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32.988.02
004.72
32

32

. .
Microsoft . . .: ,
2006. 348 .: .
ISBN 5-469-01114-3
Microsoft .
.
Microsoft.
, ,
,
. ,
.
,
Microsoft.
32.988.02
004.72

.
.
, , ,
. , ,

, .

ISBN 5-469-01114-3

, 2006


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3. . . . . 30
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5. , . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6. Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

III. . . . . . . . . . . 121
7. Windows 2000/XP . . . . . 122
8. . . . . . . . 196

IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
9. Windows 2000/XP . . . . . . . . . . . 210
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
11. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

- . . . 305
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
ARCnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Token Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3. . . . . 30
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
IEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

IEEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
IETF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
ISO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
ITU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
OSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Ethernet? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
10 Gigabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
IP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
TCP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5. , . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
6. Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

3. . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7. Windows 2000/XP . . . . . . 122
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
. . . . . . . . 123
. . . . . . . . . 125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Microsoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
MMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
MMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Active Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Active Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Windows 2000 Server . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
DHCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
DNS WINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

10

Windows 2000 Server . . . . 173


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
arp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
ipconfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
hostname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
msconfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
nbtstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
8. . . . . . . . . 196
. . . . . . . . . . . 197
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
802.1x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . 205
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
9. Windows 2000/XP . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Windows 2000 Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
. . . . . . . . . . 217

Windows 2000 Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

11

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
. . . . . . . . . . . 264
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
11. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

12

Windows XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

- . . . 305
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343


- ,
.
, .
, , Ethernet
Windows ( Windows 98 Windows XP).
, , .
, . , , ,
. ,
.


, .
.
, .
, .
. ,
Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gigabit Ethernet, .
. TCP/IP.
. ,
, , .
, . , .

14

Windows
(98/2000/XP). , .
, , , Windows 2000/XP.
,
.
, .
, .
,
- .


,
comp@piter.com ( , ).
!
- :
http://www.piter.com.


, , ,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
.
,
, .
, .



, XXI , ,
.
- XX . , ,
,
.
.
, , , , , ().
, , .
.
() ,
. ,
. , , .

. .
, .
.
, ,

17

. , .
. , . , , ALOHA,
.
3 /
256 , .
, . Ethernet.
1976 ,
, . ,
CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access, ). , 1979 Ethernet II,
Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Xerox.
DIX ( ). ,
10 /c.
10BASE-5.
1982 Ethernet Apple Computer, 1984 IBM PC.
Ethernet. , 1980
ISO OSI (Open System Interconnect).
7
, ( ) . .
( ) , 1980 IEEE IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee.
1985
802.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD), Ethernet.
Ethernet. (,
10BASE-5 10BASE-2), (, 100BASE-TX 100BASE-FX),

(, 10Gigabit Ethernet).
Ethernet , (
Gigabit Ethernet)
. .

18

1.

, Ethernet .
Token Ring FDDI,
. ,
.
, .
,
.
, ,
90- , 20 ( ALOHA, ).
.

, - .
. ,
, , , (). ,
. ,
, . .
. .
, .
, . .
.

, , , , , , ( ).
, .

20

2.

, . .
, , , , , ,
( ) .
, , . , .
, ,
.
, , .
.
Ethernet.

, ,
Ethernet,
Windows. , Ethernet.
Ethernet , ALOHA (. 1). CSMA/CD
.

, .


. ,
.
(), .
, ,
, .
Ethernet.
. 2.1 , .

21

. 2.1. ,

,
:
m , - ;
m , (CSMA/CD,
);
m ,
.
CSMA/CD, ,
. , Fast Ethernet , .
, , . .

,
.
m 10BASE-2. ( Ethernet), 10 /. 185 . Ethernet 90-
.
, RG-58, 58 . , .
,
, 10BASE-5.
m 10BASE-5. , 10BASE-2 ( Ethernet), 10 /.
500 .
,

22

2.

,
, , .
, , . ,
, - ,
.


. ,
. , .
. Ethernet. . 2.2 .

. 2.2.

, . .
. . 2.3
.
, , .
, ,
.

23

. 2.3. ,

, ,
.
m 10BASE-T. T (
Twisted Pair). , . , , 100BASE-T ( 100 /).
m 10BASE-FL. . ,
( FL ), 10 /.
m 100BASE-TX. (, ), 100 .
, .
m 100BASE-T4. , 10 /, .

100 , . ,
.
m 100BASE-FX. FX -
( ).
, 412 .
m 1000BASE-SX.
- , .
S (short) , ( 850 ).

24

2.

, , 550 .
m 1000BASE-LX. - , . L
, (1270355 ).
550 ( ) 5000 ( ).
m 1000BASE-CX. Gigabit Ethernet, .
25 .
m 1000BASE-T. 100BASE-T,
1 /. , 100 .
m 10000BASE-T. , .
, ,
100 / 1 /.

.


, , , (. . 2.4).

. 2.4.

25

,
, . , ,
, .
,
CSMA/CD.
,
, ,
.

:
m ARCnet;
m AppleTalk;
m TokenRing.


(. 2.5). .
.
, , .

. 2.5.

26

2.



. , , (. 2.6). , ,
.
, .

. 2.6. ,

,
( ):
m ARCnet;
m Token Ring
m Ethernet.
Ethernet, .

ARCnet
, , .
ARCnet ,
. ,
, .

27


( ),
.
ARCnet 2,5 /,
.
,
.
ARCnet 1
255. , 255. , ARCnet. ,
,
, .
ARCnet
( , , - ),
. , .

Token Ring
Token Ring IBM Ethernet.
.
.
. . . 2.7.

. 2.7. Token Ring

:
m , (MAU, Multistation Access Unit);

28

2.

m ,
;
m .
, . , , .
.
. , ,
,
, .
.
Token Ring , . ,
. (
16 / ),
.

Ethernet
. , , (CSMA/CD, Carrier
Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect). ,
:
m .
, , .
m . , .
m . , , .
,
.
m . ,
, . ,
.
CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance,
). ,

29

RTS (Request to Send, ). .


. , RTS. .

. , .
m NetBEUI. Microsoft
Windows, .
, .
m IPX/SPX. NetWare,
Microsoft Windows.
, .
m TCP/IP.
, . .
. , .

Ethernet,
, ,
. , . ,
, , . ,
.
, .
10BASE-2,
,
. ARCnet .

, , , ,
, .


, , , . ,

31

, ,
, .
, . ,
. , :
m IEC;
m IEEE;
m IETF;
m ISO;
m ITU.
, .

IEC
, , International Electrotechnical Commission.
.

. 3.1. IEC

32

3.

1906 ,

. 1967
, ISO. ,
, , ISO/IEC. -, www.iec.
ch/index.html. . 3.1 -.

IEEE
, . Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers ( ). . IEEE
802. ( 80 1980, 2 ()).
, IEEE.
m 802.1. . , ( MAC) ,
.
,
. .

m 802.2. OSI
LLC MAC.
m 802.3. CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Collision Detection,
). Ethernet.
, ( 10BASE-T).
10 Gigabit Ethernet ,
CSMA/CD .

m 802.4. - ( 75 ).
Token Bus, .

33

m 802.5. , Token Ring. , .


m 802.6. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network,
). .
m 802.7. , . , , FDM (Frequency
Dividing Multiplexing, ).
m 802.8. - , - . FDDI
(Fiber Distributed Data Interface, - ).

. 3.2. - IEEE

m 802.9. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network,


).

34

, ISDN, CCITT.

m 802.10. ,
VPN (Virtual Private Network, ).
m 802.11. , .
m 802.12. 100 VG AnyLAN, , ATM, Ethernet, Token Ring.
- IEEE (www.ieee.org/portal/site/) . 3.2.

IETF
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
( ). ,
,
.
. . 3.1. , (Internet Area).
3.1. IETF

6lowpan

IP 6 WPAN (IPv6 over Low


power WPAN)

dhc

(Dynamic Host
Configuration)

dna

(Detecting Network
Attachment)

dnsext

DNS (DNS Extensions)

eap

(Extensible
Authentication Protocol)

hip

(Host Identity Protocol)

ipdvb

IP DVB (IP over DVB)

ipoib

IP InfiniBand (IP over InfiniBand)

iporpr

IP (IP over Resilient


Packet Rings)

ipv6

IP 6 (IP Version 6 Working Group)

l2tpext

2 (Layer Two
Tunneling Protocol Extensions)

l2vpn

2 (Layer 2 Virtual Private


Networks)

35

l3vpn

3 (Layer 3 Virtual Private


Networks)

magma


(Multicast & Anycast Group Membership)

mip4

IPv4 (Mobility for IPv4)

mip6

IPv6 (Mobility for IPv6)

mipshop

MIPv6 (MIPv6
Signaling and Handoff Optimization)

nemo

(Network Mobility)

ntp

(Network Time Protocol)

pana

(Protocol for
carrying Authentication for Network Access)

pppext

(Point-to-Point Protocol
Extensions)

pwe3

(Pseudo Wire Emulation


Edge to Edge)

- IETF (www.ietf.org) . 3.3.

. 3.3. - IETF

36

3.

ISO
, , . ,
, .
ISO. 1947 .
,
.
,
ISO.
,
.
, IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission, ), ITU (International Telecommunications Union, )
WTO (World Trade Organization, ).
ISO, , -, www.iso.org/iso/en/ISOOnline.frontpage.

. 3.4. - ISO

Ethernet

37

ITU
,
, , . ,
, , - (www.itu.int/home),
. 3.5.

. 3.5. - ITU

Ethernet
, , ,
.

,
(
) ( ). .

38

3.

.
. . , , .
m . , .
m . ( 1 ). (1 = 1 ).
m . , .
,
( ).
,
. , l = c/n. l ( ),
n ( ), c (3108 /).

, (0 1).
,
, .
, ,
.


. 3.6. , , (Data Terminal Equipment, DTE).

. 3.6.

39

, ,
, ,
, . ( ) ( ). ,
.
.
, , ( 10 /).
.

-
. ,
, . ,
( ). ,
- .
, .
m .
, . , ( ).
.
m () .
.
. , .
m .
. ( 100 )
. , 50 . ,
75 . ,
, , Ethernet, .
m .
.
(/).

40

3.

m (NEXT, Near End Cross Talk).



.
(. 3.7) (. 3.8).

. 3.7.

. 3.8.

,
Ethernet (10BASE-2, 10BASE-5). , , .

.
m (10BASE-5).
RG-8, RG-11. 50 ,
0,5 .
( 18 /
100 ). - .
m (10BASE-2).
RG-58/U, RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U.
, , . , -
185 . 500 . Ethernet, .
m ARCNet 93 ( RG-62). ,
ARCNet .

41

,
( ).
. .
m .
() .
.
, 20 /.
m . ,
4 /. IBM .
m . 1991
16 /.
.
m .
20 /.
. ,
135 100 , .
Token Ring.
m . 100 /
1 /. . Fast Ethernet (100 /), FDDI, 100VG-AnyLAN,
ATM (155 /), Gigabit Ethernet.
m . , , 1 /.
Gigabit Ethernet. ,
.
(STP) ,
.
, , .


. , . STP UTP , .

42

3.

- .
, (. 3.9).
, - ,
, , . , , , .

. 3.9. -

.
m ,
, .
.
m , . .
- .
.
(), . ,
(510 ).
( 10 /), .
, , . ,
.
, .
- ,
.

. , ,
62,5 (125 ), , .
.

43

-
- , , .
- 0,85 , 1,3 1,55 . ,
.
0,85 1,3 . 1,3 1,55 .
, .
,
.



, Ethernet . ,
.
OSI,
, .

OSI

. , OSI (Open System Interconnection,
).
. , , , ,
(. 3.10).

. 3.10. OSI

44

3.



, /- , . , , . .

( , , ).

. Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T),
5 100 100 .


, , , (Data Link Layer). .
,
. , ,
. Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring.


. .

, .

.
, , .
(ARP,
Address Resolution Protocol), , IP, TCP/IP.

45


,
, .
, OSI ( ).
.
, , ,
.
TCP/IP, TCP/IP,
(UDP, User Datagram Protocol).


.
.
.


,
. , . , .
/ , , , IPSec.


, ,
. .
. , FTP TFTP.
Ethernet IEEE 802.3, 10BASE-2, 10BASE-5, 10BASE-T, 10BASE-FB
10BASE-FL.
. 1995 (IEEE 802.3u),
Fast Ethernet (
100 /). 1998 (IEEE 802.3z),
Gigabit Ethernet. Ethernet,
Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet
, CSMA/CD.
. .

46

3.

Ethernet?
, Ethernet,
.
, . ?
,
. Ethernet CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access
with Collision Detection, ).
, Ethernet, .
Ethernet,
. , .
1. , ,
,
, ,
.
2. , . ,
, 64 (8 ).

.
3. .
4. ,
.
. , , , , .
,
-
,
, .
, , , - .
. CSMA/CD
. ,
,
. , ,

47

. .
,
, . ,
.
(binary exponential backoff). . , ,
, .
Ethernet.
Ethernet
, . , , , ,
.
, ,
, . ,
. . ,
, Ethernet, .
, , . , ,
. Ethernet,
. .
Ethernet , .
46 .
, , 64 . , 72 . ,
.
, 10BASE-5, 10 /. ,
, 57,5 (575/10 106).
, , , 13 000 . .
, , ,
, 6500 . , ,

48

3.

10BASE-5, .
- , . 10BASE-5 .
, ,
,
, .
,
, .
10BASE-5 ,
500 ,
2500 . ,
, 6500 . , , .
,
, . ,
, .

Ethernet (Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet)


-
. , , Fast
Ethernet 210 , Gigabit Ethernet ( , ) 25 .

Ethernet

Ethernet, . , , , .

, . ,
, , , , .
MAC Ethernet, Ethernet. ,
Ethernet 576 . ,
10BASE-5 57,5 . 9,6 , 67,1 .

49

, Ethernet
, 14 880 /.
,
- , , , .
. ,
1526 ( ), 12 208 . , ( ), 1221,9 , 818 /. ,
.
, . , .

. 46 ,
14 880 /. , : 14 880 46 8, 5,476 /.

818 1500 8 = 9,816 /.
,
.
, ,
.
. , , . . .

Ethernet
, Ethernet, , Ethernet.
IEEE 802.3, Ethernet,
, MAC-.
,
LLC ( IEEE 802.2), ,
IEEE, Ethernet
.
,
MAC LLC.

50

3.

. Ethernet
. Ethernet.
1980 , Digital, Intel Xerox
(DIX), Ethernet, . , 802.3 , .
Novell,
802.2 ,
.


, Ethernet.
. , ,
Ethernet,
.
, Ethernet :
m Ethernet 802.2;
m Ethernet 802.3;
m Ethernet II, Ethernet DIX;
m Ethernet SNAP ( Novell).
802.3 (. 3.11). .

. 3.11. 802.3/LLC

m Preamble (). 10101010,


.
m SFD (Start of frame delimiter, ). 10101011. , .
m DA (Destination Address, ).
, . , 6 . .
(unicast),

10 Gigabit Ethernet

51

(multicast). ,
.
.
m SA (Source Address, ). , .
.
m Length ().
.
m Data (). 0
1500 . , 46 , ,
46 .
m Padding ().
46 . , Ethernet. ,
46 .
m FCS (Frame Check Sequence, ).
4 ,
CRC-32. ,
.
Ethernet
10 Gigabit Ethernet.


10 Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.3ae,
10 Gigabit Ethernet, ,
, . , ,
Ethernet.
, , CSMA/CD.
, 10 Gigabit Ethernet.
, . 10GBASE-LR, 10GBASE-ER, 10GBASE-SR, 10GBASE-LW 10GBASE-LX4.
.
:
PCS (Physical Coding Sublayer, ), -

52

3.

