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Situation 1: Difficult Transitions

Tony Stark had just finished his first week at Reece Enterprises and decided to drive
upstate to a small lakefront lodge for some fishing and relaxation. Tony had worked for
the previous ten years for the OGrady Company, but OGrady had been through some
hard times of late and had recently shut down several of its operating groups, including
Tonys, to cut costs. Fortunately, Tonys experience and recommendations had made
finding another position fairly easy. As he drove the interstate, he reflected on the past
ten years and the apparent situation at Reece.
At OGrady, things had been great. Tony had been part of the team from day one. The
job had met his personal goals and expectations perfectly, and Tony believed he had
grown greatly as a person. His work was appreciated and recognized; he had received
three promotions and many more pay increases.
Tony had also liked the company itself. The firm was decentralized, allowing its
managers considerable autonomy and freedom. The corporate Culture was easygoing.
Communication was open. It seemed that everyone knew what was going on at all
times, and if you didnt know about something, it was easy to find out.
The people had been another plus. Tony and three other managers went to lunch often
and played golf every Saturday. They got along well both personally and professionally
and truly worked together as a team. Their boss had been very supportive, giving them
the help they needed but also staying out of the way and letting them work.
When word about the shutdown came down, Tony was devastated. He was sure that
nothing could replace OGrady. After the final closing was announced, he spent only a
few weeks looking around before he found a comparable position at Reece
Enterprises.
As Tony drove, he reflected that "comparable" probably was the wrong word. Indeed,
Reece and OGrady were about as different as you could get. Top managers at Reece
apparently didnt worry too much about who did a good job and who didnt. They
seemed to promote and reward people based on how long they had been there and
how well they played the never-ending political games.
Maybe this stemmed from the organization itself, Tony pondered. Reece was a bigger
organization than OGrady and was structured much more bureaucratically. It seemed
that no one was allowed to make any sort of decision without getting three signatures
from higher up. Those signatures, though, were hard to get. All the top managers
usually were too busy to see anyone, and interoffice memos apparently had very low

priority.
Tony also had had some problems fitting in. His peers treated him with polite
indifference. He sensed that a couple of them resented that he, an outsider, had been
brought right in at their level after they had had to work themselves up the ladder. On
Tuesday he had asked two colleagues about playing golf. They had politely declined,
saying that they did not play often. But later in the week, he had overheard them making
arrangements to play that very Saturday.
It was at that point that Tony had decided to go fishing. As he steered his car off the
interstate to get gas, he wondered if perhaps he had made a mistake in accepting the
Reece offer without finding out more about what he was getting into.

Situation 2: Humanized Robots?


Helen Bowers was stumped. Sitting in her office at the plant, she pondered the same
questions she had been facing for months: how to get her companys employees to
work harder and produce more. No matter what she did, it didnt seem to help much.
Helen had inherited the business three years ago when her father, Jake Bowers,
passed away unexpectedly. Bowers Machine Parts was founded four decades ago by
Jake and had grown into a moderate-size corporation. Bowers makes replacement
parts for large-scale manufacturing machines such as lathes and mills. The firm is
headquartered in Kansas City and has three plants scattered throughout Missouri.
Although Helen grew up in the family business, she never understood her fathers
approach. Jake had treated his employees like part of his family. In Helens view,
however, he paid them more than he had to, asked their advice far more often than he
should have, and spent too much time listening to their ideas and complaints. When
Helen took over, she vowed to change how things were done. In particular, she resolved
to stop handling employees with kid gloves and to treat them like what they were: the
hired help.
In addition to changing the way employees were treated, Helen had another goal for
Bowers. She wanted to meet the challenge of international competition. Japanese firms
had moved aggressively into the market for heavy industrial equipment. She saw this as
both a threat and an opportunity. On the one hand, if she could get a toehold as a parts
supplier to these firms, Bowers could grow rapidly. On the other, the lucrative parts
market was also sure to attract more Japanese competitors. Helen had to make sure

