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Helminth parasites of domesticated animals in the Sudan Bibliography With abstract (1958 – 2014) Compiled
Helminth parasites of domesticated animals in the Sudan Bibliography With abstract (1958 – 2014) Compiled

Helminth parasites of domesticated animals in the Sudan

Bibliography

With abstract

(1958 2014)

in the Sudan Bibliography With abstract (1958 – 2014) Compiled and edited by Dr. Osman Mukhtar

Compiled and edited by Dr. Osman Mukhtar Osman

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First edition

Helminth parasites of domesticated animals in the Sudan

Bibliography

With abstract (1958 2014)

First Edition

Compiled and Edited by

Dr. Osman Mukhtar Osman Department Of Parasitology CentralVeterinary Research Laboratory

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Published by:

Central Veterinary Research Laboratory Animal Resources Research Corporation Ministry of Livestock ©2016 Central Veterinary Research Laboratory

Resources Research Corporation Ministry of Livestock ©2016 Central Veterinary Research Laboratory Deposit No: 2016/525 3

Deposit No: 2016/525

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Forward

Man and his animals have been plagued by helminth parasitic diseases that cause huge economic losses. It is well known that helminth infections are associated with significant loss of condition in infected hosts while others cause serious clinical diseases characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In the Sudan the magnitude of this problem is huge and this is reflected by the considerable amounts of antihelminthics used that cost the country millions of dollars annually. On the other hand Sudan is now entering a new era in the field of animal production. The

intensification of livestock farming in dairy, fattening and poultry production and the new approaches of fish farming and bees keeping necessitate the in-depth understanding of helminth parasitic diseases in such fields. This bibliography will serve as an essential reference for parasitologists in the Sudan. It is a valuable source of information for researchers in the field of helminthology, veterinarians and animal breeders in general. The book is the product of huge efforts of collecting and organizing most of the scientific work published in helminths and the diseases they cause in the Sudan. It includes 302 summaries of published scientific papers in local and international journals, M. Sc. and Ph. D thesis and papers reported in workshops and conferences during the period 1958-2014. Communications from scientists whose work is not included here will be

a very useful addition to this effort.

It is anticipated that this book will have a considerable impact on helminthological research as it consolidated all the information about helminth parasites in Sudan for the last fifty years, in one volume with all the references needed in the different aspects of this topic. The bibliography will be a gold mine for the researchers who want to learn

about the history, accomplishment and problems of helminths in the Sudan.

It is an honor to have been asked to write these introductory remarks and

I wish the author a bright future in this field which needs synergistic efforts to proceed forward.

Prof. Ahmed Hussein Abdelrahman Central Veterinary Research Laboratory

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Preface

This work may be regarded as an attempt to index all the reports ever published regarding helminth parasites of domestic animals in Sudan, dating from the earliest known records (Malek EA, 1958) to the end of 2014. The first section consists of the bibliography and contains 302 abstracts from different recognized local and international scientific periodicals, plus references from non-periodical literature (conferences, workshops and postgraduate qualification degrees theses). The next section of the book is index contains parasite list (Trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes) set out with the Latin names. A simplified author index, alphabetically arranged, concludes this section. Although, it is possible that some papers may have been missed because they were not in the databases searched, it is hoped that this book will help anyone wishing to trace any literature dealing with helminth parasites of domestic animals in Sudan.

Osman Mukhtar Osman November 2014

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Check list of Helminth parasites recorded from the Sudan

Phylum: Nematoda

Order:

Superfamily: Ascaridoidea Railliet and Henry, 1915

Ascaridida Skrjabin and Schulz, 1940

Family:

Ascarididae Baird, 1953

Genera:

Ascaris, Parascaris, Toxascaris, Toxocara Parascaris equorum Toxascaris spp Toxocara canis Toxocara cati Toxocara vitulorum

Superfamily: Oxyuroidea Railliet, 1916

Family:

Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864

Genera:

Oxyuris, Skrjabinema. Oxyuris equi Skrjabinema ovis

Superfamily: Subuluroidea Travassos, 1918

Family:

Genera:

Family:

Genus:

Order:

Heterakidae Railliet and Henry, 1914 Heterakis, Ascaridia Heterakis gallinae Ascaridia galli Subuluridae York and Maplestone, 1926 Subulura Subulura brumpti

, Ascaridia Heterakis gallinae Ascaridia galli Subuluridae York and Maplestone, 1926 Subulura Subulura brumpti
, Ascaridia Heterakis gallinae Ascaridia galli Subuluridae York and Maplestone, 1926 Subulura Subulura brumpti
, Ascaridia Heterakis gallinae Ascaridia galli Subuluridae York and Maplestone, 1926 Subulura Subulura brumpti

Rhabditida Chitwood, 1933

Superfamily: Rhabditoidea Travassos, 1920

Family:

Strongyloididae Chitwood and McIntosh, 1934.

Genus: Strongyloides Strongyloides papillosus Strongyloides westeri

Order:

Strongylida Molin, 1861

Superfamily: Strongyloidea Weinland, 1858. Family: Strongylidae Baird, 1858

Genera: Strongylus, Triodontophorus Strongylus equi Strongylus edentatus Strongylus vulgaris Triodontophorus serratus

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Family: Trichonematidae Witenberg, 1925 Genera: Oesophagostomum, Cyathostoma, Chabertia. Oesophagostomum colombianum Oesophagostomum radiatum Oesophagostomum venulosum Cyathostoma Chabertia ovina Superfamily: Ancylostomatoidea Chabaud, 1965 Family: Ancylostomatidae Looss, 1905 Subfamily: Ancylostominae Stephens, 1916 Genus: Ancylostoma Ancylostoma tubaeforme Ancylostoma caninum Subfamily: Necatorinae Lane, 1917 Genera: Bunostomum, Gaigeria Bunostomum phlebotomum Gaigeria paschycelis

Superfamily: Trichostrongyloidea Family: Trichostrongylidae Genera : Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus, Nematodirus. Genus: Cooperia Cooperia pectinata Cooperia pinctata Genus: Trichostrongylus Trichostrongylus axei Trichostrongylus probolurus Trichostrongylus colubriformis Genus: Haemonchus Haemonchus contortus Haemonchus longistipes Genus: Nematodirus Nematodirus spathiger Nematodirus filicollis

Order:

Superfamily: Spiruroidea Railliet and Henry, 1915

Family: Spiruridae Oerley, 1885 Genus: Habronema Habronema megastoma Habronema muscae Family: Thelaziidae Railliet, 1916

Spirurida Chitwood, 1933

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Genera: Thelazia, Spirocerca, Gongylonema Thelazia rhodesii Spirocerca lupi Gongylonema ingluvicola Gongylonema pulchrum Family: Acuariidae Seurat, 1913 Genus: Dispharynx Dispharynx spiralis (Syn: Acuaria spiralis) Family: Tetrameridae Genus: Tetrameres Tetrameres americana Superfamily: Physalopteroidea Sobolev, 1949 Family: Physalopteridae Leiper, 1909 Genus: Physaloptera Physaloptera canis Superfamily: Filaroidea Weinland, 1858 Family: Setariidae Skrjabin and Schikhobalova, 1945 Genus: Setaria, Dipetalonema Setaria cervi Setaria equi Dipetalonema evansi Family: Onchocercidae Chabaud and Anderson, 1959 Genus: Onchocerca Onchocerca armilata Onchocerca cervicalis Onchocerca gutturosa Onchocerca raillieti Subclass: Adenophorea Chitwood, 1958 Order: Enoplida Schuurmans, Stekhoven and Deconinck, 1933 Superfamily: Trichuroidea Railliet, 1916 Family: Trichuridae Railliet, 1915 Genus: Trichuris Trichuris ovis Trichuris globulosa Trichuris vulpis Phylum: Acanthocephala Rudolphi, 1808 Order: Archiacanthocephala Meyer, 1931 Family: Oligacanthorhynchidae Meyer, 1931 Genus: Oncicola Oncicola canis

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Cestoda Class Eucestoda Southwell, 1930 Order: Anoplocephalidea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974 Family: Anoplocephalidae Blanchard, 1891 Genera: Anoplocephala, Moniezia Anoplocephala magna Moniezia expansa Moniezia benedeni Family: Thyasanosomidae Fuhrmann, 1907 Genera: Avitellina, Thysanosoma, Stilesia, Thysaniezia Avitellina centripunctata Avitellina woodlandi Thysanosoma actinioides Stilesia vittata Stilesia hepatica Stilesia globipunctata Thysaniezia giardi Order: Davaineidea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974 Family: Davaineidae Fuhrmann, 1907 Genera: Raillietina, Cotugnia Raillietina cesticillus Raillietina echinobothridia Raillietina tetragona Cotugnia digonopora Order: Dilepididea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974 Family: Dilepididae Railliet and Henry, 1909 Genus: Amoebotaenia Amoebotaenia sphenoides Family: Dipylidiidae Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974 Genera: Choanotaenia, Dipylidium Choanotaenia infundibulum Dipylidium caninum

Order:

Family: Hymenolepididae Railliet and Henry, 1909 Genus: Hymenolepis Hymenolepis carioca Order: Taeniidea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974

Hymenolepididea Wardle, McLeod and Radinovsky, 1974

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Family: Taeniidae Ludwig, 1886 Genera: Taenia, Echinococcus Taenia saginata Taenia hydatigena Taenia pisiformis Taenia taeniformis Echinococcus granulosus

Phylum: platyhelminth Class: Trematoda Subclass: Digenea Van Beneden, 1858 Family: Dicrocoeliidae Genus: Dicrocoelium Dicrocoelium dendriticum Dicroecelium hospes Family: Fasciolidae Railliet, 1895 Genus: Fasciola Fasciola gigantica Family: Paramphistomatidae Fischoer, 1901 Generas: Cotylophoron, Gasrodiscus Gasrodiscus agyptiacus Family: Schistomatidae, Poche, 1907 Genus: Schistosoma Schistosoma bovis

Helminth Parasites according to animal host species

Helminth Parasites of cattle in Sudan

 

Name of worm

Records

 
 

Haemonchus contortus

287

Oesophagostomum

71, 215, 287

 

radiatum

 

Chabertia ovina

215

Onchocerca armillata

37,

42, 45,

75,

77, 146,

194

Onchocerca gutturosa

76,

90, 91,

92, 93,

142,

143, 144, 146, 154

Nematodes

Trichuris ovis

212

Nematodirus spp

71

Setaria labiatopapillosa

75

Strongyloides papillosus

212

Cooperia pectinate

287

Trichostrongylus spp

215

Trichostrongylus axei

287

Dipetalonema sp

220

 

Hydatid cysts

4, 68, 71, 206, 210,

 

254,286

 

Cestodes

Cysticercus bovis

39,46, 63, 71, 83, 84, 85, 172, 212, 265, 266

Avitellina spp

287

 

Schistosoma bovis

6, 16, 23, 30, 53, 54, 59, 66, 70, 71, 126, 151, 188, 189, 200, 201, 203, 208, 212, 282, 287

Trematodes

Paramphistomum spp

71, 287

 

Fasciola gigantica

2, 16, 20, 65, 71, 136, 137, 139, 152, 153, 208, 212, 233, 234, 237, 257, 262, 282, 284, 287, 290

Dicrocoelium hospes

212

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Helminth Parasites of Sheep and Goats in Sudan

 

Name of worm

Records

 

Haemonchus contortus

3, 13, 26, 71,113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 121, 122, 239, 278

Haemonchus

79, 145

longistipes

Oesophagostomum spp

98, 99,

Oesophagostomum

26, 38, 71, 121, 122, 301

columbianum

Chabertia ovina

99

Trichostrongylus spp

26, 35, 122

Trichostrongylus axei

35

Trichostrongylus

122

probolurus

Trichostrongylus

121

colubriformis

Nematodes

Trichuris spp

26, 182

Trichuris ovis

35, 71, 122

Trichuris globulosa

120, 121

Cooperia

pectinata

121

Strongyloides

26, 35, 98, 121, 122

papilosus

Impalaia

tuberculata

122

Skrjabinema ovis

95, 120, 121

 

Hydatid cysts

4, 18, 68, 71, 253, 286

Monezia spp

26, 182

Monezia expansa

35, 71,121

Moniezia benedeni

121

Cestodes

Avitellina spp

71

Avitellina

120, 121

centripunctata

Cysticercus tenuicollis

72

Coenurus

gaigeri

73, 124,

(Coenurus cerebralis)

Stilesia globipunctata

120, 121

Stilesia hepatica

69

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Fasciola gigantica

1, 14,15, 19, 21, 25, 71, 86, 123, 131, 133, 134, 135, 166, 181, 182, 262, 280, 289

Trematodes

Schistosoma bovis

71, 100, 150, 182, 240, 242

Paramphistomum spp

71, 182

Dicrocoelium dendriticum

122

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Helminth Parasites of Camels in Sudan

 

Name of worm

Records

 

Haemonchus longistipes

31, 32, 33, 34, 50, 67, 78, 79, 80, 106, 111, 145, 184, 195, 213, 214, 268, 296, 297, 301

Oesophagostomum

50, 213

columbianum

Oesophagostomum

195

venulosum

Nematodes

Chabertia ovina

 

Cooperia pectinate

213, 296

Cooperia pinctata

50

Trichostrongylus spp.

213

Trichostrongylus

67, 111,213, 296

probolurus

Trichuris globulosa

50,184, 195, 213, 296

Strongyloides spp.

213

Strongyloides

268, 296

papillosus

Impalaia spp.

111, 195

Impalaia tuberculate

213, 296

Nematodirus spp.

195

Nematodirus spathiger

184,

Parapronema skrijabini

184

 

Hydatid cysts

17, 60, 127, 232, 236, 238, 246, 248 , 249, 250, 254, 255, 256, 286

Cestodes

Stilezia spp.

268

Stilezia hepatica

 

Avitellina spp

268, 269

Avitellina woodland

195

Monezia spp

213

Monezia expansa

106, 195, 268, 269

Thysanosoma actinoide

269

Thyzanesia giardia

269

Stilezia vittata

106

 

Cysticercus tenuicollis

72

14

 

Fasciola gigantica

291

Trematodes

Schistosoma bovis

190, 195

Paramphistomum spp

64

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Helminth Parasites of poultry in Sudan

 

Name of worm

Records

 
 

Subulura brumbti

7, 61, 74, 193, 222, 226, 251, 272

Tetrameres Americana

7, 61, 74, 222, 251

Nematodes

Gongylonema ingluvicola

61, 74, 222, 251

 

Ascaridia galli

7,

128,

222,

226,

272

Acuaria Dispharynx) spiralis

(Syn:

61, 74, 222, 251

 
 

Raillietina tetragona

7, 61, 74, 104, 170, 216, 222, 224, 225, 226, 229, 251, 272

Cestodes

Raillietina cesticilus

7, 103, 105, 130, 222, 226

129,

Raillietina echinopothrida

7, 222, 226

 

Choanotaenia

7, 129, 130, 222, 226, 229, 272

infundibulum

Cotugnia digonopora

7, 222, 226

 

Hymenolepis carioca

7, 130, 222, 226, 29

Amoebotaenia sphenoides

222

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Helminth Parasites of Equine in Sudan

 

Name of worm

Records

 

Strongylus equi

64

Strongylus edentates

260

Strongylus vulgaris

260

Habronema megastoma

64

Habronema muscae

64

Onchocerca cervicalis

81, 110, 211, 109

Onchocerca reticulate

110

Nematode

Setaria equine

260

Oxyuris spp

258

Oxyuris equi

64

Parascaris equorum

5, 260

Trichonema spp

223

Triodontophorus serratus

264

Trichostrongylus spp

10

Trichostrongylus axei

264

Dictyocaulus arnfieldi

264

Strongyloides westeri

5, 10, 264

Gongylonema pulchrum

64

 

Anoplocephala spp

5

Cestode

Anoplocephala magna

64

Cyathostomes spp

10

Trematode

Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus

192, 197

Schistosoma bovis

 

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1. A/Gadir H, Haroun EM, Gameel AA (1987). The protective effect of irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica against homologous challenge in sheep. J Helminthol. 61(2):137-42. Five lambs were each sensitized with 400 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica irradiated at 3 kr gamma rays. Eight weeks later, they were each challenged together with 5 controls with 500 non-irradiated metacercariae. Eight weeks later, all of the animals were necropsied and the worm burdens determined. The lambs which received the sensitizing infections had 80% less worms than the controls. The sensitized lambs also showed less hepatic damage compared with the controls as indicated by lower levels of the serum enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. The blood indices showed insignificant reductions in the sensitized lambs whereas marked reductions were found in the erythrocytes, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values of the challenge controls. Bilirubinaemia was also evident in this latter group.

2. A/Rahman, M. B.; Zakia A. Mohammed; Osman, A. Y.; Bakhiet, H. A.; Mohammed-Ahmed, O. and Halima M. Osman. 2007 .Concurrent Infection of Schistosoma bovis and Fasciola gigantica in a dairy cattle in Khartoum State, Sudan, The Sud. J. Vet. Res., 22:

63-70.

The present study describes the pathological and haematological changes of natural concurrent infection of Schistosoma bovis and Fasciola gigantica in cattle at Soba west Irrigated Agricultural Scheme, Khartoum State. Affected animals were local zebu dairy cattle and their cross bred lines with the Holstein-Friesians. Both sexes were affected. They manifested malaise, emaciation, rough coat, haemorrhagic diarrhoaea and a decline in milk production. The most prominent macroscopic features were pale carcasses, ascitis, green to black and small size livers, distended-gall bladder and congested intestines. Microscopically, chronic hyperplastic chollangitis associated with chronic hepatic syndrome were noticed. Anaemia represented by a declined haemoglobin concentration (Hb%) and a fall in PCV were encountered.

3. Abakar AD., El Amin EA., and Osman AY, (2000). Clinical response to experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in desert lambs. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 16:1-10. Changes in live body weight, faecal egg count, haematological and biochemical values were studied in lambs experimentally infected with 3500 Haemonchus contortus third stage larvae over a period of 48 days.

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Infected animals showed loss of body weight and development of clinical haemonchosis associated with anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and reduced serum iron, calcium and sodium concentrations.