, PMD
(Physical Media Dependent, ). , . ,
.
, Ethernet (Fast Ethrernet Gigabit Ethernet)
, .
10 Gigabit Ethernet
(850, 1310 1550 ),
PMD. , PMD (LAN PHY) (WAN PHY) . PMD- , 10GBASE-LX4
WWDM
. , 62,5 ( 300 ) ,
9
( 10 ).
10 Gigabit Ethernet
(MAN, Metropolitan Area Networks).
, 2002 - ().
. , .
3.2. Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet

10 Gigabit Ethernet

CSMA/CD,

Fibre
Channel

8B/10B

64B/66B

/-

40

, , . 10 Gigabit Ethernet.
, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
10 Gigabit Ethernet, , , , . 10 Gigabit Ethernet
2006 .

53

. 3.2,
Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gigabit Ethernet.
.
.



- . , , ALOHA,
, .
. , . .
,

, , ,
- .
,
.
,
. , :
m , ;
m ;
m , ;
m (, ), .

:
m ;
m ;
m ( ).
.
, , .
,
. .

54

3.

,
, .
, (access point), . . .
-
.
:
m ;
m ;
m ( );
m .
,
. ,
, , .
, .
10 /.
:
m . ,
.
m , . , ,
. 30 , - .
m , . , , , .
m .
, .
, ,
,
30 . ,
.
, . -
, .

55

. 3.12, .

. 3.12.

, .
, . . .
, .
, ,
. .
,
-,
, ( ) .

. , , , ,
, . , , , , .

IEEE 802.11 802.11, 802.11b, 802.11b+, 802.11a
802.11g. , , . , IEEE 802.11b

56

3.

11 /, IEEE 802.11b+ 22 /, IEEE 802.11g 802.11a 54 /.


802.11g. 802.11b 802.11b+,
, 802.11g, (, ) 802.11b/b+, , 802.11b/b+ 802.11g.
802.11g 802.11b/b+ , . , , 802.11b/b+,
802.11g. 802.11b/b+ 802.11g.
802.11.
802.11, , 2400 2483,5 , .
1 /
( IEEE 802.11) 100 / ( IEEE 802.11n).

802.11 (SS, Spread Spectrum). ,


. .
, .
.
, .
. ,
, , , , ,
. , .
.
, (DSSS, Direct Sequence
Spread Spectrum).

57


. , . , .

DSSS ( 0 1)
(chips). , .
.
,
. .
, .
.
,
, (PN-), , . ?
.
, , .
,
- . , ,
. .
.
,

,
.
, . ,
. , , .
,
, , .

58

3.

, , , , 802.11.
, . 802.11 11 (11100010010). ,
,
.
802.11 :
1 2 /. DSSS 11 .
1 / 11 106 /,
22 . ,
83,5 , ,
.
11 22 , 5 . ,
2400 2423 ,
2412 .
2417 , 2462 .
, 3- .
.
(DBPSL, Differential Binary Phase Shift Key).
.
0 p.
( 0), , p.
1 / IEEE 802.11, 2 /.
DSSS, , 11 , (DQPS,
Differential Quadrature Phase Shiftey).
: 0, p/2, p
3p/2. , ,
.
2 / ,
11 106 /, , .

59

IEEE 802.11b, 1999 , IEEE 802.11. 5,5 11 /, . 1 2 /


, 5,5 11 / (CCK, Complementary Code Keying). , CCK-, :
, , .
IEEE 802.11b ,
.
5,5 /,
11 /. , ,
/.
(PBCC, Packet Binary Convolutional Coding). , , .
, . . , , ,
1/3.
,
. . , , ,
, .
, . , , , .
, .
PBCC ,
R= 1/2.
, . ,
. , ,
, . , ,

60

3.

, .
, IEEE 802.11b.
, 802.11b+,
802.11b. , 802.11b+ , .
802.11b+ 22 /, PBCC.
5,5 / ,
, ,
11 / .
11 / , , 5,5 /

( ). 5,5 /, 11 /
11 106 .
22 / . -,
8- (8-PSK),
,
. ,
. .
( ) , , , , . ,
, , , .
, . . 4/3. , 1/2,
2/3,
.
, PBCC 22 / 802.11b+.
(K = 7, R = 1/2)
22 /.
44 / 4:3, , . ,
33 /. 8-PSK,

61

. 11 106 , 22 /.
IEEE 802.11, .
-
www.wireless.ru,
.


,
. (ETSI)
HiperLAN2 (High Perfomance Radio LAN, ).
, IEEE 802.11.
Nokia Ericsson.
, 802.11, HiperLAN2 5 54 /.
(OFDM),
MAC. 802.11
Ethernet, HiperLAN2 , . HiperLAN2 802.11, ,
QoS (802.11
). ETSI, 802.11.
- www.etsi.org/technicalactiv/hiperlan2.htm.

Bluetooth
Bluetooth ,
. ,
Bluetooth , .
Bluetooth Special Interest
Group (Bluetooth SIG). IEEE 802.15.1.
Bluetooth v 1.x, (WPAN, Wireless Personal Area Network).
? .
( )

62

3.

,
( , , . .).
Bluetooth , ( 1 ). ,
.
, Bluetooth
100 . Bluetooth 2,45 .
,
.
Bluetooth 1 /,
723,3/57,6 / ,
433,9 /.
, 64 /
.
. Bluetooth
IEEE 802 (FHSS) 1600 24002483,5 .
Bluetooth , ,
GSM, .
Bluetooth . .
. , , .
,
128- , , .
Ethernet
. .
, Ethernet.

Microsoft. ,
, .

TCP/IP
, ,
. TCP/IP
,
. TCP/IP . Windows Windows 95.
Windows .
TCP/IP Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol ( / ). , TCP/IP (ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol), (UDP, User Datagram Protocol).
.
TCP/IP.
m IP ,
. ,
, .
m TCP , .

64

4.

, IP. TCP ,
, .
, ,
.
m UDP
(User Datagram Protocol). ,
.
m ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). MAC-
IP-. , .
m RARP
(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol). ARP,
RARP IP-
MAC-. BOOTP
DHCP, .
m DNS (Domain Name System, ).
, , . , - http://www.my_server.ru, DNS
IP-, .
m BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol, )
, . . ,
.
m DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, ) IP-
.
m RMON (Remote Monitoring, )
.
m SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol,
) .
m SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, ) , .
IP TCP . ,
IP.

65


, TCP/IP . ,
, ,
. , IP/TCP . IP.
m IP . IP-
, ,
.
m IP ,
.
m ,
.
m IP-.
IP . OSI,
. IP, , ,
. IP- ,
.
. 4.1 IP-.
.

. 4.1. IP-

m Version ()
IP (IPv4 IPv6).
m IHL (Internet Header Length, IP-) , .
m Type of Service ( ) IP-. Gigabit
Ethernet 10 Gigabit Ethernet, IPv6.

66

4.

m Datagram Length ( ) IP- . , IHL, .


m Identification (). IP , ,
,
. . - , .
16-
. - , .
m Flags () . . DF (Dont Fragment, ).
MF (More Fragments, ).
m Fragment Offset ( ). MF ,
,
.
m TTL (Time to Live, ).
, IP- . .
m Protocol () ,
ICANN.
m Header Checksum ( ) , IP-.
IP- , TTL.
m Source IP Address (IP- ).
, IP- , .
m Destination IP Address (IP- -). , IP- , .
m Options (). ,
.
m Padding (). ,
32 .
,
IP-.

67

IP-
, . . , IP , , ,
. IP- . ,
, MAC- - .
IP-,
, MAC- IP- . , ARP .

IP-
IP- (A, B, C, D E). , IP-, ( IP- 32 IPv4).
IP- ( ),
IP- ( ).
IP- A ,
. - , IP-,
IP- A 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255.
, A . ,
. .
, 7 . A 127 ( 01111111 127).
, , . A ,
IP-.
, 16 777 215 (24 ,
1). , ,
16 777 216 IP- (224).
A 16 .
A 127.
IP- A 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255.
, ,
A.

68

4.

IP-, B, ,
, . - , 128.0.0.0
191.255.255.255. 128
10000000. 191 10111111.
10, IP- . ,
. ,
16 384 .
B 65 536 (216) .
IP- C ,
1, 1 0, . - , IP-
192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255.
,
. C 2 097 152.
256 . , ,
.
IP-, C. , IP-, A B .

IP-, .
, .
D , .
D ( - )
224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255. ,
IP-. , 268 435 456
IP- .
IP- E 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255.
.
IP- 127.0.0.1 ( A)
TCP/IP. ping
. , , ping 127.0.0.1 (. 4.2).
IP- . , Telnet, .

69

. 4.2.

IP- , , , , ,
. ,
,
IP-. IP-
, . , A, 16
. ,
Microsoft .
, .
IP- , .
, .
,
, . , , . IP- , ,
1, , IP-
, . ,
, 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
, .
IP- B. - ,
255.255.0.0. IP- A
255.0.0.0. IP- 255.255.255.0.

70

4.

, 255.255.255.128 C,
.
193.112.255, . IP- 193.112.255.1 193.112.255.128,
193.112.255.129 193.112.255.254.


, IP- ( , , ) ,
. -
. (CIDR,
Classless Interdomain Routing) ,
.
IP-
, . , IP- 130.166.232.233
130 IP- ,
130.166.0. , .

.

,
, . ,
, ,
. IP- .
CIDR. . CIDR IP-.
CIDR ,
IP- ,
IP- /n, n
. , A /8, B /16, C /24.
CIDR IP- ,
, 150.174.121.0/24.
150 16 IP- ( IP-), /24
IP- 24 , 8 -

71

. B .
. 4.1 CIDR
IP- C.
4.1. CIDR C
CIDR

( )

/27

1/8 C (32)

/26

1/4 C (64)

/25

1/2 C (128)

/24

1 C (256)

/23

2 C (512)

/22

4 C (1024)

/21

8 C (2048)

/20

16 C (4096)

/19

32 C (8192)

/18

64 C (16 384)

/17

128 C (32 768)

/16

256 C (65 536)

/15

512 C (131 072)

/14

1024 C (262 144)

/13

2048 C (524 288)

C CIDR. , /16
C (256), .
, , /15
B, /14 . .
CIDR,
IP-.
IPv6, .

IPv6
, IPv6, 1995 . , -

IP-. IPv6 , , .
, (NAT, Network Address Translation)
(CIDR, Classless Interdomain Routing), -

72

4.

IPv4. IPv6
,
, . IPv6
Windows XP Windows Server 2003.
IPv6
IP-, , IPv4.
IPv6 , IP-
128 , 32 . IPv6
, , , IPv4 4 IP-.
, IPv6, IP-. ,
IPv6:
m IP-,
;
m IP-;
m .
IP- IPv4,
IP- IPv6 ( 4.3).

. 4.3. IP- IPv6

m Version (). 4- IP. IPv4 4. IPv6


6.

IP-.
m Traffic Class ( ).
.
m Flow Label ( ). 20- Quality of Service, IPv4.

73

m Payload Length ( ). 16-


IP-, .
m Next Header ( ).
IPv6 , ,
IPv6, IP- .
m Hop Limit ( ).
8- Time to Live (TTL), IPv4. IP- . , IP- .
m Source Address ( -). IP- (
128 ), - IP-.
m Destination Address ( -). IP- ( 128 ), - IP-.
,
, . , ,
, .
Next Header , IPv6.
, IP-
ICMP- -. . ICMP- , IPv6.
IPv6 , .
m Hop-by-Hop ( ).
.
m Destination Options ( -).
.
m Routing ().
, IP- . , ,
. .
m Fragment (). MTU -.
MTU ,
, ,
. - , Authentifiation.

74

4.

m Authentifiation ().
.
m Encapsulating Security Payload ( , ). .
m Upper layer header ( ).
, IP-.
, IPv6, , IP-.
, .
TCP, .

TCP
IP, TCP
. , . IP, TCP
. . , , IP
. TCP , . ,
IP-. , TCP, .
TCP , IP.
, . ,
UDP, TCP
. UDP, TCP , - . .
TCP ,
. . , ,
IP- , TCP
. , (139.15.1.5, 13) ,
TCP- 13,
IP- 139.15.1.5.
, ,
.

TCP

75

, IP- TCP-
.
,
. ,
. , TCP , ,
.
.
, ,
.
. , .
,
. , ,
TCP, , , .
TCP
. , .
, , . .
, .
-
.
, , .
TCP .
.
,
. TCP ,
. TCP.
TCP , (). ,
IP-. TCP
.
TCP ,

76

4.

. ,
.
. ,
, .
TCP
() (. 4.4, ), .
, - . (. 4.4, ).
.
, ,
.
.
,
, . ,
, . , , .
, , .

. 4.4. TCP

TCP, -, . TCP, -, ,
. , ,
TCP, . ,
.
TCP, , -

TCP

77

.
, .
TCP . ,
, , . ,
. , ,
.
, , , ,
. ,
,
, , .
TCP , ,
. , .
.

. , .
. ,
.
, TCP,
,
.
.
, .

- -.
, . , .
.

TCP-
, TCP
, ,
, ,
. TCP . 4.5.

78

4.

. 4.5. TCP

. .
.
m Source port ( -). 16-
, , .
m Destination port ( -). 16-
-.
m Sequence number ( ). 32-

IP-.
m Acknowledgment number ( ). 32-
IP-.
m Data offset ( ). 4-
, IP-.
.
m Reserved (). 6-
.
m URG. ,
.
m ACK. (Acknowledgment)
.
m PSH. , .
m RST. ,
.
m SYN. .
m FIN. .
m Window (). 16- , -.
m Checksum ( ). 16-
, .

TCP

79

m Urgent pointer ( ). URG


.
m Options (). .
TCP -, ,
, . ,
,
, . ,
TCP , , . , , ,
. , ,
. , - , .
TCP
.
, -
, . ,
TCP , , . , TCP .
,
. .
URG ,
. URG ,
,
.
,
. , . TCP, , (Options).
(MSS, Maximum Segment
Size). , , , , . ,
.

80

4.

, . ,
. , , TCP , IP-
(MTU), . ,
MTU , , 536 . IP- (576 ) IP .
,
TCP ,
, . . C ,
TCP IP-,
, , .
, , ,
40 TCP- IP-. - , ,
. , , .
,
. , IP-.
MTU IP.
TCP-, , .
, .
, , , .
IP-,
- .
.
-, TCP . -, ,

TCP

81

. , MTU ,
. -,
.
, IP .
TCP .

.


-.
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82

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83

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84

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85

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86

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87

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88

4.

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89

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, N , . N TCP .
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Detection).
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;

90

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0 1).
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91

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, . 4.6.

. 4.6. TCP

, , , SYN .
, SYN . ,

92

4.

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.
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93

. ,
. SYN- ( ) n. SYN-,
, .
, n+1. , , ,
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.
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94

4.

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.
. FIN-
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-).

.
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, .
.

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95

TCP-.
, . TCP ,
. , ,
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. PSH
. , , -.
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TCP
TCP . , , .
. . .
. 4.2.
4.2. TCP

TCPMUX

TCP

ECHO

DISCARD

11

USERS

13

DAYTIME

15

NETSTAT

17

QUOTE

19

CHARGEN

20

FTP-DATA

, FTP.

21

FTP

(File Transfer Protocol)


96

4.

4.2 ()

22

SSH

23

TELNET

25

SMTP

(Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol)

37

TIME

43

NICKNAME

53

DOMAIN

(Domain Name Server)

67

BOOTPS

BOOTP

77

RJE

RJE

79

FINGER

finger

80

WWW

C World Wide Web

88

KERBEROS

Kerberos

95

SUPDUP

SUPDUP

101

HOSTNAME

102

ISO-TSAP

ISO-TSAP

103

X400

X.400

104

X400-SND

- X.400

110

POP3

111

SUNRPC

Sun

113

AUTH

117

UUCP-PATH

, UUCP

119

NNTP

(Network News Transfer


Protocol)

123

NTP

(Networ Time Protocol)

139

NETBIOS-SSN

NETBIOS

161

SNMP

(Simple Network
Management Protocol)

, Microsoft, .

,
, , , , .
, , .
,
.


,
.
.


