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-

-
2009

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
60

60

. .

. .: -, 2009.

480 .: . ()
ISBN 978-5-9775-0427-0

, . . 802.11a, 802.11b,
802.11g, 802.11n. Wi-Fi, GPRS- ,
Ethernet, , Power Line Communication ( " ").
, ,
.
Windows XP, Vista Linux.

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
:

.
.

02429
24.07.00. 30.03.09.
701001/16. . . . . 38,7.
2000 .
"-", 190005, -, ., 29.
-
77.99.60.953..003650.04.08 14.04.2008 .
.

" ""
199034, -, 9 , 12
ISBN 978-5-9775-0427-0

. ., 2009
, "-", 2009


.................................................................................................................. 1
I. ................................................... 3
1. ........................................................................... 5
1.1. ..................................................................................... 5
1.1.1. 19411975 .......................................................................................... 5
1.1.2. 19761982 .......................................................................................... 6
1.1.3. 19831989 .......................................................................................... 7
1.1.4. 19901995 .......................................................................................... 9
1.1.5. 19961999 ........................................................................................ 10
1.1.6. 2000 ................................................................................. 11
1.2. ..................................................................................... 11
1.2.1. .................................................................... 11
1.2.2. ............................................................................................ 12
1.2.3. ...................................................... 14
1.2.4. ............................................................... 15
1.2.5. ............................................................ 15
1.2.6. ..................... 15
2. .......................................................... 16
2.1. ............................................. 16
2.2. , Ethernet- ...................... 17
2.3. , Wi-Fi .......................... 21
2.4. .......................................................... 23
3. OSI ............................. 26
3.1. ............................................................................ 26
3.2. OSI ..................................................................................................... 27
3.3. ?....................................................................................... 30
3.4. ................................................................................ 32
3.5. DNS .................................................................................................. 36

IV

II. ........ 37
4. ............................................... 39
4.1. Windows XP .................................... 39
4.2. Windows Vista ................................. 44
4.3. Wi-Fi Linux ............................................................... 56
4.3.1. (Ubuntu 8.10/Denix/Fedora 10) ............................... 57
4.3.2. " ".................................................................................... 59
5. Ethernet-......................................................... 64
5.1. .................................................................. 64
5.2. Windows XP ...................................................................... 66
5.3. Windows Vista................................................................... 68
5.4. Linux .................................................................................. 72

5.4.1. Fedora 10 ................................................................................................... 72


5.4.2. openSUSE 11 ............................................................................................. 80
5.4.3. Ubuntu 8.10 ............................................................................................... 84

6. . Windows ......... 89
6.1. ................................................................................... 89
6.1.1. .......................................................................................... 91
6.1.2. .............................................................................. 93
6.1.3. Windows XP ............................... 94
6.1.4. Windows Vista .......................... 105
6.2. DSL- ........................................................................................... 115
6.2.1. : .......................... 115
6.2.2. ADSL- Windows XP ..................................... 117
6.2.3. ADSL- Windows Vista .................................. 120
6.3. .............................. 123
6.3.1. ................................................................................. 123
6.3.2. Radio Ethernet ..................................... 124
6.3.3. ................................................................... 124
6.4. ........................................... 125
6.5. ...................................................................... 126
7. Linux ................................................. 129
7.1. ................................................................................. 129
7.1.1. ............................................................................ 129
7.1.2. KPPP ................................................................................... 130
7.1.3. GNOME PPP ....................................................................... 136
7.1.4. KInternet: openSUSE ................. 139
7.1.5. Ubuntu ....................................... 144

7.2. DSL- ........................................................................................... 146


7.2.1. DSL- Fedora................................................... 146
7.2.2. DSL- openSUSE ............................................ 148
7.2.3. DSL- Ubuntu .................................................. 152

8. GPRS- .................................................... 157


8.1. GPRS- .............................................................. 157
8.2. ..................................... 158
8.3. .......................................................... 159
8.4. GPRS- Windows XP ............................................ 160
8.5. GPRS- Windows Vista ......................................... 171
8.6. Bluetooth ................ 177
8.7. : ........................ 183

III. ETHERNET- ........................................ 185


9. ........................................................................... 187
9.1. .............................................................................. 187
9.1.1. ............................................. 188
9.1.2. .................. 190
...................................................................190
.........................................................191

...........................................................................................191
Wi-Fi ...........................................................................................192
9.2. ................................................................. 192
9.2.1. , .......... 192
9.2.2. IP- ............................................... 193
9.2.3. IP- MAC- .................................................. 193
9.2.4. ..................................................... 194
9.2.5. .................................................... 194
9.2.6. ?.......................................... 194
9.3. ................................................................................... 194
9.3.1. ............................................................................ 195
9.3.2. ? ............... 195
9.3.3. " , " ............................ 195
9.3.4. / ................... 196
9.4. ........................... 196
9.4.1. .................................................................................. 196
9.4.2. IT ........................................................................... 197

VI

9.4.3. .................................... 197


9.4.4. ................................................................ 198
9.5. ............................................................ 199

10. Ethernet-..................................................................... 200

10.1. Ethernet ...................................................................... 200


10.1.1. Ethernet ...................................................... 201
10.1.2. Fast Ethernet (100 /) ............................................... 202
10.1.3. Gigabit Ethernet (1000 /) ........................................................... 203
10.1.4. 10 Gigabit Ethernet ................................................ 204
10.2. ................................................................. 205
10.3. ............................................................................................... 206
10.3.1. Ethernet-................................................. 206
10.3.2. ...................................................................... 208
.................................................................................208
............................................209
10.3.3. .............................................................................. 209
, Fast/Gigabit Ethernet .........................................................210
() 100 / ..............211
() 1000 / ............211
....................................................212
10.4. ........................................................... 212

11. Microsoft ................................... 215

11.1. ? ...................................................................... 215


11.2. ................................................................ 217
11.2.1. Windows ............................................................................................ 217
11.2.2. Linux .................................................................................................. 219
11.3. Windows XP ................. 220
11.3.1. ............................. 220
11.3.2. .......................................................... 225
.................................................226


.....................................................................227
11.4. Windows Vista ................................................................ 233
11.5. Linux ............................................................... 237
11.6. Microsoft? ....................... 238

12. ...................................... 241

12.1. ................................. 241


12.1.1. ...................................................................... 241
12.1.2. (NAT)........................................... 243

VII

12.2. ? ................................... 244


12.3. ......................................... 247
12.3.1. ............................... 247
12.3.2. Windows XP ...................................................................... 250
12.3.3. Windows Vista................................................................... 255

IV. ............................ 261


13. ..................................................... 263
13.1. .................................... 263
13.2. ? ................................................................................... 265
13.3. ................................... 266
13.4. ................................................................................... 268
13.5. ........................ 269

13.5.1. Wi-Fi ...................................................................................................... 269


13.5.2. WiMAX ................................................................................................. 273
13.5.3. ................................................................................. 273
13.5.4. Bluetooth ..................................................................... 274
13.6. Wi-Fi ............................................................................ 274
13.6.1. Wi-Fi ............................................ 274
13.6.2. Wi-Fi ............................................................ 276
802.11b 802.11g ......................................................................276
802.11a ..........................................................................................278
13.6.3. ........................................................................... 278

14. ............................ 280


14.1. ................................. 280
14.2. .......................................................................... 282
14.2.1. - ........................................................................................ 282
14.2.2. ..................................... 284
14.2.3. ......................................................................................... 285
14.2.4. .................. 285
14.2.5. .............................................................. 286
14.3. ......................................................... 286
14.4. ................................................................................. 287
14.4.1. ................................... 288
14.4.2. .................. 288
14.4.3. ....................................................................... 289
14.4.4. ........................................................................ 290
14.4.5. .................................................................. 290
14.4.6. 802.11g+ ........................................................... 292

VIII

15. ...................................................... 294


15.1. ........................................................ 294
15.2. .................................................................................................. 296
15.3. TCP/IP.................................... 298
15.4. ...................................................... 299
15.5. ........................................... 300
15.5.1. D-Link DSL-2640U ..................................................... 300
15.5.2. ............................................................... 303
15.5.3. ........................................... 307
15.6. ........................................................................ 313
15.7. : .................................................. 314
15.8. .................................................................................... 314
16. ,
........................................................................... 316
16.1. .................... 316
16.2. ,
............................................................... 317
16.3. ..................................... 319
16.4. " " .................................. 320
16.5. , .................. 320
16.6.
.................................................................................. 320
16.7. .......................................... 321
16.8. ............................................................................. 321
16.9. ............................................................. 322
V. ............................................................................. 323
17. ............................................................ 325
17.1. .............................................................. 325
17.2. ...................................... 326
17.2.1. .............................................. 326
17.2.2. SSID ................................................... 327
17.2.3. WPA WPA2 ............................................................ 327
17.2.4. MAC- .................................................................. 328
17.2.5. ............................................... 329
17.2.6. ........................................................ 329
17.2.7. ........................................................ 331
17.2.8. , .......................... 331

IX

17.2.9. ................................................................. 332


17.2.10. . .............................. 332
17.3. .................................................................... 332

18. ........................................................... 334


18.1. VPN ................................................................................. 334
18.1.1. 1 ........................................................................................... 334
18.1.2. 2 ........................................................................................... 335
18.1.3. VPN ............................................................................. 335
18.2. VPN-, VPN- ................................................................. 338
18.3. ................................................. 339
18.4. "-" ........................................................... 340
18.4.1. OpenS/WAN ....................................................................... 340
18.4.2. ....................................................................... 340
18.4.3. ....................................................................... 341
18.4.4. ................................................................... 341
18.4.5. VPN- ............................................................... 345
18.4.6. iptables ................................................................ 345
18.5. "-"....................................................... 345
18.5.1. .................................... 346
18.5.2. Linux- .................................................................... 348
18.5.3. Windows- .............................................................. 349

19. ......................................................... 355


19.1. Windows ......................................................................... 355
19.2. ...................................................................................... 360
19.3. .................................................................................... 361
19.3.1. Windows .................................................................... 362
19.3.2. Linux.......................................................................... 367
19.4. AVZ CureIt ................................................... 372
19.4.1. AVZ ................................................................................... 372
19.4.2. CureIt ...................................................................................... 375
19.4.3. - .............. 375
19.5. ............................................. 375

20. ............................................................... 378


20.1. ...................................................................................... 378
20.2. ....................................................................................... 379
20.3. ................................................................... 379
20.4. ......................................................................... 380
20.5. SNMP ............................................................................................. 380

20.6. ...................................................................................... 380


20.7. .............................................................. 381
20.8. ICMP .................................................................. 381
20.9. ............................................. 381
20.10. Anti-spoofing DoS- ........................................................ 382
20.11. CDP ...................................................................................... 383
20.12. .................................................................................. 383

VI. POWERLINE " " ..................... 385


21. Power Line Communication ........................... 387

21.1. .............................................................. 387


21.2. PLC ............................................................... 388
21.3. PLC Wi-Fi ................................................................................................. 389
21.4. PLC- .................................................. 390
21.5. PLC? ..................................................................... 392

22. PLC- ..................................................................... 394

22.1. PLC- ZyXEL ............................................................... 394


22.1.1. PLA400 .................................................................................. 396
22.1.2. PLA470 .................................................................................. 397
22.1.3. - P660HWP NBG318S .......................................... 398
22.1.4. DMA1100P ....................................................................... 399
22.2. PLC- ........................................................ 401

VII. .......... 405


23. ...................... 407

23.1. ........................................................................ 407


23.1.1. 10Base ................................................ 407
23.1.2. 10Base .................................................................. 407
23.1.3. Fast Ethernet................................................................................. 408
23.2. QoS ................................................................................................ 409
23.3. Windows .................................... 411
23.3.1. ............................ 411
23.3.2. .................................... 411
23.4. : DNS ..................................................... 412

24. DNS-........................................................................................ 414

24.1. , DNS ................................................................... 414


24.2. DNS ......................................................................... 415

XI

24.3. DNS- ........................................................................ 419


24.4. DNS- ............................................................................. 424

25. - Squid ....................................................................... 425

25.1. - ?....................................... 425


25.2. Squid ............................................................................ 426
25.3. ........................................................... 427
25.3.1. .......................................................................... 427
25.3.2. "" URL ........................................................ 428
25.3.3. ................................................................................ 428
25.4. - ................................................................... 429
25.5. ................................................................................... 429
25.6. - ....................................................................... 430
25.7. squidGuard ............................................................................. 431

26. DHCP- ....................................................... 434

26.1. .......................................... 434


26.2. DHCP- ................................................ 435
26.3. ................................................................................... 437
26.4. ........................................... 437
26.5. DHCP ..................................................................... 438
26.6. ................................................................................... 438

27. ........................................................ 439

27.1. ............................................................................................ 439


27.2. ? .............................................................. 439
27.3. ............................................................................................. 440
27.4. VLAN ........................................................................................... 441
27.5. VLAN Cisco ............................... 442
27.6. ...................................................... 446
27.7. VLAN Linux .......................................................................... 447
27.8. VLAN Windows: ? ................................................. 448
27.9. VLAN? ........................................................................... 449
27.10. .................................................................................. 449

......................................................................................................... 451
.................................................................................... 453


. ,
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1941 (, , "" ) , ,
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Centronics (, , ) . RS-232C
: USB IEEE 1394 (FireWire), .
Centronics ,
USB.
"" , . ,
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HDMI (, )

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RS-232C, .
RS-232C Centronics , , , "", . , , .

.
1974 IBM : SNA (System Network Architecture). , , , ,
,
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1.1.2. 19761982
1976 , -


. X.25 .
X.25 ,
, , X.25-
. X.25 Frame Relay,
ATM. X.25 ,
(
, ).
, Frame Relay, ATM, .
1979 (!) .
: , ,
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1981 , ,
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,
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1.

Apple. , 1981 , IBM. , IBM PC (Personal


Computer), PC-.
Hayes AT-. AT
, Hayes.
, 1979
Hayes. Micromodem II 300
(/). Apple.

. 1970-
Alohanet, .
, 1973 (Bob Metcalf) CSMA, . CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection
). , "" , Ethernet-. CSMA/CD ( Ethernet-) 2,94 / (
),
1,5 . 1978
3Com Corporation (, ), 1982 Ethernet-
Apple.
1979
DIX (DEC, Intel, Xerox), 1980 Ethernet.
1980 (Open
System Interconnect, OSI), 3.
,
. OSI ,
.

1.1.3. 19831989
1983 , , . (,

I.

VAX 3 . ),
.
"" .
1985 (IEEE)
IEEE 802.3 (10Base-5) Ethernet- "" . 1989 IEEE 802.3a (10Base-2),
"" .
Ethernet .
, Ethernet- . 1988
IBM Ethernet, Token Ring 16 / (Ethernet 10 /).
1985 StrataCom T1
1,54 /. T1 .
1980- " ",
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(19,2 /) "" 3595 . ,
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ISDN,
128 / ( ISDN BRI) 1,54 / (ISDN PRI).
ISDN- .
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1980- : UNIX ( ),
Novell Netware, Microsoft LAN Manager ( OS/2,
1987 ).
80- ,
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Telephone System ( "",
1990- , NMT) , , 1981 (!) . 1983 : AURORA-400 AMPS.

1.

1.1.4. 19901995
1990 "" Ethernet- IEEE 802.3i (10Base-T),
3- 10 /.
, Ethernet- :

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"".
Ethernet-. , - , , ;
, , , "" .
IEEE 802.1D, (bridge), Ethernet- - .
, .

,
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(
10Base-FL IEEE 802.3j, 1993 ). 10Base-FL
Ethernet- "" . Ethernet-
, 19941995
10Base-FL ,
.
, . collapsedbackbone (" ").
().
, 10 / . "" ,

10

I.

/ FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface ). 1992 Grand Junction


Ethernet-, 100 /,
1995 ( IEEE 802.3u, 100Base-TX,
100Base-T4 100Base-FX). 1995 Grand Junction
Cisco Systems:
. 100Base-*
FDDI , Ethernet- ,
, .
1998 Ethernet-,
1 /, .
? 1990 US
Sprint Frame Relay
. ATM,
Frame Relay. 1994 Bell Atlantic
ATM.
. 1993 Microsoft Windows NT, 1995
Windows 95.
100

1.1.5. 19961999

, (QoS, Quality of Service). ,


. , (19951999)
. 1998 V.90, ( V.92, 2000 ). ,
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1 / , 1999
1000Base-T, 1 /
.

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(, . .)
( 1
).
, (frames).
, , , .
MAC-. MAC-
(,
, ). MAC-.
MAC-;
.
, 3.
4.

3. OSI

29

, . , . , ,
, , . : IP (Internet Protocol). , IP
, TCP/IP-, .
, ( , ,
). , . ( )
. ( .
hop).
. , volia.net 6 ( ), . 3.1;

. 3.1. volia.net

I.

30

. ,
.
. , ( ) .
TCP

(Transport Control Protocol);


. . (
, ,
, , ), .
.
(, ), , ;
, , .
. SSL (Secure

Socket Layer);
( ) . , , HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer

Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer


Protocol) . .

3.3. ?
"".
, . .
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol). ,
TCP/IP. , TCP/IP . TCP, , (, ,

3. OSI

31

), .
IP .
,
(IP-), , , IP- .
(DNS, Domain Name
System).

TCP IP
, :
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) .
Web- HTTP HTTPS (HTTP Secure);
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) .
.
FTP- , , , . FTP-,
. ,
. , ,
. FTP- ftp.
FTP-;
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) . (e-mail);
POP (Post Office Protocol) , ;
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) , , POP,
. IMAP,
, , POP. ,
,
. IMAP ,
. IMAP ,
POP IMAP . , , , , . IMAP
( ) .

I.

32

"" Linux ( ""


Windows). , , Linux 20 .
( )
4 . The Bat!,
Mozilla Thunderbird.
The Bat! Thunderbird IMAP, .

3.4.

IP-. IP- , ( 32-


, , , ). ,
, IP- () . () IP , . IP-
, .
MAC- -
( MAC-), IP- .
IP-: 127.0.0.1, 192.168.1.79, 111.33.12.99.
, IP- 32-
8- . 2
256. , , IP-
, IP 4,3 . , IP IPv6 ( IP, , ,
IPv4). 128-
( 32-), 1012 109. IPv6- 8
, . :
1628:0d48:12a3:19d7:1f35:5a61:17a0:765d.

, IPv6 ( IPng IP Next


Generation) ,

3. OSI

33

. IPv4, , , IPv6 . IPv6 : http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6.

IP- (NIC, Network


Information Center). IP- , . , ,
. IP-, . () "" . IP-
192.168.1.1. IP- .
,
"" IP- ()
.
( IP-) "" ,
(NAT, Network Address Translation). , -,
IP- , IP-. - , "",
-.
, ,
, .
, , IP-
NIC?
. IP- , . , , IP-
192.168.1.0. 0 .
:
A , 16777216 , IP 1.0.0.0 126.0.0.0;
B , 65536 .
128.0.0.0 191.255.0.0;
, 256 .
D , E , ( IPv6), D
( ).

34

I.

. -.
NIC IP- .
, 1000 . ,
. ,
B. , , 65536 ,
B, . .
, , . A,
B C . 3.1.
3.1. A, B C

255.0.0.0

255.255.0.0

255.255.255.0

255.255.255.0 256 ( IP- 0 255). , 192.168.1.0,


255.255.255.0, IP- 192.168.1.0 192.158.1.255.
(192.168.1.0) IP- , . , 254 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.254.
32 : 255.255.255.224 (255 224 = 31 +
+ "" IP-, 32).
, IP- , , 192.168.1.0.
, ? . 192
: 11000000. . 110,
C. 10.0.0.0.
10, : 00001010.
0, A.
. 3.2.

3. OSI

35

3.2.

10

110

1110

11110

.
255.255.255.255 .
, , . , , , :
192.168.5.255. ,
192.168.5.0.

