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Variable Frequency Drives

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Variable Frequency Drives


Drives

Electrical Distribution and MCCs

Quick Review how VFDs work


Basic Drive Design

+
_
AC
Line
Input

Diode
Bridge
Rectifier

DC
Bus
Link

IGBT
Inverter

AC
Output

Selection Requirements &


Considerations
Drives are typically sized by the current

requirement of the motor whenever


possible.
Use VFD selection charts listing

Input Voltage 208/240, 400/480,


M/V
Output FLA
HP of Motor
Type of Load Typically either
Constant or Variable Torque
Enclosure type

Other considerations or useful


information
How will the VFD be controlled.
Enclosure Type
Motor Base Speed/Operating Range
Service Factor of Motor
Insulation Type of Motor
Output Filters
Line Reactors

How Will The VFD Be Controlled?

Local or Remote

Keypad or remote operator/HMI station?


From a PLC or BAS system?
Open or closed loop system?
Speed ref. 4-20ma or 0 to 10 vdc
Specify
Min. # of Logic & Analog I/O if known
Type of Network Communication Required
Modbus, Profibus etc.
Consider additional components interfacing with
VFD - sensors, level switches, warning lights,
alarms etc.

Environmental Considerations
Enclosure Type Where will the VFD be installed.
Stand alone NEMA Type 1, 12, 3R etc.. Or integral
to an MCC lineup.
Enclosure Requirements
Disconnect or Bypass Option.
HOA Switch, Speed Pot, Pilot Light Cluster.
Many Standard & Custom Options Available.
Environmental IssuesAmbient Temperature

Most drives are rated 0-40 degrees C with derating


required above 40 degrees C and heaters below zero
degrees.

Our standard off the shelf IP20 & NEMA Type 1 drives
are rated -10 to 50 degree C without derating.

Altitude
It Matters
Most

drives are rated up to


3300 feet above sea level
De-rating is required above
3300 feet due to thinner air
heat dissipation
Good rule of thumb is to derate
1% for every additional 300
feet of elevation.

Specifying the Motor


Standard Nema B motors with class F HPE insulation class or

better with a 1.15 service factor are typically fine for the
majority of VFD applications.
Consider specifying NEMA MG1, Part 31 Motors.

NEMA MG1-1993, Revision 1, Part 31, Section IV Performance


Standards Applying to All Machines, Part 31 Definite
Purpose Inverter-Fed Motors
Doing so will provide 1600 peak input voltage rating, better

insulation, bearing protection, and separation of input and


output leads to the motor.

Long Motor Leads


Issues:
Reflected waveform can cause voltage doubling at the motor.
Voltage Spikes
DV/DT

Common Solutions Include:


Use output filters if motor lengths are > 100 feet
Specify and purchase NEMA MG1 Part 31 Motors
Lower carrier frequency of VFD.

Output Filters are options with Square D

Enclosed Drives or MCC Packages

DC Line Choke / Line Reactors


Both DC Line Chokes & Line Reactors are used as simple & economical

means of mitigating harmonics at the VFD.


DC Chokes are either offered as an added option or in some cases

included by the VFD manufactures Typically 1.5% to 3 % impedance.


Altivar/Square D VFDs include DC Chokes on drives above 25 hp as a

standard.
Line Reactors are typically specified as 3% or 5% and are mounted in

front of the VFD. They are typically offered as an added option by VFD
manufacturers.
Square D enclosed VFD product line typically includes 3% line reactors

as a standard with the option to upgrade to 5%.

Altivar Open product line overview


Functionality
Performance

ATV 71
ATV61
ATV31
ATV21

Late De 06 availability

ATV11

Horsepower
3

10

20

75

100

250

700

900

Enclosed product line overview


Functionality
Performance

8998 MCC

Powergard

Engineered
Solutions
Center

M-Flex

E-Flex

Horsepower

ATV31 S-Flex
5

10

20

100

250

500

900

M-Flex
and Powergard 18 Pulse

1 - 50HP at 208/230V
1 - 500HP at 460V
variable torque and constant torque ratings
Industrial high-end solution

UL508C listed and CSA certified


100k short circuit current rated
Seismic rated

rugged enclosure, white interior


integrated or barriered by-pass and line reactor

options
enclosed construction

Type 1, 1A and 12,

custom configurations

Powergard provides 18-pulse converter

to meet harmonic mitigation requirements

Industrial process and plant floor


Excellent Solution for Water / Wastewater

Class 8998 MCC


1 - 50HP at 208/230V
1 - 500HP at 460V
variable torque and constant torque ratings
space saving design: highest density design

