PCI Express
800/677/533 X16 (1x16)

AGP 8X/PCI-X

PATA

'97-
Avance Logic
ALC650

VIA
AudioVinyl 5.1

Intel HDAudio,
'97/20

AC'97

AGP4x

cvi

-=>
m

AMD Athlon 64, HT1.6 /


Socket 754

0
.
CO

CNJ
CO
CO
CO

DIMMs

DDR

'97

2 150

DDR
AGP8X
400/333/266

IE

cvi
oo
CO
=)
OQ

VIA K8T800 +

4 DIMMs

USB

2 150

IDE/ATA
.

DDR
AGP8X
400/333/266

o
a>
&
CO

cvi

=
m

Core 2
1066/800
Duo Pentium D
Pentium 4
LGA775

800 /

Pentium IV
Celeron

CO
CO
in

AMDK8

533/400

Pentium IV

4 DIMMs

cvi

AMD8000

Ii845PE

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1. Dictionary of Computing (Data Communication, Hardware and


Software Basics, Digital Electronic) Ed. by Frank J. Galland, John Wiley
& Sons, Datology Press Ltd, Windsor, England, 1983.
2. PC 2001 System Design Guide. A Technical Reference for
Designing PCs and Peripherals for the Microsoft Windows Family of
Operating Systems. 19992000 Intel Corporation and Microsoft
Corporation.
3. PC 99 System Design Guide, Microsoft Press, 1998.
4. 3 . . . .: , 1973.
5. : . / . .
, . . , . JI. , . . . .: :
-, 2006.
6. . . . .
: . . 3- . .: , 2008.
7. . .
. .: , 1991.
8. . . : . .: -, 2000.
9. (.
) / . . , . JI. , . . ,
. . .: , 2004.
10. . ., . ,, . .
. 4- . .: , 2012.
. . ., . ., . .
: . 2- . . : -,
2008.
12. . .
. : ; ..., 1995.
13. . . : .
/ . . . . .: -; . .
., 2003.

463

14. ., .
. : , 1995.
15. . . . . : .
. 3- . .: , 2012.
16* . ., . . ,
. 4- . .: , 2012.
17. . ., . .
. .: : -, 2007.
18. . . : . . .: ,
1996.

-
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

http://www.cluster.bsu.by
http://www.INTUIT.ru
http://www.parallel.ru
http://www.pctechguide.com
http://www.stolica.ru
http://www.top500.org
http://www.wikipedia.org


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482

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483

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EIA (Electronic Industries Association) ,
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484

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HP Intel IA-64 ( Itanium
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).
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485

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.
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, .
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DRAM).
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.
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().
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.
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() ,
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,
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200 MT/s. MT/s
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IBM PC IBM
, IBM PC 1981 . PC XT, AT
.
IBM POWER (Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC)
RISC. RISC-no-

486

, IBM,
, .
POWER
IBM , , -
(. . 2.9). POWER1 (RS/6000, RIOS,
RIOS I, 1990 ., PowerPC); POWER2 (1993 .); POWER3 (1997 .
64- ); POWER4 (2001 ., PowerPC 2.00),
POWER5 (2005 .) , 4
.
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.
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.
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
.
, 1998 . IEC
1 1000 ( ) 1024 (
), 1 Megabyte 1 MibiByte,
. 1 KibiByte = 1024 ,
1 GibiByte = 1024 MibiByte 1 Tibi Byte = 1024 GibiByte.
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
, , ,
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, IEEE 802
.
IEEE floating-point standard
,
+ -
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IEEE-754 1 , 8
23-
( 24 ).
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/ (, fixed).
. (
) DOUBLE FIXED, LONG FIXED (0,5 ) SHORT
FIXED.