that Bowers could compete effectively with highly productive and profitable Japanese
firms.
From the day Helen took over, she practiced an altogether different philosophy to
achieve her goals. For one thing, she increased production quotas by 20 percent. She
instructed her first-line supervisors to crack down on employees and eliminate all idle
time. She also decided to shut down the company softball field her father had built. She
thought the employees really didnt use it much, and she wanted the space for future
expansion.
Helen also announced that future contributions to the firms profit-sharing plan would be
phased out. Employees were paid enough, she believed, and all profits were the rightful
property of the ownerher. She also had private plans to cut future pay increases to
bring average wages down to where she thought they belonged. Finally, Helen changed
a number of operational procedures. In particular, she stopped asking other people for
their advice. She reasoned that she was the boss and knew what was best. If she asked
for advice and then didnt take it, it would only stir up resentment.
All in all, Helen thought, things should be going much better. Output should be up and
costs should be way down. Her strategy should be resulting in much higher levels of
productivity and profits.
But that was not happening. Whenever Helen walked through one of the plants, she
sensed that people werent doing their best. Performance reports indicated that output
was only marginally higher than before but scrap rates had soared. Payroll costs were
indeed lower, but other personnel costs were up. It seemed that turnover had increased
substantially and training costs had gone up as a result.
In desperation, Helen finally had hired a consultant. After carefully researching the
history of the organization and Helens recent changes, the consultant made some
remarkable suggestions. The bottom line, Helen felt, was that the consultant thought
she should go back to that "humanistic nonsense" her father had used. No matter how
she turned it, though, she just couldnt see the wisdom in this. People worked to make a
buck and didnt want all that participation stuff.
Suddenly, Helen knew just what to do: She would announce that all employees who
failed to increase their productivity by 10 percent would suffer an equal pay cut. She
sighed in relief, feeling confident that she had finally figured out the answer.

Situation 3: Culture Shock


Warren Oats was a highly successful executive for American Auto Suppliers, a Chicagobased company that makes original-equipment specialty parts for Ford, GM, and
Chrysler. Rather than retreat before the onslaught of Japanese automakers, AAS
decided to counterattack and use its reputation for quality and dependability to win over
customers in Japan. Oats had started in the company as an engineer and worked his
way up to become one of a handful of senior managers who had a shot at the next open
vice-presidential position. He knew he needed to distinguish himself somehow, so when
he was given a chance to lead the AAS attack on the Japanese market, he jumped at it.
Oats knew he did not have time to learn Japanese, but he had heard that many
Japanese executives speak English, and the company would hire a translator anyway.
The toughest part about leaving the United States was persuading his wife, Carol, to
take an eighteen-month leave from her career as an attorney with a prestigious Chicago
law firm. Carol finally persuaded herself that she did not want to miss an opportunity to
learn a new culture. So, armed with all the information they could gather about Japan
from their local library, the Oats headed for Tokyo.
Known as an energetic, aggressive salesperson back home, Warren Oats wasted little
time getting started. As soon as his office had a telephoneand well before all his files
had arrived from the StatesOats made an appointment to meet with executives of one
of Japans leading automakers. Oats reasoned that if he was going to overcome the
famous Japanese resistance to foreign companies, he should get started as soon as
possible.
Oats felt very uncomfortable at that first meeting. He got the feeling that the Japanese
executives were waiting for something. It seemed that everyone but Oats was in slow
motion. The Japanese did not speak English well and appeared grateful for the
presence of the interpreter, but even the interpreter seemed to take her time in
translating each phrase. Frustrated by this seeming lethargy and beginning to doubt the
much-touted Japanese efficiency, Oats got right to the point. He made an oral
presentation of his proposal, waiting patiently for the translation of each sentence. Then
he handed the leader of the Japanese delegation a packet containing the specifics of
his proposal, got up, and left. The translator trailed behind him as if wanting to drag out
the process even further.
By the end of their first week, both Oats and his wife were frustrated. Oatss office
phone had not rung once, which did not make him optimistic about his meeting with
another top company the following week. Carol could scarcely contain her irritation with