Optimal way to install multiple drives in one


location
UL listed short circuit ratings
65 k and 100k ratings
rugged enclosure, white interior
integrated or barriered by-pass and line reactor
options
enclosed construction
Type 1, 1A and 12,
custom configurations

Industrial process and plant floor


Water / Wastewater

Network Options
Communication cards

Industrial offer
- Profibus DP, Ethernet, Modbus Plus, Device Net, Interbus-S, Modbus /
Uni-Telway, FIPIO

HVAC offer
- LonWorks , BACnet, Metasys N2 , Apogee FLN ;

Multi-pump application card


To manage multiple pump applications
Can accept up to (2) option cards + Encoder Feedback Card:
Optional I/O Extension cards available
Logic I/O card adds (4LI, 2 LO, 1 Relay, PTC)
Extended I/O card (same as previous card + 2AO, 2 AI, pulse train)

Harmonics in the
Water/Wastewater Market
The System Solution

Agenda
I.

Harmonic Basics
II. Conventional Harmonic Mitigation Methods
III. AccuSine PCS
IV. Applications
V. Specification Recommendations
VI. Summary

Harmonic Basics
What are harmonics?
Proliferated by power semiconductor devices
- Converts power (AC to DC)

Fundamental

A harmonic is a component of a periodic wave having a frequency that is

an integer multiple of the fundamental power line frequency


rd

- Characteristic harmonics are the predominate harmonics seen by the power


distribution system

3 Harmonic
th

7 Harmonic

t1h

Harmonic
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
:
19

Predicted by the following equation:


- hC = characteristic harmonics to be expected
- n = an integer from 1,2,3,4,5, etc.
- p = number of pulses or rectifiers in circuit

Harmonic

Frequency
60Hz
120Hz
180Hz
240Hz
300Hz
360Hz
420Hz
:
1140Hz

Sequence
+
0
0
0
0
+
:
+

Hc = np +/- 1

Multi-pulse Converters
Harmonic Orders Present

Hn = np +/- 1
Hn = characteristic
harmonic order present
n = an integer
p = number of pulses

Hn
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49

Harmonics present by rectifier design


Type of rectifier
1 phase
2 phase 3 phase 3 phase
4-pulse
4-pulse
6-pulse 12-pulse
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

3 phase
18-pulse

x
x

x
x

Harmonic Basics
Nonlinear loads draw it
Example: 6-Pulse VFD
Inverter

Converter
DC bus

A
B
C

Harmonic Basics

Why a concern?

Current distortion
- Added heating, reduced capacity in conductors

Ih

Transformers
Conductors and cables

- Nuisance tripping of electronic circuit breakers (thermal overload)


- Blown fuses
- Detrimental to generators

Heating of windings

- Detrimental to UPS

Loads

Vh = Ih x Zh

UPS cant supply the current

Harmonic Basics
Voltage distortion

Interference with other electronic loads


- Faulting to destruction

Generator regulators cant function


- Shut downs

Ih

Not compatible with PF caps

Potential resonance condition


- Excessive voltage

Loads

Vh = Ih x Zh

Overheating of PF correction capacitors


Tripping of PF protection equipment
Shutdown / damage to electronic equipment

How are harmonics handled today?


Every W/WWT spec includes harmonic requirements
Mixed bag of objectives
- Where is PCC?
- What level of harmonics is to be attained?
- Basis of compliance is mixed

THDi, THDv, TDD?


IEEE 519-1992?

- How to obtain compliance?

Sometimes defined
Sometimes open ended

Validation
- Poorly defined
- By each equipment vendor
- No Total Responsibility for harmonics

Has the User been protected where it matters inside the plant

Where are the harmonic requirements


placed?
Specifications direct manufacturers of nonlinear loads to

comply within equipment specifications

There has been no other way to write the specifications to protect users
- No product or method for system approach
- No one vendor would take total responsibility for harmonics
- Result is doubtful compliance for system/user

Many responsibilities for harmonic mitigation


- VFD, UPS, ozone generators, UV equipment, etc

ANSI Standard
IEEE 519-1992
Chapter 11
Addresses THD(V) delivered by utility to user
THD(V) must be < 5% [< 69 KV systems]
Chapter 10
Defines the amount of TDD a user can cause
Based upon size of user in relation to power source
Table 10.3 for systems < 69 kV
Defines limits for voltage notches caused by SCR rectifiers Table 10.2
Defines PCC (point of common coupling)

IEEE 519-1992
Defines current distortion as TDD
Total Demand Distortion
- Largest amplitude of harmonic current occurs at maximum load of nonlinear device if
electrical system can handle this it can handle all lower amplitudes
- Always referenced to full load current
- Effective meaning of current distortion

Defines voltage distortion as THD


Total harmonic voltage distortion
Does not use THD(I)
Total harmonic current distortion
Instrument measurement (instantaneous values)
Uses measured load current to calculate THD(I)

IEEE 519-1992
TDD and THD(I) are not the same except
at 100% load
Example: with AccuSine PCS operating

Full load

As load decreases, TDD


decreases while THD(I)
increases.