127.0.0.1. .
, ,
, .
. ,
127.0.0.0. IP-, 127.
IP- , .
:
192.168.0.0 192.168.255.0 ( 256 ,
255.255.255.0);
172.16.0.0 172.31.0.0 B ( 16 , 255.255.0.0);
10.0.0.0 ( , 255.0.0.0).

IP-
, 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.0. ,
, , 10.0.0.0, 5 .
. 10.0.0.0.

36

I.

3.5. DNS
,
IP- . , , www.bhv.ru www.dkws.org.ua,
IP-. , . , , , , .
IP-
(DNS, Domain Name System).
, IP- ( DNS-), IP.
, DNS . "",
. DNS 1984 .
, DNS-.
IP- hosts,
IP-.
, .
, DNS. ,
hosts . (
UNIX/Linux, Windows), , ,
.
DNS 24. DNS-.

II



Ethernet-, .


4.1.
Windows XP
15,
,
, , -.
Wi-Fi- ( ). ,
. Wi-Fi-, .
-, ,
-, .
, (system tray) (. 4.1).
. , , ( ), ( ),
.

. 4.1. Wi-Fi-

II.

40

,
, Wi-Fi (. 4.2).
.

. 4.2.

,
. . , .

, (), , .

?

4.

41

. 4.3.

. 4.3. , : rosebeach2
USR5453. : . ,
.
.
, . , , .


.
Bluetooth, Wi-Fi. ,
,
Bluetooth, .
WiFi + Bluetooth,

Windows XP

,
, ,

II.

42

, . . ,
. ,
.

. (. 4.4). , . ,

.
/
, .

. 4.4.

. (. 4.5)
( , ) .

4.

43

, .

. 4.5.

, . 4.4. .
(. 4.6) , :
( ) .
;
() , ,
;
- (.) ad hoc, -, .

44

II.

. 4.6.

ad hoc-,
. ad hoc- .
, ,

(. . 4.3).

4.2.
Windows Vista
Windows Vista.
( ,
),
(. 4.7).
.
(. 4.8).
.

. 4.7.

4.

. 4.8.

. 4.9. ( )

45

46

II.

. 4.10.

. 4.11.

, ( ),
(. 4.9). ,
(. 4.10). (, ),
. (. 4.11).

4.

47

,
. .
(. . 4.11)

Windows. (. 4.12).

. 4.12.

(, ). / .
.
(. 4.13) :
;
SSID ;
;

II.

48

. , 802.11g 54 /;

, ,

. , ,
,
, . (, , )
, , . ,
;

. 4.13.


(. . 4.13).
(. 4.14)
, :
,
. ,

4.

49

, . ,
, , ,
.

. 4.14.

(. 4.15) (WEP
WPA) .
.
, .
K , , . 4.13.
. (. 4.16)
.
:
;
(MAC-);

50

II.

. 4.15.

. 4.16. ( MAC- )

4.

51

IP- ( IPv4, IPv6, );


;

IP- DNS-.
. , . 4.13.

.

(. 4.17) ,
. ,

( ,
),
Microsoft.

6.
(. 4.18) , .
.

. 4.17.

52

II.

. 4.18.

. 4.19. TCP/IP

4.

53

DHCP-, , IP . , IP- .
(. . 4.17),
4 . (. 4.19)
IP- , , IP- IP DNS-.
(. 4.20).
( ) . (. 4.21) ,
.

. 4.20. ( )

54

II.

. 4.21.

. 4.22. ?

4.

55

,
(. 4.22). , , ,
SSID (). ,
SSID,
,
. , SSID , . -
, Wi-Fi.
(. . 4.20) : . "" , .
,
" " (. 4.23).

. 4.23.

Windows, , . HP Wireless Assistant (. 4.24)


HP. , . , Bluetooth- ,
Wi-Fi. , , Wi-Fi-,

56

II.

. , , (,
, ).

. 4.24. HP Wireless Assistant

4.3. Wi-Fi Linux


Wi-Fi- Linux .
, . Wi-Fi
, Wi-Fi . Wi-Fi Ubuntu 8.10/Denix/Fedora 10.
, , 99%
.
(, Ubuntu 8.10 Fedora 8),
/ ,
. 4.3.2 , Wi-Fi . ,

4.

57

,
.

Denix , .
Ubuntu 8.10, . http://denix.dkws.org.ua.

4.3.1.
(Ubuntu 8.10/Denix/Fedora 10)

GNOME. . 4.25 , D_DOT, , . . :


SSID . ,
SSID, .
, SSID ;


ad hoc- ( 15).

. 4.25.
, . 4.25.
() (. 4.26). ,
(. 4.27).

58

II.

. 4.26.

. 4.27.

. 4.28.

4.

59

, | | Network Configuration (. 4.28).


, Linux , Windows.
" ", .
4.3.2. " "
Ubuntu 8.04,
Bluetooth-, Wi-Fi-,
. , , , , . .
, Wi-Fi.
iwconfig.
. , , . 4.29.
Wi-Fi- Linux. ,
( ) . network-manager-gnome ,
( , SSID,
. .).
? , . , , . ,
Windows.

, , , Linux- . ,
,
http://linux-wless.passys.nl/.
Linux- , Windows-.
, -,
, .
Windows XP HP.

60

II.

. 4.29.

. 4.30. ndisgtk

4.

61

,
Windows-, Linux ndiswrapper. " Linux".
, ,
ndiswrapper ndisgtk ( ndiswrapper).
.
ndiswrapper , DVD, , ,
.
ndisgtk
(. 4.30). INF- (. 4.31).

. 4.31. INF-

. 4.32. ,

II.

62

ndisgtk (. 4.32). iwconfig wlan0. :


iwconfig wlan0

wlan0

IEEE 802.11g ESSID:"MyHome.Net"

Mode:Managed Frequency:2.462 GHz Access Point: xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx


Bit Rate:54 Mb/s Tx-Power:10 dBm Sensitivity=0/3
RTS thr:4096 B Fragment thr:4096 B
Power Management:off
Link Quality:100/100 Signal level:-42 dBm Noise level:-128 dBm
Rx invalid nwid:0 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0
Tx excessive retries:0 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0


( ) .
, .
, ,
.
, :
uname a . Linux ( Windows- ndiswrapper) , ( Linux ) ;
lspci, lsusb, lshw
, , PCI-, USB-
;
lsmod ( ).
,
USB-,
, .
:
iwconfig ;
iwlist scan ;

4.

63

IP-
wlan0 ( ),
DHCP-;
sudo dhclient wlan0

route

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart


dmesg | less

sudo killall NetworkManager


iwevent

NetworkManager;

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus restart

Ethernet-
5.1.

,
(, 9 ). Ethernet- ,
.
: 100Base-T 1000Base-T. ,
100Base-T
100/, 1000Base-T 1000 /. , 1000 /, , Gigabit Ethernet.
Ethernet-
, RJ-45 (. 5.1). 10
, ,
, .
1 10 .
Ethernet, , , ( , . 10).

. 5.1. RJ-45

5. Ethernet-

65

RJ-45 ,
( " " ) . /
/ .
.
.
. , .
. , ( , , ),
, (100 / 100Base-T
1000/ 1000Base-T). , . , (Link)
,
:
Link , , ;
Receive , ;
Transmit , .
, , ,
100 1000 (
). Collision.
,
. - .

, .
, (Link)?
: . ( ), .
.
.

II.

66

, DHCP- (,
),
DHCP-. .

5.2. Windows XP

| | .
(. 5.2)
.

. 5.2.

(. 5.3) , :
Microsoft
Microsoft;

5. Ethernet-

67

. 5.3.

Microsoft Microsoft,
,
;

Agnitum Firewall Driver ,


Outpost Security Suite Pro;
VMware Bridge Protocol ,
( VMware);

QoS
, 23;

(TCP/IP) .



.
TCP/IP (. 5.4).
IP-.
IP. , : IP-, .

68

II.

. 5.4. TCP/IP

, . , .
( 3)
, B . 192.168.1.N, N
(
) 255.255.255.0. ,
. ( ) DNS-.
, , .

5.3. Windows Vista


, ,
(. 5.5).
(. 5.6) .
, (. 5.7).

5. Ethernet-

. 5.5.

. 5.6.

69

70

II.

. 5.7.

. 5.8.

5. Ethernet-

71

Windows XP
( . 5.7
), . ,
(. 5.8) 6 (TCP/IPv6). Windows XP IPv6, ,
IP (, ), Windows Vista Linux IPv6.
Windows XP, 4, (. 5.9)
IP-, .

. 5.9. IP- Windows Vista

, DHCP-, .

72

II.

5.4. Linux
Linux
.
: Fedora 10, openSUSE 11
Ubuntu 8.10.
5.4.1. Fedora 10

Fedora system-networkconfig, (9 10) NetworkManager ( - ,


) network, . ( | | ) :
# su
# /etc/init.d/NetworkManager stop
# /sbin/chkconfig --level 35 NetworkManager off
# /etc/init.d/network start
Bringing up loopback interface:

OK

Bringing up interface eth0:

OK

Bringing up interface isp:

OK

# /sbin/chkconfig --level 35 network on

. :
# system-config-network

.
( ),
. .
,
, Ethernet
(. 5.10).
(. 5.11).
, .
, .
: IP-, IP-
(. 5.12).

5. Ethernet-

. 5.10. Ethernet-

. 5.11.

73

74

II.

. 5.12.

. 5.13.

5. Ethernet-

75

.
, , . system-config-network,
(. 5.13).
.
. ,
. (. 5.14) , DHCP .

. 5.14.

, ,
drakconf Mandriva DNS . .
, DNS
. DNS DNS , ,

II.

76

. Fedora
DNS (. 5.15).

. 5.15. DNS
DNS (. . 5.15) ,
IP- DNS.

,
Linux, , /etc/resolv.conf
, nameserver,
( search).

(. 5.16)

IP- .

IP-, , ,
www.mail.ru, www.google.com . . , IP- .

/etc/hosts,

/etc/hosts
.
(. 5.17), IP- ,
( ). ,
den.mycompany.com.ru, den.

5. Ethernet-

. 5.16. /etc/hosts

. 5.17. /etc/hosts

77

78

II.

. 5.18.

.
/sbin/ifconfig, ,
, (. 5.18) , ifconfig, ! ifconfig DHCP-
, IP- .
. , ,
-.
| | | -. (. 5.19) -
- ( 3128 8080).
. ,
- (. 5.20).

5. Ethernet-

. 5.19. -

. 5.20. -

79

II.

80

5.4.2. openSUSE 11
YaST /sbin/yast2 lan.
(. 5.21)
. (. 5.22)
IP- , (Hostname). , IP-.
.
/DNS (. 5.23). , , IP- DNS-.
(. 5.24).
IP- .
. ,
, .

. 5.21.

5. Ethernet-

. 5.22.

. 5.23. DNS

81

82

II.

. 5.24.

. 5.25. -

5. Ethernet-

83

, ,
-, .
- ( | - ). - (. 5.25) .
:

, YaST | ;
;
, . , , .
,
, . ( ) YaST | (. 5.26).

. 5.26. -

II.

84

5.4.3. Ubuntu 8.10

network-admin ( | | ) . (. 5.27).

. ( , root).

. 5.27.

.
DHCP (. 5.28), . IP-,
IP, IP-,
IP- (Gateway ).
, DNS (. 5.29) IP- DNS-,
/etc/hosts ( /etc/hosts
. 5.4.1).

5. Ethernet-

85

. 5.28.

. 5.29. DNS

- , Fedora (. . 5.4.1). (. 5.30) | |


.

86

II.

. 5.30. -

Ubuntu 8.10 network-admin NetworkManager. ,


:
Ethernet-, Wi-Fi-, GPRS, VPN DSL-.
Ethernet-.

| |
Network Configuration.
(. 5.31) Ethernet-.
Auto eth0. Auto ,
DHCP. , DHCP, Ubuntu . IP-, Auto eth0 . (. 5.32) IPv4, ,
IP-, ( , 0.0.0.0).
( ) DNS . , . Auto .
K.

5. Ethernet-

. 5.31. NetworkManager

. 5.32. IP-

87

88

II.

, IP-.
ping 192.168.1.1.
Network unreachable, ( ):
sudo mv /etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces_backup

.
DHCP-, NetworkManager . /etc/network/interfaces.
:
sudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces

:
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
iface eth0 inet static
address <IP->
netmask <_>
gateway <IP- >

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 0.0.0.0

DNS:
sudo gedit /etc/resolv.conf
search < >
nameserver <IP- 1>
nameserver <IP- 2>
nameserver <IP- 3>
nameserver <IP- 4>

DNS.
NetworkManager:
sudo update-rc.d -f NetworkManager remove

Ubuntu 8.10
: http://www.dkws.org.ua/phpbb2/viewtopic.php?t=3839.

.
Windows
. . , , , ( ,
). 4.

, 4,
. , , "" , .

Ethernet , . ,
99% .

Ethernet, ,
, , .

, ADSL-
Windows (XP Vista), Linux.

6.1.


, ( )

90

II.

. , (
), , , ,
.
, ?
, (
). , . .
, , ,
: , 1,
0.
, , ?
, ,
, - ( , COM- LPT-)
. , .
, , .
,
(
),
.
, .
, , , .
( , dial-up)
, (ADSL, PPPoE .),
.

.
( ) .
300 , . , -
2530 (
). .

6. . Windows

:

;

91

ADSL-. .
30 . . 1 . , 15 . 45 . 8
, 22 . 176 , . .
8 . .


600 ,
, , , ;

8 . , . , 33,6 / ( 56 /)
1 / .
, ( 10 ), .
6.1.1.

,
(, ZyXEL US.Robotics). .
.
(. 6.1),
, . PCI-.
300 .
:
"" ( , ) "", . . .
,
,
-,
.
1

92

II.
/.
, "", ;
, ( , );
,
300 ( "" ).

. 6.1.
, , . ,
,
. ,
(win-). Windows- (
, ),
Linux, win- . ,
Windows, .

6. . Windows

93

(. 6.2) ,
, , ,
.
900 .

. 6.2.
, .
.
, USB-. ,
, COM-, , .
. , USB- , ,
, , COM-.
.
( ), . ,
"" , . ZyXEL. , ,
.

6.1.2.
. COM-,
. COM- (
RS-232C) RS232C (. 6.3). ,
.

94

II.

. 6.3.

- USB-, .
USB-
, USB.
.
. : ( )
LINE PHONE. LINE !
PHONE
.
, ( / ).

6.1.3.
Windows XP
Windows , .
Windows ( , Windows ),
.
, Windows - .
, . Windows
.
, Windows , ,

6. . Windows

95

.
( | | )
.
<Win>+<Pause>.
(. 6.4)
. (. 6.5).
. ( | |
). (. 6.6)
.
. .
(. 6.7).
.

. 6.4.

96

II.

. 6.5. :

. 6.6.

6. . Windows

. 6.7.

. 6.8. ?

97

98

II.

. 6.9.

. 6.10.

6. . Windows

99

, (. 6.8). , Windows , , ,
. , , , -
. .
- (. 6.9).
. .
(. 6.10). , , . , , ,
.
-. "", . .
( ), ,
, 7775555, 777-55-55.
(. 6.11), :

, ,
, ,
. ,
,
. , ,

;
, ;

Windows , ,
.

100

II.

! . ,
(. 6.12) .
, (. 6.13), .
, .
(. 6.14) , . ,
(. 6.15).
. (. 6.16). . ! Windows , , , ,
.
, .
OK (. . 6.14). ,
. 6.16, . .
. (. 6.17),
. . , , ,
. , , .
.
/ (), , . . 20 ( ), Windows .
, (, - ).
OK
(. . 6.13).
Windows (. 6.18),
(. 6.19). , , .

6. . Windows

. 6.11.

. 6.12.

101

102

II.

. 6.13.

. 6.14.

6. . Windows

. 6.15.

. 6.16.

103

104

II.

. 6.17.

. 6.18.

. 6.19.

6. . Windows

105

! Internet Explorer ( ) .
, (. 6.20). , ,

. 6.20.



(. 6.21). -

. 6.21.

6.1.4.
Windows Vista
Windows Vista
Windows XP. , . USB-,
, .
Windows Vista: USB-,
RS-232C, Windows Vista,
Windows .

106

II.

, .

<Win>+<Pause>, (. 6.22).

. 6.22.

, |
.
(. 6.23), Windows ,
(. 6.24).
USB- ( COM- Windows
Vista), , . 6.24.
(). Windows
(. 6.25).
( !),
.

6. . Windows

. 6.23.

. 6.24.

107

108

II.

. 6.25.

. 6.26.

6. . Windows

109

. 6.27.

Vista (. 6.26). , .
, Windows, , ,
(. 6.27). .
, Vista
Windows XP,
. Vista
(. 6.28).
(. 6.29) .
(. 6.30, ). Vista (. 6.30, ). . , , .
, , .


, |
.
(. 6.30, ).
Vista, , (. 6.30, ) Vista Ultimate
, .

110

II.

. 6.28.

. 6.29.

6. . Windows

111

. 6.30. ; ;

112

II.

. 6.31.

. 6.32.

6. . Windows

. 6.33.

. 6.34.

113

114

II.

Vista (. 6.31): , , .
(. 6.32)
, : , ( ) .
. , , , ,
.
, | .
(. 6.33) , .
(. 6.34).

. ,
Windows XP (. 6.35).
.

. 6.35.

6. . Windows

115

6.2. DSL-
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) ,
. DSL-: ADSL, VDSL, SDSL, RADSL. ADSL-. ADSL (Asymmetric DSL) , .
. , 1,5 / 56 . .
64 /.

6.2.1. :

ADSL- ?
, .
. ""
64 /. ,
(, "" 56 /,
). !
, (, ), , , .
ADSL- (. 6.36), ,
, .

. 6.36. ADSL-

,
/ ().

116

II.

. (
512 /), , , -
, , , ,
. , ICQ , .
, ,
ICQ .
, . .
. (,
15 30 ), 4 65 130 .
, ()
1,3 ( , !) 35 . ? !
, - , ,
"" 700 , 1,3
900 ( ,
). , 1
0,8 , 600 .
CD.
, , .
512 / ( 64 /),
3,75 . , 186 . 30 186 100 .
,
. , 512 /. , 1,5 / , , 130140 /.
, . ADSL, ,
. ADSL . , .

6. . Windows

117

6.2.2. ADSL-
Windows XP

ADSL- . , , , - .
ADSL- ADSL-, . ADSL- . ADSL-
Ethernet- ( ), .
. 6.37.

. 6.37. ADSL-

,
ADSL-.


. ADSL-
,
.

, ADSL- . ADSL (
, , Radio Ethernet) PPPoE (Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet). PPP
, , PPP (Ethernet),
. , , , .

118

II.

. 6.38. ADSL-

. 6.39.

6. . Windows

. 6.40.

. 6.41.

119

II.

120

Windows. . ,
, .
,
(. 6.38).
( ), (. 6.39).
.
(. 6.40) .

(. 6.41).

6.2.3. ADSL-
Windows Vista
ADSL- , ADSL. ( | ), | . , Windows
. ,
. (. 6.42).


, |
.
(. . 6.30, ).

, Vista
, (. 6.43).
, Vista , , (. 6.44).
( ) (. 6.45), | . , .
,
(. 6.46).

6. . Windows

. 6.42.

. 6.43.

121

122

II.

. 6.44.

. 6.45.

6. . Windows

123

. 6.46.

6.3.

ADSL- (
). ,
GPRS, , . :
;
;
.

" ", .

6.3.1.

,
. .

124

II.

6.3.2. Radio Ethernet



, , Wi-Fi Radio Ethernet.
" " . ,
() ,
Wi-Fi-.
" ", , ( )
( , ). Wi-Fi- 4
. Wi-Fi , , .
Radio Ethernet , ADSL- .
.