what she had perceived of the Japanese way of life. She had been sure that a wellrespected U.S. lawyer would have little trouble securing a job with a Japanese
multinational corporation, but the executives she had met with seemed insulted that she
was asking them for a job. And the way they treated their secretaries! After only a week
in Japan, both Carol and Warren Oats were ready to go home.
A month later, their perspective had changed radically, and both looked back on those
first meetings with embarrassment. Within that month, they had learned a lot about the
Japanese sense of protocol and attitudes toward women. Warren Oats believed he was
beginning to get the knack of doing business with the Japanese in their manner:
establishing a relationship slowly, almost ritualistically, waiting through a number of
meetings before bringing up the real business at hand, and then doing so circumspectly.
It was difficult for Oats to slow his pace, and it made him nervous to be so indirect, but
he was beginning to see some value in the sometimes humbling learning process he
was going through. Perhaps, he thought, he and Carol could become consultants for
other executives who needed to learn the lessons he was beginning to understand.

What specific errors did Warren and Carol Oats make during their first week in Japan?

If you were talking to a non-U.S. businessperson making a first contact with an American
company, what advice would you give?

Situation 4: Differing Perceptions at Clarkston Industries


Susan Harrington continued to drum her fingers on her desk. She had a real problem
and wasnt sure what to do next. She had a lot of confidence in Jack Reed, but she
suspected she was about the last person in the office who did. Perhaps if she ran
through the entire story again in her mind she would see the solution.
Susan had been distribution manager for Clarkston Industries for almost twenty years.
An early brush with the law and a short stay in prison had made her realize the
importance of honesty and hard work. Henry Clarkston had given her a chance despite
her record, and Susan had made the most of it. She now was one of the most respected
managers in the company. Few people knew her background.
Susan had hired Jack Reed fresh out of prison six months ago. Susan understood how
Jack felt when Jack tried to explain his past and asked for another chance. Susan

decided to give him that chance just as Henry Clarkston had given her one. Jack
eagerly accepted a job on the loading docks and could soon load a truck as fast as
anyone in the crew.
Things had gone well at first. Everyone seemed to like Jack, and he made several new
friends. Susan had been vaguely disturbed about two months ago, however, when
another dock worker reported his wallet missing. She confronted Jack about this and
was reassured when Jack understood her concern and earnestly but calmly asserted
his innocence. Susan was especially relieved when the wallet was found a few days
later.
The events of last week, however, had caused serious trouble. First, a new personnel
clerk had come across records about Jacks past while updating employee files.
Assuming that the information was common knowledge, the clerk had mentioned to
several employees what a good thing it was to give ex-convicts like Jack a chance. The
next day, someone in bookkeeping discovered some money missing from petty cash.
Another worker claimed to have seen Jack in the area around the office strongbox,
which was open during working hours, earlier that same day.
Most people assumed Jack was the thief. Even the worker whose wallet had been
misplaced suggested that perhaps Jack had indeed stolen it but had returned it when
questioned. Several employees had approached Susan and requested that Jack be
fired. Meanwhile, when Susan had discussed the problem with Jack, Jack had been
defensive and sullen and said little about the petty-cash situation other than to deny
stealing the money.
To her dismay, Susan found that rethinking the story did little to solve his problem.
Should she fire Jack? The evidence, of course, was purely circumstantial, yet
everybody else seemed to see things quite clearly. Susan feared that if she did not fire
Jack, she would lose everyones trust and that some people might even begin to
question her own motives

Explain the events in this case in terms of perception and attitudes. Does personality play a role?
What should Susan do? Should she fire Jack or give him another chance?

KAZIAN GLOBAL SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENTOrganizational Behaviour


Case 1Difficult Transitions
1.Identify several concepts and characteristics from the field of organizational
behavior thatthis case illustrates?
The concepts and characteristics areIndividual differences:
Every individual in the world is different from others. This idea is supported by science.
Each person is different from all others, probably in million ways, just as each persons DNA
profile isdifferent.The idea of individual difference comes originally from psychology. From the
day of birth, each person is unique, and individual experiences after birth tend to make people
even more different.
Perception:
Peoples perceptions are also differ when they see an object. Two people can differently present
asame object. And this is occurring for their experiences. A person always organizes
andinterprets what he sees according to his lifetime of experience and accumulated
value.Employees also see work differently for differ in their personalities, needs,
demographicsfactors, past experiences and social surrounding.
Motivated behavior:
An employee has so many needs inside him. So, they want to fulfill those needs. That's
why;they had to perform well in the organization. Some motivations are needed to enrich the
qualityof work. A path toward increased need fulfillment is the better way of enriches the quality
of work.
Desire for involvement:
Every employee is actively seeking opportunities at work to involve in decisionmaking problems. They hunger for the chance to share what they know and to learn from the
experience.So, organization should provide them a chance to express their opinions, ideas and
suggestion for decision-making problem. A meaningful involvement can bring mutual benefit for
both parties.
Value of the person:
An employee wants to be treated separately from other factor of production (land,
capital, labor).They refuse to accept the old idea that they are simply treated as economic tools
because they are

