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Greg Robinson, Luciana Santos, Lus Canahuate

ISBT 201
Marsha Timmerman
September 17th, 2015

Laboratory #1
Basic Laboratory Skills: Preparing Solutions

Objective:
The objective of this lab was to develop the essential skills needed to create basic
solutions and understand the type of works required to make them. In order for the group to
accomplish this task, we had to learn how to calculate the molarity of a substance and other
units of concentration. Assuming that all calculations were done properly, the acidity or
alkalinity of our solution should match the desired numbers. Thus, to ensure that the solutions
were made correctly, we had to evaluate their pH level and adjust it accordingly. If any
mistake were made during any portion of the process, the pH level would be different than
expected and re-adjustments would need to be made.
Procedure:
Before conducting the experiment, the group made sure to clean the work area by
wiping off the work surface with an alcohol wipe. Safety glasses were also procured due to
dangerous chemicals being used in the lab. The group then distributed out tasks for
calculations of the problems. Number 2 was skipped. After the calculations were performed,
the figures were verified by the other group members. Following the calculations, the group
set out to prepare the solutions. Luciana and Luis prepared numbers 3 and 4 together while
numbers 1 and 5 were prepared by Greg. In order to ensure the accuracy of the measurements
used, liquid reagents and solutions were pipetted into a volumetric flask. The flask was then
filled with distilled water to make up the rest of the solutions. For instance, 250 mL of .025 M
of HCl was needed. 5 mL of HCl was pipetted into the flask, and the difference, 245 mL of
distilled water, was added in. For solid reagents were weighed in plastic trays in grams and
added into the distilled water. A magnetic stirrer then stirred the solutions until there were
seemingly no particles left. After the solutions were created, the group members poured them

into plastic containers and labeled with the appropriated information (Group members, type
of solution and molarity).
The group then had to take the pH of the prepared solutions in order to teach the
group how to verify the pH of a solution. The group learned how to calibrate the pH of the
machine by filling one becker with a 7pH solution and another becker with a 4pH solution.
The sensor was, then placed into the becker and let to sit for a moment until calibrated. It was
wiped off and the process was repeated for the second cup. The group then took the pH of the
solutions that were created in order to make sure the solutions were created properly.
Following, the group adjusted the buffer solution prepared in item 4 with the solutions
prepared in item 1. When the lab was completed, the group rinsed out all laboratory
equipment used that had liquids in them, and cleaned off the lab space of materials that were
used.
Data:
For this experiment the following calculations were made:
Note that mr stands for the real weight obtained on the balance.

For the 0.25 M HCl solution:

CiVi=CfVf

12 x Vi=0.25 x 250

Vi=5.0mL

For the 0.25 M KOH solution:

m=

m=

C
x MW
V

0.25 mol/ L 56 g
x
0.25 L
mol

m=3.5 g
mr=3.5 g

For the 100 mL of 0.05 M potassium hydrogen phthalate:


m=0.05 mol /L x

204.22 g
x 0.1 L
mol

m= 1.0 g
mr = 1.0 g

For the 100 mL 0.025 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate/0.025 M disodium hydrogen


phosphate:
m=0.025 mol /L x

119.98 g
x 0.1 L
mol

m=0.3 g of sodium dihydrogen phosphate


mr = 0.31g

m=0.025 mol /L x

m=mr=0.4 g

141,96 g
x 0.1 L
mol

of disodium hydrogen phosphate

For the 100 mL 0.01 M sodium tetraborate


m=0.01 mol /L x

201.98 g
x 0.1 L
mol

m=0.2 g

mr = 0.23g
For the 100 mL 10mM sodium phosphate monobasic containing 0.9% NaCl buffer solution
(pH 8.0)
m=0.01 mol /L x

119.98 g
x 0.1 L
mol

m=mr=0.1 g of sodium phosphate

0.9 g of NaCl
100 mL

mr=0.93 g
For the 100 of 10% (w/v) sucrose
10 g
100 mL

To confirm if the solutions were properly prepared we measured the pH as follows:

Table 1: Expected and measured pH of the prepared solutions

Solutions
0.05 M potassium hydrogen phthalate
0.025 sodium dihydrogen phosphate/0.025 M disodium

Expected pH
4.01
6.86

pH Measured
3.97
6.83

9.18

8.99

hydrogen phosphate

0.01 M sodium tetraborate


Discussion

On item 4 solution, during the pH adjusting, the group completed the volume on the
volumetric flask before setting the pH. That entails in a solution volume bigger than the one
calculated. In this case the negative effect wasnt a problem because the volume of acid and
basic solutions to adjust the buffer solution pH was small. But its important to remember of
adjusting the pH before completing the solution volume as it might interfere in your accuracy.
The pH measures for item 3 solutions were satisfying and the pH differs
insignificantly from the expected. Nevertheless, this variation may be caused by the
inaccuracy on the volume measurement or even in the difference between the mass weighted
for the group solution and the standard solution used for comparison. Those variations may
impact strongly the experiment where the solution may be used, so its important to carry the
solution preparation as well done as possible.

Conclusion:
Greg:

All in all, the experiment was a success in the sense that we learned how to work in a
lab with various pieces of equipment, learn how perform simple calculations with molarity,
and to be able to create the solutions with the calculations we made with a reasonable degree
of accuracy. We also gained more experience of working in a group setting and all the things
that come along with it such as allocating work between members, compromising and turning
in work at a reasonable time.
Luciana:
In conclusion, this procedure was successfully executed and offered the possibility of
understanding the mechanism of preparing a solution as well as the knowledge about the
previous calculations needed, which was its main focus. It added to the development of
laboratory skills such as the handling of laboratory equipment, safety procedures, pHmetrer
use and calibration and laboratory behavior. It also was an alert for the importance of carrying
as carefully as possible the procedure of preparing solutions because it might impact
subsequent experiments where the solutions might be used.
Lus:
This lab allowed us to obtain the skills necessary for proficiently creating solutions.
Even though none of the solutions gave the exact PH level, the calculations were done
correctly and the results were close enough that the difference is rather insignificant.