( ) , . ( ),
,
. -
,
,
, .
OSI ( ) . . 5.1
(Fast Ethernet).
,
Ethernet,
, . , ,
ARCnet Token-Ring, , Ethernet.
, , ,
.

99

. 5.1. Fast Ethernet


, Fast Ethernet ( Gigabit Ethernet).
.
,
,
.

, . , , ,
Plug and Play (PnP).

. ,
, , PnP. ,
.



.
.

100

5. ,

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2. MAC. LLC. , , -
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3. . .
4. .
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.
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.
Ethernet PCI.
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.

, (). ,
USB-. ,
.

ISA (Industry Standard Architecture, ) , -

101

. ISA IBM PC.


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. IBM AT
ISA . ,
8 , 16- .
EISA (Extended ISA, ISA).
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PCI .
.
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(bus mastering).
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.
, . 02h. 00h , , ,
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, .
, PCI.
, . ,

, .
, , , . . ,
. , (, ). , ,
.

PCI (. 5.2)
(IRQ), .
,
.

102

5. ,

. 5.2. PCI

PCI: Mini PCI,


CompactPCI, Low-Profile PCI, Concurrent PCI PCI Express.
. , Mini PCI .
, PCI ISA VLB. , ,
. PCI

25, 30 33 . ,
PCI ,
, ,
. , PCI , VLB,
PCI. . PCI
, .
.

PCI , . . RAID-, 10 Gigabit
Ethernet PCI
(133 /) .

103

PCI Express, 3GIO


(3rd Generation I/O), PCI. , - , ,
, , . PCI
Express PCI , .
, PCI Express
PCI.
, PCI Express ,
. , PCI Express, , .
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Express
PCI-, PCI
PCI Express.
PCI Express 256 /,
. PCI,
,
PCI Express .
PCI Express X16,
16 , 4 / . AGP 8X
2,1 /
. , , AGP 1X, 264 /. .

. 5.3. PC Card

PCI
PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, ). ,
.

104

5. ,

, ( PC Card). . 5.3
PC Card.


, , .
,
10 /c. Fast
Ethernet (100 /).
.
,
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.
, , Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring . .
(MAC-), -. 48- , .
MAC- . Ethernet-, IEEE. ,
. Ethernet.


,
. ? ,
, , , , ,
. , .
, .
Windows 2000,
(Event Viewer).
, .

105

, . , , .

, Plug and Play. ,


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3. ,
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7.
.
8. BIOS . , .
9. Windows XP,

. ,
(. 5.4). .
10. , .

106

5. ,

. 5.4.

, .
MS-DOS,
- , .
, , . ,
ping- .
.
- , . System Information ( Windows 2000) ( Windows
XP). , , .
. 5.5 .

Windows 98/NT 4.0, Microsoft Diagnostics ( Resources).

107

. 5.5.

ISA, , .
, IP-. IP-
, IP- .
,
, . ,
.
. (-). .

, , , .
, : (repeater),
(hub) (concentrator).

108

5. ,

,

. ,

. , , FDDI, Ethernet, Token Ring.
, , , ,
. , .
, .
, ,
() . 5 72, RJ-45, ,
, . . 5.6 .

. 5.6.

,
,
RJ-45. , ,
.
RJ-45, .
, , .
, ,
. .

109

, .
, . ? . , Ethernet
. , ,
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1. . , .
2. 60 .
3. ,
.
: ( ,
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.
SNMP, / .


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Ethernet , .

110

5. ,

, .
, . ,
.
( IEEE 802.1D) ( Token Ring IBM).
. ,
.
,

. , , , , .
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. .

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, .
,
Ethernet, , 2030 .

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, .


, . -

111

,
, ().
2000 ,
, , .
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, IEEE
802.11b, .
, .
(
, access points), . , 100 ,
.
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. Linksys WET11, Ethernet .
.
,
.
m . , . ,
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m ! , .
, .
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,
Open System, Shared Key Closed System.
Open System, . , .
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, ,
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m Long Preamble ( ) .
m MAC- - -
. .

112

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, .

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113

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, , , ,
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) 200 (
).


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,
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114

5. ,


, . ,
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.

. 5.7.

,
, .
. . 5.7.

. OSI (3- ) .
,
. , .
, IP-,

, IPX/SPX AppleTalk.

115


, () .
,
Token Ring, Ethernet . .
,
, .
(hop), . 15, .


, , . ,
, MAC-, ,
.
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:
m ;
m () ;
m ( ).

.
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.
.

. . (OSPF, Open Shortest Path First)
(RIP, Routing Internet Protocol).
RIP - ,
.
, -

116

5. ,

, .
, , . ,
.
OSPF .
.
, .


, , , .
,
. , ,
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. Telnet,
. , .
.

, .
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m OSI (
),
.
m OSI . .
m , (ARP,
Address Resolution Protocol).

?
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117

, , . ,
,
, .
, , , . ,

(NAT, Network Address Translation). IP-,
, IP-
. .
, ,
.
m .
,
;
m
;
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,
. ,
.
, Cisco. (. 5.8).
( ,
, ).

. 5.8. Cisco

Ethernet.



Ethernet
, .
, Ethernet, .
.

Ethernet ,
.
m ,
, 1024.
30 (10BASE-2) 100 (10BASE-5).
m , (100 100BASE-T, 185
10BASE-2 500 10BASE-5).
m 575 , .
m
47 , .
,
, (2500 ).

Ethernet

119

Ethernet 543. Ethernet,


, :
m , , ;
m , , ;
m .

.

. 6.1. Ethernet

. 6.2. Ethernet

120

6. Ethernet

Ethernet, , .
6.1 6.2 Ethernet,
.
.
10 %.

.
,
, .

, , Windows.



, Windows 2000/XP.
, .




Windows 2000/XP
Microsoft . Windows Windows 3.11 for Workgoups, .
Microsoft
(Windows NT).
, Windiws XP.
Windows 2000 Windows NT Windows 95/98/Me.
,
, Active Directory, Windows 2000/XP.

Windows XP/2000, , Windows 2000/XP. , TCP/IP, .
, Windows . , ,
-
, . ,
Windows 2000/XP
:
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123

m , Windows 9x.
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Server Windows XP. ( Windows NT
Windows 95/98.) , .
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XP, , Windows 2000 Server.


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2000/XP.
, , . .
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124

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125




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,
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126

7. Windows 2000/XP

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Windows 2000 Server .
,
. . 7.1
.
7.1. ( Windows 2000)

Active Directory.
,
.

DNS

, DNS.
(
, ).
DNS

DHCP

DHCP IP-.
, DNS
WINS, .
, ,

WINS

NetBIOS
IP-.

IIS

IIS (Internet Information Services,


) Windows 2000 Server,
Windows XP. FTP Web
, .
(
)

127

,
,


. -
RAID-0RAID-5,

,
(TAPI, Telephony Application
Programming Interface).
, ,
IP-

Windows 2000
Advanced Server.
,

, SQL Server
2000,

RAS

(Remote Access Service)


Windows 2000 Server


. ,


X.509,


, Microsoft

,
. ( )
.
, Windows Server 2003 .

, . Active Directory , ( ),
.

128

7. Windows 2000/XP

Active Directory, .
DNS, DHCP, WINS,
.


, . ,
. ,
.
.
(DHS, DHCP . .),
Active Directory, . ( , Kerberos, NTLM, , , IPSec RAS).




.
, -
.



, . , , .
, Windows 2000 Server
Windows XP. .


, .
(128 ). EIDE (
SATA), -, -,
( ), , .

129

Pentium 233 , , 78 , .


, - , . , 40 ,
, .
128 .
256 , .
Pentium II
300 ( Celeron 366
).


,
( ).
, ,
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Windows
NT 1997 (TSE, Windows NT 4 Terminal Server Edition).
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. , . , . ,
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32 .
, 288 (128
( ) + 160 ( , 32 )). , , ,

.

130

7. Windows 2000/XP


(,
Active Directory, DNS, DHCP WINS).
, Pentium II,
300 .

,
, , , Pentium II (
Pentium III) 400 . ( ) .
( ) 250 ,
,
RAID-5.
( , SCSI).

,
. Windows 2000
Advanced Server (Windows 2003 Server).

Windows 2000 Server (Windows


XP) :
m ;
m ;
m ;
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5.


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- Microsoft http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/
hcl/default.mspx (. 7.1). ,

131

, . - Windows 2000 Server


(Windows XP) Microsoft.

. 7.1. -,



. , .
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, Linux, ), ATX (
), BabyATX MicroATX.
, ,
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AT ATX.
m . (),
. , PCI, PCI

132

7. Windows 2000/XP

Express AGP. 4-5 PCI.


AGP ,
.
m .
SIMM ( ), DIMM (
), DDR DDR II ( ,
).
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m , . , : Socket 7, Slot 1/Socket 370,
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Intel Athlon AMD. Socket 7 Pentium 1, Slot 1/Socket 370 Pentium II/III Celeron.

,
.
: Intel AMD.
Microsoft.


, ,
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m . 15 Ultra SCSI
.
m . SCSI: ,
, RAID-.

Windows

133

, SATA
EIDE SCSI, .

, SCSI
, , ,
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,
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134

7. Windows 2000/XP

,
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, Windows 2000 Server. Windows XP
, .



. .

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NTFS,
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, .


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135

2. ;
3. ;
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.
, Windows XP
Windows 2000 Server, , .

1. . ,
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Windows .
2. . , , .
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4. . .
Windows 2000 ,
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136

7. Windows 2000/XP

(, ).
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Windows . . , ,
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IP-, IP-.
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2. .
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Microsoft), File and Print Sharing for Microsoft Networks ( Microsoft),
TCP/IP. .
3. .
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.
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, .


,
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,
.

Windows

137


Windows 2000 Server
,
.
,
i386 - . .
1. FAT16.
2,1 , FDISK,
MS-DOS. 2 , FAT32
32- FDISK.
2. . Windows 95/98, DOS-.
MS-DOS , TCP/IP, DOS-,
, .
3. , , .
winnt.exe, - Windows 2000
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Server ( ).
m $win_nt$.
m winnt.exe
.


, Windows 2000 Server ,
.
.
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- , 1020 .
, . , ,
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138

7. Windows 2000/XP



, Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2000 (. 7.2). , Active Directory,
DNS, DCHP . . , , .
,
( Windows 2000/XP).

Microsoft
Microsoft (MMC, Microsoft Management Console) , , . MMC ,
Windows 2000. .

. 7.2. Microsoft

Microsoft

139

Microsoft ,
, . . 7.2

.
.
. 7.2 Microsoft Windows XP, MMC Windows 2000 Server.


,
, .

MMC
MMC,
,
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MMC \_.msc /a /s

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.
m /a. (
Windows 2000), .
m /s. , MMC Windows 9x Windows NT.
,
. /a.
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:
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/ 4
/ . .
Microsoft \systemroot\System32. , .

140

7. Windows 2000/XP

MMC
, , . , DNS
DNS-.

. 7.3.

: . , -
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MMC.
/ , /
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, . , 44 . (. 7.4 7.5).
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.

. 7.4. Windows 2000

. 7.5. Windows XP

141

142

7. Windows 2000/XP



. , , . . 7.6.

. 7.6.


, Windows
2000 Server (Windows XP). . 7.7.

, MMC,
(. 7.8).
,
Microsoft,
Active Directory.

143

. 7.7.

. 7.8. ,

144

7. Windows 2000/XP

Active Directory
Active Directory ,
.
Active Directory , , . , X.500
LDAP.
X.500 , .
(DIB, Directory Information Base). , .
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(. 7.9).

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Active Directory
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access, ). ,
.
. ,
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,
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LDAP, ,
Active Directory.
m . , , , X.500.

Active Directory

145

. .
, (OU, organization unit).
m . , X.500. .
m . . LDAP
Kerberos. ,
(SASL, Secure Authentication Secure
Level). LDAP 3.0
(SSL, Secure Socket Level), TCP/IP.
m . . ,
,
.
m .
.
, LDAP, .
LDAP , .
, Active Directory ,
LDAP, X.500. Active Directory
, LDAP, .
, Active Directory:
m Windows NT, Windows 2000. ;
m ,

;
m . ( ).
, ,
.
m Active
Directory, .

(OID, Object Identifier).

146

7. Windows 2000/XP


Active Directory , .
, LDAP X.500,
. , , , . .
, :
LDAP://my_server.my.com/cn=epson, ou=autosales,
dc=smallcom, dc=com


Active Directory , . . , WIM wim.com.
, , accounting.wim.
com. ,
.com,
InterNIC
. Active
Directory, , , . ,
-, . Active Directory (GUID).
-, ,
, . . 7.10.

. 7.10.

Active Directory

147


-, (OU, Organization Unit).
, , , , , .


. ,
, . Active Directory,
.
, Active Directory, . ,
.
, ,
.
Active Directory
DNS . Active Directory
Active Directory
DNS.


Active Directory,
, .
, .
Active Directory
, . ,
.


Windows 2000 . . 7.11
, . .

148

7. Windows 2000/XP

. 7.11. ,

Active Directory
Active Directory Windows 2000 Server, . ( 44 ) .
Windows 2000 (. 7.12).
Active Directory NTFS,
,
.

. 7.12. Windows 2000 Server


Active Directory Active Directory.
Active
Directory (. 7.13).

Active Directory

149

. 7.13. Active Directory Windows 2000

1. , . (. 7.14), , (
).

. 7.14.

,
, .
(
EFS), . , .

150

7. Windows 2000/XP

2. (. 7.15).
.

. 7.15.

3.
(. 7.16).
.

. 7.16.

4. DNS- (. 7.17).
(, my_server.com). .

Active Directory

151

. 7.17. DNS-

5. (. 7.18)
NetBIOS , .
.

. 7.18. NetBIOS

6. (. 7.19)
Active Directory. ( ).
.

152

7. Windows 2000/XP

. 7.19. Active Directory

7. (. 7.20)
Sysvol, . .
, .

. 7.20. ,

8. (. 7.21) ,
, , .
, , Windows 2000. , , , -

Active Directory

153

Windows 2000. ,
,
Windows 2000 . .

. 7.21.

9. (. 7.22) ,
Active Directory. , . .

. 7.22. ,
Active Directory

154

7. Windows 2000/XP

10. (. 7.23), .
. , .

. 7.23. ,

11. Active Directory.


- , . ,
Active Directory ,
DNS-.


, , . . ,
, .
, .
( ) . Active Directory .
Windows 2000 Server ( Windows XP) .
, , . :
.

155

Windows 2000 Server .


Active Directory, . , .
Active Directory
. , , . .

, Active Directory,
SAM. .


Windows 2000 Server , Active Directory,
.
, , , SAM.
, , , .

: .
Windows 2000 Server, Windows XP.
SAM,
Active Directory.

. , ,
.
? ,
,
.
. , , , . ,

156

7. Windows 2000/XP

, .

, .
, .
, .

.


Windows 2000 Server (Windows XP)
Active Directory.
,
. ,
- .
, .
.
1.
, .
2. ,
.
3. - , , ( , ) .



(SID, security identifier).
, .
.
, , . . , (RID,
Relative Identifier).
,
SID, , . , .

157

SID ,
, .



,
.
Windows 2000 .

Windows 2000, (ACL).
, .
Windows
2000, .
, .
. ,
, .
Windows 2000,
.
.
, , . .
.
, .
. .
,
.
. , .
.
, :
m ;
m ,
;
m ;
m , , ,
.

158

7. Windows 2000/XP


Windows 2000 Server (Windows XP)
, . , ,
, .
,
Windows 2000 Server.
m (Administrators). , .
, . , ,
,
,
. .
m (Users). , Windows 2000 (Users). Users,
.
m (Power Users).
, Users,
.
m (Account Operators). . ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, , , , . .
m (Backup Operators).
,
. . .
m (Print Operators). ,
, .
.
m (Server Operators).
.

159

m (Replicator). , .
m (Guests). -
, .
, ,
.

Windows XP HelpServicesGroup ( ).