70 , . , ,
,
128 /, .
Radio Ethernet ( ) , (access point).
, .
Radio Ethernet ADSL-
.
6.3.3.
Radio Ethernet ( ), Radio Ethernet, . .
( ).
(
128 /), (
) , , GPRS-.

6. . Windows

125

. "" ,
, .

4 . ,
4 /. , .

, ,
, .
.
- . .
:
3 (
ADSL- );
6 . ;
-;
60 . .
, ,
, , .

6.4.

( , , ADSL GPRS) Windows XP



. ,
(. . 6.20). , ,
(. 6.47).
Windows Vista , ,
(. 6.48).

126

II.

. 6.47.

. 6.48. Windows Vista

6.5.
, . ADSL- Radio Ethernet-. , . ,
, (. 6.49).

6. . Windows

""

127

ADSL-,
, . . ,
. Radio Ethernet
(access point). ,
, "
".

. 6.49. 678

. 6.50.

128

II.

. : , , "". , , . (
, ),
. . "" 10 /.
Fast Ethernet, . .
100 /, ADSL 10 /,
, , , . .
. (. 6.50) , 10BaseT, -


Linux
7.1.

7.1.1.

, .
, Linux.
. COM-,
.
USB-, .
. :
( : )
: LINE PHONE. LINE ! PHONE
.
Linux /dev/ttySn COM-
/dev/ttyUSBn USB-. n .
COM- : /dev/ttyS0 COM1;
/dev/ttyS1 COM2 . . USB-
.
(
) .
:
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol). , PPP.

130

II.

dial-up: KPPP, GNOME PPP, KInternet Ubuntu


GNOME PPP. KDE, GNOME.
.
,
, .
KPPP GNOME, KDE, , KPPP (
KDE ) .
Kinternet openSUSE.
YaST dial-up- KInternet. , openSUSE GNOME PPP
KPPP, 100%,
KInternet.
wvdial. ,
. , X.Org ,
X.Org.
7.1.2. KPPP

(system-config-network Fedora drakconnect Linux Mandriva). (, "", "") KPPP,
.
KPPP . -,
, ,
, . -, , KPPP . -, KPPP ,
root.
KPPP ( KDE ):
$ kppp

7. Linux

131

, ,
. 7.1.
, (. 7.2) .

. 7.1. KPPP

. 7.2. KPPP

132

II.

,
(. 7.3). ,
.
(. 7.4), , .

. 7.3.

. 7.4.

7. Linux

133

. 7.5.

,
OK. KPPP (. . 7.2)

. (. 7.5),
. COM, COM1, /dev/ttyS0,
USB- /dev/ttyUSB0. USB, usbview.

(. 7.6)
. 0 , "".

. .
ATDT. ,
, ATDP
(. 7.7), OK.
OK, KPPP (. . 7.2)

. KPPP
pppd, pppd,
- (, ,
, ). / (. . 7.4).

134

II.

. 7.6.

. 7.7.

7. Linux

135

:
KPPP , . ,

( Windows);
: ( ),
;
NO CARRIER. Carrier .
,
, - ;

;
X- X-
( ),
;
: , ;

.
, OK
KPPP (. 7.8) .
.

. 7.8. ,

136

II.

7.1.3. GNOME PPP


, KPPP ,
KDE. GNOME
KDE KPPP. GNOME
GNOME PPP. , GNOME PPP, , .
GNOME PPP (. 7.9) ,
.
.

. 7.9. GNOME PPP

. (. 7.10)
( ).
. ,
56, 115200, . , ( ) .
, . , ,
, .
:
. , , . ,
.

7. Linux

. 7.10.

. 7.11.

137

138

II.

. 7.12.

. 7.13.

7. Linux

139

(. 7.11).
(. 7.12) IP- DNS-
. DHCP- ,
, , .
(. 7.13) .
.
. , , .
OK, (. . 7.9)
.
7.1.4. KInternet:
openSUSE
(. 7.14). .

. 7.14.

( )
/sbin/yast2 modem.

, , . 7.15.

140

II.

. 7.15.

. 7.16.

7. Linux

141

. (. 7.16)
:

, ;
;
, .
(. 7.17).
, .
, . (. 7.18) , , .
.
(. 7.19).
.

. 7.17.

142

II.

. 7.18.

. 7.19.

7. Linux

143

( )
DNS-.
DNS IP- DNS- .

,
(. 7.20).
openSUSE
(smpppd, kinternet .).
, - KInternet,
. -
. . KInternet
GNOME (. 7.21).

. 7.20.

KInternet

. 7.21. KInternet

144

II.

KInternet,
. ( ) , , ,
( | Firefox) .
7.1.5.
Ubuntu
Ubuntu GNOME, GNOME
PPP . ,
dial-up- , sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp. | | .
, ( , root!).
-
(. 7.22).
, :
, , , (. 7.23)
(. 7.24).

. 7.22. Ubuntu

7. Linux

. 7.23. ,

. 7.24. ( )

145

146

II.

: ?
/.
. ,
"".

7.2. DSL-
7.2.1. DSL- Fedora

Fedora system-confignetwork. ,
xDSL (. 7.25).

. 7.25. DSL- Fedora

, , ,
(. 7.26).
, . system-config-network: (. 7.27) . .

7. Linux

. 7.26.

. 7.27. /

147

II.

148

7.2.2. DSL- openSUSE


DSL. -
( Radio Ethernet) DS Radio Etherhet
DSL.

( )
/sbin/yast2 dsl.
DSL- , (. 7.28). DSL, DSL. .
. DSL- (. 7.29),
: PPP, ,
DSL-,
KInternet ( KInternet).

. 7.28. DSL-

7. Linux

149

. 7.29. DSL-

PPP. PPP Ethernet. ADSL ( , , Radio Ethernet)


PPPoE (Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet).

PPP Ethernet , PPP- (


) Ethernet.

,
, ,
.
(Activate device) ,
. DSL-
, KInternet.
DSL- . ,
, (. 7.30).

150

II.

. 7.30.

. 7.31.

7. Linux

. 7.32.

. 7.33.

151

II.

152

. ,
,
, (. 7.31)
. DSL-,
, (. 7.32).
, , YaST
(. 7.33).
KInternet.
,
( DSL), DSL-.
KInternet : , dsl0.

(. 7.34, ). , , Kinternet (. 7.34, ).

. 7.34. Kinternet: ;

7.2.3. DSL- Ubuntu


Debian Ubuntu DSL- pppoeconf. :
sudo pppoeconf

Ubuntu 8.10 DSL-, | | Network Configuration. DSL- DSL.

PPPoE : .

7. Linux

153

PADI (PPPoE Active Discovery Initiation),


PPPoE (. 7.35).
.

. 7.35. pppoeconf Ethernet-

, pppoeconf Ethernet-
(. 7.35).
(. 7.36). , (noauth
defaultroute) ,
(. 7.37).
, .
IP- DNS-
/etc/resolv.conf. (. 7.38).
(. 7.39) ,
. , .

154

II.

. 7.36.

. 7.37.

7. Linux

. 7.38. IP- DNS- /etc/resolv.conf

. 7.39. MSS

155

II.

156

MTU (Maximum Transmit Unit) .


, . , , , , , .
, , , .
PPPoE, .
Ethernet 1518 , 18 , 1500 .
Ethernet. Ethernet PPP, PPPoE 6 , PPP
2 . , PPPoE MTU 1492.
TCP- MSS
(Maximum Segment Size) TCP-.
MTU TCP/IP,
40 . MMS PPPoE 1452 (
Ethernet 1460). 1452.


. . ,
. , ! .
/ DSL-
:
sudo pon dsl-provider
sudo poff dsl-provider

GPRS-
8.1. GPRS-
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) . GPRS-
, , GPRS,
.
,
.

,
Web- ICQ-. : ,
. ,
.
, GPRS- ,
18 /
( 171 /, 10 ). GPRS-
:
;
(,
).
, . () GPRS.
, , .
GPRS Class 10

II.

158

4 ( )
, 85 /.
,
.
EDGE (Enhanced Data
rates for GSM Evolution).
474 /. , EDGE , , -
GPRS.
(3G) /. 3G
, .
, 3G-,
3G-,
, ,
. , ,
- 3G,
, .

8.2.


data. ,
. , ,
, , Nokia Siemens .

: RS-232C, (COM) , USB. USB-,


.
data-
(IrDA) Bluetooth.
. data- ,
, . Bluetooth ( .
. 8.6). ,
Bluetooth- ,
, USB-.

8. GPRS-

159

8.3.
, :
;
;
;
IP- DNS.
, , . IP- DNS , .

, .
.

. 8.1 .
8.1.

IP- DNS

UMC

www.umc.ua

www.kyivstar.net

internet

internet.mts.ru

beeline

mts

gdata

igprs

< >

beeline

mts

gdata

internet

< >

*99#

*99#

*99#

*99***1#

*99#

213.087.000.001,
213.087.001.001

internet.beeline.ru

Beeline

194.067.002.114,
194.190.195.066

II.

160

. 8.1 DNS, .

, ,
:
*99# Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, Sony Ericsson, Sendo;
*99***1# Siemens, Alcatel, Handspring, LG, Panasonic,
Mitsubishi, Sagem;

*99**1*1# Samsung.

.
IP- DNS Beeline MTC.
, GPRS-
. . , GPRS- ( , ).
. , , .

.

8.4. GPRS-
Windows XP
GPRS-
Nokia 6680. , , , .
data-. Windows (. 8.1).
(. 8.2). - .

. 8.1. Windows

8. GPRS-

. 8.2.

. 8.3. Windows

161

162

II.

Windows - (. 8.3).
, Windows -
(, Nokia). Windows
, .
CD/DVD,
. ( . 8.4
Nokia). .
, .

. 8.4. Nokia

Nokia Nokia PC Suite | PC Suite.


Nokia PC Suite
. PC Suite
(. 8.5).
,
, ,
PC Suite, . .
.
,

(. 8.6). , .

8. GPRS-

. 8.5.

. 8.6.

163

164

II.

: Windows (. 8.7), , Nokia 6680 (. 8.8).

. 8.7.

. 8.8. Nokia 6680

8. GPRS-

165

. 8.9. Nokia PC Suite

PC Suite (. 8.9).
, GPRS-.
GPRS-
. :
1. ( | |
).
2.

.
.
. .
.

166

II.

.
4. . Windows ( : ,
), . 8.10.
5. .
GPRS, .
6. (. 8.11). Nokia
: *99#. ,
.
7. (. 8.12). . 8.1
,
.
8. .
.
.
.
(. 8.13), .

(. 8.14). . :
3.

AT+CGDCONT=1,IP,

, . 8.1. ,
GPRS-. . 8.14 .
, . IP- DNS,
(. 8.15) .
GPRS , . 8.16. .
(. 8.17) DNS-
IP-, .
OK.
! GPRS- .

8. GPRS-

. 8.10.

. 8.11.

167

168

II.

. 8.12. ( )

. 8.13.

8. GPRS-

. 8.14.

. 8.15. GPRS-

169

170

II.

. 8.16. GPRS-

. 8.17.

8. GPRS-

171

8.5. GPRS-
Windows Vista
GPRS- Windows Vista GPRS Windows XP. ,
, GPRS
Nokia 6680. , , , , .
Vista, Windows XP,
(. 8.18) .

. 8.18. Windows Vista

Nokia
. ,
-
CD/DVD ( ). Nokia (. . 8.4), Nokia PC Suite | PC Suite.

172

II.

. 8.19.

. 8.20.

8. GPRS-

173

(. 8.19): , Bluetooth.
.
( ) , (. 8.20).
GPRS-.
( | ).
| (. 8.21). (. 8.22).


, |
.

.

. 8.21. Windows Vista

174

II.

. 8.22.

. 8.23.

8. GPRS-

. 8.24.

. 8.25.

175

176

II.

. 8.26.

. 8.27.

8. GPRS-

177

- -,
, . Windows , . , Windows , (. 8.23).
, , , (. 8.24).
,
,
. .
.
(. 8.25).

.
(. 8.26) .

(. 8.27) (. . 8.4).
(. . 8.24)
. . ,
| .

8.6.
Bluetooth
Bluetooth-
Bluetooth,
, .
Windows Vista,
Bluetooth-
.
Bluetooth , 2,1 / 10100 .
GPRS- Bluetooth
. , Bluetooth
- , , Bluetooth- .

178

II.

, . Bluetooth-.
(
).
, "" .
, Bluetooth (. 8.28).
Bluetooth

. 8.28. Bluetooth

Bluetooth.
Bluetooth- (. 8.29). ( ) . . 8.29 , Nokia . . .
Bluetooth (. 8.30). Bluetooth
, .

(. 8.31). (. 8.32).
, ,
, . , 8 .
.
(. 8.33). .
, COM- .
(. 8.34).
, .
,
(. 8.35). .

8. GPRS-

. 8.29. Bluetooth-

. 8.30. Bluetooth

179

180

II.

. 8.31.

. 8.32.

8. GPRS-

. 8.33.

. 8.34.

181

182

II.

. 8.35.

. 8.36.

8. GPRS-

183

.
-, Bluetooth,
, (. 8.36).
. GPRS- , .

8.7. :


, , . , , , . , .
,
, .
,
,
.
. , .
, .
:
AT+CGDCONT=1,IP,internet.mts.ru

: AT , CGDCONT ( 1), IP , internet.mts.ru


.
:
AT+CGDCONT=1,IP,internet.mts.ru+CGDCONT=2,IP,internet.beeline.ru

: , ( 2) Beeline. .
*99***1#, : *99***2#.
, .

III

Ethernet-

"" ,
. 9
, 10
Ethernet-. , 9 ,
? ?
, ?
. , .

.
, , , - ( ,
),
.


9.1.

" , ".
. , ,
, - . , .
, , .
, . ,
. - , , ,
( , - -). , . ,
,
, ?
.
, . , ,
, , .
,
, . :
, AAA ( , ) , BBB,
,
AAA. AAA,

188

III. Ethernet-

(, BBB . .)
AAA,
, BBB . , ,
.
,
BBB,
AAA.
. : , , - . ,

: , .

9.1.1.
. ,
, , .
.
: ? ,
, , .
.
. ISC (www.isc.org) 2008 (
, , )
541 (!) (. 9.1). .
ISC : https://www.isc.org/solutions/survey.
: 2007 433 . ( 1 2007 1 2008 ) 108 , , 2008 , 640 . .

( ) .
Web-. , . ,

9.

189

, ICQ, Skype . . ,
.

. 9.1. ( ISC)
. , 80% , 20% . . ,
: -
50/50, - 20/80, 80/20.
, . , ,
, , -,
.

,
. , . ,
.
,

190

III. Ethernet-

"" . ,
. , .
, IT- ( ) 35 .
? ,
, .
.

.

9.1.2.

, . ,
, ,
Web- . ,
.


. , , :
""
"" 5- .

.

. , , .
, ,
" " .
. ,
. ,

, , . ,
,
.

9.

191


, , . , .
.
, ,
, () .
20% ,
.
. , .
( ): , ?
,
,
, , ,
. .
, ? Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-T
,
100/ (Fast Ethernet, 100Base-T) .
?
10GBASE ( 10 /), , . , Gigabit Ethernet. , , ATM, . ATM
40 /, . , ,
.


.

dial-in ( ).
. -, -

192

III. Ethernet-

,
. -, ,
,
. -
.
,
. (Virtual
Private Network, VPN). VPN-, .
"" .
- (Wi-fi) , -
. ,

. VPN- : ,
.

Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi, .
, , .
Wi-Fi- .

9.2.
, ,

. ,
VPN, "
" .

9.2.1. ,

, ,
. : ,

9.

193

, , Web-
.
VPN- . , , ,
PGP. Web- ( , )
HTTPS, HTTP. (,
) . : VPN, , VPN , SSH, telnet.

9.2.2. IP-
IP- . :
10.<>.<>.<_>

, IP- 10.2.207.3 3, 207.


. , , IP- , .

9.2.3. IP- MAC-


,
. , , ? ,
10.3.*.*. ""
, IP-.
. ,
IP- MAC- . MAC- MAC-.
, MAC- IP-, .
, MAC . ,
MAC- .
: TCPNetView.
http://gorlach.etype.net/netview/download.html.

194

III. Ethernet-

9.2.4.
, - ( WWW, ). , SMTP. . " Linux. 2 ." ( "-", http://www.bhv.ru/books/book.php?id=184941).
- ,
,
. - Squid
SquidGuard (. 25) .
9.2.5.
, . - ,
-. . , ,
. spyware
( ). 19.
9.2.6. ?
( ) , . . ,
? , ... ,
- . , ,
. .
, , ,
, , , ,
Web-? , . -.

9.3.

.
: " ,
, ".

9.

195

9.3.1.

, ,
,
. , ,
IP- (, , MAC-),

IP-.
9.3.2.

, .
... - , - . : . , . ?
.
, ,
.
, . , , " " , . , .
, - . ,
.
IT- , .
9.3.3. " ,
"

. . , . IT.
, . , ,
3 . , ,
, . ,
, ,
. :
, . ,
.

196

III. Ethernet-

9.3.4.
/
.
(
-), , "" ( - , -
). . , IT- :
- , , . IT-
, - - . ? . , , , .
? ,
.
- , .

9.4.

,
.
9.4.1.
IT-, , .
. ,
, " ". ,
" " , , "",
IT.
,
IT- ( ,
). "" "",

9.

197

( , ""), . , , . , IT-
.

, . , , ,
.
,
. . - (
)
"" . ,
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.

9.4.2. IT
,
, . ,
, ,
.
. ?
, , , ,
, , .
IT-, ,
(
,
).

9.4.3.

IT- . , ,
, .

198

III. Ethernet-

9.4.4.

. . . 9.2 IT-.

. 9.2. IT-

, : IT-, . : ( , IT-)
. .
, , IT-.
IT- ,
.
IT-, ,
. IT-
IT-, , IT- .
.
: IT-, ,
. , , , , .
: ,
, .

9.

199

IT- :
IT- .
IT-. .

9.5.

. , ,
,
. : LanFlow
(. 9.3).

www.pacestar.com/lanflow.

. 9.3. LanFlow

10

Ethernet-
10.1. Ethernet
1, , Ethernet, Ethernet .
Ethernet "", .
Ethernet- 1975 , (
, ) CSMA/CD ( ),
60- .
Ethernet- Xerox. 1980
DEC Intel Ethernet, DIX (DEC, Intel, Xerox) Ethernet-II.
Ethernet-
.
IEEE 802.3, Ethernet II. , , DIX,
MAC LLC, DIX .
Ethernet :
Xerox Ethernet ,
3 /. ,
: 1 2 (DIX);
10BROAD36 ,
. . ;

10. Ethernet-

201

1BASE5 ( StarLAN) 10Base-T.


1 /. . .

10.1.1.

Ethernet

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet


10 / (
802.3),
, , . Ethernet . 10.1.

10.1. Ethernet

10Base-5 (IEEE 802.3)

10Base-2 (IEEE 802.3a)

StarLAN 10

10Base-T (IEEE 802.3i)

FOIRL (Fiber-optic interrepeater link)

10Base-F (IEEE 802.3j)

"" RG-8,

" Ethernet".
500
" " ( RG-58).
,
, 10Base-5.
200 . .
, 2002
(, , , -
)
, 10 /
.
10Base-T
: 3- 5- .
100
, .
10Base-F. ( ) 1
, 10Base-FL, 10Base-FB, 10Base-FP. . 2 ,
10 /

202

III. Ethernet-
10.1 ()

10Base-FL (Fiber Link)


10Base-FB (Fiber Backbone)
10Base-FP (Fiber Passive)

, FOIRL,
2


" ", .