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).
.
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ISO (International Standards Organisation)
() ,

( )

487

,
(, .).
(Kilobyte, ) ,
103 . IEC
KiB (KibiByte); 1 KiB = 1024 .
Kbit (Kilobit, ) , ,
1024 ,
(/).
KBps (Kilobytes per second) ,
.
LIFO (Last In First Out)
( ).
Unpack Benchmark ( Linpack)
()-
Linpack, (J. Dongarra .). ,
( = )

- 3 + 2 ,
, (
).
Macintosh (Mac). Apple Computer 1984 .,
Macintosh ,
(GUI), ,
. Macintosh GUI
, .
Microsoft Windows
.
MB (Megabyte, ) ,
, 1000 .
IEC MiB (MibiByte), 1 MiB = 1024 KibiByte.
Mbit (Megabit, ) , ,
1024 .
MBps (MegaBytes per second) (/)
.
MDRAM (Multibank DRAM) DRAM.
Memory refresh .
Mflops (Megaflops) , 1
() .
MHz (Megahertz, ) , 1
(1/).
Microcode (, )
() ,
. ()
.
.

488

Micron ( , , , ) ,
.
Microsecond (us, , )
(0,000001 ).
Millisecond (ms, , )
(0,001 ).
MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second)
, ,
.
Moore*s Law ( ). 1965 . 3
Intel Corporation ( )
,
18 .
NaN ( NAN Not-a-Number, -)
, ,
.
, NaN , :
;
. NaN: SNaN
- (signaling NaN), ,
( 111... 111,
1,0..., ); QNaN - (quiet NaN)
(
111...111, 1,1..., ).
Nanometre ( . nanos , nm, vm, , )
(10-9 ).
Nanosecond (ns, vs, , )
(0,000000001 ). 8 1 .
NIC (Network Interface Card) .
NorthBridge ( ) ,
chipset ( ),
, , AGP
PCI, - ( Pentium).
, .
NX bit (No eXecute) , AMD
, ,
.
NX, ,
. Intel XD bit
(eXecute Disable), XD (Intel), NX (AMD)
.
OTROM (One Time Programmable ROM)
ROM.
Out-of-order execution
( , )

( )

489

,
.
(Printed Circuit Board) (),
,
.
P tt-b u s Intel ,
32-
, .
Peripheral , , , ,
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Pipeline Burst ( -).
Pixel (Picture Element) (
).
POP .
Predication ()
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.
, .
,
.
Processor Performance Rating (P-)
( 1000+, ,
, Pentium
1000 ).
Programmable ROM ROM.
Protected Mode ( ).
, 32- .
,
.
PS/2 IBM,
1987 . PC (/). 3,5,
VGA Micro Channel (MCA),
PCI.
PUSH .
RAM (Random Access Memory)
( ).
RAS (Row Address Strobe)
DRAM .
RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) DRAM.
Real ,
/, (,
, float).
Real Mode ( ).
RegRen (register rename) , ,
,

490

6.
, (
/) .
Ret Far .
Retirement () -
,

.
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) ,
.
RISC- 100 ,
4 . RISC-

.
Rmax () ,
Unpack Benchmark.
ROM (Read Only Memory)
( ).
Rpeak () ~
,
. ,
() Intel
Pentium Pro 200 62 .
RS-232 (RS-232-C serial port) (, )
(
, , ).
RTC (Real Time Clock) (
, CMOS RAM).
Saturation arithmetic SARITH ( )
,

.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
.
SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) DRAM, ,

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burst) / 2 ,
EDO DRAM. SDRAM
.
Set-associative cache -.
SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data
) MMX-
.
, 80- .

( )

491

SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module)


. 72 ,
,
. , ,
FPM, EDO. SIMM 32 (
36)
Pentium .
SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processing)
; ,
.
SMT (Surface Mounting Technology)
.
SouthBridge ( )
chipset ( ),
EIDE, , PCI-to-PCI, / , USB .
SP (Stack pointer) ( -
).
Speculative loading
. IA-64
,
. ,
(speculative loading)
, ,
(speculative check) ,
.
, .
, , ,
.
-
, .
SPP (Standard Parallel Port) ,
, , , Centronics,
,
.
80 /.
( ,
. .).
SRAM (Static RAM) RAM.
SSE ( Streaming SIMD Extensions)
86. Intel 1999 . Pentium
III AMD 3DNow!.
SSE 80 ,
KNI (Katmai New Instructions). AMD SSE
, Athlon .