, .
m . , , , .
,
.
, , .
m .
.
Users.
, Windows 2000 Server.
, .
m (All).
. ,
- , ,
, . ,
.
m (Interactive). , .
m (Network). ,
.
m (System).
, ,
.
m - (Creator-Owner). , .

160

7. Windows 2000/XP


Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2000
Server.
, ActiveDirectory . , , 44Group.
Group (. 7.24), , .
m . ,
.
m , . .
m . , .
m . . ,

, .

. 7.24.

, OK,
.
,
, .

161

Windows XP
Windows XP
Windows 2000 Server.
1. 4 .
Windows XP.
2. , .
3. ,
.
4. , , (. 7.25).
5. , .

. 7.25.

. , .


, .
.
, , .

162

7. Windows 2000/XP

,
. Active Directory.
: . ,
. ,
, .
, , .
. , .
(GPO),
.


, Windows 2000 Server, . :
m ;
m ;
m , ;
m ;
m .
,
.
Windows 2000 Server
, .
(GPO, Group Policy Object).
, , . .
m Active Directory .
.
m , Active Directory.

163

m .
Windows 2000,
.
m .
m ,
.
, , Windows 2000 Server
(Windows XP).
.
m .
.
m .
.
m . ,
.
m . ,
, .
m . .
Windows XP , .
.


Windows 2000 Server. , , TCP/IP.
Windows XP ,
.

TCP/IP
. 44 .
, TCP/IP, .
(. 7.26).

164

7. Windows 2000/XP

TCP/IP , ,
4. TCP/IP ( (TCP/IP)) OK.
Windows XP
TCP/IP 4 . .
. (. 7.27).

. 7.26.

. 7.27.

Windows XP

TCP/IP
TCP/IP .
, TCP/IP, . (. 7.28).
, , .
m IP- . ,
IP- DHCP.
m IP-.
IP-.

165

. 7.28. TCP/IP

m IP-. IP- , .
m . , .
m . , IP-,
.
m DNS- . DNS- DNS-.
IP-.
m DNS-. IP-, DNS-.
m DNS-. IP- DNS-, IP- .
m DNS-. IP- DNS-, IP- ,
DNS- .
, TCP/IP ( IP, . 7.29), IP-
, . ,

166

7. Windows 2000/XP

. , .

. 7.29. TCP/IP, IP

DNS, WINS, .
.
DNS (. 7.30)
DNS. , DNS-, ,
DNS.
DNS .
m DNS- .
,
. DNS-
. DNS-, .
m DNS-. , . ,
DNS-
support.microsoft.com. Bill bill.support.microsoft.com bill.microsoft.com.

167

. 7.30. DNS

m DNS- ( ). ,
DNS.
m DNS- . DNS, ,
.
m DNS. DNS- IP-. DNS-
IP-.
, .
m DNS- DNS.
, DNS- IP-.
,
, DNS-, DNS- .
WINS (. 7.31) WINS. , .

168

7. Windows 2000/XP

. 7.31. WINS

m LMHOSTS. LMHOSTS NetBIOS IP-.


m LMHOSTS. , LMHOSTS - LMHOSTS.
m NetBIOS TCP/IP.
NetBIOS TCP/IP (NetBT WINS).
, , Windows 9x Windows NT. , Windows 2000

DNS.
m NetBIOS TCP/IP.
NetBT, .
m NetBIOS DHCP-.
DHCP- WINS.
(. 7.32) IP Security (IPSec), IP-.
IP-. IPSec
IP-.
, OK.

169

. 7.32. IPSec

TCP/IP,
TCP/IP (. 7.33). IPSec.
TCP/IP, UDP IP.

. 7.33. TCP, UDP IP


Windows XP IPSec ,
.

Windows
2000 Server.
Windows XP . , .

170

7. Windows 2000/XP

DHCP
C DHCP, Windows 2000 Server, . .
DHCP .
44
4DHCP. DHCP (. 7.34).

. 7.34. DHCP Windows 2000 Server

IP- DHCP. . DHCP, .


DHCP .
, .
m . , DCHP .
, .
m .
.
.

171

m IP-. IP-, .
m IP-. IP-,
.
m . IP-, .
m . , IP-.
m .
.
m . .
DHCP ,
, .
IP- .

DNS WINS
DNS (Domain Name Service, c ) IP- ( ). .
IP- ,
.

. 7.35. DNS Windows 2000 Server

172

7. Windows 2000/XP

WINS (Windows Internet Naming Sevice,


Windows) NetBIOS, NetBIOS IP-. NetBIOS
LMHOSTS. WINS
Windows ( Windows 2000).
DNS
.

Windows.
. DNS OK.
DNS (. 7.35) , , .
WINS DNS. . 7.36
WINS.

. 7.36. WINS Windows 2000 Server


Windows 2000 DNS WINS, , , .
IP- , DNS WINS-. DHCP
, DHCP DNS WINS.

Windows 2000 Server

173

DHCP , . 44
.
.
TCP/IP .
.
Windows NT Windows 9x
DNS . TCP/IP .


Windows 2000 Server
(RRAS, Routing and Remote Access
Service), Windows 2000 Server,
Windows 2000
, , .

.

. 7.37.

174

7. Windows 2000/XP


444 . (. 7.37).
,
(. 7.38).

. 7.38.

,
.
m (ICS).
.
m (NAT).
, .
.
m . . , RRAS
.
m . , .
m IP-. IP- DHCP IP-.

Windows 2000 Server

175


.
.
RRAS IP-. ,
.
(. 7.39), .

. 7.39.

m . , . .
m . , .
RRAS , .
, , 0.0.0.0.
m . .
0.0.0.0.
m . , . .
m .
.
, .
m . ,

176

7. Windows 2000/XP

. , .
, RRAS, ,
. ,
,
. ,
.



RIP OSPF. .

RIP
RIP, .
RRAS IP-. . RIP 2
IP OK. IP-
RIP.

. 7.40. RIP

Windows 2000 Server

177

, . RIP .
OK.
RIP. ,
(. 7.40).
m . , RIP.
RRAS ,
. , RIP , .
m . , RIP.
m . , RIP.
, .
m .
, .
.
m .
RIP 2.
m /.
RIP 2. .
(. 7.41) , / RIP- .
(. 7.42) . .
m (
RIP).
RIP,
.
m . , RRAS RIP,
,
RIP .
m . ,

178

7. Windows 2000/XP

RRAS RIP, . , RIP.

. 7.41. RIP

. 7.42. RIP

Windows 2000 Server

179

RIP (. 7.43).

. 7.43. RIP

m (). ,
RIP .
m (). , RIP. , .
m (). ,
.
m . , .
m . , ,
. .
m .
.
m .
RIP , 15,

180

m
m
m

7. Windows 2000/XP

, .
. ,
RIP.
. .
.
, RIP.
.

RIP.
.

.
Windows XP
, RIP. ,
RIPv1, ,
.
,
Windows, .

OSPF
OSPF RRAS
IP-. . OSPF- OK.
OSPF
.
(. 7.44).
OSPF : ,
NBMA .
, , , . NBMA
OSPF , NBMA.
OSPF , MTU .

181

. 7.44. OSPF



- TCP/IP
, .
IP-, .
TCP/IP.

DNS IP-.
, ,
. , , -.
1. TCP/IP
. .
. IP-.
,
.
4 .

182

7. Windows 2000/XP

. , TCP/IP .
2.
. IP-, DHCP. Windows 2000
Server, ipconfig IP-, .
, .

3. , ping _ , ? .
, , ,
, .
(IP-, ,
) Windows XP
.
(MAC-) .

. ,
TCP/IP . , , .

4. ping _
.
DNS. DNS-, .
5. ping , , Windows 2000,

NET . NetBIOS. WINS , NetBIOS . ,
, .
6. - IP-, . DNS. , DNS-, , .

183

,
Windows 2000 (Windows XP) ,
. .

arp
ARP, , IP- Ethernet Token Ring.
Ethernet Token Ring, , . , arp
.

arp [-a [IP-] [-N IP- ]] [-g [IP-] [-N IP- ]] [-d IP- [IP- ]] [-IP- MAC- [IP- ]]
7.2. arp

a [IP-] [N IP-
]

ARP
. ARP
IP-, arp -a
IP-. ARP
, -N
IP- . -N

-g [IP-] [-N IP-


]

, -a

-d IP- [IP-
]

IP-.
,
IP- . ,
(*) IP-

-s IP- MAC- [IP-


]

,
IP- MAC-,
ARP. ARP
,
IP-

/?

m IP-, , - .
m MAC- , (,
00-01-80-55-58-79).

184

7. Windows 2000/XP

m , -s, ARP . , TCP/IP .


ARP, arp .
m ,
(TCP/IP).


ARP , :
arp -a

ARP , IP-
10.1.24.9, :
arp -a -N 10.1.24.9

ARP, IP-
10.1.24.9 00-01-80-55-58-79, :
arp - 10.1.24.9 00-01-80-55-58-79

ipconfig
TCP/IP DHCP DNS. ipconfig
IP-, .

ipconfig [/all] [/renew []] [/release []] [/flushdns] [/displaydns]


[/registerdns] [/showclassid ] [/setclassid [_]]
7.3. ipconfig

/all

TCP/IP
. ,
ipconfig IP-,
.
, ,
,

/renew []

DHCP
.
,
IP-

185

7.3 ()

/release []

DHCPRELEASE DHCP
DHCP IP-
( )
. TCP/IP ,
IP-

/flushdns

DNS .
DNS

/displaydns

DNS ,
,
Hosts,
.
DNS
DNS-

/registerdns

DNS IP-,
.
DNS

DNS- . ,
DNS, DNS
TCP/IP

/showclassid

DHCP .
DHCP ,
(*).
,
IP-

/setclassid
[_]

DHCP .
DHCP ,
(*).
,
IP-. DHCP ,

/?

m ipconfig winipcfg,
Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98 Windows 95.
Windows XP winipcfg,
IP-
. ,
, ,
.
m , IP-.
,
DHCP, APIPA .

186

7. Windows 2000/XP

m ,
.
m , ipconfig, (*) , .
m ,

(TCP/IP).


TCP/IP ,
:
ipconfig

TCP/IP ,
:
ipconfig /all

IP-, DHCP- , :
ipconfig /renew

DNS
, :
ipconfig /flushdns

DHCP , , :
ipconfig /showclassid *

DHCP My_server
:
ipconfig /setclassid My_server

hostname
, .

hostname

/?, .
, (TCP/IP).



:
hostname

187

msconfig
, (. 7.45),
.

. 7.45.

. 7.46.

188

7. Windows 2000/XP

m . . , : .
(. 7.46). , .
.
m SYSTEM.INI. , , Windows XP
Windows.
m WIN.INI.
WIN.INI. .
m BOOT.INI. ,
Windows 2000,
.
, ( , . 7.47).

. 7.47. BOOT.INI

m . ,
,
(. 7.48).
, .

189

. 7.48.

m . ,
(. 7.49).
, .

. 7.49. ,

190

7. Windows 2000/XP

nbtstat
NetBIOS over
TCP/IP (NetBT), NetBIOS , NetBIOS. Nbtstat, . 7.4, NetBIOS , Windows (WINS).
, .

nbtstat [-a __] [-A IP-] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-RR]
[-s] [-S] []
7.4. nbtstat

-a __ NetBIOS ,
__
NetBIOS . NetBIOS
NetBIOS,
NetBIOS,
-A IP-

NetBIOS ,
IP-

-c

NetBIOS,
NetBIOS IP-

-n

NetBIOS .
,
WINS

-r

NetBIOS.
Windows XP,
WINS, ,

WINS

-R

NetBIOS
#PRE Lmhosts

-RR

NetBIOS
, WINS

-s

NetBIOS
IP-

-S

NetBIOS;
IP-


, . Ctrl+C
.
, nbtstat

/?

191

nbtstat .
. 7.5. , nbtstat.
7.5. , nbstat

()
()

NetBIOS,

IP-

<03>

NetBIOS,
. NetBIOS 16 .
,
,
. , <20>

( NetBIOS
) (
)

NetBIOS

. 7.6 NetBIOS.
7.6. NetBIOS

IP-

,
IP

, TCP

192

7. Windows 2000/XP

, (TCP/IP).


,
NetBIOS Ligthning, :
nbtstat -a Lightning

NetBIOS ,
IP- 10.1.24.9, :
nbtstat -A 10.1.24.9

,
:
nbtstat -n

NetBIOS , :
nbtstat -c

NetBIOS #PRE
Lmhosts, :
nbtstat -R

NetBIOS, WINS, , :
nbtstat -RR

NetBIOS IP- , :
nbtstat -S 5

ping
. - ICMP,
IP , TCP/IP. -. ping TCP/IP,
,
. ,
.

ping [-t] [-a] [-n ] [-l ] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v ] [-r ] [-s
] [{-j _ | -k _}] [-w ] [__]

ping IP- .
IP- , , ,
. DNS

193

(Domain Name System) NetBIOS , Hosts.


ping, . 7.7,
, (TCP/IP).
7.7. ping

-t

-
, .

CTRL+BREAK. ping
CTRL+C

-a

IP-
.

-n


-.

-l


-.
32 .
65 527

-f

- Dont
Fragment IP- .
. ,

(Maximum Transmission Unit)

-i TTL

TTL IP-
-. Windows XP
128. TTL 255

-v

(TOS) IP-
-.
.
0 255

-r

(Record Route)
IP- ,
- -.

.
,
. 1 9

-s


(Internet Timestamp) IP
-
- .
1 4

194

7. Windows 2000/XP

7.7 ()

-j _

-
IP-
, _.


.
. IP-
- ,

-k _

-
IP-
, _.

(
).
9. IP-
( - ),

-w


-, . -
, Request
timed out. , , 4000 (4 )

__

, IP-

/?


ping:
C:\>ping www.mail.ru
www.mail.ru
194.67.57.26:
194.67.57.26:
194.67.57.26:
194.67.57.26:

[194.67.57.26] 32 :
=32 =101 TTL=114
=32 =96 TTL=114
=32 =100 TTL=114
=32 =102 TTL=114

10.1.92.121 :
ping -a 10.1.92.121

10.1.92.121 -,
1000 , :
ping -n 10 -l 1000 10.1.92.121

10.1.92.121 :
ping -r 5 10.1.92.121

10.1.92.121 10.13.1.2-10.34.5.4-10.2.67.3
:
ping -j 10.13.1.2 10.34.5.3 10.2.67.3 10.1.92.121

195

ping, 127.0.0.1. :
C:\>ping 127.0.0.1
127.0.0.1 32 :
127.0.0.1: =32 <1
127.0.0.1: =32 <1
127.0.0.1: =32 <1
127.0.0.1: =32 <1

TTL=128
TTL=128
TTL=128
TTL=128

, .
Windows 2000/XP. , .
.
, .

Windows 2000 Server (Windows XP).


, .


,
.
.
m , ad-hoc ( ).
, ,
. Ethernet,
.
m , (access point). ,
.
Ethernet, , .

197

Windows XP ad hoc.
Service Pack 2, . Windows
2000 XP Professional ( 2002 ) Service Pack 2 , .
Windows 2000 Server .

, , ,
(-).
.
.
. , ,
. ,
.
, .
.
m , , .
m
.
m , .
m C
, , .
m
, .
.



, , .
, , .
. , ,

198

8.

,
CompactFlash.
. 8.1.

. 8.1. Linksys Wireless-B CompactFlash Card WCF11


PCMCIA.
,
, .
,
. . 8.2 .

. 8.2. Linksys Wireless Dual Band A+B PC Card WPC51AB

. 8.3. USB- Linksys Wireless-B USB Adapter WUSB11

,
. , -

199

PCI, USB, . . 8.3 .


Ethernet-
, , . . 8.4.

. 8.4. Ethernet-,

Wi-Fi. , .
, , .
,
. ,
, , , -
.
, (, ), ,
IEEE 802.11a IEEE 802.11g. 54 /.

,
, . , , , . ,
, . . .

200

8.

,
.
.

:


.
m . , ,
, , , ,
, .
m (SSID, Servise Set ID).
,
Microsoft.
m .