10.1.2. Fast Ethernet (100 /)

Ethernet 1995 , Fast Ethernet,


10 Ethernet' 100 /. Fast Ethernet
,
5- .
Fast Ethernet . 10.2.
10.2. Fast Ethernet

100Base-T

100Base-TX (IEEE 802.3u)


100Base-T4

100Base-T2

100Base-TX,
100Base-T4 100Base-T, .
,
100
10Base-T.
10Base-T, ""
.
3.

10Base-T, 3- . ,

3- ,
. : (

, ).
/ ( )
50 /

10. Ethernet-

203

10.2 ()

100Base-FX

100Base-LX

100Base-LX WDM

,
400 , 2
(
). 15
, 1310
, 100Base-LX, 1310 1550 .

1310 , 1550

, ,
. : (Half Duplex) (Full Duplex).
. , ,
, .
, ,
, . , - ,
,
.

,
, . .
- .
: http://kgg.moldline.net/teaching/cable/cable_media.htm.

10.1.3. Gigabit Ethernet (1000


/ )
1998 Gigabit Ethernet. . , , . : ,
CSMA/CD. Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet: ,

III. Ethernet-

204

( ,
). Gigabit Ethernet . 10.3.
10.3. Gigabit Ethernet

1000Base-T (IEEE 802.3ab)

1000Base-TX

1000Base-SX (IEEE 802.z)


1000Base-LX (IEEE 802.3z)

1000Base-CX

1000Base-LH (Long Haul)

5e 6.
100Base-TX, 2 ( 4 ),
4 (8 ),

(Telecommunications
Industry Association, TIA) 2001 .
,
500 /.
2 (4 ) , 2
, ,
6-. , ,
1000Base-T
,
550

550 , 40 ( )

( 25 ) (STP).
1000Base-T

100

10.1.4. 10 Gigabit Ethernet


, 10 / 10 Gigabit Ethernet. , , ,
, .

10. Ethernet-

205

:
10GBase-CX4 ( 15 ), CX4 InfiniBand.
, (
1000Base-CX), ;
10GBase-SR
( 26 82 ), ;
10GBase-LX4 240 300
10 ;
10GBase-LR 10GBase-ER 10 40 ;
10GBase-T 2006 ( ), , ( ) 100 .

10.2.
Ethernet-, , CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense-Multiply-Access with Collision Detection)
(carrier) .
" ". , Ethernet- ,
CSMA/CD .
.

. ,
. ,
, ,
? . ,
. :
1. .
2. , .
3. , .
4. 9,6 ,
.

III. Ethernet-

206

,
. ,
,
? , .
(carrier sense CS
!). (510 ) , .
, , , - , . ,
"" , .
CSMA/CA ,
, CSMA/CA
"" , , . "", , .
CSMA/CA ,
, ( / ).
, -,
, ,
, .
, , , . ,
. , ,
( ), , , .

10.3.

10.3.1. Ethernet-

, :
,

;
( , ) RJ-45
, . ,

10. Ethernet-

207

. ( ), . . 10.1
RJ-45;

" " ;
,
, . , 24,
24 , 48
;


(. 10.2).

. 10.1. RJ-45

. 10.2.

, , RJ-45,
8P8C. : http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/8P8C.

! ? - , . ,
. RG-45 . , "".
! ,
. , . - ,
. . .

208

III. Ethernet-

(, 10 ),
. , . ,
, , ,
, . , 57 ( ). , :
5 10 ,
.

10.3.2.

. . : ,
. 14
( 3
4- , 1 2- ).
Ethernet- 5 6- . (CAT5) 4- (4 ) 100Base-TX. 2 (4 ),
100 /.
5E.
.

CAT5E, CAT5,

Gigabit Ethernet. 1000 / 4 .
2002 CAT6. , CAT5E. Gigabit
Ethernet,
1000 /. ,
10 / CAT5E , CAT6.
CAT6.

10. Ethernet-

209

5- 6- . , . ,
, 100 /.

:
UTP (Unshielded twisted pair) ,

(, ,
);
FTP (Foiled twisted pair) ( ) . , UTP;
STP (Shielded twisted pair) ,
;
S/FTP (Shielded Foiled twisted pair) , FTP, ;
S/STP (Screened shielded twisted pair) STP,
.
.
STP.
, S/STP.
10.3.3.

RJ-45 .
: " ". :
;
, .
: 568A 568B (
). , .
, ( )
. 568A, ,

III. Ethernet-

210

,
568B. , .
,
, . Ethernet- ,
( , . cross-over).

,
.
, ( )
/, Uplink.
, ( , ).
, .
, 568A 568B
, . ,
RJ-45 . 10.1.

, Fast/Gigabit Ethernet
. 10.4 Ethernet-
568A 568B Fast/Gigabit Ethernet (100/1000 /). ,
.
10.4. Ethernet- (100/1000 /)

( 568A)

( 568B)

10. Ethernet-

211

()
100 /

. 10.5
. : 586B.
10.5. 100 /


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

()
1000 /

. 10.6 1000 / (Gigabit Ethernet).


10.6. 1000 /


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

-
-

212

III. Ethernet-

, .
, ,
. , ( ).
:
( "Link/ACT") , ,
( "Speed", "100", "1000"
) . Fast Ethernet 100 /,
, 10 /. , ,
100 /. , , . 100 / ,
100 /
1000 /. ,
( ), , . , , .
, .
Gigabit Ethernet :
"Speed", . ,
, .

10.4.
RJ-45 . . 1 ,
. 100 . , 100
? :
. .
210 (. . 10.3).
, 100
, "" . 150 . , , :
( , );

10. Ethernet-

213

. 10.3. , ""

. , ,
, 10 /. . , 40% (, ).
, .
105110 .

, . , ...
, 2000 .
.
,
.
. 10.7 Fast Gigabit Ethernet.

III. Ethernet-

214

10.7.

Fast Ethernet




(

)

()

100

90

Gigabit Ethernet
1

1000Base-T
25 1000Base-CX
90
100

210 (250)

210 (250)

1024

1024

5, 5E, 6

5E, 6

, , . 10.3. . ? . 10.7 , 90 . : 1
1 100 2 2
100 , 250 ,
50 , 90,
. , 250
, 210 ( ).
. ,
, .
, , . 90 ( ), 80 : (250 90) / 2,
. . 10.4. - . ,
, 210 .
, . ,
48- , .

. 10.4.

11


Microsoft
11.1. ?
Microsoft ( ) /.
, (PDC, Primary Domain
Controller). PDC , . / (
!),
.

.
, "Windows Server 2008. " ( .,
"-", 2009, http://www.bhv.ru/books/book.php?id=185321)
" Windows Server 2008" ( ., "-", 2008,
http://www.bhv.ru/books/book.php?id=182988).


. .

( ), , .
,
. .
. , 5 : user1, user2, user3, user4 user5. user1, user2

216

III. Ethernet-

user3 - ,
user4 user5 . ,
5 ,
, . , ,
! ,
. ,
.
( ) (guest). .
. .
guest ( user1,
user2, user3) user4 user5.
, ,
.
. , ""
"" .
Windows 2008 Server ,
5 . , 5 Windows
2008 Server .
, , 3050, . : . " " , ,
. , , , ,
( ) Wi-Fi- .
, ,
. , , , () .

11. Microsoft

217

11.2.
11.2.1. Windows
() Windows XP
, ( ). Windows Vista ,
.
Windows XP (. 11.1).
.
(. 11.2)
.
, .

. 11.1. (Windows XP)

218

III. Ethernet-

. 11.2.

. 11.3. (Windows Vista)

11. Microsoft

219

. 11.4. Windows Vista

Windows Vista , . 11.3.


, (. 11.4),
. 11.2.
.

Microsoft. ,
. 11.3?
(. 11.4), , Windows XP.

11.2.2. Linux
,
, Microsoft
Linux . ,

III. Ethernet-

220

, . .
Linux- Microsoft,
samba. , , , Linux .
"Linux. "
("-", http://www.bhv.ru/books/book.php?id=184162).
samba
/etc/samba/smb.conf. global:
[global]
workgroup = HOME
comment = Linux
security = share

,
( ), (
share).
Samba:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb restart

# service smb restart

Samba ( Samba
), .

11.3.
Windows XP
, Windows XP . - Windows 98,
Windows XP, . , Windows XP , .

11.3.1.




.

(. 11.5).

11. Microsoft

221


. , .
, .
. (. 11.6)
.

. 11.5.

. 11.6.

III. Ethernet-

222

(. 11.7).
.
.

, ,
. 11.5, , . 11.7.

. 11.7.

,
, , (. 11.8).

( ) .
(. 11.9).
(. 11.10)? , (
).

11. Microsoft

. 11.8. Temp

. 11.9. Home

223

224

III. Ethernet-

. 11.10.

:
1. | .
2. lusrmgr.msc <Enter>. .
3.
.
4. (. 11.11)

. 11.11.

11. Microsoft

225

,
(. 11.12).
, , , .
.

. 11.12. , ()

11.3.2.

, .
,
, .
Windows XP:
.
(. . 11.3.1). , ,
-!
( ).
, .

III. Ethernet-

226

: comp1, comp2 comp3. , ,


, : user1, user2 user3. , user1 comp1, user2
comp2 . . user1 Video , user3
, , , ,
. , ,
. , . ,
. , ;
. , 35 , ,
. , ,
! , . :
.
.

. "" ,
.

1. | .

2. lusrmgr.msc <Enter>. .
3.

4. (. 11.13)
.
5. .

, , .

11. Microsoft

227

. 11.13.

, .
. 11.7 (
).
,
| ,
(. 11.14).
(. 11.15).
- . (. . 11.13).
. (. 11.16)
, ( ), ,
.
,
(. 11.17).

228

III. Ethernet-

. 11.14.

. 11.15.

11. Microsoft

. 11.16.

. 11.17.

229

230

III. Ethernet-

. 11.18.

. 11.19.

. 11.20.

11. Microsoft

. 11.21. USER1

. 11.22.

231

232

III. Ethernet-

,
, ,
(. . 11.15). , , ( ), . .
<_> (. 11.18).
. , . 11.19.
(USER1) .
,
(. 11.20). , OK,
.
.
, , ,
(. 11.21).
K ,
K .
. .
USER1,
.
. (. 11.22) ,
(
___\_) (. 11.23).

. 11.23.

11. Microsoft

233

. 11.24.

. , , (.
. 11.24).

11.4. Windows Vista


Windows Vista
Windows XP, . Windows XP
, ,
(
). Vista .
. , .
(. 11.25),
.

234

III. Ethernet-

. 11.25.

. 11.26. -

11. Microsoft

235

, .
.
,
. - (. 11.26).
-
. lusrmgr.msc
(

| ).
,
(. 11.27).

. 11.27.

, ,
(. 11.28):
;
, ,
;
, ,
.

236

III. Ethernet-

. 11.28.


, (. . 11.28)
.
.

, ,
, (. 11.29). . 11.30
.

. 11.29.

11. Microsoft

237

. 11.30.

11.5. Linux

, Linux-
Microsoft, samba.
"" /etc/samba/smb.conf. ,
,
, .
/etc/samba/smb.conf video.
/mnt/video, (public = yes
guest ok = yes) (writable = no):
[video]
path = /mnt/video
public = yes
guest ok = yes
writable = no
printable = no

238

III. Ethernet-


Samba ( ). ,

, , , (. 11.31).
, , ( ) :

;
,
.

. 11.31. Linux

Windows- Linux-
Microsoft "".
, ( Windows), Samba.
Windows-
| , (
).

11.6.
Microsoft?
, Windows. Windows ( ),

11. Microsoft

239

- : -
, , -
. , . , ,
23 . , Windows XP,
Windows XP SP2. , ,
Windows Vista ( : Basic, Home . .),
Windows 98 Windows 2000. , Linux. ...
,
, . "" .
, Microsoft?

. , , , . ,
.
, FTP-
(FTP, File Transfer Protocol). :
, . , ;
-, ;
,
.
! . ,
, :
;
Microsoft, , ,
, .
FTP-, (
, ),
;
;

III. Ethernet-

240

,
,
Microsoft. FTP. , , FTP-;
. , Windows XP/Vista 10 .
FTP-
!

- Microsoft,
SwitchNT. . , Microsoft!
, FTP- Linux,
" Linux, 2- ." ("-",
2009, http://www.bhv.ru/books/book.php?id=184941). FTP-
Windows FileZilla Server,
: http://filezilla-project.org/download.php?type=server. :
http://help.vth.ru/FileZilla_Server.

, , ,
Microsoft Windows.
, , : http://www.dkws.org.ua/phpbb2/
viewtopic.php?t=3838.

12



12.1.

12.1.1.

( ) . , , ( ) . ,
, - , .
.
(router) . "" "" , .
. (,
), (,
). : , ""
"", .
( ) .

. (, ,
, ).

(. 12.1).

242

III. Ethernet-

. 12.1.

. ,
"" , DHCP ( ). IP-
192.168.1.2 192.168.1.5. : 192.168.1.1.
.
192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3,
, 192.168.1.3, . , 192.168.1.2 , , , 10.1.1.11? ,
192.168.1.2, ,
. . "" 10.1.1.0,
. 10.1.1.11, ,
(" ") 192.168.1.2.
,
192.168.1.0.

, , ,
, ,
. . , -

12.

243

, , .
.

. 12.2.

12.1.2. (NAT)
. 12.1.
. ,
, 194.67.57.226 ( IP-
www.mail.ru).
(NAT, Network Address Translation),
194.67.57.226 IP- (, 192.168.1.2), ,
-, .
NAT (. . 3.4),
. ,
192.168.*.*. IP- (
) , 193.254.219.1.

244

III. Ethernet-

,
-.
. ( ADSL-) . IP, , 93.254.219.1. ( ) IP-
192.168.1.1.

192.168.1.1. ,
192.168.1.1. :
: IP-
: , 192.168.1.10
:
: IP-
: 193.254.219.1
,
IP-, -
. ,
:
: 192.168.1.10
: IP-
"",
, .
, ,
.

12.2.
?
. ( ,

) .
(, ) ,
.

12.

245

Windows XP, Vista Linux.


, :
, , ,
. :
.
,

.
, , ,
, -
. ,
, .
: , . , .
. , , - ? ,
, .


,
.
. , ,
(3Com, ZyXEL, Linksys, D-Link .) , .
, ADSL. ,
(48 ), .
, , , .
ADSL-, . ( ), .

(firewall) ,
.

III. Ethernet-

246

(, ,
). ,
:
1. .
2. .
( ), ,
.

DHCP
DHCP,
.
3. . URL
: http://IP-:. IP-
.
4.
, .
5. , (
Change password Set password).
6. :
IP- (, ,
, , IP- );
ADSL-
( -).

ADSL-.
MAC . ADSL-
ADSL-, MAC- , .
Windows XP, Vista Linux.

12.

247

12.3.

12.3.1.

, , , : ,
(, ). ADSL :
ADSL-, . ,
. 12.3.

. 12.3.


( !), , - PCI-
(. 12.4).
, , . Windows
(. 12.5) (. 12.6).

248

III. Ethernet-

. 12.4.

. 12.5. Windows

. 12.6.

12.

249

12.5 12.6 Windows XP. Windows Vista


.

CD/DVD , Windows .
Linux ( Linux,
). ,
Linux , ( | | )
ifconfig. . 12.7 , Linux : eth0 eth1. , .

. 12.7. Linux

, Ethernet, ADSL-. -

III. Ethernet-

250

,
!
.

12.3.2. Windows XP

( | | ). (. 12.8).

. 12.8.

, , .
, .
: , .

12.

251

. 12.9.

. ,
(. 12.9).
. .
,
(. 12.10).
(, ADSL-), Windows (. 12.11),
, , . Windows
, ,
, , (. 12.12).
:
(, , ), (
MSHOME, ). , , .

252

III. Ethernet-

. 12.10.

. 12.11.

12.

253

. 12.12.

. .
( ) :
1. .
2.
.
3. (. 12.13) TCP/IP .
4. (. 12.14) IP .
5. IP DNS (
).
6. DNS-
IP-, . , Windows DNS-, .

254

III. Ethernet-

. 12.13.

. 12.14.

12.

255

, DNS-
. , DNS- .

.
17 ( ).
, ,
, , ""
.
7.
8.


. ( IP-
), .
DHCP-

12.3.3. Windows Vista

Windows Vista
, Windows XP, .
(. 12.15)

(. 12.16) -

(. 12.17),
(, ),
.
(. 12.18) (
, ).

. :

. ,

, , , .
, . ,
;

256

III. Ethernet-

. 12.15.

. 12.16.

12.

. 12.17.

. 12.18.

257

III. Ethernet-

258


? .
. , .
( ) :
1. .
2. .
3.
.
4. (. 12.19) 4
.

6 ,
.
5.

(. 12.20) IP-
. DNS-, , Windows XP, IP- DNS- .

. 12.20 IP- DNS.

.
7. 16 ( ).
.
.
6.


. ,

. ,
.

12.

. 12.19.

. 12.20. TCP/IP

259

IV


.
, , " ",
, ,
.

13


13.1.

, ( ).
. ,
.
: " ", , .

.
.
,
. , , , - "" (
, ). .
Ethernet-? ?
? , .
, ( )
. , . , , , .
. ,
. , ,
( , ),
, , ,

264

IV.

.
. , Ethernet-. . .
, "" - .
. -,
" " , :
54 / 1000 / (Gigabit Ethernet). -,
, , ( ),
,
. ,
, , , , .
. ,
. :
. ,

(12 13), .
14- ,
4 . : Wi-Fi-
, 13 ;
:
,
GPRS-;

WEP ( WPA WPA2
"" ), .
-
WEP ;
Wi-Fi- : 3050 100 . ( , ), ,
;
,
, ( );

13.

265


;
(
).
.

13.2. ?
. ,
, , , ,
( ), !
( ) ,

. . , (
). ? :

, . , : , , .
, ... . ?
, , .
. ,
, ? , ;
,
, ,
, , . . ?
() . .
- : ,
. , ,
( !);

IV.

266

... , "" Web- (,


"", ), ,
( ). ? , ,

.
.
, .

13.3.


1920- . ,
, .

90- .
, , , - .
. 1895 . (1896), (
: , ).
1888 .
, "" (
"" , ,
, ), . ,
.
, , . , , . .,
.
,
, . ,

13.

267

, , , , .
, . ?
,
. FM-
FM-
.
, , (). , -, -
(, , , ).
(, ) (
AM) (
FM, frequency modulation). ( FM)
.
, , .
, . .
,
, , .
. , ,
? Wi-Fi 2,4 ,
5 .
, ,
. ,
.
, .
, , . 35 . ,
. , .

268

IV.

, , , , , , . ,
( , 3 ,
30 ). , -
( ,
,
), . , . , , .

,
, , , .
. , . ,
, ,
,
, . ...

13.4.
. .
:

FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum,


) , .
, . Bluetooth;
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum,
) , FHSS,
. ,
;

13.

269

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,


)
52 ,
.
48 .
48 , 4 , .
OFDM ;
CSS (Chirp Spread Spectrum, ) .
.

Wi-Fi- IEEE 802.11a 802.11g OFDM. , 802.11a 5 , 802.11g 2,4 . 802.11b,


2,4 , DSSS.

13.5.

: Wi-Fi,
WiMAX . WiMAX , . Wi-Fi (, WiMAX ).

13.5.1. Wi-Fi
(IEEE) IEEE 802.11. :
IEEE 802.11 1997 , ;
IEEE 802.11a ;
IEEE 802.11b ;
IEEE 802.11g .
IEEE 802.11n.
480 / (

IV.

270

802.11g 54 /).
, , ,
: http://ru.wikipedia.org/

wiki/IEEE_802.11n.

,
IEEE 802.11n, pre-802.11n-. , , ""
, .
802.11g, 802.11a
802.11b . ,
802.11b 802.11g, -
11 /, . , (,
, -),
"" , 802.11g, 802.11g,
802.11b.
802.11a, b g
IEEE 802.11, . 13.1.

