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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
This chapter explains the methods used in this study. It commences with an
overview of the
research design, and then details the methods for the quantitative study in terms of
survey
instrument development, sampling, survey administration and respondents.
Procedures used in the
qualitative phase are then explained.

3.2

Research Methodology
.

The research onion model proposed by Saunders et al (2009) is used to conduct this study. The
model is shown below:
Fig. 3.1:

The Research onion Model


PARADIGM
APPROACH
Positivism
Deduction
PARADIGM
Positivism
APPROACH
Deduction

Method:

Source: Saunders et al (2009

Mixed method

STRATEGY
Survey +
Interview

Time horizon: cross


sectional

Technique:
Quantitative +
Qualitative

THE ONION APPROACH OF METHODOLOGY

3.2 Research Philosophy


Research philosophy is perhaps the most comprehensive term used in the literature of
research. In broad terms, it encompasses every dimension of research activity. Talking in
particular terms of research models of axiology, epistemology and ontology, the provide the
research with firm information related to thoughts, beliefs, views, perceptions, judgments,
opinions to devise the research foundation. Blaikie (2000) presents the view that researcher
himself selects the research philosophy that suits the research. In contrast, James and
Vinnicombe (2002) support the view that the researcher selects the type of research. In the
outcomes of this particular dissertation, the role of research methodology is even more enhanced
because its underlying research model emphasizes upon the influence of research methodology.
Theory study provides a theoretical support and argument for the investigation; make the
research data more convictive. To this dissertation, the theory study will in the field of human
resource management and part of the psychoanalysis. Next is to research the enterprises. Before
doing the research, there needs to design some questions, .

3.2.1 Justification of Research Philosophy


Out of three models of research methodology, positivism is the first one. It is the simplest
model as it targets the validity of existing body of knowledge. The research based on positivism
model tests a hypothesis in the light of present theories. Same model is applied in this particular
research dissertation as well. The thesis looks into already established relationship between direct

marketing management and organizational success. Since the topic has already been explored in
the business literature, this particular dissertation will be following the positivism model.
Positivism model is criticized when deeply analyzed in the light of social realities. The second
model completely contrasts with positivism and known as interpretivism. Some scholars try to
find the middle way between these two models by eliminating the drawbacks of positivism.
3.3 Adopted Research Approach
This research report applies the deductive theory. Based on the data collected during the
process of literature review, deductive theory best suits the undertaken research study. The paper
also takes into consideration the regulatory perspectives though their scope is restricted for this
study. The report is based on the approaches and improvement initiatives the organisations take
to streamline their processes.
3.4 Type of Research
There are two types of research methodologies that can be used, i.e. qualitative and quantitative
research. Qualitative research is an unstructured and exploratory methodology based on small data to
provide insight and understanding [101]. Quantitative research is aimed to measure data and used
some form of statistical analysis [101].
Several studies mentioned that the use of qualitative research (e.g. interview, focus groups or case
studies) is suitable in exploratory social research. This is because the strength of the qualitative
approach based in an ability to investigate human subject motivation and actions within a research
study, thus the richness and detail data can be exposed in this study. In order to carry this study
effectively, quantitative methodology has been taken into consideration.

3.5 Strategy for the Research


This study explains the strategy through which data has been made available. Survey
method was adopted via questionnaires. At the New World Department Store China Limited, a listed
company with headquarters in HongKong , quantitative techniques were carried out to evaluate

employees mobility by virtue of employees and customers perspectives.

Keeping in view

secondary data, earlier literature study will be considered as a source of guidance. Therefore,
questionnaire strategy being an integral part for primary method indicates quantitative approach,
whereas the qualitative approach is emerged through secondary data.

After going through all

about the research and study case, it is evident that this study is exhibited below with the help of
flow chart:

Data

Primary

Secondary

Collection/Approach
Qualitative
Quantitative

Questionnaire Survey

Literature review
-----

As highlighted above, it is relatively hard to quote whilst conducting several approaches on


research work.
3.6

Sampling

In strategies of data collection, selection of representative sample is important (Saunders


et al 2009). Sampling frame used for this study is employees and customers of the New World
Department Store China Limited. Judgemental sampling method is used to select representative

sample of 100 employees. This method is suitable for limited resources and time constraints

faced during the research. The eligibility criteria of respondents were employment period of at
least six months and participation in marketing programs conducted at Fauji Fertilizers. . The
sample was valid and representative for this research. All 100 employees were working in
different departments and are allowed to take part in academic researches of this type.
The constraints faced during sampling process were identifying suitable respondents,
availability of respondents to fill forms, gap of communication, and lack of understanding of
survey instrument. Time and resources constraints have limited the sample size and modes of
accessibility to the respondents.