64- 128- . , ,
.
64- 128-
128- , , , .
.
, ( ),
.
. , .
, , 2,4
( IEEE 802.11b), ,
. , , .
, . ,
:
m , ;
m ,
;
m , ;

201

m , ;
m ;
m ,
;
m (MAC) ;
m , .
, :
m ;
m ;
m .
,
.
, .
.



802.11
. Wired Equivalent
Privacy (WEP). , 802.11
, , , .
, . ,
,
, .
802.11 : . ,
. -
, . , ,
.

202

8.

,
, 802.11.
, .
,
WEP. ,
. (40
104 ), ( ASCII ), , , .
.
IEEE 802.11
0, 1, 2 3. , .
, , .

802.1x
, IEEE 802.1x. IEEE 802.1x

802.11 Ethernet.
,
. IEEE 802.1x , , , . IEEE 802.1x Internet Authentication Service (IAS,
), Remote Authentication
Dial-In User Service (RADIUS, ).
, RADIUS,
RADIUS. RADIUS
. , ,
. IEEE 802.1x , Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), , -,
Message Digest 5 (MD5).
IEEE 802.1x ,
, .

203

, , , ,
. , ,
, .
, (ISP) .
, , .

.
.
,
-. , , . , , ,
.
, .
, , , .
, , .
RADIUS 10.

802.1x .
1. .
2. ,
802.1x,
(. 8.5).
3. .
4. IEEE 802.1x , IEEE
802.1x. .
5. EAP (EAP), .
6. EAP - ,
,
- .
7. , -, -.

204

8.

8. , , .
9. , , . , ,
, .
10. ,
-
, ,
.

. 8.5. IEEE 802.1x

,
, .
1. ,
.
2. ,
.

Windows XP

205


Windows XP
Windows XP Windows
. , .
m WPA.
.
m ,
,
. ,
Flash-, .
m Wireless Zero Configuration, ,
. , .

, .


, ,
.
, . IP- , .
, IP-
. , ,
, , . , , IP- . ,
.
, , .

,
IP- .

206

8.

? Windows
XP, .
, ,
, . , .
, .
, . , .
, , IP- .
, . , , ,
,
, . ,
.
, .
Windows XP , .

(STA, spanning tree algorithm). , .

.
1. .
2. , ,
.
3. .
(. 8.6).
,
, ,
.

Windows XP

207

. 8.6.

Ethernet, IEEE 1394,


Ethernet , ,
.
Windows 2000
, .

, , -
. , ,
IEEE-1394,
Internet Protocol 4 (IPv4).
.
1. .
2. , .
3. , OK.

208

8.


, Windows XP,
IEEE 802.11, ,
. . .

, .
, ,
, .
.
.



, ,
. ,
Windows 2000 Server (Windows XP).
, .



Windows 2000/XP
Windows 2000
Server, Windows XP.
Windows 2000 Server Windows XP , , , . , Windows XP
, , .
, Windows 2000 Server.

Windows 2000 Server


Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 Server RAS
(Remote Access Service, ). , . , Windows 2000,
. (RRAS, Routing and Remote Service) Windows 2000 Server
. RAS RRAS Windows 2000 Server
.
-
, . , , ,

Windows 2000 Server

211

, , .
, . . 9.1
.

. 9.1.
Windows XP RRAS,
.

, RRAS Windows 2000 (Windows XP).


m . RRAS (, ISDN- DSL-, ,
, .25, ATM).
Windows 2000 ,
. .
m . , Windows 2000, .

, , .
,
IP- . Windows 2000 , ,

.
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, ).

212

9. Windows 2000/XP

m .
Windows 2000
. Windows 2000 , , , , .
RRAS Windows 2000 ,
. Windows NT Server
. RRAS Windows 2000 Windows NT.
RRAS Windows 2000 Windows 2000.
, ,
,
. ,
, . .
, , Windows 2000 .
Windows 2000 , .
RADIUS.
RADIUS RRAS
Windows 2000 , . UNIX.
RRAS Windows 2000
Active Directory.
, ,
, . , Active Directory.
, RRAS Windows 2000 ,
SLIP . , MS-CHAP, CHAP (Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol, ), SPAP (Shiva Password Authentication Protocol,
Shiva) PAP (Password
Authentication Protocol, ).
, RRAS Windows 2000 Active Directory.
-

Windows 2000 Server

213

. Active Directory
RRAS RRAS.
(Bandwidth Allocation Protocol,
) (Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol,
), Windows 2000 RAS .
, RAS
, , .
, , .
( Windows NT) MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication,
). MS-CHAP 2 (VPN, Virtual Private Network).
, . CHAP 2
.
LAN Manager,
, . .
, MS-CHAP 2
LAN Manager.
MS-CHAP 2 ,

. MS-CHAP , , , .
MS-CHAP 2 .
40-
, . 2
.

.
.

(Extensible Authentication Protocol, ) . ,

214

9. Windows 2000/XP

. Windows 2000
EAP-MD5 CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol), EAP-TLS (Transport Level Security, ),
RADIUS.
.
RRAS Windows 2000 RADIUS, RADIUS, IAS (Internet Authentication Service, ),
Windows 2000. RADIUS Windows 2000, RRAS RADIUS UNIX RADIUS .
RADIUS . , , .
Windows 2000
. RAS . Windows 2000

,
.
,
, , , , .
Windows 2000
Macintosh, AppleTalk
. Macintosh
RAS Windows 2000 - AppleTalk.
RAS Windows 2000
.

. , , ( ).
, , ,
.



Microsoft . RRAS.
(. 9.2) RRAS .

Windows 2000 Server

215

. 9.2. MMC,


Windows 2000
, .
Windows XP.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol, ) UNIX.


, . Windows 2000 SLIP , UNIX, Windows 2000 Serv SLIP .
(Point-to-Point Protocol, -)
, .
SLIP, , -. Windows 2000
. Windows 2000 IPX, TCP/IP, NetBEUI, AplleTalk .
, Windows (Windows 2000, Windows NT,
Windows 9x Windows 3.x), IPX, TCP/IP, NetBEUI, AppleTalk.

216

9. Windows 2000/XP

Macintosh TCP/IP,
AppleTalk. ,
MS-CHAP, EAP, CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol,
), SPAP
.
( Multilink, -) . ,
Multilink
33,6 /, 67,2
/.
Multilink, . ,
. , , .
TCP/IP
, , , .
(Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol,
-), IP-.

(VPN, Virtual Private Network), .
.
Windows XP.

,
, IPSec.
L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol, ) ,
IPSec, . ,
, L2TP IPSec.
L2TP, IPSec.
L2TP, IPSec,
,
.

Windows 2000 Server

217

.
, ,
, . , Windows 2000 Server, Internet Connection Sharing (ICS, ).
Windows 2000, , -,
.
DHCP-, .
, 192.168.0.0 ( 255.255.255.0). , Windows 2000 192.168.0.0 ,
.
, , IP-
192.168.0.1. , 192.168.0.1
. , . , , ,
DHCP, -DNS . . ICS
.
Windows 2000, DHCP- RAS-,
(NAT).


Windows 2000 Server
. , , .
,
. (. 9.3).

218

9. Windows 2000/XP

. 9.3.

. ,
.
.
1. , .
, .
2. .
3. Pa .
4. , , -
.
5. ,
, OK, .
. . , ,
, .
1520 .

Windows 2000 Server

219

ICS- -
. , , ICS-,
. TCP/I DHCP-.
, - , IP- (192.168.0.2
192.168.0.254) 255.255.255.0.
192.168.0.1.
Windows 2000 Server . , -,
ICS , .
.
.
,
, . .
.
m . , .
m . , .
m TCP. ,
TCP.
m UDP. ,
UDP.
m .
TCP UDP .
,
-, ,
. .
m . ,
.
m . , .
m TCP. ,
TCP.
m UDP. UDP.
m . IP- , .

220

9. Windows 2000/XP


.
Windows 2000 Server, .
RRAS . RRAS.
.
. , . . , .
, , .

. 9.4.

RRAS
. .
.

Windows XP

221

m . ,
RRAS. , , Engineering.
m . ,
. , Windows-Groups, .
, OK, .
m / .
, , .
m .
. ,
.
(. 9.4). .


Windows XP
Windows XP ,
Windows 2000 Server, ,
.

, ,
. ,

.

Windows XP Professional. Windows
XP Home Edition, .


4 .
.
(. 9.5), .

222

9. Windows 2000/XP

. 9.5.

Windows XP

(. 9.6) .

. 9.6.

(. 9.7),
:
m ;

Windows XP

223

m ;
m - .

. 9.7.
, .

. 9.8.

( )

224

9. Windows 2000/XP

,
(. 9.8):
m (,
ISDN);
m ,
( DSL);
m ( ,
DSL ).
, ,
, , .
, ,
.
, , ,
IP-, DNS-, , LMHOSTS, NetBIOS TCP/IP.
.
, , (. 9.9).

. 9.9.

Windows XP

225

, , ,
,
. .
.
, . .
1.
, .
2. , (ICS, Internet Connection Sharing). Windows XP
Professional .
3. , (Ethernet, HPNA,
IEEE 1394).
4. , . , , () .
5. .
6.
.
7. . (), .
8. , .
9. , ICS
. , .
10. Windows XP Professional ICS.
11. .
12.
, .

Windows XP
, , ,
.
Windows XP . , .

226

9. Windows 2000/XP

Windows XP Service Pack 1 Service Pack 2 .


.

ICF
,
Windows XP Service Pack 1.
( ) ,
,
.
Windows XP . (ICF, Internet
Connection Firewall). .

(ICS, Internet Connection Sharing), ,
ICF.
ICS ICF
.
,
. ICF ICF,
.

ICF ,
.
, IP- - - .
, ,

, , ICF.
ICF .
ICF ICS, , ICF/ICS, , .
.
,
, ,
.
, , , , , -

Windows XP

227

. ICF , ,
. , . , .
, , .
, ICF , . , ICF -,
HTTP, , ICF -. - , , .
, , ICF. , , ICF ICS,

.
ICF ICS,
ICS, .
,

-.
,
ICF. ,
ICF , , .
, , ,
.
,
, .
,
,
.
ICF.
, ,
.
,
.
, Outlook Express . Outlook

228

9. Windows 2000/XP

Express .
, .
. ,
,
.
Outlook 2000,
Microsoft Exchange, (RPC). Outlook 2000
Exchange.
Outlook 2000 . RPC Exchange,
, ICF RPC .
, .

. 9.10. ICF

ICF (. 9.10) , . , .
- . -

Windows XP

229

, ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), ,


.

, , .
, .
.
, . Extended Log
File Format ( ), W3C.
ICMP
(. 9.11), ,
.

. 9.11.

ICMP , ICMP,
, ,
. ICMP .

230

9. Windows 2000/XP

Windows XP SP2
Windows XP, Service Pack 2,
.

. 9.12. Windows XP SP2

( Windows XP SP1
).
m .
m .
.
m .
m
IP-.
m IPv6.
m , netsh
.
Windows XP SP2,
,
. -

Windows XP

231

Windows. (. 9.12),
.


Windows XP .
RAS, Windows 2000 Server.
4 444 .
(. 9.13).
- .

. 9.13.

?
, Windows , . ,
, , .
, .
,
.
, Ctrl+Alt+Del>.
. ,
.
, . ,
,
. !
,

232

9. Windows 2000/XP

, , ,
.
,
, .
, .
m ,
.
m , ,
Microsoft PowerPoint
.
m (,
).
, ,
, Windows XP Professional. ,
.
.

Windows 2000 Server (Windows XP) .

. .

?
, , . ,
, . (, ) .
. ,
. , , ,
. , ,
, . , .

234

10.

, .


.
. , ,
, . , ,
,

.
,

. .
m ,
.
m DoS (Denial of Service, ) DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service, ).
m IP-.
m , .
m , - .
m ,
.
.


, , , .
, , , VPN.
.
, ,
.
, .
.

235

,
. ,
, . , ,
.
, .
.
, . , . , , .
.
.
, .
,
. , , ,
.
, ,
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support@mail.ru,
. , .
, , .
. ,
, . .
, .
, , . , .
,
, . ,
, . . 10.1 , RAR- Advanced RAR Password
Recovery.

236

10.

. 10.1. ,

, ,
. ,
.
, , , . .
EtherPeek, LANWatch32, NetBoy, Observer, Sniffer Basic . .

.

DoS
, . DoS (Denial of Service, ).
, -
.
DoS ,

237

, .
, . (, ).
DoS.
,
. , .
DoS :
m , ICMP;
m ;
m Smurf;
m SYN;
m DoS.
.
, ICMP,
ICMP, ,
. ICMP ping,
. ping ICMP- Echo
Request (-), ICMP- Echo
Replay (-). IP- . , - .

(MTU, Maximum Transmission Unit). ,
. , MTU, , -. IP-,
ICMP, 65 535 . , ,
ICMP .
, .
Smurf ICMP, .

238

10.

ICMP, ,
.
, . ,
, ,
. , , ICMP- .
, , .

. , ,
,
.
SYN
,
TCP.
TCP :
m SYN,
;
m ACK, , , ;
m SYN, , ACK-.
, .

, , IP-.
-. , , . .
DoS (DDoS) . , Yahoo!,
eBay, Buy.com, Amazon.com, CNN.com . ,
-. , , , , .
10 2003 -
. ,
..

239

DDoS . ,
. , -, -.
DDoS.
. ,
, , . , . ,
,
. ,
, , .
, DDoS
, . , 100 , 400 , , ,
, . . , .
, . , .
DDoS- , . , ,
IP-,
, .
IP-,
. ,
. , , -
, . , DDoS
, ,
, ,
.

240

10.

DDoS ,
. , , , .
DDoS
, . - , , . -
.

, DDoS-
. . . ,
, . DDoS-
.
, ,
, -
, DDoS. DDoS
, ,
, DDoS.
, DDoS .
, -
. , ,
DDoS . , , .

IP-
IP-
. , , .
,
, .
, ,
.

241

.
IP-, . ,
-,
. F-Secure.
, URL-
Google.com .
, Googkle.com.
. , k l,
. F-Secure Googkle.com.
, - ,
-. , , . -
. ,
. Google ,
, . , ,
, URL
Google, . , Google,
USseek.com, . ,
-, . , , ,
. URL-, Whitehouse.com. ,
- , ,

. , Whitehouse.com
, Whitehouse.gov.



- .
- -
.
, . ,

242

10.

Windows, , .
, , .
, .
m . , . .
, , - ,
. ,
Windows,
, , . .
. , , ,
, , BIOS.
m . ,
, , . .
,
, .
1980 ,
.
, . ,
, , . ,
- .
. , , Windows
, ,
Microsoft Outlook Outlook Express, , , .
,
,
, , .
, .
.

243

,
-. ,
. ,
, . , . ,
, .
,
,
, .
, CIH (Chernobyl),
, . ,
, ,
Flash-, ,
. , , . , Windows
Explorer, . , SirCam ,
, .
, Microsoft Word, .
, , . , , ActiveX.
, - .

, .
, .
-, , , .

, , ? .
m ,
.
,
,

244

10.

, . ,
, ,
.
m , . , .
,
.
m , . ,
, , -, ,
. .
m , .
. , -, , .

. Outlook Outlook Express .
, , ,
.


.
,
,
. ,
. ,
, .
, -.
DDoS, -.

,
.
m , . -

245

-, , ,
.
.
m . , , ,
.
m .
, IP- , .

,
.

, ?
, . ,
,
. . , .
, , . , , , ,
.
,
. , ,
,
, .
, . .
, , . ,
, .
,
, - . ,
.
IP-

246

10.

. ( , DSL- . .), IP- . .


m . , . , ,
, , , , . ,
, ,
.
, , .
m . ,
,
.
,
.
-, FTP-, pcAnywhere,
, , , ICQ.

,
,
. , WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy).
, , - , . ,
.