4. Abbakar Adam Mohammed (2005). Some Epidemiological Aspects of Echinococcus granulosus And Isolate Charcterization In Animals In Darfur States. Ph.D. University of Khartoum. In this study, various epidemiological aspects of hydatidosis/ echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus in camels, cattle, sheep and goats as intermediate hosts, and dogs and foxes as final hosts in Darfur Region, Western Sudan were investigated. An abattoir survey was carried out for hydatidosis in 565 camels, 4318 cattle, 13727 sheep and 7523 goats slaughtered in the study area during October 2001 to September 2003. New data were presented on prevalence of hydatidosis in animals and humans. The highest rate of infection was found in camels (61.42%), followed by sheep (10.88%%, cattle (5.23%) and goats (1.58%). The size of the cysts, the volume of the fluid they contained, the biological status of cysts, their predilection sites in different organs and the intensity of infection in these organs were investigated. Cysts collected from camels and cattle had high fertility rate (73.84 and 27.49% respectively) compared to the low fertility rate of sheep and goats cysts (9.24 and 2.63% respectively). Daughter cysts were observed in fertile cysts removed from camel and cattle lungs and livers. Cysts predilection sites in camels was the lung (65.56%) followed by the liver (34.09%), spleen (0.2%) and kidneys (0.15%), while in cattle, the predilection site was the liver (55.26%) and lungs (44.74%). In sheep and goats, the predilection site was the mesentery (83.13 and 48.69% respectively.), followed by the lungs (11.71 and 28.95% respectively) and the liver (5.15 and 22.37% respectively). The prevalence of the adult parasite (Echinococcus granulosus) in 548 stray dogs and 116 wild foxes in Darfur region was investigated. The prevalence rate in dogs was found to be 19.16% but none of the foxes examined was found to be infected with Echinococcus granulosus. This high infection rate in dogs coincided with high rate of cyst recovery from camels (61.42%) in the study area. Experimental transmission of infection through feeding viable cysts from camels to dogs and also from camels, cattle and sheep to foxes was conducted to compare the suitability of dogs and foxes as definitive hosts of E. granulosus. The infection was established in all animals fed viable cysts with variable numbers of adult worms recovered at the end of the experiment. Worms developmental characteristics in dogs and foxes that experimentally infected with hydatid material of the

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same source (camel) was studied. The average worm burdens in foxes (19552) was less than in dogs (28807) and the proportion of worms with gravid segments in foxes (24.5 31%) was also lower than in dogs (37 56%). The prepatent period was longer in foxes (69 79 days) than in dogs (46 55 days). No significant differences in total worm length and dimensions of scolex, hooks and suckers (P>0.05) were found between worms harvested from dogs and foxes. This is the first record on experimental transmission of Echinococcus granulosus to foxes in the Sudan. The results provided evidence that foxes are potential definitive hosts for the camel strain of E. granulosus in the Sudan although their role in the epidemiology of hydatidosis is uncertain as none was found naturally infected. The infectivity of E. granulosus of camel/dog strain to local sheep and goats, and to wild gazelles (Gazella dorcas) was investigated to monitor the possibility of their respective role in maintenance of the parasite cycle. The results showed that 75% sheep and 25% goats were infected with hydatid cysts. No fertile cysts were recovered from these experimental animals. All cysts encountered were either sterile, calcified or caseated. Most of the cysts in sheep and goats were found in the mesentery. It is the first time to conduct experimental transmission of Echinococcus granulosus to gazelles in the Sudan. None of the two gazelles (Gazella dorcas) that inoculated orally with infective eggs of E. granulosus of camel origin raised in dogs was found to harbour hydatid cysts. This may be due to host immunity, parasite characteristics or to the small number of animals used in the experiment. A study on molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus isolates encountered from different intermediate hosts (camel, cattle and sheep) and from different localities of Darfur region were genotyped by molecular methods. Samples of adult worms of camel, cattle and sheep origin experimentally raised in foxes were also genotyped by the same molecular methods. Polymerase chain Reaction-Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism (PCR RFLP) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase submit 1 (CO1) sequencing techniques were used to determine the extent and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus genetic variation in Darfur region. The findings of the study indicated that camel strain (G6) is prevalent in Darfur region and was identified in camels, cattle and sheep. Other strains of the parasite were not recorded in this study.

5. Abdalla M Ibrahim, Tamador E Angara and Ahmed A Ismail (2011). Gastro-intestinal parasites of working donkeys in Khartoum State. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 50 (1&2): 178-186.

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The present study was undertaken during April 2009 to January 2010. A number of 203 questionnaires and 187 faecal samples of working

donkeys in Khartoum state were investigated. Out of 187 faecal samples,

119 (63.64%) were found to be positive for gastro-intestinal parasites.

Strongyles (67.38%), Strongyloides westeri (55.46%) , Parascaris equorum (20.17%), Anoplocephala spp. (5.88%) and Eimeria leucarti (13.45%). Gross faecal examinations revealed only sand. About 53.78% of infected donkeys were severely infected. 6.72% heavily, 12.61% moderately and 26.89% were mildly infected. Mixed infections were detected in 60.50% of the infected donkeys. There was insignificant difference in the infection rate between the three districts. According to the questionnaire, only 32.5% of the owners used to deworm their animals.

6. Abdalla, M. A (2014). Schistosoma bovis Prevalence in Rural Surrounding Areas of Duiem District, White Nile, Sudan. 3rd International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Mechanical Engineering (ICAMR'2014) Jan. 5-6, 2014 Dubai (UAE). We carried out a survey to determine the infection rates of Schistosoma bovis, endemic to the Northern parts of Duiem district, White Nile State, Sudan. Three villages, namely, Al-Oshara, Al-Hussien and Al-Goz were selected for the survey which was conducted during the three seasons of summer, winter and autumn from July 2011 to June 2012. Fecal samples were collected and examined for detecting Schistosoma bovis eggs. The incidence rate of infection in cattle was calculated seasonally. The overall incidence of Schistosoma bovis in the study area was 6.6%, where 19 animals of 287 examined were infected. The highest rate of infection was in Al-Hussien village in the summer season being 16.1%. The incidence was high in calves (>2 years) being (13.4%), but it decreased according to sex which it was (8.2%) in females and (5.9%) in males. In the same study period about 2911 of Bulinus truncatus snails the intermediate host of Schistosoma bovis were collected. The infection rate in snails were calculated which being (4%).

7. Abdel Nasir Ismail Mohamed Reian (1990). Parasites of Chickens in the Sudan. M.Sc., University of Khartoum. Four breeds of chicken investigated for ectoparasites and endoparasites, from Khartoum province, Shendi and Port Sudan. The survey covered

586 birds which belong to the indigenous breed (Baladi) and three

introduced ones i.e. Fayoumi, White Leghorn and New Hampshire. Beside morphological descriptions of the parasites, other parameters were studied. These included the association of breed, age, seasonal

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variation and geographic distribution on the prevalence, density and frequency of these parasites. Species identified are: 1. Ectoparasites Three species of lice, Menopon gallinae (100%), Menacanthus stramineus (100%) and Lipeurus caponis (100%). One species of fleas, Echidnophaaa gallinacea (9.5%). One species of ticks, Argas persicus (5.1%). and one speices of mites, Cnemidocoptes mutans (2.3%). 2. Endoparasites: Three species of protozoans, plasmodium gallinaceum (2.0%). Eimeria acervulina (5.3%) and Eimeria maxima (5.4%). Six species of tapeworms, Raillietina tetragone (15.35%), Raillietina cesticillus (4.6%), Raillietina echinobothrida (3.4%), Cotugnia digonopora (8.7%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (10.75%) and Hymenolepis carioca (8.7%). Three species .of nematodes, Ascaridia galli (22.5%), Subulura brumpti (21.6%) and Tetrameres americana (1.7%). In addition to the survey, a small experiment on artificial infection of chicken with Ascaridia galli eggs was conducted. The course of experimental Ascaridiasis was monitored over a period of sixty nine days. The dissertation ends with a general discussion of these results and their relevance to methods of control.

8. Abdel Rahman, M. B.; Osman A.Y.; and Hunter A.G. Parasites of the one-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan: A review. In the Sudan the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) is affected by many parasites. These include protozoans, helminths and ectoparasites. The most important diseases that threat camel health in the country are trypanosomosis, mange and haemonchosis. Camel is also infected with coccidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, tapeworms, hydatidosis, and ticks and nasal myiasis.

9. Abu sarra Hassan Yaggob Elzaki. (2011) Investigations on Trypanosoma evansi and the gastrointestinal helminthes in camels(Camelus dromedarius) at Elkhwai ,Kordofan.MVSc. theses University of Khartoum. Examination of 200 foecal samples from camels revealed the occurance of the following helminthes in more than 90% of the samples. Tichostrongylus spp. Haemonchus spp. Strongylus spp. Trichuris trichura, Eimeria spp. Fasciola, gigantica, Paramphistomes spp and Moniezia spp. The round worms were detected by direct and floatation techniques while Fasciola was detected by direct and sedimentation technique. In vitro cultivation of larvae revealed infections with Oesophagostumum spp. and Nematodirus spp. The concurrent T.evansi and gastrointestinal parasites appeared in 13(6.5%) of the surveyed

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camels. The results indicate high prevalence of worm burden, which requires control measures.

10. Adam A. A., Suliman S. E., Seri H. I. The Prevalence and Intensity of Gastro-Intestinal helminths in Equine in North Darfur, Sudan. Journal of Science and Technology,14 (1) 102-107. A survey of equines (horses and donkeys) arriving at water points and markets in El Fasher, North Darfur state, Sudan was carried out during the period October 2011 and May 2012 to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. A total number of 1400 animal (900 donkeys and 500 horses) were examined for gastrointestinal helminths. The overall prevalence with helminth parasites was 24.6%. 5% of the horses and 35.5% of the donkeys examined were proved to harbour gastro-intestinal nematodes. In donkeys and horses, the overall mean egg per gram (epg) count was 642.2±38.0 and 352.0±73.3 with a range of 100-2900 and 100-1700 (epg), respectively. The animals harbouring mild infection reported the highest incidence of 69.7% (donkeys) and 84% for horses, while moderate infection reported 15.6% (donkeys) and 8% for horses; and 14.7%, 8%for severe infection in donkeys and horses respectively. The most dominant genera of gastro-intestinal nematodes were Strongylus spp, Cyathostomes spp, Trichostrongylus spp, and Strongyloides westeri.

11. Adam SE, Magzoub M. (1976). Susceptibility of desert sheep to infection with Schistosoma mansoni of Northern Sudan. Vet Pathol.

13(3):211-5.

Each of two Desert Sheep was infected with 1500 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni of Northern Sudan. Signs of infection were anorexia, soft faces, progressive weakness and loss of wool. The sheep were killed 254 and 269 days after infection. The findings were heavy infiltration of the lamina propria with inflammatory cells, numerous ova in the submucosa, hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue, oedema of the mesenteric lymph nodes, and focal pulmonary oedema and congestion. There were egg granulomas, focal necrosis, schistosomal pigment, fatty change, depletion of glycogen and reduction in the activity of adenosine triphosphatase, succinic tetrazolium reductase and glucose-6- phosphatase in the liver. In one sheep 1330 cercariae penetrated and 700 matured to produce males and females in a 5:2 ratio. In the other sheep, about one third of the cercariae penetrated and matured. The ratio of males to females was 3:1.

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12. Adanan Ibrahim Hashim (1995). The Sero-epidemiology of Human Toxoplasmosis and Internal Parasites of Cats in Khartoum. M.Sc. University of Khartoum. Six helminth species were recorded from the gastro-intestinal tract of 34 adult cats as follows: Cestodes were Diplopylidium genttae (8.8%); Diplopylidium monoophoroides (26.4%); Joyeuxiella kofend (41.2 %). Nematodes were Pterygodermatites spp. (8.8%); Toxascaris leonina (3%); Physaloptera praeputialis (35.3 %).

13. Ahmed Abd Elrhman Ismail Ahmed (2002). Studies on Haemonchus contortus Infection in Desert Goats in South Darfur State, Sudan. MVSc. University of Khartoum. The present study comprises a 12 month abattoir survey on the prevalence of H. contortus in desert goats combined with experimental studies on the disease course as induced by different dose levels of infective larvae (150, 300 and 500 L/Kg bwt.). The results of the survey demonstrated the prevalence of the parasite with seasonal variation throughout the year. The highest percentage (100%) was recorded in July, September and October while the lowest percentage (32%) was recorded in March. The overall mean worm burden per animal was 369.6 ± 11.4 for total worm count, 118.2 ± 27.0 for adult worm and 306.2 ± 62 for immature larvae. The prevalence of the parasite and the mean worm burden were positively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity rather than with temperature. The results of the experimental infection demonstrated the susceptibility of desert goats to different levels of infective dose of 150 L/Kg bwt.and above. The clinical signs were manifested by dullness, weakness, inappetence, emaciation, constipation, pallor of visible mucous membranes and reduced body weight gain. Anaemia was further evident by the significant reduction in Hb. concentration and PCV. H. contortus eggs were detected in faeces 17 to 18 days post infection with a maximum shedding on day 23 or 24. Death occurred within 5 to 35 days in 50%, 83% and 100% of goats infected with 150, 300 and 500 L/Kg bwt. respectively. The pathological alterations of H. contortus infected animals were mainly confined to the abomasum which showed diffuse congestion, haemorrhages and multifocal erosions. Adult worms were present inside the abomasum or attached to the mucosa. The histopathological alterations were mainly dominated by oedema and congestion of the submucosa with moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells on the lamina propria. The mucosal surface was occasionally interrupted with scattered areas of superficial erosions and desquamations of the lining epithelium. The biochemical

24

alterations of the disease course were characterized by significant reduction in total protein, albumin and iron concentration in the serum of infected goats.

14. Ahmed Abdalla Ahmed El Sanhouri (1984).Studies on resistance to Fasciola gigantica in goats. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. The results of the experiments carried out in this work were preceded by

a review of literature on aspects pertaining to pathology,

pathophysiology and resistance to fascioliasis in various host species. It

was found that removal of one or two mature infections with F. gigantica

by anthelmintic resulted in stunted growth of flukes recovered from

challenge infection and a significant reduction in their number compared with sizes and numbers of fluke recovered form challenge controls. Haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume slightly decreased in both groups. The previously infected animals also showed higher eosinophil counts than the controls. Liver sections of the test groups generally showed mononuclear cell infiltrations in addition to haemosiderin deposition. Migration tracts traversed the parenchyma and in case of two mature infections there were recent migration tracts superimposed on older lesions. It was also found that removal of a 4 week primary immature infection with F. gigantica by anthelmintic using (Ranide) resulted in a significant reduction in fluke burden due to homologous challenge in goats. Ranide failed to remove all immature flukes in the test group. Hb and PCV decreased in both groups and

eosinophilia was higher in the test group than the controls. Liver sections

of the test animals showed pronounced lymphocytic haemosiderin

deposition. Vaccination of goats with irradiated cysts of F. gigantica resulted in a significant reduction in worm recovery after homologous chal1enge with normal cysts. Few worms escaped irradiation and reached maturity. There was a decrease in Hb concentration and PCV in both groups. Peripheral eosinophilia was also marked in both groups. Histopathologically, liver sections revealed lymphocytic aggregation, mononuclear cell infiltration and haemosiderin deposition. Vaccination of goats with irradiated cercariae of S. bovis failed to initiate resistance against heterologous challenge with F. gigantica. Blood indices reflected development of anaemia in both groups. There was also a marked peripheral eosinophilic response in the test and control groups. Histopathologically, liver sections showed lymphocyte infiltration and deposition of fibrous tissue.

15. Ahmed El Tahir Ahmed (1990). Pathological and Immunolgical Studies On Sheep Fascioliasis. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum.

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An attempt to measure quantitatively the amount of damage caused by Fasciola gigantica in liver of sheep was carried out in three groups of sheep. One group was infected with 150 metacercariae; a second group was infected with 500 metacercariae and a third group was left as a control. The percentage volumes of the various components of the livers i.e. hepatocytes, blood vessels, bile ducts, connective tissue and necrotic hepatocytes were determined by the point counting method (Dunnil, 1962 and Wiebel, 1963). In normal livers, the highest percentage volume was scored by the hepatocytes which had a mean value of 88.8±0.57%. Percentage volumes of 8.4 ± 0.7%, 2.3 ± 0.5% and 0.5±0.1% were recorded for blood vessels, connective tissue and bile ducts, respectively. In livers, infected with 150 metacercariae, the percentage volumes of the various components were 76.4+5.5% for hepatocytes, 7.7±4% for blood vessels, 0.8±0.5% for bile ducts and 6.8±2.5 for connective tissue. In livers infected with 500 metacercariae, hepatocytes constituted 63±5.7% while blood vessels connective tissues and bile ducts had percentage volumes of 6.2±0.31%, 10.1±2.4% and 1.5±0.2%, respectively. The percentage volumes of necrotic hepatocytes were 6.0 ±1.34%, and 10.3± 3.7% in livers infected with 150 and 500 metacercariae, respectively. Studies on the resistance of sheep to infection with F. gigantica were also carried out to evaluate the protective effect of sensitizing sheep with 250.3 Krad irradiated metacercariae for two weeks, eight weeks and 16 weeks. The results showed that duration of the primary sensitization of sheep with irradiated metacercariae had an important role in conferring resistance to subsequent challenge. No protective effect was detected in sheep challenged after two weeks of sensitization with irradiated metacercariae. On the other hand, a significant reduction in worm recoveries from the livers of 29.3% and 17.8% were detected in sheep sensitized for 8 weeks and 16 weeks, respectively. Generally, better carcass weight, dressing percentage, haematological and biochemical parameters were shown by the vaccinated animals compared to the challenge controls after challenge infection with also less severe pathological lesions. 16. Ahmed Ibrahim Yagi (1984). Studies on the pathology and resistance to Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma bovis in cattle. Ph.D., University of Khartoum. The studies recorded in the present thesis were preceded by a review of literature on various pathological, pathophysiological and immunological aspects of fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. An investigation of the effect of high level infection with Fasciola gigantica showed that calves

26

infected with 5000 metacercariae of F. gigantica showed pathophysiological changes comprised of anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and marked peripheral eosinophilia. Marked liver damage was reflected by increases in glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehyrogenase activities in serum. Histopathologically, there was thickening of Glisson's capsule, excessive fibrous tissue deposition in liver and pseudolobulation. Some hepatocytes showed fatty change and others were necrotic. Haemorrhage characterized some area with some lymphocytic infiltration. Migration tracts containing cellular debris, erythrocytes and haemosiderin deposits were infiltrated with eosinophils, lymphocytes and fibroblasts. They traversed the parenchyma and in some sections superseded large areas of hepatic cells. Eosinophilic aggregations containing some lymphocytes were frequently encountered. The portal triads were characterized by thickened and hyperplastic bile ducts and mononuclear cells infiltration. Blood vessels were thickened and veins were congested. Active regenerative processes were indicated by newly formed bile ducts which were commonly encountered. The parasitic burden recovered from the bile ducts comprised 21% of the infective dose. This rate of recovery indicated a competitive effect due to the high level of infection. Experiments on cross resistance between F. gigantica and Schistosoma bovis in cattle showed that following primary infection with F. gigantica and challenge with S. bovis, many pathophysiological changes have taken place including peripheral eosinophilia and elevated GD and SD activities (indicating liver damage). Liver sections revealed degenerative changes involving bile ducts and hepatocytes. There were old migration tracts with haemosiderin deposits. Portal tracts showed much collagen deposition and mononuclear cells infiltration. Bile ducts were hyperplastic. Number of schistosomes recovered after challenge was significantly reduced (94.2%) compared with the challenge controls. Tissue egg counts also showed marked reductions (a reduction of 25% in the liver, 93% in the small intestine and 91% in the large intestine). Calves primarily infected with S. bovis and challenged with F. gigantica showed peripheral eosinophilia with markedly less hepatic damage indicated by the slight changes in GD and SD activities. Histopathologically, changes were mainly degenerative. The hepatic cords and lobules were intact and there were few migration tracts characterized by lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltrations. Scattered small lymphocytic aggregations infiltrated with eosinophils were also evident. There was a significant reduction in the parasitic burden recovered from challenge infection (84.5%) compared

27

with the challenge controls. Vaccination of calves against challenge infection with F. gigantica was attempted using metacercariae of F. gigantica gamma-irradiated at 3 kilorads. Following challenge, there were no significant pathophysiological changes. Serum enzyme activities (GD and SD) were markedly reduced indicating little hepatic damage. Liver sections showed intact hepatic cords and lobules, but there was intensive infiltration with mononuclear cells particularly lymphocytes and eosinophils which superseded hepatic parenchyma. Lymphocytic granulomata and aggregations of eosinophils were seen within massive mononuclear infiltration. The parasitic burden recovered from challenge infection was reduced by 62.4% compared with the challenge controls. Elimination of mature primary infection with F. gigantica followed by homologous challenge in calves resulted in insignificant pathophysiological changes with marked peripheral eosinophilia. The activities of GD and SD in serum increased indicating hepatic damage. Histopathologically, liver sections revealed pseudolobulation and separated hepatic cords in addition to isolated islands of newly formed hepatocytes. There were also localized areas of haemorrhage surrounded by mononuclear cells and fibroblasts. Many migration tracts were characterized by fibrous connective tissues and haemosiderin deposition and an abundance of newly formed bile ducts and hepatocytes indicative of stimulated regenerative activity. Moreover, there were areas characterized by burden from challenge infection was reduced by 45% compared with the challenge controls. Removal of immature primary infection with F. gigantica resulted in a dramatic peripheral eosinophilia following homologous challenges. Serum GD and SD activities increased indicating hepatic damage. Liver sections revealed more or less intact hepatic cords and lobules but there was diffuse and localized lymphocytic infiltration in addition to areas of necrosis which were characterized by haemorrhage and mononuclear infiltrations. There was no reduction in the number of worms recovered from the challenge infection compared with the challenge controls. Cercariae of S. bovis gamma-irradiated at 3 kilorads were also used to vaccinate calves against heterologous challenge with F. gigantica. There was a marked peripheral eosinophilic response. The activities of GD and SD increased. Liver sections were dominated by areas of necrosis and haemorrhage. There were aggregations of lymphocytes and eosinophils in addition to migration tracts which were infiltrated with mononuclear cells. Bile ducts were hyperplastic. The number of worms recovered from the challenge infection was not reduced compared with the challenge

28

controls. The significance of these results was discussed in a concluding chapter and the areas which need further investigations were pointed out.