13.1. IEEE 802.11

IEEE 802.11

1 2 /, 2,4

IEEE 802.11a

54 /c, 5 . 1999 ,
2001 .

IEEE 802.11b

11 / 5,5 / (1999 )

IEEE 802.11c

IEEE 802.11d

(2001 )

IEEE 802.11e

QoS ( )

IEEE 802.11F

Inter-Access Point Protocol (2003 )

13.

271

13.1 ()

IEEE 802.11g

54 /c, 2,4 . 802.11b. 2003

IEEE 802.11h

802.11a (5 ) (2004 )

IEEE 802.11i

IEEE 802.11j

(2004 )

IEEE 802.11k

IEEE 802.11l

IEEE 802.11m

IEEE 802.11n

480 /,
2,42,5 5 . 802.11a/b/g.

IEEE 802.11o

IEEE 802.11p

, ,

IEEE 802.11q

IEEE 802.11r

IEEE 802.11s

(ESS) Mesh Networking

IEEE 802.11T

IEEE 802.11u

-802 (, )

IEEE 802.11v

IEEE 802.11x

IEEE 802.11w

(Protected

Management Frames)

IV.

272

802.11a/b/g/n . 13.2.
13.2. Wi-Fi

802.11b
802.11a
802.11g
802.11n

2,4
5
2,4
2,4

, / , /
~30 ()
5
11
~100 ()
~35 ()
20
54
~110 ()
~35 ()
20
54
~110 ()
~70 ()
150
480
~160 ()

. 35 100 .
. , D-LINK DWL-2100AP
100 400 (, ). . ENCORE ENRXWI-SG (
, D-Link): 3050 50
200 . .

? 1
IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi
( Hi-Fi). ? WECA
(Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance, Ethernet-). WECA . Wi-Fi-
Wi-Fi (. 13.1), ,
.

. 13.1. Wi-Fi
1

. Wireless Fidelity .

13.

273

13.5.2. WiMAX
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
( IEEE 802.16). Wi-Fi (
35 100 ).
WiMAX 48 (30 ).
WiMAX- 70 /.
WiMAX . WiMAX
DSL-. WiMAX , ( WiMAX),
" ".

13.5.3.
, ,
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service,
). GPRS-
171 /, (
) 2030 /. ,
. GPRS GPRS
, ,
100 (Wi-Fi), 48 (WiMAX).
GPRS EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM
Evolution) , GPRS. EDGE
474 /, GPRS-. , GPRS ( 100 /).
3G. ,
: 3G " "
(G, generation) . "", ( ), 2,4 /, . 4G,
100 /. , , , 3G . , GPRS 2G, EDGE 2,5G.

IV.

274

13.5.4. Bluetooth
Bluetooth ,
, ,
, free-hand
, . . Bluetooth 10 ,
700 / ( Bluetooth). ,
Bluetooth 2,4 . , Bluetooth
, . , Bluetooth ()
, . , Bluetooth,
GPRS EDGE ( ).

13.6. Wi-Fi
.
.
Wi-Fi,
.

13.6.1. Wi-Fi

OSI-.
144- . 144 128
, 16
. 48- . : , .

: , , ?
(, ) 1 /. . (, 54 /), ,
192 1 /.

13.

275

, 144 ? 144 DSSS- (802.11b). (802.11g) 72 .


56 ( ), 16 (
, 144- ).
72- 802.11b. 802.11g- 144-
802.11b. ()
, .
, , .
, ? ! 192 , 96.
(,
Web-), .
(, ICQ,
), .
,
. , , ,
, ( ). , .
,
/ .
,
! ,
.
,
, .
, , ( ),
( ).
, MAC (Media
Access Control) . MAC- -

276

IV.

. ,
.
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access With
Collision Avoidance)
. MAC-
, 802.11.
CSMA/CA (. . 10.2). , CSMA/CA
"" , , . "", , .
CSMA/CA ,
, ( / ).
MAC- ( ). ,
.
Wi-Fi- , . , MAC- .
: . ,
, .
. . "" ,
,
.
.
13.6.2. Wi-Fi

802.11b 802.11g

, 802.11b 802.11g 2,4 ,


, 2,400 , 2,4002,4835 .
Wi-Fi- . , , :
2,4452.475 ;
2,44652.4835 ;
2,471 2.497 .

13.

277

, ,
2,4002,4835 .
2,4002,4835
? ,
(, ). . 13.3
.
13.3. ( 802.11b 802.11g)

2,412

2,447

2,417

2,452

2,422

10

2,457

2,427

11

2,462

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12

2.467

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13

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14

2,484

13 , 14.
4 , , .
, ,
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. , , , 5-.
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, ,
25 , 5 .
: 1, 6 11.
, 1, 5, 9, 13. ""
,

IV.

278

, . ,
. ,
(, 35 30).
. 6065 . , "" 88 . , 20 ,
, .

802.11a

802.11a 5,005,34 . "" 20 ( 25, 802.11g). . 13.4.


13.4. 802.11a

34

5,17

46

5,23

36

5,18

48

5,24

38

5,19

52

5,26

40

5,20

56

5,28

42

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60

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44

5,22

64

5,32

36, 40, 44 48. , 34, 38, 42 46


. "" 52,
56, 60 64.

13.6.3.
, , , (. 13.2).
. . 13.2 , , . 14,
, , .

13.

279

. 13.2.


. ad hoc-.
ad hoc
, . ,
(, ), ,
.
1 /, .
,
(,
):
BSS (Basic Service Set) ;
ESS (Extended Service Set) ;
IBSS (Independent Basic Service Set)
.
.

14



14.1.


( . wireless access point) ( . . wireless adapter) . , . , ,
. ,
.
,
. : 35 , 100 .
, . , .
70 200 (
) .
, , (. 14.1). 45 (. 14.2),
. ,
, .
(- ,
!), , , .

14.

281

. 14.3. , , . ,
.

. 14.1.

. 14.2.

. 14.3.

? ?
.
. , , , ,
. .

IV.

282

,
, . , 802.11g,
.
, , :
. , .
.
.

14.2.

. ", ,
" .
:
- ;
;
;
.

14.2.1.
Wi-Fi- :
, , USB. :
;

PCI- (. 14.4). , , . -,

, ,
. -, , , : , , ,
.
?
PC-Card ( PCMCIA) (. 14.5). ,

14.

283

(802.11b),

802.11g, PC-Card;

,
,
.

. 14.4. , PCI-

. 14.5. ZyXEL
( )

IV.

284

, USB-.
. USB-
"" ,
. USB- , . .
USB- : .
(. 14.6). ,
"" .
, ,

, . -
,
.
USB-,
USB-. ( ), (. 14.7). . ,
.
. ,
, .

. 14.6. USB-

. 14.7. ,

USB-

14.2.2.

802.11g. . , 802.11n, .

14.

285

, ,
802.11n-. ,
"pre-n"- 802.11g.

14.2.3.
-USB , PC-Card,
. ,
, , ,
, . . , - (. 14.8). , .

. 14.8.
, . , ,
. ,
/ .
, .
. ,
, (3035 ).

14.2.4.

, . , "Works with Windows Vista", "Supported by Windows Vista", "Designed for Windows Vista".

286

IV.

, , Windows Vista.
, Windows XP Linux.
, Vista, Vista ,

, .
, ,
. ,
. , :
http://www.windrivers.com;
http://www.driverzone.com;
http://www.driverguide.com.

Linux , ,
. , - Linux?
.

, , .

14.2.5.
.
Wi-Fi Bluetooth.
: Wi-Fi : Wi-Fi Bluetooth.
. Bluetooth,
. Bluetooth , .

14.3.
USB-

, . PCI-
. ,
. PCI-
!

14.

287

.
USB-, , . , , , , .
. 14.9 HP Compaq: "" , .

. 14.9. HP Compaq

14.4.
:
;
( );
;
, ;
;
.
. 14.10.

288

IV.

. 14.10.

14.4.1.
802.11b 802.11g.
,
802.11a 802.11g. ,
802.11g. ,
,
.
14.4.2.

. , .
. ,
, : " : : 30 ~ 50 , : 50 ~ 200 ", , 30 50
. , 30 . , 200 .

14.

289

( "outdoor") ,
. , : , , .
0 55 .
(. 14.11)
. , ,
, .

. 14.11.

? , (),
, .

, ...
, , ,
. .
? .
. ("")
.
,
100 . , , .

14.4.3.
,
" " (

290

IV.

, ).
.
, :
, ,
, .
.
,
. .

14.4.4.
, : WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access).
WEP ( ). WEP-,
, WEP, . , WPA , , WEP, ,
WPA.
, WPA ,
.
. , - , WPA,
- .

14.4.5.
. ,
Ethernet-.
, . 14.12.
. ,
( 4 8),
.
(. 14.13).

14.

. 14.12.

. 14.13.

291

292

IV.

: . ,
DSL-, ,
DSL- , . .
, .
,
(. 14.14).

. 14.14.

, , ( , - ) . , ,
, .
14.4.6. 802.11g+

(, Encore)
"802.11g+".
100, 108 125 /, .
, 802.11g+ .
, 802.11g+ SuperG,

14.

293

802.11g. , , , , ,
802.11g Intel , , Encore,
108 /.
: (HP)
Broadcom 802.11g.
Encore, 108 /,
54 /.
,
. , "" 802.11g+ 100 /, 54 /
.

15


15.1.
. ,
510 , .
, . , ( ) , 60 . ,
. , (., ) 35 .
: 45 100 .
60 , 300 (. 15.1).
15.1.

35

100

60

300

(., 14),
. ,
, / .

15.

295

,
, , , ! , ( ),
, .
.
. ,
.
, , ,
7080 , ,
, .
. . 15.1 .
. 5.1, , ,
"" , .

. 15.1. :
"" ;
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. 15.1, , . . ,
( . 15.1, )
. ""
, . , 1 . 2 , ,
"" , .
,
. ,

IV.

296

, , , .

. , 3030 .
. 2030 . . , , . ,
20 ,
2030 .

.
"" ,
, Ethernet-
( PoE Power over Ethernet).

15.2.
, . ,
. . 15.2 , .
,
. .
, . WAN: .
( ) , . 15.3. -,
, , DSL-.
: .
, .
24 .
. , , :

4 ( 8) .

15.

297

, , . :
2030 . , , ,
, () ;
, ,
. , ,
( 19).

. 15.2.

. 15.3.

298

IV.

. 15.4.

, , . 15.4. ,
.

15.3.
TCP/IP
,
. ,
. . . .
"" IP-.
DHCP-,
DHCP-, (.
. 15.2). , DHCP-
"" IP-, . , 192.168.1.0, ""

15.

299

IP- 192.168.7.0. IP- , 192.168.7.252 ( ).


, (.
. 15.2), :
DHCP- DHCP-
DHCP- . DHCP- ;
IP-,
.

:

IP- ;
IP-, DHCP- .
DHCP- : ? DHCP- , DHCP-
, . .
MAC (
IP-). IP- .
DHCP-, IP , IP- ,
. IP- , - , IP- , .

15.4.

,
, ( ). ( ).
:

1. , , ,
, ,
.

IV.

300

. , ,
, ?
3. 90 .
, ( ,
) . , .
4. . PoE
( ),
Ethernet-.
5. Ethernet- ,
.
6. .
:
.
, , ;

;

( )
.
2.

.
. , , PoE, , ,
. , , Ethernet-, .
! DHCP- ,
DHCP- .
, Wi-Fi
, ,
.

15.5.

15.5.1. D-Link DSL-2640U


D-Link DSL-2640U. D-Link, -

15.

301

. . , , , D-Link , ZyXEL . . ZyXEL


, D-Link ZyXEL, .
DSL-2640U . 15.5.
(
), RJ-11
( DSL-).
DSL-, Ethernet (RJ-45) RJ-11 , . , ,
, , .

. 15.5. DSL-2640U: ; ;

(, D Console Reset. Console D-Link, Reset


! ,
( !), .

. ,
.
Link),

302

IV.

, ,
, ADSL-, , . . ( ),
MAC- DoS- ( ).
:
2,42,484 ;
:
Power ;
Status ;
DSL DSL-;
WLAN (Wireless LAN);
LAN ,
;
: IPSec, PPTP, L2TP;
PPPoA, PPPoE, UPnP, DNS Relay, DDNS, IGMP,
SNTP;

54 /;
IEEE 802.11g 802.11b;
WPA2,
WPA, TKIP, AES, WEP- 64- 128- ;
QoS (Quality of Service);
NAT;
DHCP-;
WDS (Wireless Distribution System)
;
Web- SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol);

Fast Ethernet (10/100 /);


ADSL- RJ-11;
.
,
, .

15.

303

15.5.2.

, . (. . 15.4). ADSL ( ) .
ADSL- ( ).
Ethernet-.
Fast Ethernet, 5- ( 5E 6-).
, , 10.
.

, Ethernet- (
).
IP- ( ).
192.168.1.1 ( IP-), : http://192.168.1.1.
, . 15.6.
: admin, : admin OK.

. 15.6 IP- , IP- .

. 15.6.

304

IV.

Home (. 15.7)
Wizard. , DSL Auto-connect , Next.


, .
. D-Link CD , D-Link .
, .
.
,
" ". D-Link, , , , .

. 15.7.

15.

305

(Connection type).
PPPoA (PPP over ATM), PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet),
. ,
.
(PPP username) (PPP Password). ( ) Dial
on demand. ,
. .
Keep Alive ,
. Dial on demand
Keep Alive , :
,
. ,
.
, .
, , . , . ,
"" -, .
, , ,
. ,
Keep Alive
.
Use static IP Address IP-
-. ,
IP- DHCP- .
, IP- ( , , ), .
(
). Use the
following default gateway Use IP Address. Use IP Address IP- .

IV.

306

( !!!) NAT . Enable NAT Enable Firewall Next.


:
IP Address IP- ( 192.168.1.1), , Ethernet-,
. , IP-, . ( 17) IP- - ,
. IP- IP-, ""
DHCP- (. );
Subnet Mask ( 255.255.255.0) . , ;
Disable DHCP DHCP-. , DHCP ( , !);
Enable DHCP DHCP-.
:
Start IP Address IP- IP-, DHCP- ( 192.168.1.2).
, .

, IP- , ;
End IP Address IP- IP-;
Leased Time IP- ( 24 ). 24 DHCP- ,
24 , IP-.

, ,
. , IP-, , 192.168.1.99. IP-
DHCP- : 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.98. 98 ? , 30 4 . , 98
.

15.

307

:
Enable Wireless . ,
,
. Enable Wireless. , ;
SSID () .
SSID, ! SSID
, , .
SSID A75SN , VaBankNetwork.

! .
, Save/Reboot
.
, ! ,
- ,
. , , .
15.5.3.
Home
Wireless (. 15.8). / Enable Wireless (. ).
Hide Access Point SSID .

-,
" ",
SSID. - . ,
SSID . , .

SSID .
, Apply.

308

IV.

. 15.8.

. 15.9.

15.

309

Security (. . 15.8). (. 15.9)


. Network Authentication
:
Open ,
. WEP- ;
Shared WEP-. Encryption
Strength : 64 128 ;
802.1X RADIUS- (Remote Authentication
in Dial-In User Service), ;
WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) RADIUS-,
;
WPA-PSK (Wi-Fi Protected Access Pre-Shared-Key)
WPA- .
TKIP-
WPA. WPA ,
, RADIUS-;
WPA2 WPA. TKIP
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). RADIUS- ;
WPA2-PSK , WPA-PSK, TKIP- AES-.
.
AES, WPA2.
, ,
(,
, . .),
;
Mixed WPA2/WPA : TKIP
AES. RADIUS;
Mixed WPA2/WPA-PSK . -, RADIUS-, . -, : TKIP AES,
.

?
WPA2-PSK. () Shared
WEP-. , ,

310

IV.

, , . . ,
Open. Mixed WPA2/WPA-PSK.
,
WPA2 AES, , WPA.
(): Network Key. 13 26 .
Current Network Key .
4 , .
DHCP- Home, LAN
(. 15.10). IP- .

. 15.10.
DNS DNS (. 15.11). DNS-: . DNS-
DSL-

15.

311

. , ,
DNS-, .

. 15.11. DNS
Status. Device Info
(. 15.12), DHCP Clients (. 15.13)
( , ). , ,
, , . , denix (. . 15.13) !
, .
, (. . 15.2).
Advanced, Routing, Default
Gateway. Enable Automatic Assigned Default Gateway
Use Default Gateway IP Address.

312

IV.

. 15.12.

. 15.13.

15.

313

.
. , .

15.6.
5070 , 2,4 (, , ), , . ,
,
. ,
. () . ,
, , .
. , , .
. , ,
, - .
.
. , .
,
, 5 .
, 11,
6.
. , - ,
.
. . 1, 11.
5 6. , , , , .
. D-Link
Advanced Wireless.
Channel, Preamble type (. . 13.6.1): long () short
(). , ( , "" ),
.

314

IV.

. ,
.
.

15.7. :

. ,
SSID,
.
, ""
5 , 1, 6 11.
,
.

,
. ,
SSID .

15.8.

,
. :
;
;
;
;
.

, ,
. , 300
(, ) 6 dBi.
. , 1,6 4 .

15.

315

4,8 8,1 .
, . 4
.


(. 15.14). . () (, ) ,
. , www.intuit.ru/department/network/wifi/12/3.html.
,
: http://www.nporapira.ru/ext2.doc64.html.

. 15.14.
. ,
.
. , .
,
. Ethernet-
, .

16

,


16.1.


, (USB PCCard), Windows . , ,
. , Windows
.
.
. USB USB-.
Windows , "" , , .
.
(. 16.1),
, (
).

16. ,

317

. 16.1. :

16.2. ,

(. . 13.6.1), : (144 ) (72 ). ,


, , . ,
.
.
:
1. .
2. .

318

IV.

. 16.2.

. 16.3.

16. ,

319

.
4. (. 16.2)
BSS PLCP . .
: .

WZC IBSS (. 16.3), .
3.

16.3.


? , - , . , -
"" .
:
SSID . SSID , SSID , ;
? , WPA2,

, MAC-,
. ;
SSID?
(. . 16.2)?
(. . 16.2)?
SSID
(. ). ,
. Windows XP
, . Windows Vista
: | ,
.

320

IV.

16.4. " "

, ? , ,
.
. ,
,
. ( )
.

16.5. ,

,
.
, IP.
<Win>+<R> cmd.
, :
ipconfig /release
ipconfig /renew

16.6.

.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
Windows XP, ,
.
Windows Vista
(. . 4.20) .

16. ,

321

,
(. . 4.23), .
/ ,
( , )
(, ) 1015 .
Windows.

16.7.

: . ( ),
. ,
, , 50% .
, , . 15 ,
, .
.
.
,
.
.
,
100% (. . 16.2).

16.8.
:
-
, , ,
1, 3. , , 15;

20 , .
. ,
, ;

322

IV.

. , 802.11g
802.11b.
(802.11b),
11 /, 54 /.
, . ,
. - 1 /. ,
10 /. . , 1 /. 11 / (, 802.11b), ! . , ,
54 /.

, 5
( 54 / 11 /) 5 !

16.9.
""?
. ,
. - -.
, - ?
, :
Power , ;
/ WLAN ( )
, " " . ( ),
. ;
WAN (ADSL). , -
-. . , .

V

.
, VPN, , ,
,
Windows.

17


17.1.
Wi-Fi-, , . Wi-Fi- , ,
.
Wi-Fi- ,
. ,
, , , .
,
,
. ,
e-mail.
: ICQ, Jabber, Skype .
,
, ,
,
-
-.
. , . :
, 90% ,
, ?! , , . , , ,
.

326

V.

90% . 10% , ,
- , , , ,
. .
, ,
, ?

, , . , " ", ,
, , .
, 45 ,
.
. .

17.2.

17.2.1.