best creation of almighty Allah. For this reason, they want to be treated with carrying
respect,dignity and other things from their employers and society.
The nature of organization
There are two assumptions as to nature of organization.
Social Systems:
Organizations are social systems and governed by social and psychological laws. They
havesocial roles and status. Their behavior influenced by their group's individual drives.
Organizationenvironment in a social system is dynamic. All parts of the system are
interdependent.
Mutual interest:
In order to develop the organization behavior mutually of interest organizations and
people isnecessary. Organizations need people and people in tern need organizations. People
satisfy their needs through organization and organization accomplish their goal through people.
Ethics:
In order to attract and retain valuable employees in an era in which good workers areconstantly
required away, ethical treatment is necessary. To succeed, organization must treatemployees in
an ethical fashion. Every Company is required to establish codes of ethics, publicized
statements of ethical values, provided ethics training, rewarded employees for notableethical
behavior, publicized positive role models, and set up internal procedures to handlemisconduct.
2.What advice can you give Tony? How would this advice be supported or tempered
bybehavioral concepts and processes?
Although all people have some characteristics in common, the composite of our individual
characteristics makes us unique. We react in individual ways to common messages. We want
to be our own person. With the growing emphasis on behavioral aspects in management, new
attention has been focused on understanding humans as dynamic beings with constantly
changing needs and desires. As a result, business has adopted policies and practices that
are more people oriented than thing oriented. Although it is often difficult to implement, the
newer philosophy could perhaps be phrased like this: "The right person for the job" is a
temporary solution because people change; rather " the right job for the person" is no doubt a
more viable policy.Employees to be motivated by:1.Physiological needs. The needs related to
food, shelter, and protection from the elements.2.Security and safety needs. The needs to
be free from physical danger and to be secure in the feeling that physiological needs
can be met.3.Social needs. The needs to be loved, to be accepted, and to belong.
4.Ego needs. The needs such as those to be heard, to be appreciated, to be
wanted. These needsdeal with status.5.Self-actualizing needs. The needs to achieve one`s
fullest potential through professional, philanthropic, political, educational, and artistic
channels.As people satisfy needs at the first level, they are then motivated by those at
the second level. Assecond-level needs are satisfied, those at the third level prevail, and so on.
Each need level isalways with us, however. Lower needs simply diminish in importance as
motivators as we satisfythem.
3. Is it possible to find an "ideal" place to work? Explain.
For many Americans, looking for a job means finding an employer who will hire you and pay
adecent salary - few take the time to ensure the company is a good fit over the long haul.
"Many people do more research when they buy an air conditioner than when taking a job," said
AlanJohnson, managing director of Johnson Associates, a compensation consultancy in New
York."When you buy an air conditioner, you read Consumer Reports, you talk to people," he
said. But"people take jobs almost on whims."Before you can determine whether a workplace
matches your ideal, you'll need to know whatthat ideal is. Some people want a lot of freedom to
make their own mistakes. Others don't wantto work long hours, said Tag Goulet, chief executive