17. Ahmed ME, Eltom KH, Musa NO, Ali IA, Elamin FM, Grobusch MP, Aradaib IE. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan. BMC Vet Res. 2013 Jun 25;9:127. Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to provide some sequence data and phylogeny of EG isolates recovered from the Sudanese one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). Fifty samples of hydatid cysts were collected from the one- humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) at Taboul slaughter house, central Sudan. DNAs were extracted from protoscolices and/or associated germinal layers of hydatid cysts using a commercial kit. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene and the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were used as targets for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR products were purified and partial sequences were generated. Sequences were further examined by sequence analysis and subsequent phylogeny to compare these sequences to those from known strains of EG circulating globally. The identity of the PCR products were confirmed as NADH1 and cox1 nucleotide sequences using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) of NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD). The phylogenetic analysis showed that 98% (n = 49) of the isolates clustered with Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 (G6), whereas only one isolate (2%) clustered with Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). This investigation expands on the existing sequence data generated from EG isolates recovered from camel in the Sudan. The circulation of the cattle genotype (G5) in the one-humped camel is reported here for the first time.

18. Ahmed Sid Ahmed El Sawi

.Natural and Experimental

Infection of Sheep and Goats with Hydatid Cysts (Hydatidosis). M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. The situation of hydatidosis in sheep and goats was evaluated. A survey involved 1362 sheep and 164 goats slaughtered at Omdurman Central Abattoir revealed an overall infection rate of 8.9% in sheep and 4.2% in goats. Liver was the predilection site of infection followed by the lungs.

(1995).

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No cysts were encountered elsewhere. The incidence in sheep was 89.3% in livers and 10.6% in lungs. About 73.5% of the infected sheep harboured one cyst only while the remaining one carried multiple infections. About 92% of the cysts recovered from sheep were small in size (less than 2 cm) while the remaining ones showed medium size. The incidence in goats was 4.2% in livers and 1.2% in lungs. Single and multiple cysts most of which were of medium size were encountered. No fertile cysts were found in sheep and goats and all of them were either calcified or under calcification. Experimental transmission of hydatidosis was conducted in 2 - 6 months old sheep and goats. Four sheep and four goats were fed 100 gravid segments (approximately 2000 eggs) obtained from infected puppies. Two non-infected animals were kept as control for each group. Among the infected sheep, three developed hydatid cysts, one in liver and two in lungs. The cysts were 2 cm in size and they were sterile calcified. Out of the four goats, only one was infected. A sterile 2.5 cm cyst was recovered from its lungs. Although the results illustrated natural and experimental infectivity of sheep and goats with hydatidosis, the limited magnitude of infection coupled with the biological status of the cysts suggest that their role in transmission and consequently epizootiology of the disease is not defined.

19. Ali Abdel Razig Ali Lutfi (1989). Studies on the Efficacy and Safety of Certain Fasciolicidal Drugs in Sudanese Desert Sheep. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. The efficacy and safety of three fasciolicidal drugs; nitroxynil, niclofolan and triclabendazole against mature (11-week-old) and immature (5- week-old) Fasciola spp. infection were investigated in male desert sheep. Nitroxynil (Trodax®) at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg, Subcutaneously caused a 99% reduction of mature fluke burden while the drug at the same dose was 70% effective against immature infection. The coated form of niclofolan tablets (Bilevon- M®) at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg, orally was 100% effective against mature flukes in contrast to the uncoated form (Deertil-O®) which caused only 15% reduction of the mature parasite. Triclabendazole (Fasinex®) at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg, orally, had a 100% efficacy against, mature infection while the same treatment with dug was 73% effective against immature flukes. The clinical, hematological, pathological and biochemical changes produced by the experimental infection with 500 viable F. gigantica metacercariae were typical to those previously described in the literature. Infected animals showed dullness, weakness, reduced appetite and progressive loss of weight. In addition, paler of the visible mucous membranes and

30

submandibular oedema were observed in chronic infection. In blood, there was reduction in haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cells count and increased number of peripheral eosinophils. The pathological lesions were dominated by the presence of multiple necrotic foci haemorrhagic tracts and perforations on the liver capsule. The main bile ducts were thickened and distended with flukes. Histologically, the haemorrhagic tracts consisted of central core of cell debris, necrotic hepatocytes and erythrocytes and infiltrated with eosinophils and macrophages. There was increased thickening of portal area with considerable hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium and periductal fibrosis. Biochemically, there were elevations in the plasma enzyme activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) sorbitol dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase and reductions in the plasma concentrations of protein, albumin glucose and ascorbic acid. There were also increased bilirubin and cholesterol concentrations. The clinical, haematological, pathological and plasma biochemistry alterations were considerably ameliorated to a similar extent in sheep treated with nitroxynil, coated niclofolan and triclabendazole. The administration of niclofolan at 3 or 6 times of the recommended dose (12 or 24 mg/kg) and triclabendazole at 10 times of the recommended dose (100 mg/kg) did not result in any serious effects in the clinical condition or plasma constituents in treated sheep. However, nitroxynil when given at 3 or 6 times of the recommended dose (30 or 60 mg/kg) produced transient clinical changes including hyperthermia and hyperpnoea accompanied with a rise in the plasma AST activity and ammonia concentration.

20. Ali Babiker Osman (1994). The Wholesomeness of Bovine Livers Infested With Flukes. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. The aim of this study was to assess the wholesomeness of the bovine livers which were infested with flukes. Assessment was based on the gross pathological changes and the types of micro flora present taking into consideration the meat inspector judgment of the infested livers and of the carcass in each case. A total of 250 samples of infested livers were collected from Omdurman Central Abattoir. Out of the 250 samples, 133 (53.2%) were infested with Fasciola gigantica and 117 (46.8%) with S. bovis. The gross pathological changes of the livers infested with F. gigantica showed variations in intensity and were, therefore, distinguished into three pathological classes. 93.2% of the livers infested with F. gigantica were totally condemned and 6.77% of them were passed after the removal of bile ducts. Meanwhile 97.74% of the

31

carcasses were passed and 2.26% were totally condemned due to jaundice, tuberculosis and emaciation with generalized oedema in addition to the fluke infestation. Eight genera of Gram negative bacilli and 6 genera of Gram positive cocci and bacilli were isolated from the livers which were infested with F. gigantica. The gross pathological changes of bovine livers infested with S. bovis were distinguished into two pathological classes. Out of 117 livers infested with S. bovis, 21.37% were passed and 78.63% were totally condemned. Meanwhile all the carcasses which were infested with S. bovis were passed as fit for human consumption. Eight genera of Gram negative bacilli and six genera of Gram positive cocci and bacilli were isolated from the livers infested with S. bovis. Based on the gross pathological changes and the bacteriological findings, the bovine livers infested with flukes should be judged as unfit for human consumption since they were repugnant and may harbour potential human pathogens.

21. Ali BH, Hassan T, Haroun EM, Abu Samra MT (1985). The effect of niclofolan on desert sheep experimentally infected with immature Fasciola gigantica. J. Vet Pharmacol Ther: 8(4):398-403. Eight desert sheep were each infected orally with 500 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica and, after 4 weeks, four of the animals were given niclofolan orally at the recommended therapeutic dose rate of 7 mg/kg, the other four remaining as controls. One week later, the animals were slaughtered and the fasciocidal effect of the drug was evaluated on the basis of worm burden, haemogram, some plasma constituents, and gross and histopathological lesions of the liver, as indicators of efficacy. The treatment was found to be ineffective, the degree of infection remaining the same as in the untreated control group. The experiment was repeated using eight infected sheep: four were given the drug orally at a dose rate of 10.5 mg/kg, i.e., 1.5 times the recommended dose; and the same parameters were measured as described above. The drug failed to cure the infected sheep, and caused depression, anorexia and weakness. In a third experiment six sheep were infected as before and three were treated with niclofolan by deep i.m. injection at the recommended therapeutic dose of 2 mg/kg. A week later the animals were killed and examined as before. The drug was effective in treating the infection and produced no untoward effects except for transient signs of pain at the site of injection. It seems possible that the oral dose, unlike the i.m. dose, of niclofolan is not absorbed and/or metabolized sufficiently to prevent elimination of the infection.

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22. Ali EA, Bushara HO, Ali FS, Hussein MF (2009). Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health.,40(3):463-70. This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages.

23. Ali Mohamed Abdel Magid (1979). Studies on Schistosoma bovis in the White Nile Province, Sudan. Ph.D., University of Khartoum. Infection with Schistosoma bovis is very widespread among domestic ruminants in many African, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. In the Sudan, the parasite was blamed for causing severe epizootics in cattle in the White Nile Province in the late 1960s. Despite this, very little is known about the epizootiology of S. bovis. At present, the available methods of control are also unsatisfactory because of the lack of suitable chemotherapeutic agents in animals and since nomadic patterns of animal husbandry in countries like the Sudan render the use of molluscicides impracticable. The studies recorded in this thesis include investigations on the prevalence and the intensity of S. bovis infection in animals in the White Nile Provinces, Sudan. Studies are also reported on the seasonality of transmission and on the occurrence of naturally acquired resistance to S. bovis in Sudanese cattle besides, this thesis describes the results of a field vaccination trial in which a recently- developed irradiated schistosomular vaccine was tested. Following the establishment of a field laboratory at Kosti, preliminary studies were made of S. bovis infection in slaughtered cattle at Kosti abattoir. Initial surveys were also conducted to determine the prevalence and the intensity of schistosomiasis in cattle and sheep in three nearby villages:

Umm Hani, Hissay and Abba lsland, by the Pitchford and Visser's faecal egg counting technique. In these surveys, it was shown that the

33

prevalence and the intensity of S. bovis were high in bovines but tended to decrease when the animals became older. It was also shown that schistosomiasis was common in sheep but not to the same extent as in cattle and it seemed that, unlike cattle, sheep exhibited no evidence of an age-related decline in their infection rates and intensities. The highest rates of prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis in cattle were recorded at Umm Hani village, which lies in an irrigated area, in comparison to the other two villages where cattle depended directly on the river (White Nile) for drinking. Because of this and since large herds of stable cattle were kept by villagers at Umm Hani, this 1atter site was chosen for further investigations. The seasonal pattern of S. bovis incidence at Umm Hani was studied by surveying populations and cercarial infection rates of Bulinus snails at water contact points at monthly intervals and a1so by following 'tracer' calves. The latter were used in cohorts of 70 100 initially uninfected individuals, which were monitored for a period of 24 months to determine their monthly conversion rates into 'positives'. The resu1ts obtained indicated that the incidence or schistosomiasis was high and that there was a markedly seasonal pattern of transmission; most of the infections were acquired by calves during the hot summer months between February and July. It was also evident that the intensity of transmission differed significantly between the two years during which these investigations were carried cut. An age-profiled decrease in S. bovis infection was apparent from the preliminary slaughter-house and field surveys; this was confirmed by more detailed investigations at Umm Hani. A cross-sectional examination was made on 500 cattle representing different age groups, and checked six months 1ater in a subsanp1e of the same animals in 1976. In the following year (1977), a further similar group of 500 cattle of different ages was investigated. The prevalence of schistosomiasis and its intensity in these animals were determined by the faeca1 egg counting technique. When the results were analysed, it was found that the prevalence of the disease was consistently higher in younger cattle reaching its maximum level (90%) in calves 1-2 years old and subsequently declining markedly with the increasing age. Similarly, a significant reduction was found in the intensity of infection as determined by the faecal egg counts in older catt1e. Since the animals seemed to follow a similar pattern of dai1y contact with water, irrespective of their age, it appeared that this decline in the prevalence and the intensity of S. bovis with advancing age was due to the acquisition of natural resistance. To confirm this hypothesis, o1d cattle

34

with low faecal egg counts were selected randomly at umm Hani, and together with similar cattle from a schistosome-free area (Kuku village, near Khartoum). The animals were challenged with massive cercarial dose. The groups were then compared by various clinical, patho1ogical and parasitological parameters. It was found that whi1e cattle from the schistosome-free area contracted overwhelming infections and deteriorated rapidly; those from Umm Hani almost completely resisted the challenge. Thus, while the former showed a rapid and massive rise in their faeca1 egg counts from zero to a mean of 680 e.p.g. at 9 weeks post challenge, the faecal egg output of the Umm Hani cattle rose to only about 20 (average). Shortly after exposure to cercariae, the 'non-resistant' cattle began to lose bodyweight rapidly and by the end of the experiment, their mean bodyweight had fallen by 25%. None of the resistant cattle lost weight. Equally, clear differences were seen in clinica1 and pathological parameters. This study provided the first conclusive evidence of the acquisition of resistance to S. bovis by cattle as a result of repeated natural exposures. The recently reported success in laboratory immunized of cattle against S. bovis and of sheep against S. mattheei by irradiated schistosomular vaccines, coupled with the results of epizootiological surveys and the demonstration of a strong degree of natural resistance to the parasite encouraged the assessment of this type of immunological control under field conditions. An experiment was, therefore, carried out in which 30 calves were vaccinated each with a single intramuscular inoculation of 10,000 3krd-irradiated S. bovis schistosomula and 30 calves were used as non-vaccinated controls. The animals were then taken to the village of Umm Heni and allowed to graze and water in the same way as local herds for 10 months. During this period, their faecal egg counts and bodyweights were monitored fortnightly. At the end of the experiment, all the surviving calves were perfused to determine their worm and tissue egg counts and compare their pathology. The results indicated that vaccination produced an effective degree of partial protection against natural infections; this was evidenced by significant reductions of 82.4%, 61 - 67% and 68.5% in the faecal egg counts, tissue egg counts and adult worm recoveries, respectively, in vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated calves, and consequently by reduced clinical and patho1ogica1 manifestations in the former animals. Further evidence of the usefulness of vaccination was shown in the higher survival rate and ability of the vaccinated calves to withstand adverse conditions (such as harsh weather) concurrent

35

infections and poor grazing which prevailed in the field. This is the first known field vaccination trial in schistosomiasis from anywhere.

24. Amany Abdallah Mohammed Ahmed (2003). Helminth Parasites in the Digestive Tract of Slaughtered Sheep in OmdurmanM.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. This study was conducted about the year of 1999 to 2000 in Omdurman Slaughterhouse. The sheep slaughtered were brought from different places in Sudan. They came from ElAmiria, a place where the sheep were kept until they were slaughtered, at (46.4%) also the sheep, which came from Western Sudan was (14.6%), from Eastern Sudan (18.4%) and from Central Sudan were (20.6%). We took about 500 samples. 408 of sheep were found affected by different kinds of helminthes in different stages. The range of affection was different from one part to another in the digestive system. Also the number of helminthes in one sheep varied. We found in one sheep five kinds of helminthes. The stomach showed infection with one helminth only, but the intestine had from two to five types of worms. This research showed that the infection rate was high in the hot season than the rainy season, whereas the rate of infection was very low in cool dry season. Also in this research was found six kinds of helminthes were recorded: Haemonchus (36.6%), Strongylus (35%) and Trichostrongylus (9.8%), this is for Nematodes. For Cestodes: Monizia (29.2%), Avitellina (8.9%) and Hydatid cyst (4%). No Trematodes were found. There were no differences between female and male infection because females were not slaughtered but in special time.

25. Amna E. Babiker; Osman, A. Y; Azza A. Adam; Elmansory, Y. H and Majid, A. M. Efficacy of Oxyclozanide against Fasciola gigantica Infection in Sheep under Sudan condition. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2012), 27: 43-47. The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of oxyclozanide against F. gigantica in experimentally infected desert sheep in the Sudan. Nine desert male lambs weighting 18-24 kg were divided randomly into three groups (each of 3 lambs). Each lamb was inoculated orally with 400 metacercariae of F. gigantica obtained from laboratory colonies of Lemnia natalensis infected with miracidia of bovine origin obtained from Alsahafa abattoir. Group 1was drenched with triple dose of oxyclosanide (1mg/1 Kg B.W) 4 weeks post infection. Lambs in group 2 received the dose recommended by the manufacturer (1mg/3kg B.W) 8 weeks post infection, whereas, group 3 lambs were kept as infected untreated controls. The lambs were slaughtered and the average number

36

of worms recovered was 26, 10 and 74, respectively. The number of worms recovered was significantly different (p 0.05). The efficacy of oxyclozanide was 64.57% and 86.16% in group 1and 2, respectively. It seems that Oxyclozanide is more effective against 8 than 4- week-old F. gigantica infection in desert sheep in Sudan. Neither significant difference (p 0.05) in worm size nor clinical side effects were observed in all experimental groups.