492

SSE2 SSE ( SSE1),


Pentium IV. SSE2
(64-) 8/16/32- , 128- ( SSE).
SSE3 Prescott New Instructions (PNI),
SSE2
(DSP) (, thread).
SSE4 SSE3
.
SSSE3 SSE3 16
(opcodes), ,
16-
.
Stack .
Star processors AMD 10,
Agena (
), Deneb ( ) Heka (X ), Kuma (v ), Propus
(| ), Rana (5 ), Regor, ( ), Spica ( ) . .
Synchronous Burst ( -).
Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) ,
.
( , burst)
/ 2 , EDO DRAM.
SDRAM
.

,
. SDRAM 168- 64- DIMM. SIMM
.
JEDEC- DIMM
SPD .
, Intel 440LX, ,
SPD. SDRAM
.
Target Buffer .
(Terabyte, ) ,
1000 .
IEC 1998 . TiB (TibiByte), 1 TiB = 1024 GiB (GibiByte).
TDP ( . thermal design power) , ,

.
, TDP 30 ,

( )

493

30
.
TLB ( Translation Lookaside Buffer)
(),
-; .
500 (500 ).

500.
500 5 1998 .,
.
(Rmax),
Linpack Torrenza AMD ,

, AMD Opteron.
Torrenza -
,
HyperTransport
Opteron PCI Express .

,
HyperTransport
.
VLIW (Very Large Instruction Word) ,
( 128 ),
,
,
. ,
,
VLIW-,
.
Volume , ,
.
, (FAT NTFS)
( :, D: .).
(Volume Table of Contents) (
CD ROM).
WORM (Write Once Read Many)
( -).
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, -,
, .

- . , -

494

,
.
Write Combining ,
-
-
.
Write Through ( )
-. ,
, -,
, .
86-64 64-
( Intel 86,
). AMD AMD 8
AMD64. , Intel,
LA-32. Intel
, Net Burst
( 1-32). 86-64
Intel 64, 1-32 Intel 64 (
AMD64). (AMD Intel)
32 . ,
, Intel IA-32,
1-32. 86-64 64

(AMD Intel) .
87 (86) Intel
(, ) .
,
87. 86,
,

,
. , 87
(sin) (cos).
XMS (extended Memory Specification)
.
ZIF(zero insertion force, )
( , ),
(
), .

,
,
. ZIF- ,
, .

8
. 3.1
86 ( 80868088),
32- , 32-
( , .) , 16-
( , .) .
. 1. 80868088

ASCII adjust AL after addition

AAD

ASCII adjust AX before division

ASCII adjust AX after


multiplication

AAS

ASCII adjust AL after


subtraction

ADC

Add with carry

ADD

Add

AND

Logical AND

CALL

Call procedure

CBW

Convert byte to word

CLC

Clear carry flag

CLD

Clear direction flag

CLI

Clear interrupt flag

CMC

Complement carry flag

CMP

Compare operands

CMPSB

Compare bytes in memory

CMPSW

Compare words

CWD

Convert word to doubleword

496

3
. . 1

I DAA

Decimal adjust AL after addition -

DAS

Decimal adjust AL after


subtraction

DEC

Decrement by 1

P IV

Unsigned divide

HLT

Enter halt state

IDIV

Signed divide

IMUL

Signed multiply

IN

Input from port

INC

Increment by 1

INT

Call to interrupt

INTO

Call to interrupt if overflow

IRET

Return from interrupt

Jxx (JE, JG, Jump if condition


JZ . .)

(je ,
, jg , , jz
, 0, .)

Jump

[LAHF

Load flags into AH register

ILDS

Load pointer using DS

,
(ds)

LODSB

Load byte

( )

ILODSW

Load word

ILOOP/LOOPx

Loop control

flO/FOR (loope
, , loopne -
, , loopz ,
0, .)