SSID, . SSID . ,

, ,
SSID .
SSID , SSID , , , . SSID
.
IP- ! IP-
192.168.1.1. , , 192.168.1.211.
, IP-. IP-, .

17.

327

17.2.2. SSID

SSID.
,
,
.
,
. , .
17.2.3. WPA WPA2

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access), WPA2 WEP (Wired Equivalent


Privacy) , .
WPA2, , WPA. WEP
, , WEP .
WEP , WPA, , .

http://www.thg.ru/network/20050806/index.html WEP.

WEP WPA. WPA , TKIP (Temporal


Key Integrity Protocol) AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). WPA , ( ). , WPA.
, , WPA WEP
(). , , ,
.
WEP, .
,
, . WPA
, . - ,
.
.

V.

328

17.2.4.
MAC MAC- ,
(. 17.1). , MAC- ,
. MAC- . MAC- . :
, ,
.

. 17.1. MAC-

, MAC- ? MAC- , ,
, . " ", , , NetStumbler, . MAC-, -
. Linux
MAC-.

MAC-,
. , , ,
, MAC- , MAC , .

17.

329

17.2.5.
, WPA.
WEP. WPA. ,
.
, . ,
, ,
. , .
. ,
.
.
17.2.6.
WPA WPA2 , WEP,
. , WPA/WPA2 ,

.
?
(. 17.2).
,
. WEP, WPA WPA2
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).


WPA WPA2 EAP http://blogs.zdnet.com/Ou/?p=67.
WPA EAP
http://www.ixbt.com/comm/prac-wpa-eap.shtml.

.
, RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service), , . RADIUS ,
, ,

330

V.

WSC Guard (http://www.wirelesssecuritycorp.com/wsc/public/WirelessGuard.do).


5
.
, , RADIUS. ,
.

. 17.2. Windows XP

, : WPA-PSK WPA2-PSK.
,
. RADIUS-
, , , , ,
VPN,
.
, WPA WPA2 , , WEP.

17.

331

(, ),
.
, - .

17.2.7.
,
, , . ,
,
. -,
, ,
, , , .
,
( NetStumbler:
http://www.netstumbler.com/)
. ,
, .
, , , .
,
c
. , . ,
, . ,
, ,
!

17.2.8. ,

? ? , . ,
100% , . .
( ,
). , ,

332

V.

,
, , , . .

. ,
, , .

17.2.9.

() . -
?
MAC. - MAC-: , MAC-
MAC- , .

17.2.10. .

,
. / , . (. 19),
.

17.3.
, 10
. :
.
.
, : WoERs1815dtr2011
,
;-)

17.

333

, ;
(. 19) ;
,
.
(VPN). ,
VPN, .

18


18.1. VPN

17, Wi-Fi-
.
(Virtual Private Network, VPN)
. VPN
,
,
.
VPN.
18.1.1. 1
,
, , , . , ,
(Remote Access Server, RAS dial-in ). "" ,
,
(
).
RAS . -,
, :
, ( ). ,
(
callback-). -,
.

18.

335


. ,
. ,
(,
) . , , VPN .
18.1.2. 2
() . , .
,
Wi-Fi- ( 54 / ,
"" 11 /).
, .
, (
WEP/WPA/WPA2) . VPN

( VPN), .
, VPN, , -. VPN ,
.
18.1.3. VPN
VPN:
( ) - (, ). , , ,
, , , VPN ;
;

336

V.

, . GPRS, VPN
;
, ,
VPN. callback
, VPN.
, VPN, OSI (. 3).
VPN , VPN
"" , . VPN

(Wi-Fi-), (Ethernet).
VPN-
, . , . VPN GPRS-, , 100 /,
, .
VPN . 18.1.
() VPN-
, . "-".
, . -
, VPN-.
, . 18.2.
, "-",

( Wi-Fi).
VPN, ,
, ,
.
. 18.3. VPN-, "" -.
"-".

18.

337

. 18.1. VPN-

. 18.2. VPN-

V.

338

. 18.3. VPN-

18.2. VPN-, VPN-


VPN-
: PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol), L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) IPSec (IP Security). PPTP L2TP
IP, IPX NetBEUI, IPSec IP-.
, VPN- VPN-
.

18.

339

,
, .
. ,
PPTP,
. VPN-,
: Windows Server 2003/2008
IPSec L2TP, Windows NT 4.0 2000 Server
PPTP L2TP, UNIX/Linux IPSec PPTP.
VPN- Linux,
Windows :
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/network/bb545442.aspx.

, VPN- ( VPN)
. VPN- (
VPN) ,
Cisco, NETGEAR, TRENDnet. http://www.vpnc.org
(,
Virtual Private Network Consortium).
VPN-
Linux. , VPN , VPN- ,
Wi-Fi .

18.3.


"-", , IpSec.
Linux OpenS/WAN (http://www.openswan.org).
OpenS/WAN Linux- IpSec
FreeS/WAN (http://www.freeswan.org). OpenS/WAN Linux 2.4 2.6, FreeS/WAN (2.2 2.4).
PPTP (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol). .

V.

340

18.4. "-"
18.4.1. OpenS/WAN

http://www.openswan.org/download/binaries/ OpenS/WAN Fedora, Mandriva,


Mandrake, OpenWRT, RHEL, openSUSE.

, , .
PF_KEY, AH, ESP CryptoAPI.

OpenS/WAN 2.4.x 2.6.x.
18.4.2.

, .
, . . 18.4: (), (), left, right.
, .

. 18.4. VPN-

, VPN- -
. VPN , VPN-,
leftnexthop ( rightnexthop).

18.

341

18.4.3.

OpenS/WAN VPN. VPN-


:
# ipsec newhostkey

:
# ipsec showhostkey --left
# ipsec showhostkey --right

18.4.4.

OpenS/WAN : /etc/ipsec/ipsec.conf.
: (config setup),
(conn %default)
(conn < >). ,
, .

, ( 18.1).
18.1.
config setup
# ,
# VPN-

interfaces=%defaultroute
# KLIPS (Kernel IP Security)
# Pluto
klipsdebug=none
plutodebug=none
#
plutoload=%search
plutostart=%search

( ,
) !
: has wrong number of fields .

V.

342

interfaces. %defaultroute, ,
:
interfaces=ipsec0=ppp1

. , , : authby keyingtries. , ( 0,
, ).
18.2.
18.2.
conn %default
authby=rsasig
keyingtries=3

, () VPN-.
. 18.1.
VPN-
, . 18.1.
18.1. VPN- "-"

left

IP- VPN- (
%defaultroute).
192.168.1.1

leftsubnet

IP- .
192.168.1.0/24

leftnexthop

IP- ( %defaultroute)

leftrsasigkey

( ipsec showhostkey --left)

leftid

. ,
@moscow.firma.ru config setup
uniqueids=yes.

18.

343

18.1 ()

right

IP- VPN- (
%defaultroute).
192.168.2.1

rightsubnet

IP- (192.168.2.0/24)

rightnexthop

IP- (
%defaultroute)

rightrsasigkey

( ipsec showhostkey --right)

rightid

. ,
@vladivostok.firma.ru

leftfirewall

,
yes

auto

.
auto=start, . auto ,
config setup
plutostart=%search

18.3.
18.3. VPN-
conn my_vpn
left=192.168.1.1
leftsubnet=192.168.1.0/24
leftnexthop=10.0.0.1
leftrsasigkey= 0sAQtyjh9345...
leftid=@moscow.firma.ru
right=192.168.2.1
rightsubnet=192.168.2.0/24
rightnexthop=10.1.0.1
rightrsasigkey=0sAQ65jh92...
rightid=@vladivostok.firma.ru
auto=start

V.

344

ipsec.conf 18.4.
18.4. ipsec.conf
config setup
# ,
# VPN-
interfaces=%defaultroute
# KLIPS (Kernel IP Security)
# Pluto
klipsdebug=none
plutodebug=none
#
plutoload=%search
plutostart=%search
conn %default
authby=rsasig
keyingtries=3
conn my_vpn
left=192.168.1.1
leftsubnet=192.168.1.0/24
leftnexthop=10.0.0.1
leftrsasigkey= 0sAQtyjh9345...
leftid=@moscow.firma.ru
right=192.168.2.1
rightsubnet=192.168.2.0/24
rightnexthop=10.1.0.1
rightrsasigkey=0sAQ65jh92...
rightid=@vladivostok.firma.ru
auto=start

18.

345

18.4.5. VPN-

OpenS/WAN :
ipsec start

,
auto=start. ipsec start .
, , :
ipsec look

18.4.6. iptables

IpSec iptables,
: 500, :
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p udp -s $IP --sport 500 --dport 500 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p udp -d $IP --sport 500 --dport 500 -j
ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p 50 -s $IP -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p 50 -d $IP -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p 51 -s $IP -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p 51 -d $IP -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -p all -s 192.168.2.0/24 -d 192.168.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -p all -s 192.168.1.0/24 -d 192.168.2.0/24 -j ACCEPT

:
$IP IP- , :
192.168.2.1 192.168.1.1 ;
eth0 ;
ipsec0 VPN-.

18.5. "-"
"-",
.
PPTP.

V.

346

:
pptpd pptp-server PPTP-;

pptp-linux, pptp-client, pptp-adsl PPTP-.

.
http://rpmfind.net (
Red Hat- ) http://packages.ubuntu.com
( Ubuntu Debian).
ppp, , .

, VPN- , , 2.4.
MPPE ()
, , 2.6,
. ,
MPEE .
? , ? , -
, , MPPE , .

18.5.1.

ppptd ( pptp-server)
/etc/pptpd.conf ( 18.5).
18.5. /etc/pptpd.conf
speed 115200
option /etc/ppp/options.vpn
debug
localip 192.168.1.1
remoteip 192.168.1.12-22

, .
, IP- (localip) IP- VPN-
. , 10 VPN-, IP-
192.168.1.12192.168.1.22. , ,
/etc/ppp/options.vpn.

18.

347

/etc/ppp/options.vpn (,
, 18.6).
18.6. /etc/ppp/options.vpn
ipparam PoPToP
lock
mtu 1490
mru 1490
ms-dns 192.168.1.1
name server.com
proxyarp
auth
refuse-pap
refuse-chap
refuse-chapms
require-mschap-v2
ipcp-accept-local
ipcp-accept-remote
lcp-echo-failure 30
lcp-echo-interval 5
deflate 0
+mppe-128

, . , IP- DNS-
( ms-dns) ( name). ppp refuse-pap, refuse-chap, refuse-chapms, require-mschap-v2
():
-pap
-chap
-chapms
+chapms-v2

VPN-.
MS CHAP v2, .

348

V.

. ,
/etc/ppp/options.vpn :
lock

VPN-
:

/etc/ppp/chap-secrets.

. IP

:
vpn1 server.com "" *

: vpn1 , server.com VPN-.


,
/etc/shadow. IP- VPN-
IP. vpn1
( adduser).
. PPTP- :
service pptpd start ( /etc/init.d/pptpd start)


( ).
18.5.2. Linux-

47

, Windows. , VPN-
PPTP-.
1. VPN- pptp-linux pptp-client.
pptp-command.
, 3.) setup (. 18.5).
2. , 1.) Manage
CHAP secrets (. 18.5), Add a New CHAP
secret. , ( ), .
3. . 4.)
Add a New PPTP Tunnel, Other. : IP- VPN-,
.
4. 6.) Configure resolv.conf
IP- DNS-.

18.

349

. 18.5. pptp-command
5.

6.

.
7.) Select a default tunnel,
. , .
VPN pptp-command
1.) start. , .

18.5.3. Windows-

VPN- Windows 2000/XP . , VPN-


Windows . -,
Windows
pptp-command ( ).
VPN-, | | | .

(. 18.6).
(. 18.7).
VPN , , VPN (. 18.8).
: VPN (. 18.9), . VPN-
IP-.

V.

350

. 18.6.

. 18.7. VPN

18.

. 18.8.

. 18.9. VPN-

351

V.

352

. 18.10.

. 18.11.

18.

. 18.12.

. 18.13. -

353

354

V.

VPN-
(. 18.10).
Windows Vista VPN- . | . (. 18.11)
.
(. 18.12).
Windows XP: - (. 18.13), VPN . .

19


19.1. Windows
Windows . ,
. "". ! Outpost Firewall 3 NOD32. ,
"", NOD32 .
. , NOD32 , .
backdoor1, .
,
.

? Outpost Security
Suite Pro 2009. (, -
, ). , , (, - , ).
, ,
Windows, Linux
.
.
, , . .
Backdoor (. . ) ,
. ( ), backdoor .
1

V.

356

L I N U X

, , "" (
LPT-), ( Web-), , ,
( ),
- "-", Writer
c Word , : - ( JPG- +
, 300 .) - Writer
Word , , , Linux- .
, , , , . . ""
- 20 "" ""

Linux, , , , , , (, )

, , . , Linux .
, .
Fedora 10 10- (!) , . , Windows-, "", ! , Web, ,
. OpenOffice , , , . . . Linux Windows.
... , OpenOffice/Linux, Windows,
, . OpenOffice, , . , , " " ( ,
) "".
, wine cedega, Linux
Windows- Windows-. ,
MS Office, QIP, The Bat! AutoCAD Linux . ,
Linux,
? Linux. -,

, . -, Linux Windows. , , , . , Linux,
.
. denix.dkws.org.ua

19.

357

Ubuntu ( , ) OpenOffice 3.0 Pro "-". OpenOffice 2.4. 3.0 Pro , 2.4, .
, .

Linux , , , . ,
Windows-, Linux
( , ).
, , ,
Windows, .
DOS Windows 95
-, "" .
,
, Windows. , .
"" -. ,
, .
, ,
. , . ?
:
Windows,
;
,
. " "
, ;
: .
ICMP-. , "" ( ).
(DDoS);


. ?

V.

358


, , .
, ;
.
. , ,
. Windows. " ", ,
. -
. ,
. .
" ", .
, (, ), , .
, . , "" WinProxy.
, ( ) Windows
, .
(AVZ CureIt
DrWeb). ,
.
.

. ,
- (,
aaaa11.exe) . .
AVZ ,
.
. , karina.dat.
, - . karina.dat
- . , . AVZ ( karina.dat).
, N
DLL karina.dat,

19.

359

, . . ,
.
, , , karina.dat.
, . .
,
. ,
, . ,
( ,
).
, :

;
, , Internet Security 2009
, , , ,
- ;

AVZ CureIt.
. ,
- . ,
. .
- .
.
. , , , (, ).
-.
http://www.freedrweb.com/livecd/ (Live CD).
. , Live CD
. (. . 19.4.3). .

360

19.2.

V.

? , ,
, . "",
"" ( ).
http://kaspersky.ru/ 30- (KAV, 2009). ,
30 .
(980 )
KIS, Kaspersky Internet Security 2009 .
KIS, . KIS 2009 :
1600 . KAV KIS
: http://www.kaspersky.ru/compare_NEW.
NOD32 (www.eset.com).
. " "
. KAV, . NOD32 .
, NOD32 , KIS,
KAV ( ) KIS ( ).
, KAV ""
. , , . , NOD32 "",
.
, , " "? , .
McAfee .
. , , , , , McAfee.
( Flash-),
, , McAfee "".
NOD32. , ,
NO32 .
. , , McAfee , KAV.
, (KAV, McAfee
NOD32) -

19.

361

, -, , . . .

DrWeb , CureIt
( . . 19.4.2), .
" " ( ),
-, -. , . .
.
?
, , Avast ClamAV Windows.
- . , , .
, Avast. ClamAV UNIX/Linux- . , -, ,
.
AVZ (www.z-oleg.com).
. ,
AVZGuard, ,
, AVZGuard . , . AVZ . AVZ
" ", ,
. AVZ
, ( AVZ . . 19.4.1).
, : http://www.dkws.org.ua/phpbb2/
viewtopic.php?t=3679. , " ",
.

19.3.
( , firewall) , , , .

362

V.

, . , .
.
IP- , IP- ,
.
, , . . ( )
( ) . . , .
, ( ) .
,
. , . ,
, . , , , (
). .
. : ,
.

19.3.1. Windows
Windows, , Outpost Security Suite Pro 2009. :
Outpost ;

;
;

-

19.

363

ImproveNet,
.
, Outpost Security Suite Pro . , Outpost Security Suite Pro Kaspersky Internet Security.
: http://www.agnitum.ru/.
:
(32-) 64-. , ,
. 64- , 32-
Windows. 32- .
, . 30- . .
. . . (
), . . .
, . Outpost ( "" )
,
. ,
, .
- ,
, ,
.
. 19.1. :
.
(. 19.2)
(. 19.3).
(. 19.4).
, ;

V.

364

. 19.1. Outpost Security Suite Pro

. 19.2.

19.

. 19.3.

. 19.4.

365

V.

366

. 19.5. , .

. 19.6.

19.

367

+ (,
). -

);
- HTTP-;
-;

(

.
.

,
.


. ,
. . . 19.5, , . :

. .
, : ,
, ICQ, FTP-, Skype . .;

(. 19.6).

Outpost Security Suite Pro ,


. ? .
.
Comodo Firewall,
. Comodo Internet Secu-

rity : http://www.personalfirewall.comodo.com/.
Comodo , , Windows.
. , , .

19.3.2. Linux
Linux iptables, .
Firestarter ( : www.fs-security.com).

368

V.

Firestarter ,
, , .
( | | ) :
sudo apt-get install firestarter (Ubuntu, Debian)
sudo yum install firestarter (Fedora)

Linux apt-get
, firestarter, .
Firestarter firestarter ( root).
(. 19.7).
,
(. 19.8) ppp0. : , .
( ), (. 19.9)
Enable Internet connection sharing. DHCP-
( Enable DHCP for local network), DHCP-
, Firestarter
DHCP-.
(. 19.10) Start firewall now .
, . , Preferences
(. 19.11). , Firewall | Run Wizard.
. Policy
(. 19.12). Editing , :
Inbond traffic policy . .
WWW FTP , ,
Add Rule 80 21 ;

19.

. 19.7. Firestarter

. 19.8.

369

V.

370

. 19.9.

. 19.10.

19.

. 19.11. Firestarter

371

. 19.12.

Outbond traffic policy .


,
, "" . Permissive. ,
, , "" . Restrictive. , ,
Permissive.

:
22 SSH;
23 telnet;
25 SMTP ( );
53 DNS;
110 POP3 ( ).

V.

372

? -,
, ,
. . ,
, .

19.4. AVZ CureIt


19.4.1. AVZ
AVZ (. 19.13), ,
www.z-oleg.com. . .
| .
.

. 19.13. AVZ

19.

. 19.14.

. 19.15.

373

374

V.

,
.
Windows
(. 19.14).
.
, ""
SandBox.sys, Outpost.
|
TCP/UDP (. 19.15). , .
: 135 139. Microsoft. DSL- , DSL , . (, ).
,
,
(. 19.16).

. 19.16.

19.

375

19.4.2. CureIt

CureIt http://www.freedrweb.com.
.
"", DrWeb LiveCD,
. LiveCD :
ftp://ftp.drweb.com/pub/drweb/livecd/.

19.4.3.
-

, ,
LiveCD .
LiveCD Nero | .
.
: CD-R, DVD-R.
AVZ -, avz.exe , ,
a11a.exe, , ,
. : CureIt AVZ, .

19.5.

| , services.msc
<Enter>. , Windows. :
;
;
SSDP;
;
;
;
NetMeeting Remote Desktop Sharing;

V.

376

. 19.17.

. 19.18.

19.

377

, .
,
( ),
(. 19.17).
(. 19.18).

.
(. 19.19).
Windows .

. 19.19.

20


.
,
, , . - ,
. . ,
, Cisco IOS,
, , CISO .

20.1.
, ,
. . , , (
), VPN- , . ,
, .
"" UNIX. UNIX- ,
.
UNIX- .
.

20.