3.7

Time Horizon
Critical study strategy provides insight on how employees perceive HR practices in an

organization in relation to their commitment. A cross sectional study is developed through


critical extraction of information from respondents. Hence, longitudinal elements are removed
from the study, which is based primarily on practical responses.
3.8

Primary Research
It is the research data collected primarily for a research in its own original manner. It is

fresh and first data. A number of practical ways to collect information included in primary data
are observation, experience, experimentation, surveys and questionnaires, interviews and
interactions. For our purpose, questionnaires and interviews had served the purpose. A
significantly authentic data is collected through these techniques so that the data highlights all
the aspects of the subject.
3.8.1

Survey Questionnaire

Questionnaire formation is based on the standard criteria presented by Saunders et al


(2009). The main considerations of questionnaire were research questions, literature review, and
hypotheses. Main areas related to the study were considered in formation of this questionnaire.
Extent of significance of direct marketing management was focused to extract the opinion of the
respondents about direct marketing practices by special like-type answer scale. 10 respondents
were initially sampled for research to run pilot testing. In actual survey, The returned filled
questionnaires were 100, as a resultofsent 125 questionnaires which were used for the data
analysis in this study.
3.9

Secondary Research
To collect qualitative form of data, secondary research is employed, which integrates

important elements in the research, hence, connecting different threads. Material on Fauji
Fertilizers company policies and marketing strategies was studied to develop speculations.
Secondary sources included newspapers, journals, internet and books.
3.4 Data Analysis

The findings from all interviews and field study were gathered together and
analysed by comparing findings. The results of findings, later on, would be used
to identify the framework of employees mobility. All these results should meet
the objectives of the study.

3.5 Limitations

The following are some of the limitations of the research methodology:

i. The study is limited to certain area due to time constraint. Although the
results can be said to be representative, a more accurate results could be
obtained if more areas are included in the study.
ii. Due to limited budget, researcher can only carry out the study from long
distance. More clear and precise result could be obtained if researcher
applies field observation in both countries.
iii. When it comes to telephone interview, it took quite a longer time to
connect with the respondents. Moreover, the respondents limited the time
slot; as a result, the interviews are conducted for less than an hour

3.11 Validity and Reliability of the Research


The virtue of research which describes the authenticity of a research, its genuineness, its
practicality, consistency and orientation as perceived by the reader (Cohen and Manion, 2007) is
called the reliability of research. On the other hand, validity caters the virtue of significance,
importance, usefulness and practicality of the research. What objectives will be integrated in the
features of validity and what will be the number of researchers gaining from this study? To the
extent that applicative validity is under consideration, based on the condition that status of
business environment of the New World Department Store China Limited is maintained, findings are

valid for theoretical objectives with regard to time line. Thus, the level by which the businesses
are affected so that their direct marketing strategies are modified will be illustrated by the
validity of results.
With the specialists point of view, the qualitative data was gathered as skills make a trustworthy
research. The results were protected from statistical measurement errors with the help of SPSS.
The sample size was multiplied in order to get perfect results, as survey was performed randomly
in the start, which assisted in obtaining results free from biasness. The likelihood of mistakes
even reduces with the help of three techniques to conclude, since every statistics agreed and held
each other. Thus, the above reasons conclude that the findings of the study are completely
dependable.

3.12

Ethical Measures

The planned research study had fulfilled the current practices of the study, principles and
ethical measures prevailing in marketing research. Bell and Bryman (2007) suggested vital
practical and achievable ethical principles in the social sciences.
These principles were maintained in this research as:
1. Participants were properly informed about the proceedings and purpose of this research.
2. No offensive statements or personal questions were implicated in the questionnaire.
3. Made sure those respondents were fully acquainted of the investigation, areas of study.
4. The privacy of the participants particulars was kept confidential
5. Honesty and transparency was kept by communicating the findings of the research.
There was a heavy preference provided to ethical matters that is why they are no obstacle
in this study. The manager was even assured to receive a copy of the research. The identity

Direct marketing, manager being interviewed was also kept confidential in order to prevent any
social complexity arising after the research has been carried out. Thus, the ethical issues were
properly considered and dealt with during the whole research period.
3.13

Summary

In summary, the above chapter presented the methodology for this study. This study is based on
cross-sectional design with Positivist paradigm. Deductive approach is followed to collect
quantitative and qualitative data. Mixed approach is preferred with questionnaire and interviews
conduct from employees of Fauji Fertilizers. Regression analysis was used for data analysis.