MOV

Move

MOVSB

Move byte from string to string

JMP

MOVSW

Move word from string to string

497
. . 1

Unsigned multiply

Two's complement negation

NOP

No operation

NOT

Negate the operand, logical NOT (


)

MUL
jNEG

Logical OR

OUT

Output to port

POP

Pop data from stack

()

POPF

Pop data from flags register

PUSH

Push data onto stack

()

PUSHF

Push flags onto stack

RCL

Rotate left (with carry)

( )

Ir c r

Rotate right (with carry)

( )

REPxx

Repeat

/WHILE
( r e p e , ,
r e p n e , ,
..)

P R

1
1

RET/RETN.
RETF

Return from procedure

ROL

Rotate left

ROR

Rotate right

SAHF

Store AH into flags

SAL

Shift Arithmetically left


(multiply)

(
)

Shift Arithmetically right


(signed divide)


( )

SBB

Subtraction with borrow

SCASB

Compare byte string

SCASW

Compare word string

SHL

Shift left (multiply)

()

I SAR

498

3
. . 1

Shift right (unsigned divide)

( )

Set carry flag

STD

Set direction flag

STI

Set interrupt flag

STOSB

Store byte in string

STOSW

Store word in string

SUB

Subtraction

TEST

Logical compare (AND)

()

WAIT

Wait until not busy

, busy# ( )

1
1

XCHG

Exchange data

XLAT

Table look-up translation

XOR

Exclusive OR

SHR
Is t c

MMX- ,
.
MMX- ( EMMS)
. . 3.2
( MMX-; 32, 64
32- 64- ;
; 32 ).
-:
EMMS, MOVD, MODQ, PACKSSDW, PACKSSWB, PACKUSWB, PADDB,
PADDD, PADDSB, PADDSW, PADDUSB, PADDUSW, PADDW, PAND,
PANDN, PCMPEQB, PCMPEQD, PCMPEQW, PCMPGTB, PCMPGTD,
PCMPGTW, PMADDWD, PMULHW, PMULLW, POR, PSLLD, PSLLQ, PSLLW,
PSRAD, PSRAW, PSRLD, PSRLQ, PSRLW, PSUBB, PSUBD, PSUBSB,
PSUBSW, PSUBUSB, PSUBUSW, PSUBW, PUNPCKHBW, PUNPCKHDQ,
PUNPCKHWD, PUNPCKLBW, PUNPCKLDQ, PUNPCKLWD, PXOR.


.
, .

499

86

- -. .
- (
) , .
- .

. 57 -
, ,
, , ,
. . 3.2 (
, ,
).
3.2.

PADD [, W, D]

[byte, word, doubleword]

PADDS [, W]

[byte, word]

ADDUS[,W]

[byte, word]

PSUB[, W, D]

[byte, word, doubleword]

PSUBS[B,W]

[byte, word]

PSUBUS[B,W

[byte, word]

PMULHW

PMULLW

PMADDWD

PACKUSWB

( )

PACKSS[WB,DW]

, (
)

PUNPCKH [BW,WD,DQ]

, [bytes, words,
doublewords]

PUNPCKL [BW,WD,DQ]

, [bytes, words,
doublewords]

|m OV[D,Q]

[doubleword, quadword] -

500

3DNow!
3DNow! (
, . .). 3DNow!
2 .
3DNow!-HHcrpyKiarti:
6-2 f e m m s , p a v g u s b , PF2ID,
PFACC, PFADD, PFCMPEQ, PFCMPGE, PFCMPGT, PFMAX, PFMIN,
PFMUL, PFRCP, PFRCPIT1, PFRCPIT2, PFRSQIT1, PFRSQRT,
PFSUB, PFSUBR, PI2FD, PMULHRW, PREFETCH, PREFETCHW;
Athlon PF2IW, p f n a c c , p f p n a c c ,
PI2FW, PSWAPD.