26. Anwor Magzoub Abdul Elaziz Eldabbagh (2010). Detection of Anthelmintic Resistance to Gastrointestinal Nematodes in sheep:

Laboratory and Survey Investigation in Khartoum State. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. The present study was conducted mainly for evaluation and tackling the problem of anthelmintic resistance and the appropriate tests for measuring it in the field, under Sudan condition. A survey of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep was made and 796 faecal samples were collected in Khartoum, State and examined during the period June 2005 May 2006. In the present study sheep were found to be infected by different types of parasites eggs. These were Strongyles, Strongyloides spp, Trichuris spp, Monezia spp and Coccidia. The peak of nematodes eggs count occured in October. Identification of infective third stage larvae from faecal samples cultures revealed the following; Heamonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Trichostrongylus spp and Strongyloides papillosus. In the in-vitro test of anthelmintic resistance, the ED50 obtained from larval paralysis assay (LPA) was 0.890862 µg/mL for levamisole powder and 0.000107 ng/ml for abamectin injection. The results revealed the resistance for levamisole and no resistance was detected in abamectin. In egg hatch assay (EHA), the ED50 showed resistance of 482.444521 ng/ml for ivermectin and 256.525577 ng/ml for doramectin and 6.924595 µg/mL for levamisole. But albendazole 0.003162 µg/mL and abamectin 7.410285 ng/ml showed no resistant.

27. Aradaib I E, B. Abbas, H.O. Bushara, M.G. Taylor.(1993). Evaluation of Schistosoma bovis adult worm extract for vaccination of calves. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 16, (2):77-84. Six calves were immunized with adult worm extract of Schistosoma bovis emulsified in Freund's adjuvant. The immune response was monitored by agar-gel immunodiffusion. Precipitin lines were observed when sera from immunized calves were tested against adult worm antigen, but no lines were observed with sera from control calves. The immunized calves together with six control calves were each challenged

37

with 20 000 cercariae of Schistosoma bovis administered percutaneously to the shaved tail. There was no significant difference between the immunized and the control groups as judged by fecal and tissue egg counts, worm recovery and hematological parameters (including packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration). This indicates failure of S. bovis adult worm extract to induce resistance against S. bovis challenge. Hence, the antibody response detected in the AGID test seemed to have no association with protection.

28. Aradaib I E, Bennie I. Osburn. (1995). Vaccination of cattle against bovine schistosomosis: current status and future prospects: a review article. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 22, (4): 285-291. Bovine schistosomosis, caused by Schistosoma bovis, constitutes a serious veterinary problem in many parts of the world. The vaccination approaches for the control of bovine schistosomosis include the use of irradiation-attenuated S. bovis cercarial or schistosomular vaccines, S. bovis adult worms or whole-egg antigens and defined antigen vaccine. Irradiated S. bovis cercarial or schistosomular vaccines provide partial protection against S. bovis infection. However, this type of vaccine requires live infectious cercariae or viable schistosomula for induction of protection. Unfortunately, experimental immunizations with dead schistosome antigens have been largely unsuccessful. The surge of new techniques in cellular immunology and molecular biology has made possible the development of potential candidate vaccine antigens from various species of schistosomes including S. bovis. The efficiency of these vaccines has been evaluated in experimentally infected calves. These vaccines will probably replace the irradiated S. bovis vaccines. A broad-spectrum antischistosome vaccine which can kill a variety of human and animal schistosome species is yet to be produced.

29. Aradaib I E, Osama H. Omer, Babiker B. Abbas, Hamid O. Bushara, Khitma H. Elmalik, Amir M. Saad, Bennie I. Osburn, Martin G. Taylor. (1995). Schistosoma bovis whole egg antigen did not protect Zebu calves against experimental schistosomosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol, 21, (4): 339-345. Six calves were immunized with whole egg antigen of Schistosoma bovis emulsified in Freund's adjuvant. The immune response was monitored by agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using AGID and ELISA, antibodies to whole egg antigen were detected in sera from all immunized calves, but not in sera from control calves. The immunized calves and six control calves were challenged 6 months after the beginning of the

38

immunization with 20 000 cercariae of Schistosoma bovis administered percutaneously to the shaved tail. There was no significant difference between the immunized and the control calves as judged by fecal and tissue egg counts, worm recovery and hematological parameters. There was a lack of association between antibody production and protection.

30. Aradaib Imadeldin Elamin., Elabbas Mohamed Ahdelmageed., Sanaa Ali Hassan Hans Peter Riemann (1995). A review on the diagnosis infection in cattle of Schistosoma bovis: Current status and future prospects. Cienc. Rural vol.25 no.3 Santa Maria. Bovine schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma bovis, is a serious veterinary problem in many parts of the worid. The current methods used for the diagnosis of the disease include clinical signs, pathological lesions, parasitological and serological techniques. As clinical signs and parasitological lesions caused by S. bovis are indistinguishable from those induced by other trematode parasites, confirmation of diagnosis by these methods is unreliable. Parasitological techniques used to demonstrate eggs of the parasite in fecal or tissue samples represent the most accurate method for detection of an active S. bovis infection. The tissue of choice for detection of S. bovis infection is the liver because of the visible macroscopic lesion that can be seen in that organ and the rapid detection of the parasite eggs under the microscope using crush smears. The serological techniques used for diagnosis of the disease do not necessarily identify an active infection. In addition, some of the positive reactions are non specific. However, serology is useful to identify previous infection in epidemiologic study. The ELISA has been recentiy validated for the diagnosis of bovine schistosomiasis and will probably replace the other serological tests. The immunoblotting technique has been proven satisfactory to detect antibodies to defined and recombinant schistosome antigen vaccines. Nucleic acid hybridization techniques have been described for the study of schistosome species-specific identification. However, these molecular techniques have not yet revolutionarized diagnosis of schistosomiasis. These techniques will probably serve as the basis for future diagnostic tests.

31. Arzoun I H, H.S. Hussein, M.F. Hussein (1984). The pathogenesis of experimental Haemonchus longistipes infection in camels. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 14, (1):43-53. The pathogenesis and clinical signs of Haemonchus longistipes infection were studied in four experimentally infected camels two of which were adults and the other two were young. In the former animals, an acute

39

infection developed, characterized by mucoid diarrhoea, anorexia, anaemia, loss of body weight, oedema of the lower parts of the limbs, general malaise and death at 810 weeks post-infection. In the two younger camels, a less dramatic disease was encountered with less severe symptoms and no oedema, but also terminating fattaly at 1920 weeks post-infection. Parasitological, haematological and biochemical parameters were determined during the course of the infection and were mostly comparable with those usually encountered in haemonchosis of other animals.

32. Arzoun I.H., H.S. Hussein, M.F. Hussein (1983). The pathogenesis of experimental Haemonchus longistipes infection in goats. J. Comp. Path 93: 619-628. Goats are highly susceptible to Haemonchus longistipes and could therefore serve as an inexpensive model to study camel haemonchosis. The course of the disease in goats in similar to that in camels and to H. contortus infection in sheep and goats. Unlike the age-dependency of camel haemonchosis, however, the severity of H. longistipes infection in goats is dose-dependent and varies from mild to hyperacute.

33. Arzoun I.H., H.S. Hussein, M.F. Hussein (1984). The prevalence and pathogenesis of naturally-occurring Haemonchus longistipes infection in Sudanese camels. J. Comp. Path 94: 169-174. Camel haemonchosis is prevalent in the Sudan, especially during the rainy season, with a decrease in prevalence in the dry season possibly due to delayed maturation of the worms. The naturally occurring disease in Sudanese camels is characterized by emaciation, anaemia, oedema of the lower parts of the limbs, eosinophilia, hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and eosinophilia, as well as elevated blood urea concentrations.

34. Arzoun, Ibrahim Hussein. Studies on Camel Haemonchosis Caused by Haemonchus Longistipes (Railliet and Henry, 1909) in the Sudan. Ph.D theses, U of K. The clinico-pathological features and parasitological aspects of naturally-occurring and experimentally-induced Haemonchus longistipes infection of camels together with that induced in a co-habiting host, the goat, were studied. The infected animals were examined ante-mortem and post-mortem and jugular blood was obtained from each animal for haematological and biochemical determination. It was found that the naturally occurring disease in camel was more prevalent during the rainy season than during the dry season. Experimental H. longistipes infection in camels and goats was characterized by inappetence, weakness,

40

diarrhoea, oedema, anaemia, loss of body weight, alopecia and pica. In both animal species, the haematological investigations indicated a decrease in RBCs number, Hb concentration and PCV; increases in WBC counts, especially the eosinophils and neutrophils while lymphocytes were very much reduced. These changes coincided with high faecal egg per gram values and the Wintrobe indices indicated presence of normochromic normocytic anaemia during the infection. The biochemical parameters determined during the infections showed increases in blood urea and blood urea nitrogen contents indicating kidney damage; this is, also confirmed by histopathological investigations. The globulin level is very much increased while the albumin level is depressed and the total serum protein level is drastically decreased during the infection. Other parameters showed decreases in serum magnesium and calcium levels of infected animals, while sodium, potassium and blood glucose concentrations showed no deviation from normality. The main pathological lesions comprised of abomasitis with erosions, haemorrhages, ulcerations and hypertrophy of the organ. Other changes included paleness and discolouration of the liver, congestion and scattered haemorrhages in the lungs, cortical tubular necrosis with patchy interstitial congestion of the kidneys, hydropericarditis and ascites. Cellular infiltrations and haemosiderin deposition were also found in most of the organs, especially in the spleen whose germinal centres were very much depleted. Morphological studies on H. longistipes from naturally and experimentally infected camels as well as from experimentally infected goats revealed a noticeable retardation in size and measurements of adult worms collected from infected goats as compared with those collected from camels, while measurements of larvae showed no differences. Vulvar region of female H. longistipes from infected camels were smooth in shape (unflapped). The prepatent period was much shorter (6 - 9 days) in infected camels when faecal culture technique was used (11 - 14 days) then when assessed by detecting eggs using sodium chloride floatation technique. Thus, faecal culture was a better method for detection of early infections. 35. Atta El Mannan AM (1983). Investigation on gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Sinnar district, Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 5: 69-77. Eggs of parasites of five genera were encountered during this fied study on sheep and goats in Sennar district: Trichostrongylids spp., Eimeria spp., Moniezia expansa., Strongyloides papilosus and Trichuris ovis. The incidence of parasitism in sheep and goats is 83.9%, 95.2% respectively.

41

The intensity of the infection is of highest worm burden in Trichostrongylus axei. The infection with parasites varies according to the type of husbandry system.

36. Atta El Mannan AM and Zain El Din EA. (1986). Observation on the development of Taenia hydatigena in dogs in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 25 (2):

93- 96. Taenia hydatigena the common tapeworm of dogs was studied by the authors. Clinical and parasitological observations were made after experimental infection of puppies.

37. Atta El Mannan AM, Hussein HS, el Sinnary K, Magzoub M. (1984). Onchocerca armillata: prevalence and pathology in Sudanese cattle. Ann Trop Med Parasitol;78(6):619-25. Cattle of various ages from Khartoum Province and western Sudan were surveyed for Onchocerca armillata infection by skin snip examination and some also at post-mortem examination. The former method reliably detected infection in cattle aged between nine months and eight years. Several of the older infected animals had no microfilariae in their skin. Prevalence rate and number of microfilariae per gram of skin were higher in male than in female cattle and in animals from western Sudan than those from Khartoum province. Severe pathological changes were seen in the thoracic aorta, brachiocephalic, costocervical and brachial arteries and posteriorly in the abdominal aorta to its bifurcation into the iliac arteries.

38. Atta El Mannan AM., Abdalla HS., and El Badawi ES (1983). Oesophagostiomum columbianum in sheep in Sennar Distrct (Midle Region). Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 5: 157-158. No abstract.

39. Atta El Mannan AM., and Abdalla HS., (1994). Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 33(1&2):129-130. Some observation on Cysticercosis in central region of the Sudan. No abstract.

40. Atta El Mannan AM., and Hussein S Hussein (1992). Studies on the possible vector of Onchocerca armillata in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 11: 39-42. The transmission of Onchocerca armillata was studied in the university farm at Shambat in Sudan, when the parasite is present and a high percentage of cattle are infected. Epidemiological and experimental evidences concentrated on Culicoides kingi as the candidate vector. The majority of flies found to be feeding on the hump of cattle were

42

Culicoides kingi. Two Onchocerca armillata microfilariae and two Onchocerca developmental stages were detected in the dissected C.

kingi. The shorter mouth parts of C. kingi were found to be more suited

to pick up microfilariae of O. armillata.

41. Atta El Mannan, A. M.; Bushara, H. O. and Majid, A. M. (2001).

Some Aspects of the Epidemiology of Bovine Fasciolosis in Northern Gazira and Khartoum State. The Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research. (2001 ) 17: 35-40.

A study on the epidemiology of fasciolosis was conducted in northern

part of Gazira scheme and the south of Khartoum State. The results revealed that the average population of lymnaea snails was different in the four sites examined. The number of the snails increased during summer and rainy season and decreased during winter. The snail infection rate with Fasciola varied between 17% and 29%. The highest rate was recorded during May and the lowest during December. Thirty percent of the cattle examined in these areas were found to be infected with Fasciola gigantica.

42. Atta Elmannan AM., Hussein HS., and Magzoub M, (1983). Morphological and taxonomic studies on Onchocerca armillata Railliet and Henry, 1909, from Sudanese cattle. Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 24(1&2):27-34. Complete male specimens and large portion of female O. armillata were released from the aorta of infected Sudanese cattle by the injection of normal saline in tunnels and nodules followed by gentle traction of the worms. These specimens have facilitated a detailed morphological study of the nematode that has ascertained its taxonomic status. The morphological fetures herein determined could also be used to separate O. armillata fom other Onchocerca species.

43. Awad G. Mohammed, Atif E. Abdelgadir and Khitma H. Elmalik (2011). Study on prevalence of internal parasites in semiintensive dairy production system of Sudan. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology Vol. 5(9), pp. 196 -199.

A cross sectional study was conducted in the dairy cattle of Al-Rodwan

dairy project in Omdurman town during the three different seasons of the year. The results of the faecal examinations (n-290) showed that the prevalence of the internal parasites was 16, 8.42, and 7.36% for dry cool,

dry hot, and wet hot season, respectively. The prevalence of coccidiosis was found to be 13, 4.21, and 2.10% for dry.

44. Awad Mahgoub Atta El Mannan (2001). Biological Control of Lymnea natalensis snails using a Molluscicidal Indigenous Plant

43

Pulicaria crispa (Frosk) Oliv. Compositae. PhD theses, University of Khartoum. This study was conducted to investigate molluscicidal potency of the indigenous herb Pulicaria crispa (Eltagar) against Lymnea natalensis snails, the intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica as possible means of control of animal fascioliasis in the Sudan. A study of epidemiology of fascioliasis was done in northern part of Gazira Scheme and Khartoum State (Soba, EI Bagair, EL Hafear and Kab EL gidad area). The snails were collected from the minor canals and ponds. The seasonal fluctuation of Lymnea spp. population and their transmission pattern was recorded. The results revealed that the average population of Lymnea spp. was not similar in the four sites.The number of snails increased during summer and rainy season and decreased during winter. The snail infection rate varied between 17% and 29% and the highest rate of infection was during May and the lowest during December. Thirty per cent of cattle examined in the area were found infected with fascioliasis. Field evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of P. crispa whole plant was carried out against L. natalensis. The plant was collected from Soba area. It was air dried under shade. The Canal used was at the irrigated land in the premises of the Central Veterinary Research Laboratories Centre, Soba. The canal was divided into five equal sections where equal numbers (100) of L. natalensis were put in separate cages and exposed to different doses of the aqueous extract of P. crispa. The results were analyzed using probit analysis. The assessment of the plant activity was based on calculating the lethal dose for 50% and 95% of the snails (LD50 and LD95). The aqueous extracts of P. crispa showed a high molluscicidal potency against L. natalensis without toxic effects to non target organisms. Toxicology screening of P. crispa was carried out by studying clinical, biochemical and pathological effects of orally dosing 20 Nubian goats with the aqueous extract of P. crispa. The goats were divided into four groups. Each group was given a different dose. Blood samples were collected for haematological and biochemical investigations. The results showed that there are no deviations from the normal health of the animals. The red blood cells white blood cells, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentrations were not affected and there were no significant changes in the normal levels of the total protein albumin, creatinine and urea. No histopathological changes were observed. The ability of P. crispa in changing chemical and/or physical properties of canal's water was tested. Water samples analysis, showed that, chemical, and physical properties of water appeared within the

44

normal level, and not exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations according to Sudanese standards (1989). 45. Awad Mahgoub Atta El Mannan 1981. Studies on Bovine Onchocerciasis Caused by Onchocerca Armillata, Railliet and Henry 1909, In the Sudan. M.V.Sc theses University of Khartoum.

A survey was undertaken to determine prevalence of aortic

onchocerciasis amongst Sudanese cattle. Skin biopsies were collected from 315 animals of different age groups and from different localities in the country. The skin snips were taken with a snipper and were shredded in saline or Tyrode's solution for the release of microfilariae. Skin

microfilariae were detected in 100/315 (35%) animals surveyed and the prevalence increased with age of the animals where 7% of 1-year old calves, 53% of 5- year old, and 75% of 8- year old cattle were infected. More male animals were infected than females (36% and 20%) and animals from different localities had different infection rates 7% and 13% in animals at Kuku village and the University Farm, respectively and 43% in animals from Western Sudan. The skin snip survey was supplemented by an aortic survey carried out at Omdurman Central Abattoir and Kosti Slaughter House. This survey revealed a higher rate of infection (92%) indicating that the skin snip method is an under- estimation of the rate of infection as many animals that had been negative for skin microfilariae were found infected at postmorten examination. Similarly, aortic infection was found to increase with the

age

of the animals: 78% in young animals, 92.7% and 96.5% in adults

and

aged animals, respectively. A large number of aortic vessels were

collected and thoroughly examined for gross pathological lesions, and some sections were made for histopathological study. The thoracic aorta, brachiocephalic trunks, brachial arteries, costocervical arteries and the abdominal aorta up to the biforcation of the iliacs were found with moderate to severe lesions. Nevertheless, no clinical manifestations could be detected in these animals. A thorough morphological study was carried out using fresh specimens including a sizeable number of complete male worms, posterior and anterior extremities of females and fragments of both sexes. Studies were also undertaken to determine the possible vector of O. armillata in the Sudan which could well be Culicoides spp., but definite vector determination was hampered by the failure of microfilarial intrathoracic injections. The technique used needs to be refined and will be reattempted at a later date.

45

46.

Babiker HA, Eldin ES (1987). Preliminary observations on vaccination against bovine cysticercosis in the Sudan. Vet Parasitol;

24(3-4):297-300.

Four Zebu calves, 1-1.5 years old, were vaccinated subcutaneously with hatched ova of Taenia saginata. The immunity elicited protected the animals from subsequent oral infections with this cestode as manifested by the early degeneration of the metacestodes and failure to attain maturity in three of four animals. Three viable cysts were found in the fourth calf compared to more than 300 specimens in non-vaccinated controls.