(Berkeley) (Nikita Borisov), (Ian Goldberg) (David Wagner) WEP. , 2001
(Scott
Fluhrer), (Itsik Mantin) (Adi Shamir)
RC4,
WEP. 2001
Rice AT&T Research (Adam
Stubblefield), (John Ioannidis) . (Aviel
D. Rubin) ,
. , -

247

, -
. , ,
, , .
, .
, . ,
.


, ,
, . , ,
.
:
m ;
m ;
m ;
m .
.


, , , .
, ,
, , .
. , , , .

. ,
. (, - - , ). ,
, - .
,
. , . . , ,
, ,

248

10.

,
. , .


, ,
. , .
, - .
, ,
.
,
.


, . ,
.
. ,
, .
, , ,
. , .
, ,
. ,
, , .
. , , ,
. , , .
,
. ,
.

249


,
.
,
, . , -! , , .

.
Windows NT/2000.


, . , .
, , .
, . . ,
.


. , MS-DOS . , , MS-DOS
, .
, Windows 95,
. ,
. , , , MS-DOS .
, (, Windows NT/2000 Linux),
. , .

,
. -

250

10.

.
, :
m ;
m , ;
m , ;
m .
,
, .
.
.
, ,
- , .

. 10.2.

,
.
, .

251

. Windows XP .
(. 10.2).

, .


. , .

. 10.3.

,
.
m , , . ,
.

252

10.

m ,
.
- .
m ,
.
m , . , , .
m ,
. . .
, , , 78 , .
Windows XP ,
.
,
(. 10.3).

,
. , .
, .

. . ,
. , . ,
, , ,
.



. , Guest
SharedDocs, , . ,
MyFiles.
. , , . (
NTFS), -

253

.
. ,
, alex.doc,
.
, . , ,
Windows NT/2000,
.
. NetWare,
, .
, Windows NT/2000 , NetWare .
, ,
. , ,
,
.



, ,
. (
Windows 2000/XP) , .
, , , Windows 9x Windows NT,
, .


, , (EFS, Encrypted File System),
NTFS. . ,
NTFS, . , , FAT16 FAT32
. , .
EPS , , , . ,
. , , ,

254

10.

. EFS , .

EFS
EPS ,
- .
-
EFS, . ,
, . ,
.
m Windows 2000, Service Pack 2
High Encryption Pack, 128- .
m , .
m ,
.
m , , ,
. , .

. 10.4.

255

m ,
, .
m , . ,
, . .
, , .
m ,
,

.
m , pagefile.sys
. ,
.
m .

(. 10.4).
.

Windows 2000
EFS,
, Windows 2000 128-
.
Windows 2000 Server 56-
. Service Pack 2 128- , .

Windows 2000, 128- , . \WINNT\SYTEM32
Rsaenh.dll.
, . ,
.
m Service Pack 2 Windows 2000.
,
, , .
m Encpack.exe, High Encryption Floppy
Disk, Windows 2000 Professional.
m High Encryption Pack - Microsoft
http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/downloads/recommended/encryption.
Windows XP, , .

256

10.


NTFS, .
, NTFS. , NTFS . -,
, ,
. , ,
, NTFSDOS.exe. , .

. 10.5. NTFS

.
1. NTFS, , .
2. .
3. . ,
. 10.5.
4. ....
, . 10.6.
5. .

. , , .

257

,
, .

. 10.6. ()

, EFS
EFS ,
. , , .
. , D. ,
, . ? ,
Windows 2000/XP. , . , Windows (SID, Security Identifier) , , .
, ,
, D.
,
, .
, . .
1. .
2. - ,
.
3. , (Data Recovery Agent).

258

10.

, .
4. ,
. , ,
.
Windows . .
5. EPS
.
, ,
. .

, .

EFS
Windows 2000 (Windows XP) EFS .

. 10.7.

1. (. 10.7).
,

259

.
secpol.msc.
2. \ .
3. Administrators Delete ().
,
. ,
EFS Windows 2000.
4. Yes ().
.
, , .
EFS . .
1. ,
\ .
2. , . , ,
. .

. 10.8.

3. , 4 .
(. 10.8). .

260

10.

4.
, ,
.cer.
Active Directory, . .
5. USER_UNKNOWN.
.
6.
. . OK.

, , .

,
. /, .
, .
.
, 40 56 , ,
128 .
, / .
,
.
DES (Data Encryption
Standard, ) 3DES ( DES), . :
m ;
m , ,
;
m
.
/ ,
. ,
.
,
, . /
RSA.
, -, .
,

261

. , .
, .
, . ,
.
, ,
. ,
. :
m
m
m
m

GTE Cybertrust;
Keywitness;
TradeWave;
Verisign.


,
.

IP Security
, , . , , . IPSec (IPSecurity, IP-).
OSI
.
IPSec : AH (Authentication
Header, ) ESP (Encapsulating Security Payloads, ). , .
IPSec , .
.
, .
IP.
,

262

10.

. .
IPSec , , ,
.
IP- 40/56- 112/168-
DES.
, -
-, . , ,
.

(SHA-1 MD-5), , .
. , , . ,
.

ISAKMP (Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol)/Oakley,
, IPSec, .
DSS (Digital Signature
Standard, ).
IPSec , .509, IPSec- . , IPSec
PKI, . IPSec PKI .
IPSec.
1.
IP-. ,
,
. , .
2. , , IKE (Internet Key Exchange,
).
, . Kerberos,
. .

263

3. , , (SA,
Security Association). , Phase I IKE SA, , . , . IKE
SA. , .
4. , , . .
5. .
.
, IPSec ,
, , Windows
2000 Server (Windows XP).

SSL

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer, ). . SSL
OSI,
.
SSL Netscape
Netscape. Internet Explorer,
.
-, , .

Kerberos
Kerberos , , (Key Distribution Center).
, . . Windows
2000 . ,
Active Directory .
Windows 2000, LSA (Local Security Authority) ,
G (Ticket Granting Ticket, ),
. ,
, G

264

10.

. ST (Service Ticket).
, .
,
ACL .
Kerberos Windows 2000
,
(IETF),
. ,
, Windows 2000 ( Kerberos),
, Mac OS, Novell NetWare,
UNIX, AIX, IRIX.
, Kerberos (KDC, Kerberos Domain
Controller) . , Windows NT, .
Windows 2000 NT LAN Manager (NTLM), Windows.
Kerberos , Windows NT NTLM. ,

Kerberos . ,
6 , 68 . 1000 ,
Kerberos.
, , Active Directory,
. Windows 2000, Windows NT .
UNIX IRIX Windows 2000.
, , ,
,
. ,
.

.

, . -

265

.
(
), ,
, .
, (. 10.9).

. 10.9.

, ,
, - ,
.
, ,
.
.
, .
, ,
ActiveX, HTML-.
, , . ,
, .
Microsoft Outlook 2000.
Internet Explorer
, .
, .


. , ,
. ,
.

266

10.

, .
, , ,
.
, , . , (,
Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications, Microsoft Office
),
, .
, . Microsoft Excel
( .xls) Microsoft Word (
.doc) , . Microsoft Office, Office 97.
Office XP Office 2000 . . (High), , .
, . :
m Micrisoft AntiSpyware;
m Kerberos;
m PSP (Pretty Good Privacy).

. 10.10.

267

, Microsoft Outlook Express . , , . . 10.10


, .

-
,
. -, .
. .
Windows XP
, Microsoft.



.
. , ,

. ,
. , ,
, .
,
. .
, . ,
, ,
ll Labs, ,
1300 .
1988 ,
, , .
, , , ,
. Bell-Labs,
.
,
. ,
, -

268

10.

, .
(firewall), , .
. , . , , .
.
, .
, , . , .
.
,
.
: .
IP- , . ,
, .

. , -, ,
. , .
Firebox WatchGuard Technology
-.

. , , .
. - .
.
, , .
, Firebox . ,
,
. URL,
.
Firebox ,
Windows NT. VPN,
. .
. , PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, -).
, .

269

, . .
PIX Cisco Systems . , TCP.
,
IP-, . VPN
.
,
. ,
.
500. .
RS-232,
.
Bay Networks,
. ,
,
. , , ? BCN
. (MC68040, 68060 PowerPC). .
, OSI,
,
,
. , Bay Networks, , (
Check Point Software), , ,
, , .
, ,
. , ,
.

-
, . - . -
.
,
.
GFI LANguard Network Security Scanner (NSS) . -

270

10.

,
, , , .
/
.
. 10.11 GFI LANGuard Network Security Scanner.

. 10.11. GFI LANGuard Network Security Scanner

GFI Network Security Scanner Windows 2000/2003, Internet Explorer


5.1 . 10 .
,
File4New (4). , IP-. Just Scan the Internal Network
( ) Finish ().
GFI LANguard Play ().
.
GFI LANguard
Network Scanner .
/, , NETBIOS, ping SNMP-.

. , , .

271

IP- , . ,
.
, , NetBIOS
( , . .).
.
, . , , .
. , . , :
m
;
m /
;
m .
, ,
(Public Domain Controller). ,
PDC . , , , ,
.

, , C$ , . .

,
. , , .
,
! ,
. .
, .
, !
, , .

272

10.

, , .
. , , , .
, ,
.
Zone Alarm Pro Zone Labs . ZoneAlarm , , ,
.
, . ,
- ,
ZoneAlarm . , , . (, Internet Explorer
Outlook), .
/ , .

. 10.12. Zone Alarm Pro

273

Emergency Stop ( ).

, , , .
Automatic Lock ,

. ZoneAlarm
.
ZoneAlarm ,
Visual Basic. , ZoneAlarm
, .
ZoneAlarm
,
(. 10.12).
,
Microsoft AntiSpyware. (Beta 1). , , ,
, .
.
. 10.13.

. 10.13.

274

10.


. ,
.

, , . ,
. ,
.


, .
,
. - , .
. , .
Phoenix Technologies Softex.
TheftGuard . , ,
TheftGuard.
(, , ) / ,
.
.
, . TheftGuard ,
BIOS, ,
? .
Phoenix, , , BIOS,
. BIOS .
TheftGuard Core Managed Environment, Phoenix 2003 . ,
, , .
, .


, , . , , .

275

,
:
m ;
m ;
m ;
m ().
.


-
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, 520
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, . . .
m ?
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.

276

10.

, . ,
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. ,
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m . , ,
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m . ,
.
m .
, ,
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, .

. 10.14.
()

,
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277

, .
, , .
, ,
. ,
( MO, CD-RW, Zip . .).
, , .
. 10.14 ,
Windows 2000 Server.
, .
Windows 2000 , . ,
.

Windows XP
Windows XP ( 4
44 ).
, .
.


, .
, :
m ;
m , ;
m .
.
,
. (. 10.15)
, ( 4).
, ( ):
m ;
m ;
m ;
m ;
m .

278

10.

. 10.15.


(. 10.16) .

. 10.16.

(. 10.17).

279

. 10.17.


Windows XP .

. 10.18.

280

10.

- (
Last Known Good Configuration Windows 2000 Server, ). 4
444 .
:
m ;
m .
,
.
. 10.18.


. RAID-.
, RAID, RAID,
5.

, S.M.A.R.T.


.
6. , , .
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, .

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11.

,
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283

. , ( , ),
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m .
. , ,

.
m . , .
,
, ,
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m .
. , ,
, , .
. , (UTP) (STP).
m (NEXT, Near-end cross-talk).
, , , . . ,
.
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,
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,

284

11.

.
, .
,
. .
, .
, .

, NEXT, ,
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,
. , UTP, 10BASE-T,
,
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,
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,
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Ethernet. , .
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. , , , , , .
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BERT
.

285

, .
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.
,
. ,
.
TDR . , , ,
.
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, .
TDR, :
m ;
m ;
m ;
m ;
m ;
m .
TDR , .

, , . TDR
, - .
, , TDR .
, , . , , .
TDR ,
. -
.
, ,
.
TDR
, . ,
, ,

286

11.

, . - ,
, .
, TDR , .
TDR , .
, , , - .
, .
,
. , , .
, 300 000 / ( ).
. , VOP (Velocity Of Propagation,
), 0,65, , 65 % .
, . TDR , , , VOP
.
, VOP. , TDK, , VOP ,
. , , , , .


, ,
, , .
,
. OSI.

.

287

, ,
, , .
.
m . .
m . , , ,
?
m . , 100BASE-T
(Gigabit Ethernet 10Gigabit Ethernet), , FDDI Token-Ring?
m . , ,
?
m . , . . .
. , , , Ethernet.
m .
, , Gigabit Ethernet (
10Gigabit Ethernet)?
m . ,
, ?
m .
,
?

,
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, . , ,

288

11.

, . ,
.
, . ,
, , , :
m ;
m ;
m ;
m .
,
, . ,
, .
, , . , . , ,
, .
,
/,
.
,
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.
.
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, , . (, NetBEUI).

, - .
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, , .

289

,
, .
, .
, , .
, , ,
, .
.
,
(FPS, Frames Per Second). FPS
, ,
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, .
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. .

.
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, MAC-.
.



, .
, , .
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Windows NT 4.0 Server Windows 2003 Server , , . ,

290

11.

(SMS, Systems Management Server), .


Windows 2000 Server/Windows 2003 Servers Administrative Tools.
,
. ,
, . . 11.1
Capture Window ( ) Windows 2000 Server.

. 11.1. Windows 2000 Server

Administrative Tools Network Monitor,


.
Add/Remove Programs ( ) . Add/Remove Windows Components (/ Windows), Management and
Monitoring Tools ( ). Details () .

, Capture4Start (
4). Capture
.
, , Capture Window. -

291

, Capture4Stop ( 4),
Capture4Display Captured Data ( 4
) .
, .
.
,
File4Save As (4 ). File4Open (4),
.
.
Detail (), , .
, , ,
. ,
, .
,
, . Capture4Filter (
4).
, Capture4Start (4). , ,
.
Capture4Trigger (4).

, Capture Window. , .
,
, .
, ,
, Microsoft SMS, - .


, , , ,
.
, Windows. , ,
.

292

11.

, .
, -
. ,
, .
m Ethertest LAN Analyzer for Windows. , Frontline Test Equipment, Inc. (FTE), , Windows 95 Windows 2000. -, www.fte.com. Bluetooth,
- FTE SerialBlue Bluetooth.
m Observer, Expert Observer Observer Suite Network Instruments.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol, ) RMON (Remote
Monitoring, ) . Windows 95 Windows 2000. , Observer
, IEEE 802.11a 802.11b. - -, www.netinst.com.
m Wildpackets. - (www.wildpackets.com)
- ( (EtherPeek)
(AiroPeek)).

. ,
- ,
.


.
, .
, , . , ,
. , . , , .
,
, ,

293

, ,
. ,
, , .
.
,
, , , . , . ,
,
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, , .
,
. ,
, , , .
, . , ,
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.



. .
, .
(SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol) ,

294

11.

TCP/IP.
, :
m , ;
m ;
m , ;
m ,
;
m .
. SNMP ,
. ,
,
SNMP, . ,
SNMP, (UDP, User
Datagram Protocol) -. , UDP ,
, TCP. ,
,
.
SNMP .
,
,
, .
, ,
. , , .
, SNMP,
, .
, , , . ,
:
m ;
m ;
m ;
m .
, (NMS, Network Management Stations), , . , .

, ,

295

. ,
.
:
m get
;
m get-next , , , ;
m set ,
, . ,
.
:
m get-response
get get-next, ;
m trap SNMP , ,
.
() .
(MIB, Management Information Base). , ,
RFC 1066, Management Information Base for Network Management
of TCP/IP-based Internets: MIB-II. RFC 1213,
Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based
Internets: MIB-II, . ,
,
, . RFC 2011 RFC 2012 MIB-II.
MIB . , . MIB
. , , , , .
, , :
m ;
m ,
. , , MIB, ,
;
m .

296

11.