Total I,
rms
936.68
836.70
767.68
592.63
424.53
246.58
111.80

Measured
Fund I, Harm I,
rms
rms
THD(I)
936.00
35.57
3.8%
836.00
34.28
4.1%
767.00
32.21
4.2%
592.00
27.23
4.6%
424.00
21.20
5.0%
246.00
16.97
6.9%
111.00
13.32
12.0%

TDD
3.8%
3.7%
3.4%
2.9%
2.3%
1.8%
1.4%

IEEE 519-1992 Table 10.3


Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (<69 kV)

Isc/Iload
<20
20<50
50<100
100<1000
>1000

<11
4.0%
7.0%
10.0%
12.0%
15.0%

11<=h<17 17<=h<23 23<=h<35


2.0%
1.5%
0.6%
3.5%
2.5%
1.0%
4.5%
4.0%
1.5%
5.5%
5.0%
0.2%
7.0%
6.0%
2.5%

h>=35
0.3%
0.5%
0.7%
1.0%
1.4%

TDD
5.0%
8.0%
12.0%
15.0%
20.0%

Isc = short circuit current capacity of source


Iload = demand load current (fundamental)
TDD = Total Demand Distortion
(TDD = Total harmonic current distortion measured against
fundamental current at demand load.)

Harmonic Standards
Most

harmonic problems are not at PCC with

utility
Occurs with generators & UPS
Occurs where nonlinear loads are
concentrated
Occurs inside the plant
Need

to protect the user from self by moving the


harmonic mitigation requirements to where
harmonic loads are located

Agenda
I.

Harmonic Basics
II. Conventional Harmonic Mitigation Methods
III. AccuSine PCS
IV. Applications
V. Specification Recommendations
VI. Summary

Harmonic Mitigation Methods


Typically applied per device
Line reactors/DC bus chokes/isolation transformers
5th harmonic filters (trap filters)
Broadband filters
Multi-pulse transformers/converters
Active front end (AFE) converter
System solution
Active harmonic filter

Harmonic mitigation methods


(Applied per VFD)

Solution

Advantage

Disadvantage

Typical % TDD

Typical Price Multiplier*

Dependent upon SCR***

Cost of transformer and installation change out

Increase short circuit capacity

Reduces THD(V)

Increases TDD
Not likely to occur**

Reduced Harmonic Technology VFD

Lower TDD
Simplified design
Less cost

Compliance is limited
Application limited
Size limited

30 - 50% TDD

0.90 - 0.95

Impedance (3% LR or 5% DC choke)

Low cost
Simple

Compliance

30 - 40% TDD

1.05 - 1.15

5th Harmonic filter

Reduces 5th & total TDD

Does

18 - 22% TDD

1.20 - 1.45

Broadband filter

Reduces TDD (thru 13th)

Large heat losses


Application limited

8 - 15% TDD

1.25 - 1.50

12-pulse rectifiers

Reduces
Reliable

TDD

Large footprint/heavy
Good for >100 HP

8 - 15 % TDD

1.65 - 1.85

18-pulse rectifiers

Reduces
Reliable

TDD

Large footprint/heavy
Good for >100 HP

5 - 8% TDD

1.65 - 1.85

Active front end converter

Very good TDD


Regeneration possible

Large footprint/heavy
Very high cost per unit
High heat losses

< 5% TDD

2.0 - 2.5

adder

difficult

not meet harmonic levels at higher orders^

* Price compared to a standard 6-pulse VFD.

** Utilities and users are not likely to change their distribution systems.
*** Increasing short circuit capacity (lower impedance source or larger KVA capacity) raises TDD but lowers THD(V).
^ Can be said for all methods listed.