47. Bashir M, Bickle Q, Bushara H, Cook L, Shi F, He D, Huggins M, Lin J, Malik K, Moloney A, et al.Evaluation of defined antigen vaccines against Schistosoma bovis and S. japonicum in bovines. Trop Geogr Med. 1994;46:255-8. Our objective is to contribute to the development of defined antigen vaccines for schistosomiasis by evaluating the protective efficacy of Schistosoma bovis and S. japonicum antigens in their natural bovine hosts. Antigens under evaluation include some already identified as vaccine candidates: glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); KLH, which shares protective epitopes with the protective antigen GP38 of S. mansoni; and Sj23, the analogue of the vaccine candidate Sm23 antigen. In another approach, since crude freeze/thaw schistosomular antigen plus BCG(F/T vaccine) has proved protective against S. japonicum in bovines, as it was against S. mansoni in mice, we are carrying out further evaluations both of this crude antigen and of recombinant-derived paramyosins. In a third line of work, novel vaccine candidate antigens identified by screening our cDNA libraries with various passively protective animal sera are being evaluated in animal experiments. In the Sudan we have shown that vaccination of calves with either native S. bovis GSTs or KLH induces high levels of fecundity-suppression without causing a significant reduction in adult worm recoveries. Therefore, recombinant-derived S. bovis 28kD GST is now being evaluated, as are the effects of combined GST/KLH vaccination. In China, sheep have been vaccinated with either S. japonicum GSTs, with KLH, or with the F/T vaccine, as a prelude to trials in bovines. As judged by adult worm recoveries, each type of vaccine induced significant protection, and there was also evidence, particularly with the GST and F/T vaccines, of fecundity-suppressive effects. As with the S. bovis/cattle system therefore, both GST and KLH showed protective effects against S. japonicum in sheep.

46

48. Bickle QD, Taylor MG, James ER, Nelson GS, Hussein MF, Andrews BJ, Dobinson AR, Marshall TF. (1979). Further observations on immunization of sheep against Schistosoma mansoni and S. bovis using irradiation-attenuated schistosomula of homologous and heterologous species. Parasitology;78(2):185-93. This paper describes further characteristics of the immunization of sheep against schistosomes using live, irradiation schistosomula. Sheep immunized with a non-virulent strain of Schistosoma mattheei were protected against a more virulent strain of the same species for over a year. As there was no evidence that the irradiated parasites were able to persist this long, it was concluded that the vaccine had induced a sterile resistance. Heterologous vaccination, using irradiated S. mattheei schistosomula to immunize against S. bovis or irradiated S. mansoni schistosomula to immunize against S. mattheei, failed to induce any protection.

49. Bol Kolock Manjing (1979). Survey of Helminthes of Cats in the Sudan. M.Sc., University of Khartoum. Fifty cats from Khartoum and Sawakin areas were examined for helminthes. The frequencies of infection in cats were: Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Physaloptera praeputiale, Rictularia cahirensis, Dipylidiinae (Diplopylidium sp. and Joyeuxiella sp.) very few representatives of Hydatigera taeniaeformis (multiceps), few Raillietina sp. Echinopardalis lerouxi. Related works by others especially Dr. K. Rohde on cats revealed occurrence of trematode worms in Malaya while this survey shows their complete absence. This may be due, probably, to fewer trematode life cycles occurring in terrestrial intermediate hosts than in aquatic ones, whereas both cestode and nematode life cycles are more common in terrestrial hosts.

50. Burger, HJ; Fadl,M; Magzoub,M (1988). Incidence of gastrointestinal nematodes of the camels in Butana. Proc. Intr. Symp. Develop Anim. Resour. Sudan. Khartoum. Jan.3 rd -7 th , 1988.pp 54-57. Faecal examinations and autopsy survey studies on 429 camel in Butana area of the Central Sudan, showed the presence of 7 species of gastrointestinal nematodes. These were, Haemonchus longistipes, Trichostrongylus spp., Cooperia pinctata, Impalia tuberculate, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris glopulosa. C. pinctata and O. columbianum are for the first time reported from camels in the Sudan. Trichostrongylus spp. Were the most prevalent nematode parasites in camels in the study area. Positive correlation between rain

47

fall and egg counts was established. The highest incidence of infection was detected in the rainy season.

51. Bushara H. O., M. F. Husseina1, A. M. Saad, M. G. Taylor, J. D. Dargie, T. F. De C. Marshall and G. S. Nelsona (1978). Immunization of calves against Schistosoma bovis using irradiated cercariae or schistosomula of S. bovis Parasitology,77(3): 303-311. Fourteen 9-month-old zebu calves were immunized with 10000 irradiated Schistosoma bovis schistosomula given in 13 intramuscular or subcutaneous doses, and 4 more calves were immunized with 10000 irradiated cercariae administered percutaneously in a single dose. Eight weeks after the beginning of the experiment these calves, together with four non-immunized controls were challenged percutaneously with 10000 normal S. bovis cercariae/calf. Comparative clinical, parasitological, pathological and pathophysiological observations subsequently revealed significant differences between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves. The vaccinated calves showed significantly higher growth rates, and a superior body composition as indicated by their lower total body water content. The beneficial effects of vaccination were also shown by significantly lower faecal egg outputs in the vaccinated calves and by their lower tissue egg and adult worm counts. The reduced tissue egg counts were also reflected in the milder histopathological changes seen in the vaccinated calves. The vaccinated calves had significantly higher packed cell and circulating red blood cell volumes than the challenged controls, longer red blood cell half lives, and somewhat lower blood volumes and rates of red blood cell synthesis. No untoward clinical effects that could be attributed to vaccination were recorded. These results indicate that zebu cattle can be effectively protected against S. bovis by vaccination with irradiated organisms. We are now evaluating this type of vaccine in a field trial in an enzootic area in the Sudan.

52. Bushara HO, Bashir ME, Malik KH, Mukhtar MM, Trottein F, Capron A, Taylor MG. (1993). Suppression of Schistosoma bovis egg production in cattle by vaccination with either glutathione S- transferase or keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Parasite Immunol.

15(7):383-90.

Two of the antigens which have shown vaccine potential in animal experiments against Schistosoma mansoni are glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and GP38, protective epitopes of which are shared with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). We therefore tested S. bovis GST and KLH for vaccine efficacy against S. bovis in the natural Zebu cattle host. In a

48

preliminary experiment three vaccinations with a total of 1.39 mg of native GSTs of S. bovis induced specific antibody at the time of challenge as detected by Western blotting and ELISA and mean faecal egg counts between weeks 6-10 post-challenge were reduced by 56.4 to 82.5% compared to non-vaccinated controls. Mean adult worm recoveries and tissue egg densities in large intestine and liver samples were also reduced in the vaccinated group, but these differences were not statistically significant. In a subsequent experiment one group of calves was vaccinated with a similar schedule to that used above; a second group of calves was given only two injections of GST (total 0.48 mg protein); a third group of calves was vaccinated twice with a total of 2.0 mg KLH in PBS. All three vaccination schedules induced specific antibody. Both GST vaccination schedules induced significant reductions in faecal egg counts compared to non-vaccinated controls and in this experiment tissue egg densities were also significantly reduced. A striking finding, however, was that adult worm counts were not reduced by vaccination. An essentially similar outcome resulted from KLH vaccination, since there were significant reductions in faecal and tissue egg counts in the absence of a reduction in adult worm numbers.

53. Bushara HO, Gameel AA, Majid BY, Khitma I, Haroun EM, Karib EA, Hussein MF, Taylor MG (1983).Observations on cattle schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. VI. Demonstration of resistance to Schistosoma bovis challenge after a single exposure to normal cercariae or to transplanted adult worms. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 32(6):1375-80. Calves were immunized with Schistosoma bovis by a single experimental exposure to 10,000 normal cercariae. Some of these calves were perfused 14 weeks later, and a part of their worm loads was surgically transplanted into groups of normal recipient calves: "WPR" group calves received 500 pairs of worms; "MR" group calves received between 650 and 1,000 male worms alone. All three groups were subsequently challenged 10 weeks after surgery with 20,000 cercariae, as were a previously unexposed group of controls ("CC"). Mean post- challenge fecal egg counts in the animals immunized with cercariae ("PC" group) rose to a maximum of only 60 eggs per gram (e.p.g.), compared to 376 e.p.g. in the CC, and maximum fecal egg counts in the WPR and MR groups were also somewhat lower than in the CC, at 152 and 250 e.p.g., respectively. In spite of the much lower fecal egg counts in the PC than in the CC group, calculated adult "challenge" worm recoveries were only reduced by 11%, but PC group tissue egg densities

49

derived from the challenge were 78-100% lower than in the CC. The WPR and MR groups had 43% and 37%, respectively, fewer worms than the CC, and mean tissue egg densities were lower by 39-63% and 63- 76%, respectively, though in most cases there were no statistically significant differences from the CC.

54. Bushara HO, Hussein MF, Majid MA, Musa BE, Taylor MG. (1983). Observations on cattle schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. IV. Preliminary observations on the mechanism of naturally acquired resistance. Am J Trop Med Hyg.

32(5):1065-70.

Suppression of egg production is the main parasitological manifestation of naturally acquired resistance to Schistosoma bovis in Sudanese cattle. In preliminary investigations on the mechanisms involved, 700-4,000 "suppressed" adult worms were surgically transplanted from six "resistant" donor cattle with very low fecal egg counts (0-8 eggs/g, epg) into six normal recipients. After transplantation, large numbers of eggs were excreted in the feces of the recipient cattle, beginning at between 5 and 16 days after operation, and reaching counts of 55-405 epg at between 6 and 20 days post transplantation. In the cattle with the highest egg counts, egg counts soon fell sharply from peak levels, whereas in cattle with lower peak counts, more steady counts were maintained. All the recipients were perfused at days 46-56, when between 0.1% and 78.5% of the transplanted worms were recovered. In the second experiment, 1,000-ml quantities of pooled sera from "resistant" donors were injected intraperitoneally into each of four normal recipient calves, while another four were injected with pooled sera from uninfected cattle. All the calves were challenged percutaneously the next day with 7,500 cercariae each, and the course of infection was followed by parasitological and clinical measurements until perfusion 18 weeks later. The results showed that the "immune" sera had a negligible effect on the numbers of worms which developed, and had no significant effect on the fecal egg counts or clinical parameters studied. There was, however, some evidence from the tissue egg counts of a reduction in the fecundity of the worms in calves injected with "immune" sera.

55. Bushara HO, Hussein MF, Majid MA, Taylor MG (1982). Effects of praziquantel and metrifonate on Schistosoma bovis infections in Sudanese cattle. Res Vet Sci. 33(1):125-6. Twelve nine-month-old zebu calves were each experimentally infected with 10,000 Schistosoma bovis cercariae. Four were treated orally with 20 mg/kg praziquantel at weeks 9 and 14 after infection, and four were treated orally three times with

50

metrifonate at week 11 (25 mg/kg) and again at week 14 (50 mg/kg). Praziquantel proved to be highly effective, reducing faecal egg counts near to zero; the mean live worm count in the treated calves at week 16 was only 32, compared to 2850 in the untreated group, a reduction of 98.9 per cent. In contrast, metrifonate treatment caused only a very short- lived, partial reduction in faecal egg counts, and no reduction in live worm counts.

56. Bushara HO, Majid AA, Saad AM, Hussein MF, Taylor MG, Dargie JD, Marshall TF, Nelson GS. (1980). Observations on cattle schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. II. Experimental demonstration of naturally acquired resistance to Schistosoma bovis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 29(3):442-51. Epizootiological observations on Schistosoma bovis in cattle at Kosti, Sudan, showed a significant fall in age-specific prevalence and intensity with age, based on fecal egg count. To test the possibility that this is due to acquired resistance, Kosti cattle and a control group of cattle of similiar breed and age from a nonenzootic area were experimentally challenged with 70,000 S. bovis cercariae. Clinical observations showed very clearly that the Kosti cattle were able to withstand almost completely the effects of the challenge, whereas the controls developed lethal infections. Resistance was further demonstrated by clear differences between the two groups in terms of their body weights, hematological measurements, histopathological and pathophysiological responses, and worm and egg counts. The data suggested that the main basis of the resistance was a suppression of egg production by the worms from the challenge, rather than absolute prevention of their maturation. There was also evidence of a suppression of the fecundity of worms in the naturally infected Kosti cattle.

57. Bushara HO, Majid BY, Majid AA, Khitma I, Gameel AA, Karib EA, Hussein MF, Taylor MG. (1983). Observations on cattle schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine. V. The effect of praziquantel therapy on naturally acquired resistance to Schistosoma bovis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 32(6):1370-4. Studies in the White Nile area of the Sudan have shown that Zebu cattle acquire a high degree of resistance to Schistosoma bovis as a result of repeated natural exposures without, however, being able to eliminate their populations of adult schistosomes, although these do show greatly suppressed fecundity. To test whether these adult worms are necessary for the maintenance of resistance we cured six "naturally resistant" cattle (TC group) with a double treatment of 25 mg/kg praziquantel and

51

compared their response to a 70,000 cercariae challenge with groups of "naturally resistant" but untreated cattle (UC group) and with previously unexposed, challenged cattle (CC group). Challenge was carried out 7 weeks after the second dose of praziquantel. The results confirmed that untreated cattle are "naturally resistant" and also showed that resistance was not abrogated by cure of the naturally-acquired infections. Thus, fecal egg counts after challenge reached mean maxima of 2,432 eggs per gram (epg) in the CC, but only 5 epg and 28 epg in the TC and UC groups, respectively. Similarly, mean worm counts were 85% and 69% lower in the TC and UC groups, respectively, and mean tissue egg densities were reduced by 72-99%, and 56-80%. Histopathologically, the TC and UC groups were also far less affected than the CC. Effective praziquantel treatment does therefore not destroy naturally acquired resistance to S. bovis, and may benefit infected livestock even in the absence of transmission control. The situation in human schistosomiasis is less clear, but there are several epidemiological and experimental indications of a similar conclusion for S. mansoni.

58. Bushara HO, Omer OH, Malik KH, Taylor MG. (1994). The effect of multiple transfers of immune serum on maturing Schistosoma bovis infections in calves. Parasitol Res. 80(3):198-202. To investigate the role of humoral factors in immunity, serum from cattle with naturally acquired immunity to Schistosoma bovis was injected intraperitoneally into calves that had been infected 4 weeks earlier with 10,000 S. bovis cercariae. Serum was injected weekly until 12 weeks post-infection to a total of 4,500 ml per calf and controls received normal serum or saline. No significant difference in worm or in faecal or tissue egg counts were seen in the three groups of recipients in spite of the observation that the serum donors had proved highly resistant to experimental challenge. In a second experiment, pre-infection or 4-, 8- or 12-week post-infection serum from donors given a single experimental infection with 10,000 S. bovis cercariae was injected intraperitoneally into groups of calves that had been infected 4 weeks earlier with 20,000 S. bovis cercariae. Injections were given weekly up to week 10 post- infection to a total of 2000-3500 ml serum per calf. In calves injected with immune serum there was a reduction in faecal and tissue egg counts and in the numbers of worms recovered as compared with the controls. In recipients of 8- and 12-week serum the reductions in faecal and tissue egg counts were higher than those in worm recovery, suggesting that 8- and 12-week post-infection sera contained factors capable of causing, in addition to worm death, suppression of worm fecundity. This provides

52

further evidence of the importance of fecundity suppression in immunity to schistosomiasis.

59. Dargie JD. (1980). The pathogenesis of Schistosoma bovis infection in Sudanese cattle. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 74(5):560-2. No abstract available.

60. Dinkel A, Njoroge EM, Zimmermann A, Wälz M, Zeyhle E, Elmahdi IE, Mackenstedt U, Romig T. (2004). A PCR system for detection of species and genotypes of the Echinococcus granulosus- complex, with reference to the epidemiological situation in eastern Africa. Int J Parasitol. 34(5):645-53. We describe the development of a specific and sensitive PCR/semi- nested PCR system for the rapid diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1, E. granulosus genotype G6/7, and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). Diagnosis of G1 and the group G5/6/7 is performed by a simple PCR, while discrimination between E. ortleppi (G5) and G6/7 involves a subsequent semi-nested PCR step. The target sequence for amplification is part of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Specificity of the PCRs was 100% when evaluated with isolates of 16 species of cestodes, including Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus equinus, E. ortleppi and three strains of E. granulosus (G1, G6 and G7). Sensitivity threshold was 0.25pg of DNA. This new approach was compared with published protocols of restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR and sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase 1 genes using Echinococcus isolates of human, sheep, goat, camel, cattle and pig origin from Kenya and Sudan. Additionally, two internal DNA probes were developed, one hybridising only with G1, the other with G5, G6 and G7 amplification products. Preliminary epidemiological results obtained with this PCR approach include the detection of a camel strain (G6) infection for the first time in a human patient from eastern Africa, and the first reports of E. ortleppi (G5) in livestock from Kenya and the Sudan.

61. Eisa AM., El Badawi ES., and Saad MB, (1976). Helminth parasites of the local breed of poulty in the Sudan., Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry ,17: 68-76. Out of 2532 viscera of poultry aged 4-12 months examined for helminth parasites during the period October 1969 to June 1974 (2190 birds in Khartoum, 165 birds in Kasala, and 177 birds in Medani), 2257 birds (89%) were infested.The percent incidence of the different helminth parasites encountered in Khartoum, Kassala and Medani were as follows: Raillietina tetragona 60.9%; Subulura brumpti 68.5%;

53

Tetrameres americana 42.8%; Gongylonema ingulvicola 30.4%; Acuaria (Dispharynx) spiralis 5%.

62. Eisa, A. M. (1962). Preliminary survey of parasites of dogs in Upper Nile Province. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry.3, 109-117. No abstract.

63. Eisa, A. M., Mustafa, A. A. & Soliman, K. N.(1962). Preliminary report on cysticercosis and hydatidosis in Southern Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry.3, 79-107. No abstract.

64. Eisa, A. M.; El Badawi, E. S.; Saad, M. B. A.; Ibrahim, A. M. and ElGezuli, A. Y. (1979). Check list and first records of helminth parasites of domestic and wild animals reported in the Sudan during the period 1902-1975. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research. 1: 55-

63.

No abstract.

65. Eisa, A.M.(1963).Incidence of parasites in bovine livers. Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 4 (2): 72-76. No abstract.