of FabJob.com, a publisher of career guides. "People have to make up their own list. Usually a
good starting point is what didn't theylike at their previous job."It is always essential to attire the
component when interviewing for a work. People have atendency to see a person who a person
who's dressed properly as a far more skilled prospect.You don't must make oneself stand out
whenever, but outfit for the aspect regardless if you're just decreasing away from a continue or
program.Have questions in place prior to your interviewer. You will often occasions be
questioned if thereare actually inquiries.Don't restrict yourself by only applying for a single
label because so many jobs could possiblyhave multiple titles. Research on the web to find very
similar brands to do the job titles thatcomplement what you will be looking for. This will allow you
to sign up for more work available.However the organization could allow staff members to dress
casually, it pays to offer on your own within a skilled approach.
Case 2Humanized Robots?
1.How successful do you think Helen Bowerss new plan will be?
Although Helen grew up in the family business, she never understood her fathers approach.
Jakehad treated his employees like part of his family. In Helens view, however, he paid them
morethan he had to, asked their advice far more often than he should have, and spent too much
timelistening to their ideas and complaints. When Helen took over, she vowed to change how
thingswere done. In particular, she resolved to stop handling employees with kid gloves and to
treatthem like what they were: the hired help.In addition to changing the way employees were
treated, Helen had another goal for Bowers. Shewanted to meet the challenge of international
competition. Japanese firms had movedaggressively into the market for heavy industrial
equipment. She saw this as both a threat and anopportunity. On the one hand, if she could get
a toehold as a parts supplier to these firms,Bowers could grow rapidly. On the other, the
lucrative parts market was also sure to attract moreJapanese competitors. Helen had to
make sure that Bowers could compete effectively with highly productive and profitable Japanese
firms. From the day Helen took over, she practiced analtogether different philosophy to achieve
her goals. For one thing, she increased productionquotas by 20 percent. She instructed her firstline supervisors to crack down on employees andeliminate all idle time. She also decided
to shut down the company softball field her father had built. She thought the employees really
didnt use it much, and she wanted the space for futureexpansion.
2.What challenges does Helen confront?
All in all, Helen thought, things should be going much better. Output should be up and
costsshould be way down. Her strategy should be resulting in much higher levels of productivity
and profits. But that was not happening. Whenever Helen walked through one of the plants,
shesensed that people werent doing their best. Performance reports indicated that output was
onlymarginally higher than before but scrap rates had soared. Payroll costs were indeed lower,
butother personnel costs were up. It seemed that turnover had increased substantially and
trainingcosts had gone up as a result. In desperation, Helen finally had hired a consultant. After
carefullyresearching the history of the organization and Helens recent changes, the consultant
made someremarkable suggestions. The bottom line, Helen felt, was that the consultant thought
she shouldgo back to that "humanistic nonsense" her father had used. No matter how she
turned it, though,she just couldnt see the wisdom in this. People worked to make a buck and
didnt want all that participation stuff.
3. If you were Helens consultant, what would you advise her to do?
Before you can make the business organized, you must first be organized. If your
organizationalskills are average or below average, perform a self-evaluation by asking these
questions:How long does it take you to complete each task? Are they being done correctly so

that youwon't have to redo them? Are you prioritizing everything correctly? Are you spending too
muchtime on certain tasks? Have you structured your files so that you can access them quickly?
Areyou becoming overwhelmed by too much paperwork? Have you been doing everything you
needto do to be an organized worker?Pinpoint the areas you need to improve on, and prepare
to tackle them.Once you have determined the areas you need to improve on, it is time to act on
your admittance.Your daily tasks are your responsibilities; therefore, you should treat them as
such. Plan inadvance for each task by marking your duties for the week in your planner. As
things come up,record them immediately.Keep visible paperwork to a minimum, keeping only
what is needed for the moment on your desk. Maintain a computerized and paper filing system.
Label all materials and put all relatedcontent in the same folder.When your work schedule
becomes hectic and you experience constant interruptions, tend tothem in order of priority. If an
interruption calls for immediate attention, before tending to it,check to see how your other
responsibilities will be affected. In prioritizing, you will find thatsome assignments can wait.
Tackle each task according to priority, and you will meet your deadlines.Good organizational
skills in business may come naturally to you, or you may have to work at it.By applying
discipline and practice, it is a skill that almost anyone can master. Do it every dayand it will
become a habit. Poor organizational skills result in an imbalanced workload, whichleads to your
confusion. This confusion can cause you to miss appointments and decreases your problemsolving abilities, reflecting negatively on your professional image.Plan each day ahead of time,
write down important information, do not accept more work thanyou can handle, and always
follow up on phone calls and emails. Balance will follow.