Inductors/Transformers/DC Bus
Chokes
Description:
Converter-applied inductors or isolation transformers.
Pros:

Inexpensive & reliable


Transient protection for loads
1st Z yields big TDD reduction (90% to 35% w/3% Z)
Complimentary to active harmonic control

Cons:

Limited reduction of TDD at equipment terminals after 1st Z


Reduction dependent on source Z

5th Harmonic Filter (Trap Filter)


Inductor (Lp) and Capacitor (C) provide low
impedance source for a single frequency
(5th)

Zs

Vs

Must add more tuned filters to filter


more frequencies

Ls

Inductor Ls required to detune filter from


electrical system and other filters

Lp
C

Load

If Ls not present, filter is sink for all 5th


harmonics in system
If Ls not present, resonance with other
tuned filters possible
Injects leading reactive current (KVAR) at
all times may not need

Broadband Filters

~
Source

Mitigates up to 13th order or higher


Each inductor (L) > 8% impedance
V drops ~ 16% at load
Trapezoidal voltage to load
Can only be used on diode converters
Prevents fast current changes (only good for
centrifugal loads)
When generators are present, re-tuning may
be required
Load

Lp
C
Capacitor (C) designed to boost V at load to proper
level (injects leading VARs)
Physically large
High heat losses (>5%)
Series device

Multi-Pulse Drives
Description: Drives/UPS with two (12 pulse) or three (18 pulse) input
bridges fed by a transformer with two or three phase shifted output
windings.
Pros:

Reduces TDD to 10% (12 pulse) & 5% (18 pulse) at loads


Reliable

Cons:

High installation cost with external transformer


Large footprint (even w/autotransformer)
Series solution with reduction in efficiency
One required for each product
Cannot retrofit

Harmonic mitigation methods


VFD mitigation topologies

6-Pulse converter

12-Pulse converter

18-Pulse converter
Multipulse
Transformer

DC Link
Reactor

Rectifier Assembly

DC+
Line
Reactor

DC Bus

2
9

Load

Wye
C

AC Line

Delta
DC-

Transformer
Tertiary

Delta

C-less or 3% reactance min (if


included); small footprint,
simplified cabling

Externally mounted 3 winding


transformer; more wire and
cabling; complicated

Large footprint, more steel


& copper (losses)

100

100

100

6 pulse

12 pulse

18 pulse
0.0s

Current waveform distorted


TDD 30% to 40% with 3% reactor
(depending on network impedance)

Current slightly distorted


TDD 8% to 15% (depending on
network impedance)

0.02s

Current wave form good


TDD 5% to 7% (depending on
network impedance)

AFE Converters
Used in UPS and VFD
Replaces diode converter with IGBT converter
The hype
Permits current smoothing on AC lines (< 5% TDD)
Permits 4-quadrant operation of VFD
Maintains unity TOTAL PF
Meets all harmonics specs around the world

Input Filter
Required to limit
THDv to <5%

VFD

A
C
S
o
u
r
c
e

IGBT

Filter

Converter

DC Bus

IGBT

Inverter

AC
Motor

AFE Converters
Significant harmonics above 50th order
American Bureau
of Shipping (ABS)
requires
examination to
100th order when
AFE applied

Higher frequencies
yield higher heating
of current path &
potential resonance
with capacitors

AFE Converters
Cons
Larger and more expensive than 6-pulse drives
- Approximately twice the size & price

Mains voltage must be free of imbalance and voltage


harmonics
- Generates more harmonics

200
KVA
rated
AFE
VFD

100
KVA
rated

PWM
VFD

DC
Drive

PF
caps

Without mains filter THD(V) can reach 40%


Requires short circuit ratio > 40 at PCC
Switched mode power supplies prohibited
Capacitors prohibited on mains

IGBT & SCR rectifiers prohibited on same mains


- No other nonlinear loads permitted

Where are the harmonic requirements


placed?

Validation is difficult with many suppliers


Must test with my equipment only
Cant hold me responsible for others
What THDv is utility delivering?

Typical Present Situation


Manufacturers of nonlinear loads have other concerns
Sell standard equipment at competitive prices
- Leads to minimized harmonic solutions
- Leads to misleading information about harmonic performance
- Leads to operational difficulties

e.g. Cant operate on backup generators/UPS

Force the IEEE 519 discussion to the utility PCC

Many types of solutions are not compatible


Each manufacturer does his own thing without regard to other solutions
Approaches are for my equipment only
My simulation is for my equipment only I cant include the others
Total solution not achieved
User has system that exceeds specification objectives
Consulting engineers cant get overall compliance

Agenda
I.