66. El Amir Mustafa Saad (1979). Pathogenesis of Schistosoma bovis Infections in Domestic Ruminants. Ph.D., University of Khartoum. Within the bounds of this project, the other carried out investigations to define and elucidate the pathogenesis of primary S. bovis infections in domestic ruminants and to assess both naturally-acquired and artificially- induced resistance to this parasite in Sudanese Zebu cattle through various clinical, parasitological, pathophysiological and pathological parameters. Sections 1, 2 and 3 of this thesis have been devoted to studying the clinicopathological disturbances induced by a primary S. bovis infection in Zebu calves. These studies have shown that infected calves develop a haemorrhagic diarrhoea and become anaemic, hypoalbuminaemic, hyperglobulinaemic and eosinophilic. In addition, they either lose or fail to gain bodyweight in comparison to worm-free calves. The development of all these features coincides with the appearance of schistosome eggs around the 7th week of infection and their severity is closely related to the number of eggs excreted. The disease has been found to be most severe around 3 - 4 months post- infection when faecal egg output and the worm burdens reach their maximal levels. Concurrent radioisotopic measurements (Section 2) have also shown that accelerated rate of red cell breakdown due to loss from the circulation occurs and is more pronounced again around the 7th week

54

of infection increasing in severity during the subsequent 2 months. Erythropoiesis is also increased but does not keep pace with the rate of red cell breakdown. Moreover, the disease is associated with hypoalbuminaemia which is produced by increased rate of albumin catabolism and is accompanied by marked depletion of all albumin levels but particularly of the extra vascular pool. The pattern of albumin catabolism follows closely that of red cell loss suggesting that passage of plasma as a whole is the basic cause of this hypoalbuminaemia.

67. El Awad Mohamed El Hassan (1988). Experimental and Field Studies of Some Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes of Ruminants in the Sudan. MVSc theses, University of Khartoum. This study consisted of three major pacts. The first part dealt with the degree of pasture infestation with trichostrongylid nematode larvae in the University Farm and Butana area (camels grazing area). Samples of vegetations were monthly examined throughout a period of one year for the presence of larvae. The examination revealed presence of Trichostrongylus. spp. and Haemonchus spp. larvae in both areas. Trichostrongylus spp. larvae were found to predominate in both areas. Larvae of Trichostrongylus spp. in both areas were detected in high numbers during the rainy season and their number started to decrease towards winter, till they disappeared from herbage during the following summer. On the other hand, Haemonchus spp. larvae behaved in the same pattern in the University Farm while in the Butana area they were detected only during the rainy season. The second part of the study dealt with transmission experiments of Trichostrongylus probolurus from camels to lambs. The effect of this worm on lambs was also studied. No apparent clinical signs or post- mortem lesions were detected. Haematological parameters showed moderate eosinophilia, but no signs of anaemia were observed during the course of infection. Morphology of the adult worm and the infective larvae was also studied. In this part, the efficacy of Ivermectin (Ivomec- MSD), administered subcutaneously at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg b.wt. to the experimentally infected lambs, against Trichostrongylus probolurus was also studied. The drug was found to be 100% effective against this worm. The third part dealt with the transmission of Haemonchus longistipes from camels to sheep and its effect on the latter host. This worm was less successfully adapted to sheep. Infected animals showed no apparent clinical signs. However, during post-mortem examination, there was slight oedema and focal areas of congestion in the abomasal wall. Histologically, there were few focal areas of erosion of the lining epitheliurn and moderate inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear cells

55

and eosinophils. Haematologically, there was a slight reduction in erythrocyte counts. haemoglobin concentration and PCV. Morphological studies on H. longistipes from naturally infected camels and experimentally infected sheep revealed a noticeable retardation in size and measurements of adult worms collected from infected sheep as compared with those collected from camels. Slight reduction in length of the infective larvae obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep, was also detected. The vulvar region of the female H. longistipes from both camels and sheep has a small lateral knob. Prolongation in the pre-patent period was observed, where it reached 31 days.

68. El Badawi EK, Eisa AM, Slepenev NK, Saad MB. Hydatidosis of domestic animals in the central region of the Sudan. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr. 1979 Dec;27(4):249-51. No abstract.

69. El Badawi EK., Slepnov NK., and Eisa AM (1976). A survey of helminth parasites of cattle, sheep and goats in the southern region of the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 17:60-67.

A

survey of helminth parasites of cattle, sheep and goats was conducted

in

Malakal, Juba and Wau during January and February 1975. Regular

visits were made to the slaughterhouses, in all a total of 434 carcasses of cattle, 32 of goats and 14 of sheep were searched for helminth parasites.

Eight different genera of helminth parasites were encountered in all animal species examined. Six genera were encountered in cattle of Equatoria province, 5 genera were encountered in cattle of Bahr El Ghazal province, 4 genera in goats of Equatoria and also 4 genera in sheep of Upper Nile province. Stilezia hepatica in goats was recorded for the first time in Juba.

70. El Badawi ES., and Slepnov NK, (1976) A note on bovine Schistosomiasis in the Southern region of the Sudan. Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 17(1):41-43. Bovine Schistosomiasis appears to be prevalent in the southern region of the Sudan. Most of grazing areas in the southern region are very suitable habitat for the snail population due to the accumulation of water in different places during the flooded and rainy seasons.

71. El Badawi, E. S.; Eisa, A. M.; Ibrahim, A. M.; Slepnev, N. K. and ElGezuli, A. Y. (1978). Incidence of helminth parasites in ruminants slaughtered in western provinces of the Sudan. Sud. J. Vet. Sci. and Anim. Husb. 19 (1): 58-65.

56

270 carcasses of cattle, 1397 of sheep and 794 of goats slaughtered at Nyala and El Fashir abattoirs were examined for some helminth parasites. Twelve genera of parasites were encountered, 3 trematodes (Fasciola gigantica, Paramphistomum spp and Schistosoma bovis), 4 cestodes and larval cestodes (Avitellina spp, Moniezia expansa, Cysticercus bovis and hydatid cysts) and 5 genera of nematodes (Trichuris ovis, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. columbianum, Haemonchus contortus, and Nematodirus spp.). Eight, 7 and 6 genera of helminth parasites were encountered in sheep, cattle and goats respectively. The maximum combination og genera found in any one animal was four. The incidence was determined and findings discussed.

72. El Badawi, E. S.; ElGezuli, A. Y.; Eisa, A. M. and Slepnev, N. K. (1978). Incidnce of Cysticercus tenuicollis in animals slaughtered for human consumption in the Sudan. Sud. J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb. 19 (2): 87-91. 3478 carcasses of sheep, 960 of goats, 1871of cattle and 116 of camels were examined at slaughterhouse in the different provinces of the Sudan during the period 1975-1977. To determined the incidence of Cysticercus tenuicollis. It was found that 32.4% of sheep and 29% of goats harbored C. tenuicollis. No cysts were detected in the carcasses of cattle and camels examined. The significance of these findings is discussed.

73. El Badawi, E. S.; Slepnev, N. K. and ElGezuli, A. Y. (1978). A new record of Coenurus gaigeri associated with sheep in the Sudan. Acta Veterinaria (Beograd). 28: 213-215. No abstract.

74. El Badawi, El-Khawad., and Eisa AM. (1977). Helminths in chickens in Sudan. Angew Parasitol.18 (3):142-5. The identification of the helminthic parasites of the poultry in Khartoum province, during the months of October and November, 1969, 230 hens, 6--12 months old, were examined in the laboratory; 87% of the hens exhibited mono- and polyinfections. The following species were found:

Subulura brumpti, Raillietina tetragona, Tetrameres americana, Gongylonema ingluvicola and Dispharynx spiralis, mostly as polyinfections. [Article in German].

75. El Bihari S, Gadir FA , Suleiman H (1974). Incidence and behavior of microfilariae in cattle. Sud. J. Vet. Anim. Husb., 15(2): 82-85. In this short communication the authors reported on a preliminary assessment of the incidence of microfilariae of Onchocerca amillata and

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Setaria labiatopapillosa in cattle in Nuba Mountains, Southern Darfur and Khartoum.

76. El Bihari S, Hussein HS.(1978). Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann, (1910) in Sudanese cattle. I. The microfilariae. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop.;31(2):179-82. The skin distribution of microfilariae of Onchocerca gutturosa in Sudanese cattle is different from that reported from European calttle. Microfilarae are found in the midline of the back, the highest densities being in the region of the hump. Microfilariae did not occur in the ears or umbilical region.The prevalence rate of O. gutturosa in a Khartoum herd containing all age groups was determined ante mortem and found to be 27 P. 100 ; prevalence distinctly Increased with age.

77. El Bihari S, Hussein HS. (1975). Location of the microfilariae of Onchocerca armillata. J Parasitol. 61(4):656. No abstract.

78. El Bihari S. (1985). Helminth of the camel: A review. Br. Vet. J.:

141, 3 1 5. Conditions under which camels are usually kept are not conducive to parasite transmission; in spite of this a large number of helminth parasites are known to occur in the camel. Most of these infections do not precipitate frank clinical disease; some species, however, are important as aetiological agents of clinical conditions which are often the result of mixed infections. These include the camel stomach worm Haemonchus longistipes. This helminth, either alone or in mixed infections with Trichostrongylus spp., may cause a debilitating and sometimes fatal condition. Other common helminth infections of the camel include onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca fasciata, Dipetalonema evansi infection, Fasciola hepatica, F. giganttca, Stilezia vittata, Moniezia expansa and larval Echinococcus granulosus. Information available about helminths of the camel is presented and discussed.

79. El Bihari, S., Kawasmeh, Z.A., Ashour, N.A. and Elnaiem, A.H., (1984). Experimental infection of sheep by the camel stomach worm, Haemonchus longistipes. Vet. Parasitol., 15: 257--261. An attempt has been made to infect sheep by Haemonchus longistipes with the objective of developing a relatively cheap and manageable model of camel haemonchosis. A large proportion of inoculated animals (28/34) developed patent infections; the prepatent period was short, lasting for 3 to 4 weeks in the majority of infected animals. Worm

58

burdens were low and so was the total egg output. Most of the recovered worms were reduced in size.

80. El Hussein AM., Hassan N., Taha KM., and Ali SM (1991). A note on hydatidosis in camels in Eldamer Province, Northern State, Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 10: 63-64. No abstract.

81. EL Kheir Ibrahim Dafalla (1985). Studies on Onchocerca Cervicalis (Railliet & Henry, 1910) in Sudanese Horses. MVSc theses, University of Khartoum. Onchocerca cervicalis was found to be a common parasite of Sudanese horses, 63% were found naturally infected, and this percentage increased with age. The adult worms inhabit the ligamentum muchae of infected horses, but the microfilariae were found predominantly along the abdominal mid-line. Morphological description of male and female worms has been studied in details. Distinct morphological differences were found between microfilariae in the uterus of the adult worm, and those in the skin of the host. This suggests that development occurs during the migration from the adult worm to the skin and it may mean that uterine microfilariae are not infective to the vectors. The uterine microfilariae themselves are divided into three types, representing three stages of development. The pathological effect of adult O. cervicalis, has been studied. In heavy and long standing condition the pathological changes are more recognized. Small calcified or caseous nodules in moderate infection were seen. Chronic inflammatory conditions (poll evil or fistulous withers) were not seen in examination of over 50 infected horses. Pathological conditions due to microfilariae, in either, the skin or the eyes of the host were also studied in details.

82. El Rawda Adam Ali (1998). Gastrointestinal Parasites of Captive Animals in Khartoum State. M.Sc., University of Khartoum. This piece of work which is intended to study the gastrointestinal parasites of captive animals has been carried out in 3 zoological gardens in Khartoum state, namely Shaab Park, Gorashi Park and the Sudan Naturai History Museum. A total of 768 samples from different animal species including mammals, birds and reptiles were investigated through direct faecal examination; faecal culture and post mortem examination. The results obtained have indicated that animals under zoo conditions are vulnerable to parasitic infection with varying degrees. Statistical comparison of prevalence rates showed that significant differences between some sites do occur. Overall parasitic infection in the 3 sites (Shaab Park, Gorashi Park, and the Sudan Natural History Museum)

59

amounted to 57.6%, 28.6% and 27.3% respectively. Analyses have shown predomination of nematodes at prevalence rates of 33.3% in Shaab Park, 14.3% in Gorashi Park, and 12.7% in the Natural history Museum. Where by infection was represented by the genera Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Ostertagia and Toxocara among herbivores and the genera Ascaris, Toxascaris and Physaloptera in carnivores. Primates were susceptible to Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. and birds were infected by Capillarids and Suburura sp. While reptiles were infected by species of the genus Thubunaea. Trematodes occurred at rates of 6.8% in Shaab Park, 10.2% in Gorashi Park and were lacking in the Natural History Museum. The Trematode genera Fasciola, Dicrocoelium, Paramphistomum and Schistosoma were isolated from herbivores and primates. As for cestodes, prevalence rates of 5.3% 2.0% and 9.0% could be recorded at Shaab park, Gorashi park and the Natural History Museum respectively; where by the generz Fomezia, Diplopylidium, Joyeuxiella and Hymenolepis were detected in different animal species. Protozoans prevailed in the 3 sites as 12.1 % in Shaab Park, 2.0% in Gorashi park and 5.5% in the Natural History Museum. Coccidians of the genera Eimeria, isospora were isolated from herbivxes and carriers where as the genus Entamoeba was detected in primates. The present study has confirmed some of the findings of former workers in the Sudan, however some species have been identified in cestrum hosts for the first time, namely Toxocara vitulorum in the African buffalos and Ascaris sp. in the Nubian Ibex, lions, baboons and chimpanzee, and the genus Diplopylidium in the Egyptian gompose. Susceptibility of pigeons to Capillarids, Hymenolepids and rabbits to Eimeria was not preceded by such records.

83. El Sadig A Zain El Din (1981). Clinical and Haematological finding in bovine cysticercosis. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research. Vol3:

83-85.

Eight calves 3-5 months old were orally infected with eggs of Taenia saginata. The manifested post infection clinical signs were rise in temperature, arrhythmia & dysopnia. Other observed clinical symptoms were weakness and pain of limbs, staggering gate, recummbency and death. Haematological changes included increased leukocytes and peripheral eosinophilia. Serum total protein was significantly increased.

84. El Sadig A Zain El Din (1981). Immunomorphological changes in experimental bovine cysticercosis. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research.Vol.3: 93-96.

60

Histopathological and histochemical studies on experimental bovine cysticercosis revealed that, host response to infection with Cysticercus bovis was an inflammatory reaction manifested by cellular infiltration and the formation of parasitic granuloma. The reaction varied according to the stage of infection and was accompanied by obvious histochemical change in tissues and organs of infected animals. Distinct immunomorphological changes were also observed in lymph nodes and spleen.

85. EL Sadik (A.), 1979. Distribution of bovine cysticercosis in Sudan from an abattoir survey in Khartoum. Sbornik Nauchn. Trudov Medical Veterinary Akademy, 108: 120-122. No abstract available.

86. El Samani F, Mahmoud OM, Fawi MT, Gameel AA, Haroun EM. Serum enzyme activity and bilirubin concentration in sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica. J Comp Pathol. 1985 Oct;95(4):499-503. Fasciola gigantica infection in sheep produced liver and lung lesions characterized by damage to blood vessels and parenchymal necrosis. In the lungs, the lesions were those of parasitic bronchopneumonia. The damage to the liver and lung tissues was accompanied by increased activity in serum of AST after 2 weeks, GD and SD after 4 to 5 weeks and GGT and 5'-NT from 8 weeks onwards. Bilirubin concentration was not affected.

87. El Sammani SE, Hussein HS.(1983). Onchocerca raillieti: adult location and skin distribution of the microfilaria in Sudanese donkeys. J Helminthol. 57(4):355-60. Onchocerca raillieti is the only Onchocerca species infecting Sudanese donkeys; it occurs only in the ligamentum nuchae, especially in the lamellar part of the ligament. The morphological features of both uterine and skin microfilariae were determined. Skin microfilariae are shorter than uterine ones and tend to accumulate in the regions of Linea alba and withers of infected donkeys. The possible identity of the vector of this worm in the Sudan is discussed.

88. El Sanhouri AA1, Haroun EM, Gameel AA, Bushara HO. (1987). Protective effect of irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica and irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma bovis against fascioliasis in goats. Trop Anim Health Prod.19(4):245-9. Sensitisation of goats for eight weeks with metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica gamma-irradiated at 3 kr resulted in significant resistance to an homologous challenge with normal metacercariae. However, serum

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sorbitol dehydrogenase assay suggested that, whereas little damage was produced by immunising infections, considerable hepatic damage was caused by flukes remaining from challenge infections. On the other hand sensitisation with cercariae of Schistosoma bovis gamma-irradiated at 3 kr did not stimulate any resistance against heterologous challenge with F. gigantica.

89. El Sayed Ishag El Shafea (1998). Immunization of Calves against Experimental Bovine Schistosomiasis Using Glutathione-S- Transferase and Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin. M.V.Sc., University of Khartoum. The enzymes recombinant Glutathione -s- transferase (Rec. G,S,T), Native GST and the glycoprotein Keyhole limpet Haemocyanin (KLH) were subcutaneously and intramuscularly injected in different sites in the animal body to study their safety, efficacy and potency to produce immunity against experimental infection with Schistosoma bovis. Forty Zebu calves were divided into four equal groups A, B, C, and D. Group A calves were injected with three doses of Recombinant GST. Group B calves were injected with three doses of Native GST, Group C calves were injected with a combination of Rec. GST plus KLH (Two doses). Group D calves were left as controls. The vaccinated groups together with the controls were challenged by S. bovis cercariae at a dose rate of 10.000 per calf. Faecal egg count was reduced compared to the controls by 23% in group A, 16% and 22% in Group B and C, respectively. Hatchability of eggs was also lowered to about 49%, 53% and 44% in group A, B, and C, respectively than that obtained from the controls. Eggs recovered from different tissues was reduced to 56% in group A, 53% in group B and 58% in group C compared to the controls. It was observed that calcified (black) eggs constituted 62%, 48% and 50% of the eggs counted in the livers, small and large intestines of the vaccinated animals. The total worm recovery in all animals' groups, including the controls, was almost the same. There was, also, slight difference in the packed cell volume values and no difference in the haemoglobin concentrations. Using ELISA all vaccinated animals showed highly significant differences in titre till the second week after challenge, then declined and started again to rise in all groups, including controls, starting from week five after challenge onwards till the end of the experiment.

90. El Sinnary K, Hussein HS., Williams JF., and Atta Almannan AM (1989). Natural and experimental infection of Culicodies kingi with

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Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann, 1910. In Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 28 (1):17-26. The transmission of Onchocerca gutturosa was studied in Shambat (Khartoum North) in Sudan where the parasite is endemic and a high percentage of cattle are infected. Culicodies kingi and Simulium griseicolle were found to be the only biting arthropods feeding on the hump region of cattle. Experimental and epidemiological evidence excluded S. griseicolle as natural vector, and studies concentrated on C. kingi. Females of this species that fed on carriers of O. gutturosa as well as flies experimentally infected by intra-thoracic inoculation were dissected at daily intervals. All flies which survived for seven days or more after exposture contained infective larvae found were identical to those of O. gutturosa described by previous workers. C. kingi probably serves as a natural vector of O. gutturosa in the Sudan.

91. El Sinnary K, Hussein HS.Culicoides kingi, Austen: a vector of Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann, 1910) in the Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1980 Dec;74(6):655-6. No abstract available.

92. El Sinnary K., and Bianco AE (1983). Extraction of complete living adult Onchocrca gutturosa from ligamentum nuchae. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research Vol 4:. No abstract available.