3DNow!:
mnemonic

mmreg2/mem64

- MMX- (
- MMX-,
.
: - Packed (), F - Float (
), I - integer ().
. ..
7).

.. 3DNow!

PAVGUSB

PFADD

PFSUB

PFSUBR

PFACC

PFCMPGE

, >=

PFCMPGT

, >

PFCMPEQ

, =

PFMIN

PFMAX

PI2FD

32-

PF2ID

32-

86

501
. .

PFRCP
PFRSQRT

PFMUL

PFRCPIT1

PFRSQIT1

PFRCPIT2



.............

i
PMULHRW

FEMMS

FPU 87

PREFETCH

32 L1

SSE. Streaming SIMD Extensions


, ,
3DNow!.
SSE 128- ,
7.
32- .
SSE- (. . 3.4):
ADDPS, ADDSS, andnps, andps, cmpps,
CMPSS, COMISS, CVTPI2PS, CVTPS2PI,C V T SI2SS,CVTSS2SI,
CVTTPS2PI, CVTTSS2SI, DIVPS, DIVSS, LDMXCSR, MAXPS,
MAXSS, MINPS, MINSS, MOVAPS, MOVHLPS, MOVHPS, MOVLHPS,
MOVLPS, MOVMSKPS, MOVNTPS, MOVSS, MOVUPS, MULPS, MULSS,
ORPS, RCPPS, RCPSS, RSQRTPS, RSQRTSS, SHUFPS, SQRTPS,
SQRTSS, STMXCSR, SUBPS, SUBSS, UCOMISS, UNPCKHPS,
UNPCKLPS, xorps;
pavgb, pavgw, pextrw, pinsrw, pmaxsw,
PMAXUB, PMINSW, PMINUB, PMOVMSKB, PSADBW, PSHUFW.

SSE2
(64 ) 8/16/32-
128- -.
882-:
addpd, addsd, andnpd, andpd, cmppd,
CMPSD,COMISD, CVTDQ2PD, CVTDQ2PS, CVTPD2DQ, CVTPD2PI,
CVTPD2PS, CVTPI2PD, CVTPS2DQ, CVTPS2PD, CVTSD2SI,

502

3.4. SSE

A D D PS

Packed Single-FP
ADD

( 32- )

A DD S S

Scalar Single-FP
ADD

(32 ),

A N D N PS

Bitwise Logical AND a n d ,


NOT
( n o t )

A N D PS

Bitwise Logical AND

C M P ccP S

Packed Single-FP
Compare

( 32- )

C M P ccSS

Scalar Single-FP
Compare

(32 ),

C O M IS S

Scalar Compare and (32 ),


, Set EFLAGS
. ,
SNaN QNaN

C V T P I2 P S

Packed Integer to
Floating-Point
Conversion

32- 32-
, 64

C V T PS2PI

Packed
Floating-Point to
Integer Conversion

32- 32-

C V T S I2S S

Scalar Integer to
Floating-Point
Conversion

(32 ) 32- ,

C V TSS2SI

Scalar
Floating-Point to
Integer Conversion

(32 ) 32-

FX R ST O R

Restore FP, MMX


and SSE States

(FP, SSE)
,
FXSAVE

LDMXCSR

Load MXCSR

32 MXCSR (
SSE)

MAXPS

Packed Single-FP
Maximum

32 ()

MAXSS

Scalar Single-FP
Maximum

(32 ),

and

1
I
1

503
. 3.4

M IN P S

Packed Single-FP
Minimum

no 32 ()

M IN SS

Scalar Single-FP
Maximum

(32 ),

MOVHLPS

Move High to Low

MOVHPS

Move High

MOVLHPS

Move Low to High

M OVLPS

Move Low

O R PS

Bitwise Logical OR

OR

RCPPS

Packed Single-FP
Reciprocal
Approximation

32-
(
3/8192)

R C PSS

Scalar Single-FP
Reciprocal
Approximation


()

STM X CSR

Store MXCSR

( SSE)