379

(, IOS
Firewall Feature Set,
(IDS, Intrusion Detection Systems). IDS, , .

, , .

20.2.
. ,
, "".
, : , ,
. . , (, ), (, ),
, ,
, .
80 . .
, - , .
20.3.


( AUX1) .
Telnet SSH. , . .
Telnet SSH, SSH,
Telnet ( ) ,
.
1

AUX Auxilary. , .

380

V.

20.4.
,
.
, AUX. , , AUX. .
,
, ,
.
20.5. SNMP

(SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol).


SNMP,
, , ,
(SNMPv3). (SNMPv1, SNMPv2) .

- SNMP,
, :
community;
MIB (Management Information Base) "
";
SNMP- (
).

20.6.
UNIX (Linux). , UNIX syslogd,
. syslogd,
,
UNIX-. , syslogd UDP (
TCP), ,
( ,
). ,

20.

381

, , ,
ACL ( ).
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
,
( ).

20.7.
, (, finger,
BOOTP, ARP Proxy). "" .

20.8. ICMP
DoS- (DoS, Denial of Service, ) ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol
) ,
,
. ,
PMTU (Path MTU discovery), "packet-too-big".
ICMP-,
.

20.9.

IP source route
IP unreachables.
(IP source route)
, . source routed "-", , .
(IP unreachables),
(ACL), ICMP- ( 3,
13), , ACL, .
, . IP unreachables .

382

V.

IP source route IP unreachables Cisco IOS-:


no ip source-route
no ip unreachables

20.10. Anti-spoofing
DoS-
IP-spoofing ()
IP-. , ,
.
, , , - . ,
IP- .

DoS- .
,
DoS-.
SYN flood. , SYN- .
<SYN, ACK>, , , , TCP-
. , SYN- , ,
.
Cisco SYN-
: http://cio.cisco.com/warp/public/707/4.html.
( Land) , IP-
. .
Land- : http://www.cisco.com/warp/
public/770/land-pub.shtml.

20.

383

20.11. CDP
CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) , Cisco, . CDP
Cisco Cisco , Cisco
.

CDP, , , , .
. , . CDP . IOS-:
no cdp run

20.12.
.
, .

VI
PowerLine
" "
" " PLC (Power Line Communications). , " ", ,
PLC-, , . ,
, .
PLC- 200 /.

21

Power Line Communication

21.1.
, !
. , . PLC (Power Line Communications). , 220 . PLC
( ), , . ,
,
.
PLC- PLC-, , , 220 .
, , . , ,
. PLC-,
, 200 /. PLC-
Ethernet-
Wi-Fi.
PLC- . , : . , . PLC- 64.
300 ,
Counter-Strike.
PLC , PLC , .

388

VI. PowerLine " "

21.2. PLC
PLC , " ". , .
,
, . 84
420 . .
PLC- ,
, , , .
PLC :
BPL (Broadband over Power Lines)
. 1 /;
NPL (Narrowband over Power Lines)
.

, .
( . Dynamically turning off and on data-carrying signals).
. PLC- .
- ,
, .
, PLC-
. , (, , , )
( 1 ).
PLC- .
.
HomePlug Powerline Alliance. , 26 2001
HomePlug 1.0,

21. Power Line Communication

389

14 /.
:
HomePlug Turbo 85 /;
HomePlug AV 200 /.

PLC- . HomePlug Turbo, HomePlug AV.

21.3. PLC Wi-Fi


Wi-Fi-? .
, , PLC- - Wi-Fi. PLC- Wi-Fi . PLC- 129200 /. 802.11g
54 /, 802.11n 100 /. : 300
100 Wi-Fi.
. 21.1, , PLC- , , Wi-Fi-.

21.1.


, /



Wi-Fi,

Fast Ethernet

100

100

Gigabit Ethernet

1000

100

IEEE 802.11g

54

35100

IEEE 802.11n

100300

35100

PLC

129200

300

PLC -
. . ,
, . , ,
PLC- . ,
( ),
. , , PLC- . ,

390

VI. PowerLine " "

108144 (9 , 4 34 ),
PLC- .

, . 64
"".
. 180
(20 , 9 ). , , , 180 . PLC- 64 .
Wi-Fi- . Ethernet- .
(PLC Wi-Fi) , , " ", Wi-Fi.
Wi-Fi-, PLC, ,
"" ,
PLC-, .

21.4.
PLC-
PLC- .
Ethernet PLC-
:
;
;
.
Wi-Fi:
;
( 802.11g, 802.11n
);
;
;
;
Multicast- (IPTV).

21. Power Line Communication

391

, , PLC . :
.
, 4 , , 100 / ( 200 /);
PLC- ,
;
, , .
10%;
PLC- .
, PLC- . , . .
.
"" , .
PLC- , ,
( Ethernet- PLC- ). , 1, . , ,
PLC-
, ,
(
). : , 1 000 /, 200 /!
, , PLC-
, , .

.
, ,
, PLC- . ? , -, !
1

, "" .

392

VI. PowerLine " "

21.5. PLC?
, PLC-.
, ?
.
, PLC .
. ,
. PLC-
ZyXEL PLA400 EE 2 968 ( ). , ZyXEL . PLC- 3 000 (-). ZyXEL HomePlug Powerline
Alliance .
PLC-, :
3 2 968 = 8 904 .
, , , , . , 200 . ,
9 100 .
Wi-Fi-.
2 000 3 600 .
, ZyXEL P660HTW2,
3600 , . " ", Ethernet. 20 ( 10
) 10-
, , . 150 () 300
. .
. , Wi-Fi 3 900 . " ", 2
1 200 . : 3 600 + 1 200 + 1 200 = 6 000 . 9 100!
, .
, Ethernet-. 5- 500 . -

21. Power Line Communication

393

Ethernet-: 450 (3 150 ),


: 950 . ,
.
, , Ethernet-. Wi-Fi- ,
. PLC- ,
Wi-Fi, Ethernet.
. Wi-Fi.
PLC-.

22

PLC-
22.1. PLC- ZyXEL

21 , Ethernet-, Wi-Fi, /. PLC


( , PLC-
, , , ), Wi-Fi-. PLC-
: 200 /.
: 2 PLC-
.
PLC- . 3 000 .
9 000 .
, .
,
, 3 000
( ). ,
2 500 . ,
.
,
, . , ,
, , PLC-,
Ethernet-, PLC-.
,
300 . , . , .

22. PLC-

395

HomePlug AV ZyXEL.
ZyXEL?
D-Link ,
Cisco 27.
,
.
HomePlug AV INT6000/6300
Intellon (www.intellon.com),
PLC-. .
40 /. HomePlug AV
Ethernet- IP-
. , 802.11* IPTV.
, HomePlug AV:
80100 /. PLC-
HomePlug AV . 22.1.
22.1. PLC-
HomePlug AV

/
80100 /
40 /
300
200

64
AES, 128

, HomePlug AV
HomePlug 1.0 ( 14 /) HomePlug Turbo (85 /).
( )
.
, PLC-,
HomePlug AV. , , .
: PLC- , ,
, ,

396

VI. PowerLine " "

. Windows Vista, Windows XP


Linux . ,
PLC-, , Ethernet-. ,
PLC-, . PLC , ,
.
Windows XP
Vista, , , . PLC-
.
HomePlug AV (, ZyXEL):

PLA400 PLC- Ethernet;


PLA470 PLC- 4- Ethernet;
P660HWP - ADSL2+ Wi-Fi 802.11g, 4- HomePlug AV;
NBG318S - Ethernet Wi-Fi 802.11g, 4- Ethernet
HomePlug AV;
DMA1100P Ethernet .
.

22.1.1. PLA400
PLA400 ( )
HomePlug AV. .
,
Ethernet-. PLA400 , Ethernet-:
( ). , . , . 22.1.
: , . PLA400.
PLC, ,
Ethernet, . IP ( )
DHCP-, .

22. PLC-

397

. 22.1. PLA400

, . 22.1, . PLC- IPTV (


PLC- ) IP. , , IPTV
PLC-. PLC- ,
, Ethernet.
22.1.2. PLA470
PLA470 Ethernet-, PLC- , . ,
PLA400, . (
) - 3 700 . ,
.
. 22.2.

398

VI. PowerLine " "

. 22.2. PLA470:

22.1.3. - P660HWP NBG318S

- P660HWP NBG318S ,
" ". , , P660HWP, ADSL-, , PLC. Wi-Fi,
Ethernet ( P660HWP Ethernet), PLC- ,
. 22.3.

22. PLC-

399

. 22.3. -

22.1.4. DMA1100P

DMA1100P . : , High Definition. , DMA1100P HDMI (,


).
DMA1100P (. 22.4) Ethernet USB. USB-
, . - : MPEG-1, MPEG-2,
MPEG-4, AVI, WMV 9, DVD-Audio, AAC-LC, WMA9.
TIFF, PNG, GIF, BMP, JPEG.
.

400

VI. PowerLine " "

. 22.4. DMA1100P

, ,
. ,
, , , . 9 000 . , , .
Ethernet- ( Ethernet-, PLC). , .
.
? - !
USB- (, ). , 8 , .
. , 9 000 , . ,
. , ,
. . .
MPEG-4. , "".
, . .
, DivX! .
.
. , . . ZyXEL .
/
S-Video ( HDMI, ).
, ( ). , ,
Ethernet, Wi-Fi-. ""
. ? .

22. PLC-

401

, .
, DVD- USB.
, . (
56 ), DMA1100P. USB-, ,
, DVD. .
, DVD- ( 2 ) . , ,
,
.

22.2. PLC-

PLA400 470 . 22.5. , PLA400


(. 22.5, ) Ethernet-, PLA470 (. 22.5, ),
, .

. 22.5. PLA400 () 470 ()

PLA400 .
. ( ) -

402

VI. PowerLine " "


, PLC-,
, , IPTV. ? . . .

, . Ethernet-. PLA470,
. . , . "" . !
, DHCP . ( )
.
: ,
- , .
Ethernet- 5. ,
PLC- Ethernet-,
PLC-. Ethernet-:
IP-: 192.168.1.1;
: 255.255.255.0;
: 0.0.0.0.
, IP: 192.168.1.2.
. ,
. , .
(. 22.6), . , :
.
AES 128-
.
, ,
Windows XP Vista.

22. PLC-

403

. 22.6. PLC- ZyXEL

: PLC-, , . .

VII


, .
,
. ,
, . , -, DNS- DHCP, (VLAN). ,
.

23



23.1.

, . 10Base . 10 /,
56 /.
23.1.1. 10Base
, .
: 10Base-5 10Base-2. ,
Fast Gigabit Ethernet? . , .
PCI, , , 10Base
, .
Fast Ethernet ( Gigabit Ethernet) ISA
100 /. :
, .
23.1.2. 10Base
10Base, .
. -,
, () . ,
10 /, , , .

VII.

408

, , , 100 /. :
10 /, 100 /. ,
. , , PCI.
, Fast Ethernet. 10Base 1000Base
, (
6), .

5- , ""
.
3- , . Fast Ethernet
5E, Gigabit Ethernet.

5E Fast
Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet. 6
Gigabit Ethernet.

,
. 10Base Wi-Fi- 802.11g
. , 10Base 56 /.
802.11g 30 /, 56
( 802.11g 54 /).
,
PCI ( , "" , PCI,
USB 1.1, USB- Wi-Fi).
23.1.3. Fast Ethernet
Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet ,
. , (20072008 .),
, :
5E
;

23.

409

Gigabit
Ethernet ( , 2007 , 90% . 2008
Gigabit Ethernet).
, ,
( ) . Gigabit Ethernet.
5,
. 6.
BIOS
,
Gigabit Ethernet.

, ,
( , ) ,
( Fast Ethernet ). , .
( )
Gigabit Ethernet. ,
. (
, , ), .
, (VLAN), . 27.

23.2. QoS
QoS (Quality of Service )
. , QoS , (
) , .
( QoS ,
) QoS 20% ,
.
QoS Windows XP :

1. | .

2. gpedit.msc <Enter>.

410

VII.

. 23.1.

. 23.2.

23.

411

|
| (. 23.1).
4.
.
5. (. 23.2) 0 .
Windows Vista Home Basic Premium gpedit.msc, ,
. "" Vista , Windows XP.
3.

23.3.
Windows
23.3.1.

Windows (Scheduled Tasks). ,


, .
HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\
Explorer\ RemoteComputer\NameSpace. :
{2227A280-3AEA-1069-A2DE-08002B30309D};
{D6277990-4C6A-11CF-8D87-00AA0060F5BF}.

,
.
23.3.2.

- .
MTU (Maximum Transmit Unit). Windows MTU, 1 500 .
DSL-, T1, ,
( . 7.2.3
).

VII.

412

MTU :
ADSL, RadioEthernet (PPPoE) 1452;

576.
MTU HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\
Services\ Tcpip\Parameters REG_DWORD MTU. (1452 576). :
(. 23.3).

. 23.3. MTU

PPPoE , Windows MTU. HKLM\SYSTEM\


CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters REG_DWORD
EnablePMTUDiscovery 1.
, .

TCP- 64 .
HKLM\SYSTEM\ CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters REG_DWORD Tcp1323Opts 1.

, .

23.4. : DNS
DNS . , .
, sales.corp.some_domain.ru.
, IP-.

23.

413

. ,
DNS-. , DNS- .
DNS- . DNS- ru. , , DNS some_domain.ru. , , IP- sales corp. DNS- sales ( , ).
. DNS-
DNS-. sales.corp.some_
domain.ru : ,
DNS, DNS- , ,
. -
sales.corp.some_domain.ru, , !
,
" ".
-, , ,
IP- , . , - some_domain.ru.
. -. ,
, 1001000 /,
12 /, -.
, - . :
"" : ,
. . . , ,
! DNS .

24

DNS-
24.1. , DNS
(DNS, Domain Name System) IP- .
,
, IP-.
DNS (. 24.1). DNS DNS- ( , ). . 24.1 DNS, (ru, com, org)
(firma). ( TLD, Top Level Domains)
: com, biz, org, info, gov, net, ws, (ru, ua, uk, ...)
. . , , .
:
[_].[_N]. ... [.TLD]

, ftp.sales.firma.ru

. 24.1. DNS

24. DNS-

415

DNS-
. DNS- DNS-
ru - firma? DNS- ru,
firma , DNS- IP- DNS
firma. DNS- (
) firma.ru DNS- sales. IP- sales.firma.ru,
, IP-
ftp.sales.firma.ru (, FTP- -
).
,
. , , . , ,
DNS, . "" ( ) DNS-, ,
, .
, , .
DNS DNS.
-, , DNS,
, DNS- .
-, DNS. ,
.

Linux.
,
-, Windows.

24.2. DNS
DNS? "" ( "" ) ,
. , Windows-, -

416

VII.

. . ( )
"" . , , . - . ( )
, , . ? ""
-. , (, ) . , .

Linux "" . , , 70,


100% , -. DNS. DNS-
:
, DNS-
, DNS ;
-, , (
) .
, DNS- ,
. bind. ,
bind (Berkley Internet Nameserver Deamon),

named.
bind /etc/bind/named.conf
named ( 24.1).

24.1.

/etc/bind/named.conf

options {
directory "/etc/bind/ ";
};
controls {};
zone "." in {

24. DNS-

417

type hint;
file "db.root";
};
zone "0.0.127.in-addr.arpa" in {
type master;
file "db.127";
};
zone "localhost" {
type master;
file "db.local";
};
zone "255.in-addr.arpa" {
type master;
file "db.255";
};
include "/etc/bind/named.conf.local";

:
/etc/bind;
controls {} , named rndc.key, rndc. , , killall
named, ,
;
"." , hint () , db.root , "" DNS;
localhost 0.0.127.in-addr.arpa , db.local db.127.
/etc/bind db*.
, .
include, /etc/bind/named.conf.local. , DNS-. -,
named.conf . DNS ( ),

VII.

418

named.conf.local
DNS-.
named:
# service named start

, :
# ps -ax | grep named

named named
.
, , :
# tail /var/log/messages

Aug 8 9:58:16 ppt named[3140]: starting BIND 9.2.3


Aug 8 9:58:16 ppt named[3140]: using 1 CPU
Aug 8 9:58:16 ppt named[3140]: loading configuration from '/etc/named.conf'
Aug 8 9:58:16 ppt named[3140]: listening on IPv4 interface lo, 127.0.0.1#53
Aug 8 9:58:16 ppt named[3140]: listening on IPv4 interface eth0,
192.168.0.1#53
Aug 8 9:58:16 ppt named[3140]: zone 0.0.127.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial
1997022700
Aug 8 9:58:16 ppt named[3140]: running
, . .
, . options
:
forward first;
forwarders {
# DNS-
# 192.168.99.1

# - ,

# DNS-, /etc/resolv.conf
192.168.99.1;
};

forwarders IP, DNS-, DNS-

24. DNS-

419

, , . IP .
forward :
only DNS- ;
first , forwarders DNS .
forward forwarders.
/etc/resolv.conf IP-
DNS.
:
domain firma.ru
# IP 127.0.0.1
nameserver 127.0.0.1
# IP- DNS-
nameserver 10.0.0.1

nslookup:
# nslookup yandex.ru

Server: localhost.firma.ru
Address: 127.0.0.1
Non-authoritative answer:
Name:

yandex.ru

Address: 213.180.216.200

, ,
.

24.3. DNS-
DNS, , , . , : controls,
. :
# /usr/sbin/rndc-confgen > rndc.conf

VII.

420

rndc.conf .
key controls:
key "rndc-key" {
algorithm hmac-md5;
secret "";
};
controls {
# ""
inet 127.0.0.1 port 953
allow { 127.0.0.1; } keys { "rndc-key"; };
};

named.conf ( ). , controls.
DNS : .
: ,
. named.conf :
zone "firma.ru"

type master;
file "firma.ru";
notify no;
};
zone "1.0.0.10.in-addr.arpa" {
type master;
file "10.0.0.1";
notify yes;
}

firma.ru (

,
, IP-. 24.2
.
directory)

24.2.
@

IN

SOA

server.firma.ru.

20040603
3600

hostmaster.firma.ru. (

; (
)
;

24. DNS-

421

3600
;
3600000 ; 1000
3600
; TTL
)
IN NS
IN A
IN MX
www
IN CNAME
ftp
IN CNAME
mail
IN CNAME
c2
IN A
c3
IN A
localhost.
IN A

server.firma.ru.
10.0.0.1
100
server.firma.ru.
server.firma.ru.
server.firma.ru.
server.firma.ru.
10.0.0.2
10.0.0.2
127.0.0.1

, :
, ,
,
(firma.ru) . ,
(server
server.firma.ru),
;
IN SOA (Start Of Authority, SOA).
SOA ( DNS-). server.firma.ru.
e-mail , @ ,
. SOA ;
NS , IN A
IP-;
MX . ,
server.firma.ru.
100 . ,
( ). ,
:
IN MX
IN MX

100
150

mail1
mail2

CNAME , . , server.firma.com : www.firma.ru, ftp.firma.ru, mail.firma.ru;

VII.

422

c2.firma.ru ( c2, firma.ru ) c3.firma.ru,


IP- 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.3 ;

.

localhost,

, 24.3. ,
IP- .

24.3.
@

IN

SOA

server.firma.ru.

hostmaster.firma.ru. (

20040603

; (
)

3600

3600

3600000 ; 1000
; TTL

3600
)
@

IN

NS

server.firma.ru

IN

PTR

server.firmaru

IN

PTR

c2.firma.ru

IN

PTR

c3.firma.ru

, , IP, ( ). IP- ,
, :
2.0.0.10

IN

PTR

c2.firma.ru

, , .
options ( named.conf) allow-query:
allow-query {
10.0.0.0/24;
localhost;
}

DNS- firma.ru
24.4.