MIB ,
. .
SNMP ,
, , .
,
. ,
, .
, ,
.3.6.1.2.1.1.1. , .
.
,
. , .
RFC, MIB,
:
m System. ,
( );
m Interfaces. . ,
IP-, ,
;
m Address Translation. , ARP;
m IP. ,
IP, , , , . .;
m ICMP. ;
m TCP. TCP.
. , , ,
,
TCP;
m UDP.
UDP, UDP-,
;
m EGP. (EGP).
MIB-II . MIB-II
,
, .

297

, . , ,
( , ),
.
, MIB-II.
m Transmission. Interface, ,
.
m SNMP. , , .
SNMP. ,
- SNMP. ,
SNMP ,
, ,
-,
. -
SNMP. -
, , SNMP.


(RMON)
, , SNMP. RMON SNMP, MIB. ,
. MIB RMON
Ethernet Token-Ring, , RFC 1757,
Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base RFC 1513,
Token-Ring Extensions to the Remote Network Monitoring MIB.
SNMP
, . RMON , ,
(), .
RMON
SNMP .
RMON,
. , , RMON, SNMP. RMON MIB-:

298

11.

m Statistics. .
EtherStatsTable . , ;
m History. .
historyControlTable. ,
etherHistoryTable;
m Hosts. , MAC-. hostControlTable , hostTimeTable ;
m HostTopN.
, . TopNControlTable , hostTopNTable ;
m Matrix. , ,
.
;
m Filter. ,
RMON, ;
m Capture. Filter ,
, ;
m Alarm. , Event. ,
. ,
, ;
m Event. , , . SNMP
. Event Table
, , Log Table
.
, RMON OS1.
Token-Ring ,
RMON , .
m Token-Ring Statistics.
, -

299

,
Token-Ring.
m Token-Ring History. History ( Ethernet),
, .
m Token-Ring Station.
, .
m Station Order.
, .
m Station Config. .
m Source Routing. Token-Ring .
RMON , .
, , . , .
, , , SNMP
.
,
.
,
, .
RMON. .
,
.
. ,
,

.
:
, ,
.

, , , , . , , ,
. , .

300

11.

Windows XP
Windows XP
Windows.
, Windows 2000 Server,
Windows XP.


(. 11.2) , , .

. 11.2.

(. 11.3) ,
.
. , , .
(. 11.4) , , , , ,
. ,
, . ,

Windows XP

301

. 11.3.

. 11.4.

302

11.

(. 11.5) , Windows. ,
. Windows XP , .

. 11.5.

, :
m , ,
;
m , ,
Windows.
DNS-,
DNS-, , DNS.
, , :
m . , . , , .
m . , , . ,
,
.

Windows XP

303

m . , , . ,
.
m . , ,
. , , .
m . , , . ,
.

,
. (. 11.6).

. 11.6.

Windows
(. 11.7) , ,
, .

304

11.

. 11.7.


. , ,
, Windows 2000 Server Windows XP.
,
.
, .

-


, .
802.3. IEEE, Ethernet.
10BASE-2. , 10 /,
,
10BASE-5. , ,
BNC.
(thinnet).
10BASE-5. , 10 /, , 10BASE-2.
, ,
. (thicknet).
10BASE-T. , 10 /,
( ). .
100BASE-T. , 100 /,
( ). Fast Ethernet.
.
.
10Gigabit Ethernet. Ethernet,
10 /. IEEE 802.3.
AALS (ATM Adaptation Layer 5, ATM 5). ATM.
.

306 -
ABR (Available Bit Rate, ). ATM , , .
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP, ). , AGP 2 8 (AGP 2x AGP 8x).
.
Access Point (AP, ). . Wireless Access Point.
ACK. acknowledgment, .
Active Directory ( ). ,
LDAP, , ,
, . Windows,
, LDAP.
Active monitor ( ). Token-Ring, . , .
.
,
.
Ad hoc wireless network ( ). ,
(AP, Access Point).
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP, ).
(MAC-)
IP-. arp , MAC-, ARP.
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, ). , , . ADSL 8 /, 1 /.
AGP. . Accelerated Graphics Port.
AH (Authentication Header, ). IPSec .
ANSI (American National Standards Institute, ). 1918 ,
.
, , ISO.

307

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII, ). , . ASCII


.
, , (),
Unicode.
American wire gauge (AWG, ). ,
, .
( ), (National
Electrical Code).
.
ANSI. . American National Standards Institute.
APIPA. . Automatic Private IP Addressing.
Arbitrated Loop ( ). , - (Fibre Channel).
126 ( 127, ). ; .
ARCnet. , Token-Ring, 255. ARCnet - .
ARCnet : , .
255 ( ) 10 /.
ARP. . Address Resolution Protocol.
ARPANET. , 1969 .
,
. , .
ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request, ).
. ,
( ) .
ASCII. . American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM, ). , ,

308 -
(53 ). ATM .
, .
ATM Ethernet,
.
ATM. . Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
ATMARP. ATM , ARP Ethernet ( IP-
).
Attenuation (). , - .
( ). ().
Audit trail ( ). ,
. () .
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA, IP-).
APIPA, IP- (, , DHCP-). , ,
169.254.0.0 169.254.255.255, ARP-, .
,
IP- ,
. , , .
Autosensing. ( ). ( 10 100 /).
AWG. . American wire gauge.
Backbone Cabling System Structure ( ). , .
Backup Window ( ). ,
. , .
, 24 . , , SAN
RAID.

309

Bandwidth ( ). , .
Bindery (). , NetWare
.
NetWare ( 5.0) NDS ( eDirectory).
Bit Error Rate (BER, ). ,
, .
Bit Error Rate Tester (BERT, ).
,
.
Bluetooth ( ). .
2,4 ,
, , . .
BOOTP ( ). ,
IP- .
Bridge ().
, .
, MAC-.
, ,
, ,
-.
, . ,
, ,
. , . .
Bus (). ,
, (
). , , ,
, (, PCI-).
Cable modem ( ).
. .
CAP. . Carrierless Amplitude Phase modulation.

310 -
CardBus. PCMCIA.
CardBus , , , 32- ,
, PCMCIA. CardBus , , ,
. CardBus
PCMCIA.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA,
). , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
. AppleTalk, .
. Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD,
). , Ethernet
. , , , .
, .
, .
,
, . , , ,
.
Carrierless Amplitude Phase (CAP) modulation (-
). ,
xDSL - . CAP , .
Channel Service Unit (CSU, ).
,
.
CIDR. . Classless Interdomain Routing.
CIFS. . Common Internet File System, Server Message Block.
Cladding (). , .

311

Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR, ). CIDR , . , IP-.


(, 255.255.0.0),
CIDR ( /18) , , .
, A , , , , IPv4.
Client (). ,
, .
Coaxial cables ( ). . , , .
Collision domain ( ).
Ethernet, .
, ( ,
).
Ethernet, .
Common Internet File System (CIFS, ). /, (SMB, Server Message Block). SMB,
CIFS TCP/IP , .
CRC. . Cyclic redundancy check.
Cross-talk ( ). , , .
.
CSMA/CD. . Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect.
CSU. . Channel Service Unit.
Cut-through switch ( ). , ( 20 30 ). ,
, -, .

312 -
Cyclic redundancy check (CRC, ). , . CRC
. CRC
.
Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS, ).
CableLabs .
CableLabs ,
DOCSIS .
Data Service Unit (DSU, ). . DSU
, . RS-232C RS-449,
(DTE), . CSU DSU
.
DECnet. ,
Digital Equipment Corporation.
Demilitarized zone ( ). , ,
. , , , ,
, . -
( ), .
.
Denial-of-service attack ( ). ,
, ,

. .
DFS. . Distributed File System.
DHCP. . Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
Dialectic (). , .
.
Digital subscriber line (DSL, ). DSL ,
4 ,

313

. xDSL, ,
/ .
DSL- , , CAP (Carrierless
Amplitude Phase, - ) DMT
(Discrete MultiTone, ).
Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM,
). , ,
, , ATM Frame Relay.
Directory (). ,
. Active Directory
LDAP , ,
.
Directory services ( ). ,
, Active Directory eDirectory,
Novell.
Discrete MultiTone (DMT, ).
xDSL, ,
4 , 256 . DMT
DSL-. . Carrierless Amplitude
Phase.
Disparity (). , Fibre Channel
, .
, , , . , ,
.
.
Distributed Coordination Function (DCF,
). CSMA/CA.
Distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS, ).
. , IP- .
Distributed File System (DFS, ).
NFS Sun,
Windows . ,
, , .

314 -
DMT. . Discrete MultiTone.
DMZ. . Demilitarized zone.
DNS. . Domain Name System.
DOCSIS. . Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification.
Domain Name System (DNS, ). ,
IP-.
DNS ,
. ( ) DNS-, . DNS- DNS-, ,
DNS- ,
DNS-, .
DNS-, DNS.
DSL. . Digital subscriber line.
DSLAM. . Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer.
DSU. . Data Service Unit.
Dynamic DNS ( DNS). DNS, , . DNS DHCP ,
.
. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP, ). , , ,
DHCP. . ,
DHCP, DNS-. . Dynamic DNS.
Dynamic packet filter ( ). . Stateful Inspection.
E_Port ( ). Fibre Channel .
EBCDIC. . Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
EDirectory. Novell (NDS, Novell Directory Services). NetWare 5.
eDirectory
, UNIX Windows. . Novell Directory Services.
EISA. . Extended Industry Standard Architecture.

315

Electromagnetic interference (EMI, ).


. , ,
, .
EMI. . Electromagnetic interference.
Encryption (). , , , -, . . Single key Public key encryption.
Ethernet. . Ethernet
.
Digital Equipment Corporation,
Intel Xerox (DIX). Ethernet- , . , , ,
,
, , . Ethernet
.
Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC, - ). , , 256
. EBCDIC
IBM. IBM PC, ASCII Unicode. EBCDIC
IBM, , .
Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA, ). , IBM, MicroChannel. EISA
8 , ISA,
32 , .
F Port. Fibre Channel, .
Far-end cross-talk ( ).
, .
- .
Fast Ethernet. . 100BASE-T.
FDDI. . Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
FEXT. . Far-end cross-talk.

316 -
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI,
- ). ,
.
-, . FDDI ,
(,
) , . FDDI
- .
10 100 /.
Fiber-optic cable (- ). ,
() , , , . ( 9 12,5 ), ( 50 62,6 ).
, , .
Fibre Channel (- ). , SAN.

, . , , . SAN
Fibre Channel (
- ) , SCSI. Fibre Channel .
File Transfer Protocol (FTP, . ,
, , .
Firewall (). , , . ,
,
, . , ,
, - .
FireWire. IEEE 1394 ( 100
400 /), 63 . USB, FireWire ,

317

/ ,
.
FL_Port. , (Arbitrated Loop)
Fibre Channel.
Frequency (). ,
, .
. , ().
Frequency Hopping ( ). . , , .
FTP. . File Transfer Protocol.
Full-duplex ( ). ,
.
. Half-duplex.
GID. , UNIX/Linux, , . /etc/group , .
, , ,
, .
Gigabit Ethernet. Ethernet,
1 /, IEEE 802.3.
Half-duplex ( ).
, .
HBA. . Host Bus Adapter.
HomeRF.
. ,
802.lib 802.
, HomeRF,
IEEE.
Hop (). , , , . . . .
Horizontal Cabling System Structure ( ). ,
.

318 -
Host Bus Adapter (HBA, ).
, Fibre Channel
SAN. HBA Ethernet , , .
Hostname ( ). ,
hostname.
HOSTS ( HOSTS). ,
IP-. ,
(DNS, Domain Name System).
HOSTS - ,
DNS-.
HTML. . Hypertext Markup Language.
HTTP. . Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
Hub (). ,
, .
.
,
, 10BASE-T, (10BASE-2). , , SNMP.
SOHO-
.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, ). , -.
, , , , , - .
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP, ). ,
TCP/IP , World Wide Web. , HTTP,
HTML-, .
ICMP. . Internet Control Message Protocol.
ICMP redirects ( ICMP).
(Internet Control Message Protocol) ,
, - .
, .

319

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,


). , , .
IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee ( IEEE / ). IEEE,
/ .
1980 , (Local Network Standards Committee).
IEEE 802.11a. , IEEE.
5 54 /.
IEEE 802.11b. , IEEE.
2,4 11 /.
IEEE 802.11g. , IEEE.
2,4 (
802.11b), 54 . ,
802.11g, , 802.11b,
802.11a. 2,4
.
IEEE 1394. . FireWire.
Ifconfig. UNIX/Linux Windows ipconfig. , .
iFolder. , NetWare , . , /.
IMAP. . Internet Message Application Protocol.
Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM, Radio Frequency Band). , , . . ,
IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11g.
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA, ).
PC, 1980- . 8 , 16-
.

320 -
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN,
). , B- (
), D-, .
(PRI, Primary Rate Interface) D-,
65- B- ( 128 /). 23 B- ( 30 B- ), .
Internet (). , ARPANET.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP,
). , UDP- TCP/IP.
Internet Message Application Protocol (IMAP,
). ,
.
POP3
, IMAP , , . .
Internet Printing Protocol ( ). ,
.
Internet Protocol ( ). TCP/IP.
IP , , .
, .
TCP, UDP, TCP/IP IP- ,
. , IP,
, .
Internetwork Packet Exchange ( ).
NetWare,
NetWare. . Sequenced Packet Exchange.
Interrupt Request (IRQ, ). (IRQ)

.
, . ,
(

321

),
.
Intranet ( ). , , .
IP. . Internet Protocol.
ipconfig. Windows ( Windows
NT ) IP-, .
/ DHCP,
.
IPP. . Internet Printing Protocol.
iPrint. Internet Printing Protocol NetWare.
. Internet Printing Protocol.
IPX. . Internetwork Packet Exchange.
IRQ. . Interrupt Request.
ISA. . Industry Standard Architecture.
ISDN. . Integrated Services Digital Network.
ISO.
(International Organization for Standardization).
LAN (). . Local area network.
LDAP. . Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.
LED (Light-emitting diode, ). , (
). ,
( ) . -
.
LIFA. . Loop Initialization Fabric Address.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP, ). , X.500.
LDAP-
. LDAP , X.500, , X.500,
.
LIHA. . Loop Initialization Hard Address.
LILP. . Loop Initialization Loop Position.
LIP. . Loop Initialization Primitive.

322 -
LIPA. . Loop Initialization Previous Address.
LIRP. . Loop Initialization Report Position.
LISA. . Loop Initialization Soft Address.
LISM. . Loop Initialization Select Master.
LMHOSTS. . HOSTS. Windows, NetBIOS, IP-.
Windows (WINS, Windows Internet Name Service). DHCP IP- Windows, WINS
/. Windows DNS-.
Load coil ( ). , . 4 , ,
DSL.
Local area network (LAN, ). , , ,
.
Logical topology ( ). ,
. . Physical
topology.
Loop Initialization Fabric Address (LIFA, ,
). , - (Fibre
Channel Arbitrated Loop). , Fibre Channel, .
Loop Initialization Hard Address (LIHA, ,
). ,
- (Fibre Channel
Arbitrated Loop). ,
Fibre Channel, .
Loop Initialization Loop Position (LILP, ). , Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop ,
.
Loop Initialization Previous Address (LIPA, ,
). , - (Fibre

323

Channel Arbitrated Loop). , , .


Loop Initialization Primitive (LIP,. ,
). , - (Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop).
Loop Initialization Report Position (LIRP,
). , , , .
-
(LILP, Loop Initialization Loop Position) . .
Loop Initialization Select Master (LISM, ). -, - (Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop).
Loop Initialization Soft Address (LISA, ,
). , - (Fibre
Channel Arbitrated Loop). ,
,
.
Loop Master (-). -
,
.
Lpr/lpd (Line printer remote/line printer daemon, /
). UNIX .
TCP-.
MAC address. MAC-. . Media Access Control.
MAN. . . Metropolitan Area Network.
Media Access Control (MAC, ).
OSI. ,
. , MAC- ,
. MAC-
, IP- , , .
Media access unit (MAU)/multistation access unit (MSAU) ( / ). Ethernet,
Token-Ring. MAU/MSAU

324 -
,
, .
, , .
MAU/MSAU ,
.
Mesh topology ( ). ,
. , .
. , .
.
Metric (). . , , .
.
- . , .
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN, ). , , . , .
MicroChannel ( ). IBM.
Microsoft Management Console (MMC, Microsoft). , Windows 2000,
.
Administrative Tools.
MMC. . Microsoft Management Console.
Modem (). , /. (, ).
, , .