93. El Sinnary KA, Hussein MF, Hussein SH. (1994). Onchocerca gutturosa infection of the ligamentum nuchae in two cows in the Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 47(2):183-4. Severe lesions of the ligamentum nuchae are described for the first time in two cows in the Sudan. Post mortem and histopathological examination of the nodules reveals inflammatory process the causal agent of which is Onchocerca gutturosa.

94. Elamin, EA., Mohamed, GE., Fadl M., Seham Elias., Saleem MS., Elbashir M.O.A. (1993). An outbreak of cameline filariasis in the Sudan. British Veterinary Journal, 149 (2): 195-200. Sheathed microfilariae (mean length 278±10μm sem; mean width 7.2±0.8 μm) were detected in the blood of 7/14 housed camels (Camelus dromedarius). Microfilaraemic camels of either sex were inappetent, lethargic, and reluctant to move and exhibited weakness in the hind limbs; some remained in sternal recumbency. Cardiac disorders, orchitis and skin nodules were conspicuously absent. The microfilariae showed a biphasic pattern in the blood that peaked at 20:00 and plateaued betwen 04:00 and 06:00. Adult filarial worms were recovered from the

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mesenteric and femoral arteries. Marked clinical improvement within 12 weeks was seen in three camels treated at 10:00 with a single subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mg/kg of ivermectin. These camels became amicrofilaraemic 25 days after treatment and remained so for the length of the observation period (133 days). Treatment of two camels at the time of high microfilaraemia (06:30) resulted in adverse reaction and death.

95. ElGezuli, A. Y.; El Badawi, E. S. and Eisa, A. M. (1978). First record of Skrjabinema ovis (SKRJABIN, 1915) in goats in the Sudan. Sud. J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb. 19 (2): 127-129. This paper reports on the first record of Skrjabinema ovis in Sudan from goats at kassala slaughterhouse.

96. ElGezuli, A. Y.; El Badawi, E. S. and Eisa, A. M. (1978). Nemafax against some gastro-intestinal nematodes of camel in the Sudan. Sud. J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb. 19 (1): 42-46. Twelve naturally parasitized camels were used to study the anthelmintic efficacy of Nemafax (thiophanate) against some gastro-intestinal nematodes of camels in the Sudan. Eleven camels were given the drugas a suspension, at the rate of 175mg/kg to animals with high egg counts and at half this dose to animals with low egg counts. Camel number 12 was kept as an untreated control. No side effects were noticed in the treated animals. The efficacy of Nemafax in this study, based on reduction of egg counts, was 94.5%. All larvae recovered from faecal cultures before treatment were identified as Haemonchus spp. Larvae. No worms were recovered by washing faeces colleted from animals for 3 days after treatment. From results obtained, the authors could not definitely conclude that the reduction in egg counts obtained was due to actual death of the worms as it could also be due to suppression of egg production. Another controlled trial will be performed in order to settle this question.

97. Elham A Abdalla and Elmalik, KH, (1997). Effect of Nematode Parasite on Weight Changes of Sudanese Desert Sheep. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 36( 1&2): 50-54. The study was done to evaluate the effect of anthelmintic treatment on the weight gain of sheep naturally infected with nematodes. Since sheep in Sudan are owned by nomads, they are mostly moving in search of water and grazing areas. Aggregation of large numbers around water sites and good pasture leads to continuous contamination of these sites by parasite eggs and larvae. The effect of nematode infection on sheep production as reflected in weight gain and PCV was measured. There

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was a positive correlation between these parameters in treated animals which is significantly different from untreated controls.

98. Elham A Abdalla and Elmalik, KH, (1997). Prevalence of nematodes parasitism in desert sheep brought to Khartoum state. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 36( 1&2): 44-49. A study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of nematodes of sheep brought to Khartoum for marketing and local consumption. It was found that sheep harboured four genera of nematodes with rates of infection as follows: Haemonchus sp.(56.3%) followed by that of Strongyloides papillosus(36.6%), Oesophagostomum sp.(3.7%) and the lowest was that of Trichostrogylus sp.(3.4%). Nematode infection was highest in the Watish breed (58.6%) and lowest in the Baladi breed ( 21.1%) while in the Kabbashi and Hamari breeds it was (58%) and (47.7%) respectively. The infection was highest during the rainy season reaching up to (100%), and declined during the cold months of the winter reaching (31%) and (5.88%) in November and December respectively.

99. Elham Abdalla Ahmed (1995). Prevalence of Nematodes in Sudanese Sheep brought to Khartoum State. M. V. Sc., University of Khartoum. This study was conducted in Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North (Bahri) areas. The prevalence of Nematode helminth parasites was investigated in sheep markets, slaughter houses and some farms at different localities in these three areas including sheep markets in Hillat Kuku, Halfaya and Riyadh areas, farms in Shambat area belonging to individuals and the University of Khartoum Farm, one farm at Soba, Alrawasi Export Farm at Butri and slaughter houses in both Omdurman and Alkadaro. The prevalence of nematode infection in different breeds of Sudanese sheep was investigated (i.e. Hamari, Baladi, Watish and Kabbashi). It was found that infection was almost equal in both Watish breed (58.6%) and the Kabbashi breed (58%) while in the Hamari and Baladi breeds it was lower 47.7% and 21.1%, respectively. The prevalence of nematode infection in Khartoum, Omdurman and Bahri was 51.5%, 93.6% and 33%, respectively as detected by the e.p.g technique. The prevalence of nematodes in sheep during different months of the year and their seasonality was also investigated. It was found that the high risk of infection with nematodes was during the rainy season (August-October) and lowest during the cold season being less at the beginning of the cold months (November-December) and starting to

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rise in January and February. In summer (April), the infection rates started to elevate again Faecal examination for ova suggested presence of Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Strongyloides papillosus, Oesophagostomum spp., and Chabertia ovina. The average sizes of nematode ova detected were 68.4 x 45.6 µm. Cultures of faecal samples from 32 out of 100 from Omdurman slaughter house revealed 56.3% infection with Haemonchus spp., 3.4% with Trichostrongylus spp., 3.7% with Oesophagostomum spp. and 36.6% with S. papillosus, with average larval lengths of 563.4 - 692.8 µm for Haemonchus spp., 520.4 - 577.6 µm for S. papillosus, 552.7 - 605.5 µm for Trichostrongylus spp. and 663 - 694 µm for Oesophagostomum spp. Effect of parasitism on weight gain and PCV was evident. The group of animals treated with Thiabendazole® showed increase in body weight as well as a high average of PCV compared with the untreated group. 100. Elham Elsayed Siddig Kardman (2008). Pathogenesis of experimental Schistosoma bovis in goats at different levels of infection. M. Sc., University of Khartoum. Schistosoma bovis is an important veterinary and economical problem in the Sudan and other African, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. Schistosomiasis causes severe outbreaks associated with high mortality rates among cattle, sheep and goats. Experimental; work on schistosomiasis involved the establishment of the complete life cycle of the parasite under laboratory conditions. An active breeding colony of the suitable snail host was established to provide a steady supply of cercariae for goats’ infection. The effect of experimental Schistosoma bovis infection on the clinical and pathological alternations was investigated in male goats (10-12month old). Twenty goats were divided into four groups A, B C and D. body weight and haemogram were measured for every week of experiment. Each animal in group A, B and C was infected with 500, 2000 and 5000 Schistosoma bovis cercariae percutaneously respectively. Animals in group D were kept as uninfected control. Serum and faecal samples were collected after infection. The experimental goats were slaughtered by the end f the experiment (27 weeks after infection) for worm recovery and tissue egg count. The representative tissue portions wee fixed and processed routinely for histopathology. Infected goats developed clinical signs of illness 6 to 8 weeks for group A, B and C respectively. These included inappetance, dull appearance, general weakness and sunken eyes. The appearance of symptoms coincided with the start of oviposition and passage of schistosome eggs in faeces. The results obtained showed significant

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decrease between the infected groups in body weights, haemoglobin concentration, total RBC counts and albumin values whereas total WBC counts, total protein and globulin showed no significant increase. Faecal egg counts, worm recovery and tissue egg counts showed significant changes associated with the level of infection. The main histopathological findings in the livers of infected animals were granuloma formation and hepatocelular swelling and vacuolation. Ova granuloma were also noticed in the lung, lymph node and intestine. Glomerulo-inertial nephritis was observed in the kidneys. Haemosiderin pigment was deposited in the spleen. In the heart, myocarditis was observed. These lesions were frequently encountered in tissue of animals of group C followed by group B and were scarcely detected in tissues of group A. 101. Elmahdi IE1, Ali QM, Magzoub MM, Ibrahim AM, Saad MB, Romig T.(2004). Cystic echinococcosis of livestock and humans in central Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 98(5):473-9. New information was collected on cystic echinococcosis in livestock (camels, cattle and sheep) and humans in the central region of Sudan. The livestock data were collected in abattoir-based surveys in the towns of Omdurman, Tamboul and Wad Madani, between 1998 and 2001, and covered a total of 8205 animals. The highest prevalence of infection was found in the camels (44.6% of 242 infected), followed by the sheep (6.9% of 5595) and cattle (3.0% of 2368). Records were made of the sizes of the 1320 hydatid cysts detected in the livestock (907 in sheep, 71 in cattle, and 342 in camels), whether or not each cyst was fertile, and where it occurred in the body of the host. Cysts collected from cattle and camels where much more likely to be fertile (22% and 24%, respectively) than those from sheep (1%). Camels and cattle therefore appear to be the principal intermediate hosts for Echinococcus granulosus in central Sudan, whereas sheep apparently play a marginal role in transmission. In 2002, as a preliminary assessment of the public- health impact of the disease, 300 residents of a rural village 60 km west of Wad Madani were surveyed using a portable ultrasound scanner. Only one (0.33%) of the villagers investigated was found infected. The implications of these finding are discussed in terms of the various strains of E. granulosus and the role of each in human disease. 102. Elmahdi, Ibrahim Elhag ,Abedelmoniem , Elhag Elmahdi ,AbdAlmalaik , Abdelhakeim Aballaha ,Abakar Adam Mohammed ,Eldaw, Abdelrahim Ahmed ,Omer, Hassan Mohammed Hassan Abakar., Adam Dawoud., Kern Peter .,Romig Thomas.(2013)

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Echinococcosis: Epidemiology and Genotyping of Echinococcus Speices in Sudan. Journal of Science and Technology,14 (1) 69-79. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is considered as a re-emerging disease in various regions, e.g. the Middle East, central Asia, and northern and eastern Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, CE is highly endemic. In this study, data were collected in abattoir-based surveys in Tamboul town (Central-Eastern Sudan,) and in Nyala abattoir (Darfour region). Out of 1012 camels examined in Tampoul (713) and Nyala (299) an infection rate of 16.1% and 29.1% was reported, respectively. The favorite site for camel’s cysts is the lung (81%). Fertility rate of cysts encountered from camels is about 57%. This finding appears to reflect the importance of the camel as a major intermediate host of this zoonotic disease in Tamboul and Nyala area. Echinococcus isolates (81) collected from camels were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and specific G5/6/7 PCR. In all cases, the G6 genotype of E. canadensis was found. The public-health impact of these finding are discussed in terms of the various species and genotypes of Echinococcus and the role of each in human health.

103. Elowni EE, Hopkins CA. (1981). Raillietina cesticillus: rejection by bursa-deficient chickens. Res Vet Sci. 31(3):373-6. Chickens in which antibody-forming capacity was abrogated by bursectomy and irradiation developed protective immunity against Raillietina cesticillus as effective as controls which had specific antiworm antibodies in their sera and immunoglobulin positive cells in splenic and intestinal tissues. It is concluded that antibodies are not essential for the rejection of the tapeworm by chickens and may even retard rejection.

104. Elowni EE, Nurelhuda IE, Hassan T. (1989). The effect of niclosamide on Raillietina tetragona. Vet Res Commun. 13(6):451-3. No abstract.

105. Elowni EE. (1984). Raillietina cesticillus: variability of infections in experimentally infected chickens. J Helminthol. 58(4):287-9. In experimental Raillietina cesticillus infections in chickens, the age of cysticercoids, the method by which the cysticercoids are administered and prior starvation of the host are factors that influence the development of infections.

106. Elowni EE., Gameel AA., and El Sanousi SM (1986). On some helminthes from a camel in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 25 (2): 93- 96. The authors reported the presence of Haemonchus longistipes, Stilezia vittata and Moniezia expansa in a camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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107. Elsheikh HA, Ali BH (1997). The effect of experimental fascioliasis on the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and sulphadimidine in desert sheep. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 20(3):167-72. Healthy adult male desert sheep were experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica, to investigate the influence of experimental fasciolasis on the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and sulphadimidine. Each animal received 500 metacercariae orally. The experimental infection was confirmed histologically, by detection of Fasciola eggs in faeces and by measuring the activities of the enzymes sorbitol dehydrogenase (SD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma during the course of the disease. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine and sulphadimidine were reported in the experimentally infected animals. Significant prolongation of antipyrine half life was observed 16 weeks after infection. The half- life of sulphadimidine was also significantly prolonged 5, 9 and 16 weeks after infection. Clearance of the sulphonamide was decreased significantly 5 and 9 weeks after infection and it regained its pre- infection value 16 weeks after infection.

108. Elsheikh HA, Ali BH, Homeida AM, Lutfi AA, Hapke HJ. (1992).The effects of fascioliasis on the activities of some drug- metabolizing enzymes in desert sheep liver. Br Vet J. 1992 May-

Jun;148(3):249-57.

Desert sheep experimentally or naturally infected with Fasciola gigantica were used to study the influence of infection on the activities of some drug-metabolizing enzymes found in the liver. The enzymes investigated were aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and UDP- glucuronyltransferase. The experimental infection was confirmed histologically by detection of Fasciola eggs in faeces and by measuring the activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma during the course of the disease. Liver specimens from naturally infected sheep were obtained from the slaughter house. The activities of aminopyrine N- demethylase and aniline 4-hydroxylase were significantly decreased in sheep either naturally infected or during the acute stage of experimental fascioliasis (killed 5 weeks post-infection). The activity of UDP- glucuronyltransferase was decreased in naturally infected sheep and those killed 9 or 13 weeks post-experimental infection.

109. Fadia Y Ali., Adam D Abakar and Mohamed E Hamid (2000).Haematological and blood chemical analysis of horses infected with Onchocerca cervicalis and Strongylus spp., Sudan

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Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 39: 106-

110.

Selected haematological and blood chemical parameters were investigated in 43 horses naturally infected with Onchocerca cervcalis in

Nyala area, western Sudan. The results with non-infected controls and with horses infected with gastrointestinal nematodes notably Strongylus spp. And with horses harbouring both infections. Anaemia as measured by drops in haemoglubin concentration (Hb) and backed cell volume (PCV) were noticed among horses infected with Onchocercae and those infected with nematodes (p<0.001). The proteins and glucose levels were similarly affected with an obvious decrease (p<0.001). Marked eosinophilia was recorded in horses with onchocerciasis (20.8±5) and among horses with the concurrent infection (21.3±4.5), but less so with strongylus infection (15.7±4.1). The percentage increase in eosinophils was mainly substituted with decrease in percentage of nutrophils. No change was noticed in the number of lymphocytes, monocytes or basophils. The obvious drops in the above measured parameters can explain the noticeable health deterioration among infected horses.

110. Fadia Yagoub Ali Hamid (2000). Studies on Equine Onchocerciasis in Southern Darfur State. M. V. Sc. University of Khartoum. A total of 1111 horses and donkeys were examined for presence of onchocerciasis in Southern Darfur State. The study also emphasized on the clinical, haemtological, blood chemical and treatment aspects. The survey was carried out from September 1998 to August 1999 on horses and donkeys presented to Nyala Veterinary Teaching Hospital and selected villages in the state. Out of 546 horses and 565 donkeys, 53 (9.7%) and 63 (11.15%), respectively were found positive for microfilaria in the blood samples. The age of infected animals ranged between 5.3 and 7.4 years old. The infection was high in rainy seasons 12.6% and less in the dry seasons, because of activity of the vector in rainy seasons. The microfilariae were identified as Onchocerca cervicalis (9.7%) and O. reticulata (0.7%). The main symptoms observed among infected horses were anaemia (28.3%), lacrimation (52.8%), weakness (39.6%) and various forms of skin lesions ranging from dermatitis (5.6%) to subcutaneous nodules (18.8%). Body temperature of the infected horses gave mean values of (38.2±8) and showed no significant variation from those of control healthy horses (P > 0.05). Similarly, body temperature of the infected donkeys gave mean values of (37.9±0.0) (P < 0.001). Various levels of anaemia as measured by drop in haemoglobin and packed cell volume among horses (34.2%)

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and donkeys (25.8%) infected with Onchocerca spp. but less so among those infected with both onchocerciasis and nematodes. The biochemical proteins constituent and glucose levels were similarly affected with a significant drop (P < 0.001). Marked eosinophilia was encountered among horses (21.3±4.5) and among donkeys (21.5±3.1) infected with both onchocercaiasis and nematodes. Among horses (20.8±5) and among donkeys (19.8±3.5) infected with onchocerciasis, but less among those with infected with nematodes. Eosinophilia was 15.7±4.1 among horses and 18.2±2.6 among donkeys. The increase in eosinophils was mainly substituted with a decrease in the percentage of neutrophils. The marked obvious drop in the above measured parameters can explain the noticeable health deterioration among infected cases induced by these parasites. Twenty two of onchocerciasis infected horses and donkeys received treatment subcutaneously with ivermectin at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. The result of treatment in terms of clinical, haematological and biochemical aspects showed a significant increase compared with infected animals before treatment. Ivermectin had broad spectrum anthelminitic activity in horses and donkeys and their efficacy was 97.5%.

111. Fadl M, Magzoub M, Bürger HJ. (1992). Prevalence of gastro- intestinal nematode infection in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Butana plains, Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1992;45(3-4):291-3. The prevalence and intensity of gastro-intestinal nematode infection in their relation to season and rainfall were investigated from 429 female dromedary camels at Tambul market in the Butana plains (Sudan), during 1985-1986. The investigation revealed a similar seasonal pattern in the prevalence as well as the intensity of egg output. The seasonality is mainly brought about by Haemonchus spp. and Impalaia spp. while Trichostrongylus spp. seem to be present as adults throughout the year. There is a good correlation between high egg counts and rainfall ensuring optimal development of preparasitic stages.