X O R PS

Bitwise Logical XOR X0R

CVTSD2SS, CVTSI2SD, CVTSS2SD, CVTTPD2DQ, CVTTPD2PI,


CVTPS2DQ, CVTTSD2SI, DIVPD, DIVSD, MAXPD, MAXSD, MINPD,
MINSD, MOVAPD, MOVHPD, MOVLPD, MOVMSKPD, MOVSD, MOVUPD,
MULPD, MULSD, ORPD, SHUFPD, SQRTPD, SQRTSD, SUBPD,
SUBSD, UCOMISD, UNPCKHPD, UNPCKLPD, XORPD;
movdq2q, movdqa, movdqu, movq2dq,
PADDQ, PMULUDQ, PSHUFHW, PSHUFLW, PSHUFD, PSLLDQ,
PSRLDQ, PUNPCKHQDQ, PUNPCKLQDQ.

,

, . Intel
,

504

(Enhanced mode),
SSE (
). ,
SSE,
, -
.
SSE3 , Prescott New
Instructions (PNI),
SSE IA-32 (. 3.5). Intel SSE3 2004 .
Pentium IV Prescott. 2005 . AMD
SSE3 Athlon 64 ( Venice San Diego). SSE3
.
3 .5 . SSE3


1 = { 0 1} , 2 ^ { 0 1} * ~ { A q - 0, + {}

ADDSUBPD

Add-Subtract-PackedDouble

ADDSUBPS

Add-Subtract-PackedSingle

{ A qA }A 2A 3}, { B 0B tB 2B 3} { A q B q, Ay + By,
2 2, 3 + 3}


A q + {}

IHADDPD

Horizontal-Add-PackedDouble

Ih a d d p s

Horizontal-Add-PackedSingle

{ A qA {A 2A 3},

HSUBPD

Horizontal-SubtractPacked-Double

{ .

HSUBPS

Horizontal-SubtractPacked-Single

{ A qA , A 2A , 1 { B qB xB 2B, } { A q 19 2 3,
B q 1 2 $)

{ #0 +

1
>
to
1
>

{ B q + , 2 + 2*3,
A q + , 2 + }


LDDQU

128
,

505
. 3.5

MOVDDUP, MOVSHDUP, MOVSLDUP

FISTTP

FISTTP

MONITOR, MWAIT


(multi-threaded),
Hyper-Threading

|
I

SSSE3 Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extension 3 (' SIMD 3), 1 SSE (Intel : SSE3). TNI
Tejas New Instructions) MNI (Merom New Instructions) no
, .
Intel Core, SSSE3
5100 ( )
I Intel Core 2 ( ).
SSSE3 16 SSE3 (Intel
: 32,
64- 128- ).
. 3.6 satsw (X) (saturate to signed
jord ) ,
( -32 768 ( ,
-32 768) +32 767 ( , 32 767), [ . (,) : .
SSE4 , 1 Intel Core AMD 10 (K8L).
> 27 2007 .
ntel.
Intel SSE4 54 . ,
\1 , SSE4.1,
*. SSE4.2, 7 ,
[ Nehalem.
AMD SSE- (
Phenom), SSE4a.

506

Intel-SSE4.1 , AMD
Intel-SSE4.1 (. 3.7).
3.6. SSSE3

PSIGNB, PSIGNW,
PSIGND


(Packed Sign)

- (w, , d
.) ,

PABSB, PABSW,
PABSD


(Packed Absolute
Value)

(w, , d
.)

PALIGNR


(Packed Align
Right)

,

,

PSHUFB

:
(Packed Shuffle
\ = {> ^1
*}
Bytes)
2 {2*0, ] 2, ...
: , = { , A Bx, A B^ . . - }

PMULHRSW



(Packed Multiply High with
Round and Scale)

16-
\ 2 3 15
( -1 +1)

PMADDUBSW


(Multiply and
Add Packed Signed and
Unsigned Bytes)

\ ~ {)> ^1 -^2 *}
2 = { 5 0, 19 2, . . . } .