24. DNS-

24.4. named.conf
key "rndc-key" {
algorithm hmac-md5;
secret "";
};
controls {
inet 127.0.0.1 port 953
allow { 127.0.0.1; } keys { "rndc-key"; };
};
options {
directory "/etc/bind";
allow-query {
10.0.0.0/24;
localhost;
}
};
zone "." in {
type hint;
file "db.root";
};
zone "0.0.127.in-addr.arpa" in {
type master;
file "db.127";
};
zone "localhost" {
type master;
file "db.local";
};
zone "255.in-addr.arpa" {
type master;
file "db.255";
};
zone "firma.ru"

423

VII.

424
type master;
file "firma.ru";
notify no;
};

zone "1.0.0.10.in-addr.arpa" {
type master;
file "10.0.0.1";
notify yes;
}

:
# service named restart

24.4. DNS-
. ,
- (, ).
DNS ,
:
zone "firma.ru"

type slave;
file "firma.ru";
masters { 10.0.0.1; };
};

, (slave),
masters ( ).
allowtransfer, DNS-, , :
options {
...
allow-transfer { 10.0.0.2; };
}

25

- Squid
25.1. -
?
- Squid , (HTTP), "" , , , ,

.
- .
-, ,
-. ,
,
. , - firma.ru,
, .
,
Squid, , ""
, .
Squid , Samba . squid.
squid.
/etc/squid/squid.conf.

426

VII.

25.2. Squid

/etc/squid/squid.conf ( 25.1).
25.1. /etc/squid/squid.conf
# .
# http_port <> http_port <>:<>.
# , SQUID #

http_port 192.168.0.1:3128
# ,
# cach_peer proxy.your_isp.com
# ,
# - (85 ).
# ,
# -.
# , MB
# : cache_mem 85 MB
cache_mem 87040
# .
# .
# . , ,
# 20% .
# , 1024 , 820 .
# .
# .
cache_dir /usr/local/squid 1024 16 256
#
#
#
#

.
,
.
maximum_object_size 4096 KB

# ,
acl allowed_hosts src 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
acl localhost src127.0.0.1/255.255.255.255

25. - Squid

427

# :
acl allow_ports port 80

# http

acl allow_ports port 21

# ftp

# SSL-
acl SSL_ports port 443 563
# , allow_ports
http_access deny !allow_ports
# CONNECT ,
# acl SSL_ports:
http_access deny CONNECT !SSL_ports
# , ,
http_access allow localhost
http_access allow allowed_hosts
http_access allow SSL_ports
http_access deny all
# , squid
# (ppt, admin):
ident_lookup on
acl allowed_users ppt admin
http_access allow allowed_users
http_access deny all


, Squid.

25.3.
25.3.1.
ACL (Access Control List).

, ACL. AllowedPorts:
acl AllowedPorts port 80 8080 3128

428

VII.

AllowedPorts, port. http_access / :


http_access allow AllowedPorts
http_access deny AllowedPorts

#
#

port :
proto (HTTP FTP);
method (GET POST);
src IP- ( ) ;
dst IP-/URL , .
,
:
acl allowed_hosts src "/etc/squid/allowed-hosts.txt"

/etc/squid/allowed-hosts.txt :
# den
192.168.0.2/255.255.255.255
# admin
192.168.0.3/255.255.255.255

""
. :
allowed-hosts.txt , squid.conf.
25.3.2. "" URL

"" URL:
acl blacklist url_regex adult
http_access deny blaklist
http_access allow all

URL, adult.
"" URL ( , ).
25.3.3.

ACL .
ACL:
acl banners urlpath_regex "/etc/squid/banners.txt"
http_access deny banners

25. - Squid

429

banners.txt URL , ,
^http://www.clickhere.ru
^http://banner.kiev.ua
...

25.4. -
, -
:
# service squid start
# service squid restart
# service squid stop

25.5.

3128 ( ).
. 25.1 Opera.

. 25.1.

430

VII.

25.6. -

- . ,
- .
, , 100 , ,
.
5 ,
500 .
, WWW/FTP, .
. , 100 , .
- 100 23 .
. , "" ( ), , -. , , . .
Squid. , "" URL
( /),
.
, -:
, . -,
, HTTP-
-. -,
, ,
, .
-, iptables:
iptables -t nat --new-chain TransProxy
# 80 (HTTP) 443 (SSL, https) #
iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 80 -j TransProxy
iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 443 -j TransProxy
iptables -t nat -A TransProxy -d 127.0.0.1/8 -j ACCEPT
# IP-
iptables -t nat -A TransProxy -d 192.168.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT
# - 192.168.1.1, 3128
iptables -t nat -A TransProxy -p TCP -j DNAT --to 192.168.1.1:3128

25. - Squid

431

Squid. squid.conf
:
# IP-,

tcp_outgoing_address __IP
httpd_accel_host virtual
httpd_accel_with_proxy on
httpd_accel_uses_host_header on

, , iptables
, . Squid.

25.7. squidGuard
"" , .
"" , .
squidGuard, "" , squidGuard. squidGuard
, .
"" squidGuard .
http://www.squidguard.org/. "" . squidGuard
, : , , ,
. .
squidGuard .
"" /usr/share/
squidGuard-1-3-0/db ( squidGuard ).
( squidGuard )
/usr/local/squidGuard/db.
,
: http://www.squidguard.org/blacklists.html.
blacklist.tar.gz. /usr/share/squidGuard-1-3-0/db
/usr/local/squidGuard/db:
cp blacklist.tar.gz /usr/local/squidGuard/db
gzip -d blacklist.tar.gz
tar xfv blacklist.tar

VII.

432

squidGuard. /etc/squid/squidGuard.conf.sample /etc/squid/


squidGuard.conf . ,
.
:
dbhome /usr/local/squidGuard/db
logdir /var/log/squidGuard

# s = , m = , t =, w = , h = , f = , a =
time workhours {
weekly m 08:00-12:00 13:00-19:00
weekly t 08:00-11:00 12:00-19:00
weekly w 08:00-12:00 12:00-18:00
weekly h 08:00-13:00 13:00-18:00
weekly f 08:00-12:00 13:30-18:00
weekly a 11:20-14:00
weekly s 11:32-14:00
}

. , . ,
, .
src users {
ip 192.168.1.5-192.168.1.200
}
src admins {
ip 192.168.1.1-192.168.1.4
}

, , . , , .
acl {
admins {
pass !advertising all

25. - Squid

433

#
redirect http://server.ru/error.html
}
users {
pass !adult !audio-video !forums !hacking !redirector !warez !ads
!aggressive
!drugs !gambling !publicite !violence !banneddestination !advertising all
redirect http://server.ru/error.html
}
# (pass none)
default {
pass none
redirect http://server.ru/error.html
}
}

. "" squidGuard Squid. /etc/squid/squid.conf


:
redirector_bypass on
redirect_program /usr/local/squidGuard/bin/squidGuard
redirect_children 1

Squid:
# service squid restart

:
tac /var/log/squidGuard/squidGuard.log | less

, squidGuard (started)
(ready for requests). , , .

26

DHCP-
26.1.

(DHCP, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) . DHCP , , DHCP, IP-, , IP- , DNS .
DHCP .
, , , 20 . IP- ,
IP-.
IP- , IP- DNS. ,
.
(, ), IP- DNS-, :
DNS-.
DHCP- . . ,

.
DHCP-, . IP-
DNS- DHCP-
IP- DNS- "" . ? .

26. DHCP-

435

DHCP- Linux.
DHCP- dhcp. DHCP-
Linux Windows, .

26.2.
DHCP-
DHCP- /etc/dhcpd.conf.
/usr/share/doc/dhcp-<>/
dhcpd.conf.sample.

:

option, OPTION, ;
#.
:
ddns-update-style ad-hoc;

ddns-update-style interim;

, .
DNS: (ah-doc) DHCP-DNS (interim).
, , DHCP . :
( ),
( ).
, DHCP- ddns-update-style section,
.
192.168.1.0 ( 26.1).
26.1. 192.168.1.0
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
#
option routers

192.168.1.1;

#
option subnet-mask

255.255.255.0;

VII.

436
#
option domain-name

"example.ru";

# IP- DNS
option domain-name-servers

192.168.1.1;

# IP-:
# IP-
range 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.100;
}

, ( subnet) shared-network.
: ,
DNS-, subnet ( 26.2).
26.2.
shared-network __ {
#
#
option domain-name

"example.ru";

# DNS
option domain-name-servers

ns1.isp.com, ns2.isp.com;

#
option routers

192.168.0.1;

# 192.168.1.0 192.168.2.0
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 {
range 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.254;
}
subnet 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 {
range 192.168.2.10 192.168.2.254;
}
}
# shared-network

26. DHCP-

437

26.3.
DHCP- IP- ,
, .
IP-.

default-leased-time

max-leased-time, , -

.
, , IP- , /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.leases.
: MAC- ( ), IP-,
.
, .

26.4.


192.168.1.0
26.3.

26.3.
DHCP-
# DNS
ddns-update-style ad-hoc;
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
#
option routers

192.168.1.1;

#
option subnet-mask

255.255.255.0;

#
option domain-name
# IP- DNS

"example.ru";

VII.

438

option domain-name-servers

192.168.1.1;

# IP-:
# IP-

range 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.100;


}

26.5. DHCP
,
service:
service dhcpd start
service dhcpd restart
service dhcpd stop

26.6.
(, , IP-)
IP- IP- DNS-.

27


27.1.

"":
, , . . , . ,
. ( VMware) ,
, . .
(VLAN, Virtual Local Area Network)
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
, , .
, .

27.2. ?
, ,
. -
, .
-, VLAN . , ,

440

VII.

,
.
-, . VLAN
( ).
-, VLAN .
VLAN ARP-1 .
,
.

27.3.

, - , VLAN.
. , "", ,
, .
, VLAN? ?
. , , .
.
, , Cisco,
. IEEE 802.1Q.
, VLAN.
4 , :

TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier) .


, .
802.1Q 0x8100.
16 ;
Priority . IEEE 802.1p. 3 ;
1

ARP- .

27.

441

CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) .


, MAC-: 1 , 0 . 1 ;
VID (VLAN Identifier) . ,
. 12 .

,
, (. 27.1).

. 27.1.

27.4. VLAN
. ,
, :
( Cisco , .
trunk ports) ( , access ports).
, .
, .
,
.
.
( )
.
. VLAN
- . -
, (native VLAN).
, , -

442

VII.

.
VLAN 1.

VLAN.


. , VLAN.

. 802.1X.
RADIUS- .

27.5. VLAN
Cisco
, , VLAN , . " ",
, Cisco,
.
, : switch1 switch2. .
(fa0/N), () (. 27.2).

. 27.2.

27.

443

Cisco
ISL (Inter Switch Link), 802.1Q.
, . , VLAN 1. (VLAN 2) , Cisco:
switch1(config)# vlan 2
switch1(config-vlan)# name myvlan

. fa0/3
fa0/4 VLAN 2:
switch1(config)# interface fa0/3
switch1(config-if)# switchport mode access
switch1(config-if)# switchport access vlan 2
switch1(config)# interface fa0/4
switch1(config-if)# switchport mode access
switch1(config-if)# switchport access vlan 2

, : access.
VLAN 2.
, , "" .
. , fa0/5 fa0/9 VLAN 2:
switch1(config)# interface range fa0/5 - 9
switch1(config-if-range)# switchport mode access
switch1(config-if-range)# switchport access vlan 2


:
# show vlan brief

:
VLAN

Name

Status

Ports

----- ---------------- --------- ------------------------------1

default

active

Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/10, Fa0/11,


Fa0/12, Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15,
Fa0/16, Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19,
Fa0/20, Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23,

VII.

444

Fa0/24
2

mylan

active

Fa0/3, Fa0/4, Fa0/5, Fa0/6,


Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9

. :
switch1(config)# interface fa0/24
switch1(config-if)# switchport encapsulation dot1q
switch1(config-if)# switchport mode trunk

"" VLAN 2, , , , , ,
VLAN 2 ( VLAN 1):
switch1(config-if)# switchport trunk native vlan 2


:
switch1# show interface fa0/24 trunk
switch1# show interface fa0/24 switchport

switch 1:
!
interface fa0/3
switchport mode access
switch1(config-if)# switchport access vlan 2
!
switch1(config)# interface fa0/4
switch1(config-if)# switchport mode access
switch1(config-if)# switchport access vlan 2
!
switch1(config)# interface fa0/24
switch1(config-if)# switchport encapsulation dot1q
switch1(config-if)# switchport mode trunk

switch2 .
, , .
(. 27.3).
switch1:
switch1(config)#ip routing

27.

445

. 27.3.

IP- (192.168.1.1)

(VLAN 1, default):
switch1(config)#interface default
switch1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
switch1(config-if)#no shutdown

switch1(config)#interface vlan2
switch1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
switch1(config-if)#no shutdown

fa0/20, .
, , , ,
. :
switch1(config)#interface fa0/20
switch1(config-if)#no switchport
switch1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
switch1(config-if)#no shutdown

446

VII.


switch1(config-if)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.1

switch1:
!
ip routing
!
interface fa0/3
switchport mode access
switchport access vlan 2
!
interface fa0/4
switchport mode access
switchport access vlan 2
!
interface fa0/24
switchport encapsulation dot1q
switchport mode trunk
!
interface default
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
no shutdown
!
interface vlan2
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
no shutdown
!
interface fa0/20
no switchport
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
no shutdown
!
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.1

27.6.
, Cisco . , Cisco ,
.
D-Link. , ( ), .

27.

447

, D-Link
.
: http://www.dlink.ru/technology/vlan.php.
,
D-Link .
VLAN D-Link
: http://xgu.ru/wiki/VLAN__D-LINK .

27.7. VLAN Linux


Linux.
, VLAN Linux
VLAN:
.
802.1Q,
:
# modprobe 8021q

? , . :
#
#
#
#

cd /usr/src/linux
make menuconfig
make modules
make modules_install

Network options / 802.1Q VLAN Support.


:
# modprobe 8021q

.
"" , IP-:
# /sbin/ifconfig eth0 down
# /sbin/ifconfig eth0 0.0.0.0 up

,
. vconfig ( vlan vconfig
, vconfig, ).
:
# /sbin/vconfig add VLAN_ID

VII.

448

:
# /sbin/vconfig add eth0 1
# /sbin/vconfig add eth0 2

VLAN 1 VLAN 2 eth0. IP- :


# /sbin/ifconfig eth0.1 192.168.1. netmask 255.255.255.0 up

# /sbin/ifconfig eth0.2 192.168.2. netmask 255.255.255.0 up

( ):
# /sbin/route add default gw 192.168.1.x

"" /proc:
cat /proc/net/vlan/eth0.N

cat /proc/net/vlan/eth0.1

. VLAN , , ,
. , 802.1Q
/etc/modules.conf, VLAN /etc/network/interfaces,
:
auto myvlan
iface myvlan inet static
address 192.168.1.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
vlan_raw_device eth0

27.8. VLAN Windows: ?


Windows VLAN, , . :
Intel Advanced Networking Suite (iANS);
3com DynamicAccess;
Broadcom Advanced Server Program (BASP).

, ,
, .
VLAN Windows,

27.

449

VLAN Linux-. , FAQ


Broadcom, BASP
(Broadcom Advanced Server Program): http://www.broadcom.com/support/
ethernet_nic/faq_drivers.php.

27.9. VLAN?
, VLAN . ?
. (, , VoIP, IPTV) , , 1024 VLAN (
802.1Q).
Double VLAN (Q-in-Q),
(VLAN ID) . ,
Double VLAN, : http://www.dlink.ru/
technical/faq_hub_switch_86.php.
Double-VLAN.

27.10.
,
VLAN, , , . :
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/VLAN VLAN;
http://www1.bstu.by/wiki/index.php?title=VLAN_802.1Q 802.1Q;
http://people.freebsd.org/~arved/vlan/vlan_en.html VLAN
FreeBSD (FreeBSD VLAN mini HowTo);
http://www.opennet.ru/tips/info/1381.shtml
Q-in-Q,
.


.
, ,
, .

. - ,
, :
www.dkws.org.ua ( dkws.net dkws.org). , .


1
1000Base-X 11
10GBase 11
3
3Com 7
3G 273
8
802.11g+ 292
A
Access point 21
ACL 381, 427
ad hoc 279
ADSL 10
ADSL- 117
Alohanet 7
Apple 7
AT 7
ATM 10
AUX 379
B
Bluetooth 274
BSS 279
C
Callback 336
CDP 383
Centronics 5
Collapsed-backbone 9

CSMA 7
CSMA/CA 276
CSMA/CD 7
CSS 269
D
DHCP 24, 434
DHCP- 298
dial-in 334
DIX 7
DNS 31, 36, 414
DNS-
424
415
419
DoS- 381
DSSS 268
E
EAP 329
EDGE 273
ESS 279
Ethernet 7
F
Fast Ethernet 19
FDDI 10
FHSS 268
Firestarter 367
FireWire 5
Frame Relay 6, 10
FreeS/WAN 339
FTP 31

454

G
Gateway 23
Gigabit Ethernet 19
GPRS 273
H
Hayes AT 7
Hosts 36
HTTP 31
Hub 16
I
IBSS 279
IDS 379
IEEE 8
IEEE 1394 5
IEEE 802.11a 269
IEEE 802.11b 269
IEEE 802.11g 269
IEEE 802.11n 269
IEEE 802.1D 9
IEEE 802.3 8
IEEE 802.3a 8
IEEE 802.3i 9
IEEE 802.3u 10
IMAP 31
IOS 379
IP 29
IPng 32
IpSec 338, 339
IP-spoofing 382
iptables, 430
IPv6 32
IP- 32
ISDN 8
L
L2TP 338
LAN 11
LAN Manager 8
Land- 382

M
MAC 275
MAC- 28, 437
MAN 12
MIB 380
Mixed WPA2/WPA 309
Mixed WPA2/WPA-PSK 309
MPPE 346
N
NAT 33, 243
NIC 33
Novell Netware 8
O
OFDM 269
OpenS/WAN 339
OSI 1, 27
P
Personal Computer 6
PMTU 381
PoE 296, 300
POP 31
PPTP 338, 339
Q
QoS 10
R
RADIUS 329
RAS 334
Repeater 16
Router 16
RS-232C 5
S
SMTP 31
SNA 6
SNMP 380
SOA 421


Squid, - 425
squidGuard, 431
SSID 24, 307
SSL 30
SuperG 292
Switch 16
SYN flood 382
T
T1 8
TCP 30
TCP/IP 30
TLD 414
Token Ring 8
U
UNIX 8
URL, 428

, 428
280
286
285
- 282
367

:
default-leased-time 437
max-leased-time 437

265, 313

28
:
pppoeconf 152
pptp-command 348
rndc-confgen 419

455

V
VPN 334
W
WAN 12
WECA 272
WEP 290
Wi-Fi 272
WiMAX 273
Wireless access point 280
Wireless adapter 280
WPA 290, 309, 329
WPA2 309, 329
WPA2-PSK 309, 330
WPA-PSK 309, 330
X
X.25 6

16, 18
26
16, 18

16, 378
244
245
34
89, 129, 139, 144
92
92
:
267
267

- 90

:
16
16

456

GPRS:

Windows Vista 171


Windows XP 160
90
89
Windows XP 94
Windows Vista 105

bind 416
dhcp 435
pptp-client 348
pptp-linux 348
16
:
GPRS 157

124
123
124
:

KPPP 130
rndc 417
- 83, 425, 429
430
30


268

268

:
/ 15
15
12
414

Windows Vista 255
Windows XP 247
:
dial-up 90
DSL 115

Windows Vista 120


Windows XP 117

:
13
13
13
12
13
13
13
21

:
/etc/bind/named.conf 416
/etc/dhcpd.conf 435
/etc/ipsec/ipsec.conf 341
/etc/ppp/chap-secrets 348
/etc/pptpd.conf 346
/etc/resolv.conf 419
etc/squid/squid.conf 425

23