Harmonic Basics
II. Conventional Harmonic Mitigation Methods
III. AccuSine PCS
IV. Applications
V. Specification Recommendations
VI. Summary

The SYSTEM Solution


The SYSTEM SOLUTION
One supplier takes responsibility for the total harmonics
One specification for harmonic definitions
One validation responsibility

What does it take to get SYSTEM


SOLUTION?
Nonlinear products made compatible with solution
Uniform harmonic approach
- 3% input line reactors on all devices

A product compatible with all nonlinear products


When applied to above yields results desired
- Compliance with harmonic specifications
- Protection for users in his the plant

Vendor willing to assume total responsibility


Vendor willing to guarantee solution

How to make system solution work


Nonlinear products
Specify standard product
- Best cost
- Best performance
- Specify requirement for input line impedance of 3% on each item

Input line reactor or transformer or DC choke in PWM VFD

Write a specification in Section 16 for an active harmonic filter


Specify any points of concern for insertion of AHF
- Size of AHF
- Located per electrical bus

Specify total responsibility for all harmonics in facility


Specify TDD levels desired at each location
- 5% TDD guarantees 5% THDv (caused by the loads) with any source

Specify compliance tests for each location

Schneider Electrics Solution


AccuSine Power Correction System (PCS)
Active harmonic filter
- Provides 5% TDD per load or system
- Cancels everything from 2nd to 50th harmonic order
- Used on any/all nonlinear load

Active reactive current correction


- Does not use PF capacitors
- Used to correct Displacement PF
- In conjunction with or independent of harmonic control

System Solution
Active Harmonic Filter
Applied to one or many nonlinear loads
VFD, UPS, UV, DC drives, DC power supplies
Provides DPF correction
More cost effective for multiple loads
Saves space
Lower heat losses
Not critical to operation

AccuSine Active Harmonic Filter

Is

CT

Il

Ia

Source

Load

AHF

AHF

Parallel connected
Is + Ia = Il
Ia includes 2nd to 25/50th
harmonic current
Is <5% TDD

AccuSine PCS
Disadvantages
Heat from high speed switching
Advantages
nd
th
of IGBT
Highly effective (2 to 25/50 orders cancelled)
Cost issues possible for single
Parallel connected not critical for equipment
operation
load
Scalable

Universal solution
-

Parallel units as needed


Handles many loads
Many types of loads at same time

Can be installed as convenient


Best cost for multiple loads
Smallest footprint with std VFD/UPS

Considerations
Load must have input impedance
(3%)

Protects load
Limits size of AHF

Need branch circuit protection

System Solution
AccuSine PCS Sizing Example
A 125 HP variable torque 6-pulse VFD with 3% LR
Required AHF filtering capability = 47.5 amperes
Two 125 HP VT 6-pulse VFD w/3% LR
Required AHF size = 84.4 amps
Three 125 HP VT 6-pulse VFD w/3% LR
Required AHF size = 113.5 amps
Six 125 HP VT VFD w/3% LR
Required AHF size = 157.6 amps
- (not 6 x 47.5 = 285 amps)

AccuSine PCS Harmonic Performance


At VFD Terminals

AccuSine injection

Source current

Order
Fund
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
% THD(I)

AS off
% I fund
100.000%
0.038%
31.660%
11.480%
0.435%
7.068%
4.267%
0.367%
3.438%
2.904%
0.284%
2.042%
2.177%
0.293%
1.238%
1.740%
0.261%
0.800%
1.420%
0.282%
0.588%
1.281%
0.259%
0.427%
1.348%
35.28%

AS on
% I fund
100.000%
0.478%
0.674%
0.679%
0.297%
0.710%
0.521%
0.052%
0.464%
0.639%
0.263%
0.409%
0.489%
0.170%
0.397%
0.243%
0.325%
0.279%
0.815%
0.240%
0.120%
0.337%
0.347%
0.769%
0.590%
2.67%

Schneider Electrics Solution


AccuSine Power Correction System (PCS)
Installation
- In NEMA 1 or NEMA 12 enclosures
Ratings: 50, 100, & 300 amperes of correction

- In Model 6 MCC (50 and 100 amp units)


- Can parallel up to ten units in any combination

Easy Selection Tools


- Spreadsheet calculator for simple systems
- On-line tool (www,squaredleantools.com)
- Schneider Electric guarantees results when selectors used correctly

Validation
- PQCG or SE Engineered Services ready to do the job

For more information about AccuSine PCS


Contact the Water/Wastewater Competency Center

OR
Your local Schneider Electric Sales Team

OR
The Power Quality Correction Group