, DSL-.
Multi-mode fiber-optic cabling. ( ). - ,
, , . ,

325

, .
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS, ).
3.
MPLS LSR (Label Switching Router, ), ,
MPLS LSR. . MPLS IP- , .
TCP.
NAS. . Network Attached Storage.
NAT. . Network Address Translation.
NDIS. . Network Driver Interface Specification.
NDS. . Novell Directory Services.
Near-end cross-talk ( ). , . . Far-end cross-talk.
Negative disparity ( ). . Disparity.
NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface, NetBIOS). .
IBM Microsoft. ,
NetBEUI , .
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System, /
). IBM,
Microsoft, . NetBIOS
, (NCB, Network Control Block).
TCP/IP IP-, NetBIOS ,
. ( NetBEUI TCP/IP)
NetBIOS. Windows,
.
Windows, TCP/IP. NetBIOS
IP- WINS. SAMBA.
Netstat. , Windows
UNIX/Linux TCP/IP,
.

326 -
NetWare. , Novell.
Network Address Translation (NAT, ). NAT
IP-, , . NAT (, /) , .
Network analyzer ( ). ,
OSI. , .
, Windows,
. UNIX/Linux tcpdump, . .
Network Attached Storage (NAS, ). (/), , .
Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS, ). , 3COM Microsoft.
Network File System (NFS, ).
Sun Microsystems, . , ,
,
. . Distributed File System.
Network Information System (NIS, ). , Sun Microsystems, , . NIS+.
NIS Sun ,
.
Network interface card (NIC, ). , .
Neutral disparity ( ). . Disparity.
NEXT. . Near-end cross-talk.
NFS. . Network File System.
NIC. . Network interface card.
NIS. . Network Information System.

327

NL_Port. ,
(Arbitrated Loop).
Node (). , (: , , ).
Novell Directory Services (NDS, Novell). , Novell NetWare. NDS
. NetWare 6.0 NDS .
eDirectory.
Nslookup.
IP- DNS ,
.
NTFS. ,
Microsoft, Windows NT. , Windows XP. NTFS ,
, ,
.
ODI. . Open Data-Link Interface.
Open Data-Link Interface (ODI, ). , Novell Apple.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF, SPF). , (Link State
Advertisements, LSA) .
RIP, OSPF , , , . OSPF 15 , RIP,
, RIP .
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI, ).
, 80-
, ,
. . OSI Reference Networking Model.
OSI. . Open Systems Interconnection.
OSI Reference Networking Model ( ). , ISO, ,
.
, . ,
DOD (Department of Defense, )

328 -
DARPA, TCP/IP.
OSPF. . Open Shortest Path First.
Packet filter ( ). , ,
IP-.
Patch panels ( ).
, , .
, , .
PCI. . Peripheral Component Interconnect.
PCMCIA. ,
. PCMCIA Personal Computer
Memory Card International Association ( IBM PC).
. . CardBus.
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI, ). , PC -. PCI ( 33 ) (32 64 ),
, ISA EISA. ,
PCI, . , , . PCI
- , EISA.
Permissions (). , , . . Share-level permissions User-level
permissions.
Physical topology ( ).
(, - ),
, .
Ping. TCP/IP, ICMP ECHO/REPLY . , , TRACEROUTE/TRACERT (
).
Plain old telephone service (POTS, ). , .

329

Point Coordination Function (PCF, ). , (RTS/CTS) .


Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP, -). . PPP

.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP, -). VPN, . , , PPTP .
POP3. . Post Office Protocol Version 3.
Positive disparity ( ). . Disparity.
Post Office Protocol Version 3 ( 3). ,
. IMAP,
, , POP3
, .
POTS. . Plain old telephone service.
Power distribution units ( ). , - . ,
.
,
.
,
.
PPP. . Point-to-Point Protocol.
PPPoE. . The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet.
PPTP. . Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP, ).
, (Philip Zimmerman). PGP ,
. . -, http://web.mit.edu/network/pgp.html.

330 -
-, PGP
. www.pgpi.org/.
Protocol (). ,
, . ,
, , , .

TCP IP.
Proxy server (-). , . - IP- ,
. -
IP- , .
PSTN. . Public switched telephone network.
Public key encryption ( ). ,
. ,
. .

. . ,
,
, .
, .
,

. , Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) ,
.
Public switched telephone network (PSTN, ). , ,
, ,
. POTS ( ), ,
. , .
R-utilities (R-). , . , TCP/IP.

331

SSH, , , ,
R-.
RAID. Redundant
Array of Inexpensive Disks ( ), Redundant Array of Independent
Disks ( ). , , .
RAID . RAID
( ) ( ).
, . , ,
. ,
( ) .
Repeater (). ,

. () ,
(- ). , , . ,
, .
RFI. . Electromagnetic interference (EMI).
Rights ( ).
, .
Ring topology ( ). , . , , .
(, MAU MSAU, Token-Ring),
. ,
.
RIP. . Routing Information Protocol.
RMON. . Simple Network Management Protocol.

332 -
Router (). , 3 OSI ( ).
, . ,
, (MAC, Media
Access Control).
. ( ) , .
,
, , .
( ).
Routing Information Protocol (RIP, ). , , . RIP - .

, , ( ) (). RIP .
SAMBA. (SMB, Server Message Block) ,
(CIFS, Common Internet File
System), SMB. SAMBA ,
, Windows.
SANs. . Storage Area Networks.
Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX, ).
NetWare, , IPX.
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP,
). ,
( ). SLIP - (PPP,
Point-to-Point Protocol).
Server (). ,
, . , -

333


.
Server Message Block (SMB, ). , IBM Microsoft
-. SMB Windows. SMB
Microsoft. SMB , . SAMBA.
Shadow Password File ( ). UNIX/Linux (
). ,
root ( , root, , ) .
/etc/passwd/, . UNIX/Linux
/etc/shadow.
Share-level permissions ( ). , /,
. ,
. ,
NTFS Windows, .
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP, ). ,
.
IMAP POP3
.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP, ). , . ( SNMP RMON (Remote
Monitoring Protocol, ).)
Single key encryption ( ). , . ,
, .
Single-mode fiber-optic cabling ( - ). - ,

334 -
( ), . ,
, - ,
- .
, , ,
,
.
SLIP. . Serial Line Internet Protocol.
Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI, ). ,
.
. Storage Area Networks Network Attached Storage,
.
Small office/home office (SOHO, / ). ,
/
. SOHO
, /
, .
,
.
SMB. . Server Message Block.
SMTP. . Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
SNIA. . Storage Networking Industry Association.
SNMP. . Simple Network Management Protocol.
Social engineering (). ,
( ). ,
, , , .
.
SOHO. . Small office/home office.
Spread Spectrum ( ). ,
.
, .
,
, , .

335

.
SPX. . Sequenced Packet Exchange.
SSH (Secure Shell, ). Secure Socket Shell ( ).
, R-. SSH- slogin, ssh scp. , .
, SSH2, IETF.
Star topology ( ). , .
( ).
( / ). 100BASE-T Ethernet, .
Stateful Inspection ( ). , .
.
Storage Area Networks (SANs) ( ).
,
. SAN
. SAN / , SCSI
. , SAN . NAS SAN, ,
.
Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA, ). , , NAS SAN.
Store-and-forward switch ( ). , , .
( ), 10 / 100 /, . ,
. . Cut-through switch.

336 -
Subnet (). IP-. ,
IP- C IP-.
.
.
Subnet mask ( ). 32- ,
IP-,
IP- ( ).
Switch (). , ,
.
, , , , . .
SYN flooding ( SYN).
. , TCP/IP . SYN,
TCP-, ,
. SYN-
, ,
.
.
Syslog. UNIX/Linux, , . Syslog
, .
T-carrier (T-).
, T1 (1,544 /) T4
(274,186 /). T1 24 , . 24 64 /. E-.
. , El 30 .
TCP. . Transmission Control Protocol.
Tcpdump. , UNIX/Linux TCP/IP,
. UNIX/Linux. Windows windump.
TDR. . Time domain reflectometry.
Telecommunications closet ( ). ,
, . ,
.

337

Telnet. /, .
TFTP. . Trivial File Transfer Protocol.
Thicknet ( ).
10BASE-5,
Ethernet.
Thinnet. ( ). (10BASE-2),
, 10BASE-5.
Time domain reflectometry (TDR, ). , , - . ,
TDR, .
Time to Live (TTL, ). ,
. ,
, , . .
Token-Bus ( ). Token-Ring,
, , . Token-Bus , , .
Token-Ring ( ). ,
.
, , , , - -.
, .
, . Token-Ring IEEE 802.5.
.
Traceroute. TCP/IP, ICMP ECHO/REPLY
( ) -. TTL , 1 .
Ping. Traceroute
tracert.

338 -
Tracert. Tracert Windows, , MS-DOS 6.2 Windows 2000 Windows XP. Microsoft Traceroute.
Transmission character ( ). Fibre Channel 10-
,
. - .
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP, ). ,
(IP) . TCP ,
, , .
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP, ).
FTP,
, . - .
TFTP .
Trojan horse ( ). , . , , -
.
, . , ,
.
.
,
.
TTL. . Time to Live.
Twisted-pair cables ( ).
, .

, .
UDP. . User Datagram Protocol.
UID. , UNIX/Linux
.
,
root. 1 99 , , .

339

Unicode. ,
, . ASCII,
, , Unicode 34 168 . . American Standard Code
for Information Interchange Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS, ).
, .
-,
. , .
,
, .
Universal serial bus (USB, ). , .
12 / ( USB 2.0).
Uplink port ( ). , , ,
.
UPS. . Uninterruptible power supply.
USB. . Universal serial bus.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP, ). , IP- . , TCP
IP-, .
User-level permissions ( ).
, / . . .
Virtual LAN (VLAN, ). ,
. ,
. , ,
. ,
,
.

340 -
Virtual Private Network (VPN, ). , , , , .
, , , . VPN , , , VPN-
, .
Virus (). , (
), , , .
, , ,
.
VLAN. . Virtual LAN.
VPN. . Virtual Private Network.
W3C. . World Wide Web Consortium.
Wake On LAN (WOL). .
WAN. . Wide area network.
WEP. . Wired Equivalent Privacy.
Wi-Fi. ,
Ethernet (WECA, Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance), , .
Wi-Fi 5. , IEEE 802.11a.
. Wi-Fi ( 802.11b).
Wide area network (WAN, ). , . , , ATM Frame
Relay.
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS, Windows).
,
Microsoft NetBIOS IP-. WINS ,
. ,

341

(Domain Name System, DNS) Windows ( ) DNS- IP-. DNS Microsoft


WINS .
Winipcfg. Windows (, Windows 95/98)
IP-, . ipconfig,
Windows.
WINS. . Windows Internet Naming Service.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP, , ). Wi-Fi.
WEP , , .
, .
WEP ,
.
Wired Protected Access (WPA, ).
IEEE 802.111, Wired
Equivalent Privacy (WEP), . WPA , ,
.
Wireless Access Point (AC, ). ,
, .

. .
WLAN ( ). ( ),
.
WOL. . Wake On LAN.
Work Area ( ). .
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C, World Wide Web). , , -.

342 -
Worm (). , , (, ) . ,
.
WPA. . Wired Protected Access.
XDSL. . Digital Subscriber Line.

10 Gigabit Ethernet, 51
10000BASE-T, 24
1000BASE-CX, 24
1000BASE-LX, 24
1000BASE-SX, 23
1000BASE-T, 24
100BASE-FX, 23
100BASE-T4, 23
100BASE-TX, 23
10BASE-2, 21
10BASE-5, 21
10BASE-FL, 23
10BASE-T, 23

Ethernet, 20

A
AppleTalk, 25
ARCnet, 25

F
Fast Ethernet, 48

G
Gigabit Ethernet, 52
GPO, 162

I
IEC, 31
IEEE, 32
IETF, 34
IPX/SPX, 29
IP-, 67
, 67
, 67
ISO, 36
ITU, 37

Bluetooth, 61

MAN, 52
MAU, 27

CIDR, 70
CSMA/CA, 28
CSMA/CD, 46
C
, 211

D
Denial of Service, 236
DNS, 64
DSSS, 57

N
NetBEUI, 29

R
RTT, 83

T
TCP/IP, 29, 63
TokenRing, 25

344

WEP, 201

X.500, 144

, 109
, 68

RED, 89

, 110
, 110
, 116
, 260
, 206
, 85

-
, 115
, 286


, 251
DoS
Smurf, 237
SYN, 238
, 237

ICMP, 237
, 238

, 267
ICF, 226

, 226

, 213
, 74
, 242

, 19

, 157

()
, 157
, 157
, 157
, 157

, 58

, 59

, 147
, 146
, 147
, 146

, 39

, 145
, 240

, 203
GUID, 146
, 156
IP-, 240
, 39

, 41
-, 39
, 40
, 39
, 41
, 283
, 284
, 38
, 127
, 234
, 260
, 260
, 260
, 200, 253
, 260

, 58, 59

arp, 183
hostname, 186
ipconfig, 184
msconfig, 187
nbtstat, 190
ping, 192
, 22, 110
, 112
, 112
, 112
, 112
, 74
MMC
, 140
, 126, 133
, 22, 107
, 49

, 37
, 19

, 25, 28
, 115
, 114
, 114
, 69


, 278
, 277
, 278
OSI, 43

, 94

RMON, 297
, 110
, 110

, 115
, 77

345

, 20

, 42
, 42
, 147
, 236

, 58

, 140
, 234

, 40
, 115
, 61
, 108
, 211
, 69
, 69

, 162
, 86

, 154
, 154
, 39
, 108

, 57
, 127
, 161
5-4-3, 119
, 162

, 201
, 201
-, 267
, 39
, 63
ARP, 64
, 213
, 213
BOOTP, 64
DHCP, 64
, 202, 213

346
()
ICMP, 229
IKE, 262
IP, 63
IPSec, 261
IPv6, 71
Kerberos, 145, 263
L2TP, 216
LDAP, 144
MS-CHAP, 213
MS-CHAP 2, 213
OSPF, 115
, 216
, 215
, 216
RADIUS, 202
RARP, 64
RIP, 115
RMON, 64
SLIP, 215
SMTP, 64
SNMP, 64, 293
SSL, 263
TCP, 63
UDP, 64
WEP, 246

, 55
, 162

, 276
, 276
, 276
TDR, 285
, 130

, 74

DHCP, 126
DNS, 126
IIS, 126
RAS, 127
WINS, 126
, 127

()
, 129
, 129
, 203
, 127
, 127
, 98
, 205

, 53
, 53
, 19
, 19

, 37
, 37
, 75

DNS, 171
IAS, 202, 214
RAS, 210
RRAS, 210
WINS, 172
WirelessZeroConfiguration, 205

, 173

Active Directory, 144
, 203

, 39
, 39
, 235
, 108

, 53

3DES, 260
DES, 260
-, 243
, 146

, 115
, 127
, 38
BERT, 284

, 26
, 22
, 24
, 20
, 25
, 20
, 20
- , 67
, 54, 197
, 91
, 244

, 46
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet

347

802.2, 50
802.3, 50
II, 50
SNAP, 50

, 95

, 260
, 261

, 210
, 101
, 89

, 279
, 300
, 154
, 155
, 155
, 156

-, 129
, 39

, 242

EISA, 101
ISA, 100
PCI, 101
PCI Express, 103
PCMCIA, 103
, 110
, 253
, 57


Microsoft




.
.
.
.
.
. , .
.

05784 07.09.01.
12.08.05. 70100/16. . . . 28,38.
3500.
, 194044, -, . ., . 29.

005-93, 2; 95 3005 .
. . .
, .
197110, -, ., . 15.

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