PHADDW/PHSUBW,
PHADDD/PHSUBD


/ (Packed
Horizontal Add/Subtract
Words or Doublewords)

:
{ s a t s w ( 4 , 0i + \
{s a ts w (i4 25 2( + \
:

2 = { 0, 2?,, 2, . . . } .
:

{A q {, 2 3, ...
. . . 0 B j , 2 3,
IPHADDSW/PHSUBSW


/
(Packed Horizontal
Subtract and Saturate
Words)

...}

...}

phaddw/phsubw, :
{ s a ts w (4 j ), satsw (y42 3), . . .
.. . satsw (2?0 - ) 9 . . . }

507

. 7. SSE4

SSE4.1

||
||

BLENDPD, BLENDPS,
BLENDVPD, BLENDVPS,
PBLENDVB, PBLENDW

Blend Packed Double and


Single Precision Floating-Point
Values

DPPD, DPPS

Dot Product of Packed Double


and Single Precision
Floating-Point Value

EXTRACTPS, INSERTPS

Extract and Insert Packed Single


Precision Floating-Point Value

MPSADBW

Compute Multiple Packed Sums



of Absolute Difference

PACKUSDW

Pack with Unsigned Saturation

PEXTRB,
Extract Byte, Dword/Qword, and , /
PEXTRD/PEXTRQ, PEXTRW Word

PHMINPOSUW

Packed Horizontal Word


Minimum

PINSRB, PINSRD/PINSRQ Insert Byte and Dword/Qword


PMAXSB,
PMAXUD,
PMINSB,
PMINUD,

PMAXSD,
PMAXUW,
PMINSD,
PMINUW

Find Minimum and Maximum of


,
Packed Signed, Unsigned,

Dword and Word-length

Integers

PMOVSX, PMOVZX

Packed Move with Sign and


Zero Extend


(
.)

PMULDQ, PMULLD

Multiply Packed Signed Dword


Integers and Store Low Result

PTEST

Logical Compare

ROUNDPD, ROUNDPS,
ROUNDSD, ROUNDSS

Round Packed and


ScalarDouble and Single
Precision Floating-Point Values

CRC32

Accumulate CRC32 Value

PCMPESTRI,PCMPISTRI

Packed Compare Explicit and


Implicit Length Strings, Return
Index

PCMPESTRM, PCMPISTRM Packed Compare Explicit and


Implicit Length Strings, Return
Mask

SSE4.2

508

. . 7

PCMPEQQ, PCMPGTQ

Compare Packed Data For Equal


or Greater Than

POPCNT

Population Count (Return the (


Count of Number of Bits Set to 1) , 1)

LZCNT

Leading Zero Count

-.

POPCNT

Population count (count


number of bits set to 1)

-.

e x t r q /i n s e r t q

Combined mask-shift
instructions

m o v n t s d /m o v n t s s

Scalar streaming store


instructions

SSE4a

SSE5 ( Streaming SIMD Extensions, 5)


AMD 30 2007 .,
128- AMD64
Bulldozer, 2009 .
SSE5 170 ( 46 ),

. SSES- ,
RISC-,

86. :

(F M A C x x );

( IM A C , IM A D C )

( p p e r m , p e r m p x )
;
,
.
AMD , SSE5
,
(High Performance Computing ),
, 5-
( DES)
30 %
.

.......................................................................................... 3
1.
. ................. 7
1.1. ,
.................................................................. 8
1.2. , .............22
1.3. .............................. 63
1.4. .........................................87
1.5. ................................................. 100
2.
........... 109
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.


............................


........................................................

112
129
145
155

3. :
.......................................210
3.1.
.....................................................................210
3.2.

216
3.3. .................................... 244
3.4. 86. ..........................344

510

4. .
.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.

394
.................................. 394
.........................................406
................................................. 427

................................................... 444

() ................................................................ 451

....................................................................................460
.......................................................................462
1.
( ) ..............................................................................464
2. ( ) ...........480
3. 86 ............................................... ..495




. .
. .
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:
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:
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