112. Fatima El Sammani El Sheikh (1985). Effects of zinc deficiency, Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma bovis Infection in sheep and irradiated S. bovis Cercariae on calves. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. The study was preceded by an introduction on the metabolism and deficiency of copper, zinc and iron and on the pathological and pathophysiological aspects of fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. Zinc deficiency was investigated in a sheep breeding farm in Khartoum fed

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solely on Rodes grass. Reduced appetite, skin lesions and death occurred in sheep. Concentration of zinc in the grass, serum and liver of affected animals was low. These findings and the favourable response to the injection of zinc suggested that the clinical condition was due to a deficiency of zinc in the diet of the sheep. Infection of Desert sheep with 200 or 1000 metacercariae of F. gigantica produced liver and lung lesions characterized by damage to blood vessels and parenchymal necrosis. Chronic lesions were confined to the bile ducts and were present as biliary hyperplasia. In the lungs, the lesions were those of parasitic bronchopneumonia. The damage to the liver and lung tissues was accompanied by increased activity of GOT (AST), GD, SD, GGT and 5NT in serum and reduced BSP excretion. Bilirubin concentration was not affected. Infected sheep had low serum iron, copper and zinc concentrations and their livers contained low copper and zinc amounts. The pathological effect of S. bovis infection in Desert sheep was investigated. Infected animals lost weight and developed a mucoid haemorrhagic diarrhoea, inappetence and became anaemic. The damage produced by the parasite lead to increased serum enzymes GGT and GOT. No detectable change of GD, 5NT and bilirubin concentration was noted. It did not affect the ability of the liver to excrete BSP. The infection resulted in a decrease in serum iron, copper and zinc concentrations and in liver zinc concentration. Liver copper content was not affected. Irradiated S. bovis cercariae in calves produced the least effect on haemoglobin, packed cell volume and body weight loss compared with infected controls. It has no effect on liver enzymes activity in the serum except GGT which might be of value in the diagnosis of chronic S. bovis infection in sheep and calves.

113. Fayza A Omer., Bushara HO., Osman AY., and Majid AM, (2003). The immune response of lambs and adult sheep infected with single or repeated doses of Haemonchus contortus larvae. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 18:81-87. This study shows that all lambs given single or repeated doses of the third stage H. contortus larvae were unable to withstand the pathophysiological consequences of the infection. Although adult sheep that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes including H. contortus and treated with Ivermectin at the dose of 200 µg/kg b.wt. were highly resistant to the infection with repeated triple dose of 300 L3 H. contort. This indicates that treatment with Ivermectin did not abolish the acquired immunity resulting from natural infection.

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114. Fayza A Omer., Bushara HO., Osman AY., and Majid AM, (2003). The seasonal prevalence of adult and arrested L4 larvae of Haemonchus contortus in naturally infected Sudanese desert sheep. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 18:89-92. A survey was conducted at Omdurman slaughterhouse during July1993 to June 1994 to study the seasonal fluctuation of H. contortus in sheep. One thousand and two hundred rams 1-2 year-old were examined. One hundred and eighty abomasa, in which adult worms were residing, were randomly selected and processed for detection of arrested L4 larvae. The prevalence rate of H. contortus was 32% and had a definite seasonal distinction. There was a clear seasonal variation in worm burden. Higher worm burdens were evident during rainy season rather than dry season. The overall prevalence of arrested L4 larvae was 43.6% with a monthly prevalence that varied from 20 to 60%. This study revealed, for the first time, the occurrence of arrested H. contortus L4 larvae in Sudanese desert sheep throughout the year.

115. Fayza A. Omer; Bushara, H.O.; Osman , A.Y. and Majid, A. A. Ivermectin against Haemonchus contortus in naturally infected Sudanese Sheep. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2001), 17: 47-53. Ten naturally parasitized rams, 1-2 year old, were used to study the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin against Haemonchus contortus. Five sheep were given ivermectin (drench form) at a dosage rate of 200 μg/kg body weight. The remaining five served as infected untreated control. The drug produced a substantial reduction in egg production after 24 hours post treatment and reached its maximum effect by 96 hours post treatment. The postmortem finding revealed absence of the worms and arrested larvae. No toxic effects were observed. It is concluded that ivermectin at a dose of 200μg/kg bodyweight is highly effective against H. contortus.

116. Fayza Ahmed Omer (1999). Pathogenesis of Haemonchus contortus in naturally and experimentally infected Sudanese desert sheep. Ph.D. University of Khartoum. This study was carried out on 1100 male sheep (1-2 years old) slaughtered at Omdurman slaughterhouse during July 1993 to June 1994. The results indicated that natural H. contortus infection was prevalent among with an overall prevalence of 32%. Maximum worm per animal (2592 worms) was in August and minimum (94 worms) was in March. The highest monthly prevalence rate was in August (55%), September (55%) and October (66%). A total of 180 sheep abomasae were randomly selected from the positives and the mucosal scraping from

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each abomasum was subjected to pepsin-HCl artificial digestion for detection of arrested larvae. The overall prevalence of arrested larvae was 43.6% and the monthly prevalence varied between 20-60%. The result of occurrence of arrested development of larvae of H. contortus in Sudanese sheep throughout the year is considered as a first report. Infected young lambs developed clear evidence of H. contortus infection in the form of severe classical clinical signs such as oedema of the submandibular area (bottle jaw), anaemia and weakness. Post mortem and histopathological changes were typical of ovine haemonchosis. The gross lesions showed severe abomasitis characterized by oedema, haemorrhages and ulcerations of the abomasal mucosa. In addition, adult H. contortus found in the abomasal contents of lambs in group 2 and group 3 were 600, and 650, respectively. Histopathological changes of the abomasum were of severe mucosal and submucosal haemorrhages. Epithelial cells showed degeneration and other showed hypertrophy. Gastric glands showed some changes and contained, mononuclear cells dominated with eosinophils. Experimental studies showed that adult sheep that were previously infected with gastrointestinal nematodes including H. contortus treated with ivermectin (200 mg/kg B.wt.) and then received repeated doses of the third stage larvae of H. contortus showed high resistance to repeated doses of H. contortus larvae, which means that treatment with ivermectin does not abolish acquired immunity. 117. Gaffar Elamin, MA.; Tageldin, MH.; Yagoub, IA., 1984:

Investigation on camel haemonchosis in the eastern region of Sudan. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 324: 412-414. No abstract available. 118. Galal El Tayeb Osman Ali (1998). Comparative Efficacy of Levamisole and Albendazole against Experimental Haemonchus contortus Infection in Nubian Goats. The present investigations were to evaluate efficacy of levamisole and albendazole against experimental caprine haemonchosis. The development of the clinical signs and lesions in goat kids orally infected with 1400 or 1800 third stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus was studied. Inappetence, soft faeces, weakness of the hind limbs, rough coat and anaemia were the main signs of experimental haemonchosis in goats. The main lesions were abomasitis, haermorrhagic foci and erosion on the abomasal mucosa, focal catarrhal enteritis, hepatorenal fatty change, hydropericardium, hydroperitonium and serous atrophy of the renal pelvis and cardiac fat. Concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, total protein,

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albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and sodium were decreased, and urea and potassium levels were increased in the serum of H. contortus infected goats. Faecal egg counts and numbers of the adult worms in the abomasae of infected goats were recorded. Efficacy of levamisole and albendazole against experimental caprine haemonchosis was investigated. H. contortus infected goats were treated with single oral doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg B.wt. of albendazole and the clinical, haematological, serobiochemical and pathological changes associated with successful therapy of caprine haemonchosis were described. Although levamisole at single oral doses of 8 and 40 mg/kg B.wt. was effective in eliminating H. contortus in goats, retreatment with 8 mg/kg B.wt. of the drug in three weeks was found necessary for the most effective therapy. Administration to H. contortus infected goats of single oral doses of 40 mg/kg B.wt. of levamisole was accompanied within 20- 75 minutes of dosing with transient signs of toxicity including grinding of teeth, salivation, tremors and dyspnoea. The animal returned to normal within 4 hours following onset of signs of toxicity. The feed-lot performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality attributes and chemical composition of infected and treated goats were also studied.

119. Gameel, AA and Evans IA (1981). Phagocytic and bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leucocytes of Guinea pigs experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol.22, No. (1): 19-28. Twenty-four guinea pigs fed on ascorbic acid-free diet were divided into two groups, A and B. Each animal in group A was given an oral dosage of 0.5mg ascorbic acid per day and each animal in group B was given 20 mg of ascorbic acid daily. Eight animals from each group were infected each with 33 F. hepatica metacercariae and the remaining ones were kept as uninfected controls. The phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils and eosinophils were assessed by their ability to reduce the Nitroblue Tetrazolium dye and their bactericidal activity by their ability to kill Salmonella Dublin in-vitro. The number of neutrophils, and particulary, eosinophils reducing the N.B.T. dye were more in infected guinea pigs than in controls. Similarly, the efficacy to kill S. Dublin organisms in- vitro was significantly higher (3-4 times) in blood obtained from infected animals than in that from uninfected controls. The results were little affected by the high or low ascorbic acid doses given.

120. Ghada H. Abdel Nabi; Elowni, E. E. and Abdalla, H. S. Some helminths from the gastrointestinal tract of sheep in the Sudan. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2005). 20: 87-88.

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Four species of helminths viz Skrjabinema ovis (Skrjabin), Trichuris globulosa (Linstow), Stilesia globipunctata (Rivolta) and Avitellina centripunctata (Rivolta) were identified from the gastrointestinal tract of 75 sheep of different age and sex slaughtered at Omdurman Central Abattoir during the period November 1997 to October 1998. The sheep originated from Central Kordofan and White Nile State. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first record of these parasites in Sudanese sheep. 121. Ghada Hassan Abdel Nabi Hassan (2000). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in sheep from some localities of the Sudan. M.V.Sc., University of Khartoum. This study was carried out from November 1997 to October 1998 to determine species and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes infecting sheep from two major sheep production areas in the Sudan at Oumdurman Central Abattoir and from sheep designated for export. A total of 1005 faecal samples and 75 gastrointestinal tracts were randomly collected and were processed using microscopic coprological examination, faecal culture and post-mortem examination. Faecal examination revealed that strongyle/ trichostrongyle eggs were the commonest from both areas. Other eggs encountered were Strongyloides papillosus, Trichuris spp., Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni and Paramphistomum spp. The third stage infective larvae obtained from faecal culture were identified as Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Coopeia spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Strongyloides papillosus. Mixed helminth infection was found common with 92% of the gastrointestinal tracts harbouring concurrent infections. Nematode infection was the commonest reaching 86.7% in the animals with H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis having the highest prevalence (72% and 70.7%, respectively). Other nematode species identified were Cooperia pectinata, Oesophagostomum columbianum, S. papillosus, Trichuris globulosa and Skrjabinema ovis with frequencies of 37.3, 44.6, 24 and 6.7%, respectively. Cestodes were identified in 66.7% of gastrointestinal tracts. The species identified were Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata. The most prevalent species were A. centripunctata and S. globipunctata with frequencies of 46.7% and 49.3%, respectively. These results from post-mortem examination substantiate those reported from faecal examination. The study indicated that there was a seasonal effect on nematode infection in sheep from both areas of study as judged by egg output and worm burden. Both parameters showed their highest levels in

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the rainy season. It is concluded that nematodes may be involved in causing significant losses in sheep production in this country. This is evidenced by the involvement of some of the potentially pathogenic forms such as H. contortus and T. colubriformis and the high prevalence of these specific parasites. The fact that worm burdens were mostly moderate suggests presence of chronic infections, which may precipitate continuous loss in productivity. It is imperative, therefore, that effective programs be constructed to control this group of parasites. Four species of helminthes were reported for the first time in sheep in the Sudan. These were Trichuris globulosa, skrjabinema ovis, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata. 122. Gundi Suliman Gasmir (2004). Applications of anthelmintic resistance tests for gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Sudan. The present study was conducted mainly for evaluation and tackling the problem of anthelmintic resistance and the appropriate tests of measuring it in the field under Sudan condition. A survey of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep was made and 339 visceral organs and 307 faecal samples were examined during the period 1999-2002. Adult nematodes species identified from visceral organs contents were; Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Strongyloides papillosus and Trichuris ovis from both sheep and goats. In addition Trichostrongylus probolurus, Impalaia tuberculata and the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum were reported in sheep for the first time in Sudan.The identification of the infective third stage larvae from faecal cultures revealed the following; Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Strongyloides papillosus and Trichostrongylus spp. The importance of wild ruminants and camels on the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of sheep is discussed. A survey of anthelmintic resistance was made using the in vivo and in vitro methods. In the in vivo method of detecting anthelmintic resistance, the faecal egg count reduction test was used (FECRT). Thirty six naturally parasitized adult sheep were used. Animals were divided into four groups; a control group and the remaining three groups received anthelmintics at day (0) according to the manufacturers recommend dose rates; 1 ml/50 kg body weight Ivomec 1%; 5mg/kg body weight albendazole and 1200 mg/50 kg body weight levamisole. Faecal samples were collected at day (0) and day (14) post treatment and all animals were necropsied on day (14) post treatment. The faecal egg count reduction test calculation was performed for all groups and the results showed 100% efficacy for both ivomec injection and levamisole bolus,

77

whereas the albendazole showed efficacy of 97% which is considered as low resistance according to the guide lines of the World Association of the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.). In the in vitro test of anthelmintic resistance, the egg hatch assay and larval development test were carried for the experimental animals using ivomec and thiabendazole for each test. The ED50 obtained from the egg hatch assay is, 0.796 ng/ml using ivomec injection and > 0.1 µg/ml using thiabendazole. The ED50 obtained from the larval development test is 0.769 ng/ml using ivomec injection and >0.1µg/ml using albendazole drench. These in vitro tests confirm the results obtained in the in vivo test when the faecal egg count reduction test was used in the experimental animals. The egg hatch paralysis assay and the larval paralysis assay were performed on composite faecal sample collected from naturally infected sheep, using albendazole drench and levamisole bolus. The ED50 of egg hatch paralysis assay obtained for both albendazole and levamisole were 3.596 µg/ml and 3.69 µg/ml respectively. The larval paralysis assay using levamisole failed to obtain ED50 values in the present study. We conclude from the present study and recommend the use of egg hatch and larval development assays for field monitoring of anthelmintic resistance of sheep nematodes in Sudan. The test should be carried in conjunction with the in vivo faecal egg count reduction test for larval identification, comparison and correlation of the in vivo and in vitro results. 123. Hagga Abdel Gadir Abdel AlIa Abu Rig Gaila (1984). Studies on Naturally Occurring and Experimental Ovine Fascioliasis in the Sudan. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. The White Nile area which has been chosen for a clinic pathological study of the naturally occurring disease. The clinico-pathological features of the experimentally induced Fasciola gigantica infection in sheep have also been investigated. It has been found that the incidence of the naturally occurring disease in sheep increase during the dry season (January - May) when animals are crowded in large numbers around drinking sites. These sites provide suitable breeding habitats for Lymnaea natalensis snails, the intermediate host for Fasciola gigantica and animals become exposed to the infection when they graze on the surrounding infected pasture. Fasciola giganitca infection in sheep is characterized by inappetance, weakness, anaemia, and general emaciation. In both the naturally occurring and experimental disease, there is a decrease in RBC counts, haemoglobin concentrations, and PCV. This is associated with increase in total WBC counts especially the

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eosinophils. The Wintrobe indices indicate that a normochromic normocytic anaemia develops during infection. The biochemical parameters determined during infection show significant increases in the serum enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase indicating severe liver damage; this is also confirmed by histopathological investigations. Serum globulins are slightly increased while albumin levels are markedly decreased resulting in a decrease in total serum proteins. Elevations of serum glutamate oxaloacetic acid transaminase and slight rise in bilirubin have also been observed. The pathological lesions comprise various degenerative changes in hepatocytes associated with haemorrhages, fibrosis, and increased lobulation of the liver, mononuclear cell infiltration with haemosiderin deposition in fluke tracts and portal triads and the formation of granule Mata around fluke eggs and fluke remnants. An attempt to vaccinate sheep against F. gigantica has also been carried out. Five lambs were vaccinated with 400 metacercarise of F. gigantica irradiated at the level of 3 kilorads gamma-rays. Eight weeks later, they were each challenged together with 5 control lambs with 500 non-irradiated cysts. A high level of resistance against challenge was obtained as shown by a statistically significant reduction in the number of flukes recovered from the vaccinated sheep as compared with the controls (P < 0.005 by Wilcoxon's two sample test). The vaccinated sheep also showed less hepatic damage compared with the controls as indicated by lower levels of the specific enzymes serum glutamate dehydrogenate and sorbitol dehydrogenate. At post-mortem, the carcasses of vaccinated sheep appeared normal and no significant gross lesions were found in the liver. However, microscope examination revealed some degree of hepatic degeneration, haemorrhages and slight fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration in fluke tracts and portal areas. The blood indices showed insignificant reductions in vaccinated sheep whereas marked reductions were found in the Hb, PCV and RBC values in the control animals.

124. Hago, B.E.D, Mukhtar T. Abu-SamraA case of Multiceps gaigeri coenurosis in goat. Veterinary Parasitology, Volume 7, Issue 3, November 1980, Pages 191-194. A fatal case of Multiceps gaigeri coenurosis in a goat is described.

125. Hamid ME, Mohamed GE, Abu Samra MT, Hamad AA. First report of infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) among Nubian goats in Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1991;44(3):273-5. In a flock of 425 female and male Nubian goats in the Khartoum Province, an outbreak of a disease causing sudden death of 18 apparently

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healthy goats occurred (11 females and 7 males, 3-6 years old). Adult Fasciola gigantica were found in the livers of all goats and in seven of them Cysticercus tenuicollis cysts. These organs showed necrotic and severe histopathological changes. Clostridium novyi type B was isolated from necrotic areas of all livers and found to be highly pathogenic and toxigenic to laboratory animals. The disease was diagnosed as infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease). Faecal examination revealed the presence of F. gigantica eggs. Lymnaea natalensis snails were found to be prevalent in the water canals. As the Khartoum Province is regarded as an endemic area for black disease, routine vaccination is highly recommended for its control in goats and sheep.

126. Hamid Omer Bushara (1979). Studies on Resistance to Schistosoma bovis in Sudanese Cattle and Sheep Ph.D., University of Khartoum. Bovine schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma bovis constitutes a serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, However, there are no suitable drugs for its mass chemotherapy and it does not seem practicable to control it by molluscicides. This is because under the prevailing nomadic conditions, in the Sudan, cattle management is poor and animals migrate over large areas in search of grass and/or water. Such a situation encourages attempts towards immunological control. In the light of this, a collaborative project between the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Khartoum and the Department of Medica1 Helminthology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London has been designed to investigate the possibility of controlling bovine schistosomiasis in Sudanese cattle through vaccination. Within the bounds of this project, the other has carried out some experiments under laboratory and field conditions which have shown that this type of approach may be a practical possibility. Hence, it has been proven for the first time that Sudanese Zebu cattle living in a hyperenzootic area of S. bovis can acquire a striking degree of natural resistance to reinfection as manifested by their ability to almost completely withstand a cercaria1 challenge lethe1 to previously unexposed cattle. This resistance has been demonstrated by various clinical, parasito1ogica1, pathological and pathophysiological techniques; it's nature is, however, unknown and may involve some kinds of immunological mechanism e.g., lethal antibodies capable of killing most of the invading parasites; growth inhibition factor(s) causing stunting of the penetrating schistosomes and/or antioogenesis factor(s). Three laboratory immunisation experiments have also been incorporated in this thesis: these have been based exclusively

80

on the use of live vaccines since other forms of vaccination in schistosomiasis have so far been unsuccessful. These experiments have

shown that Sudanese cattle can be artificially protected against S. bovis

by prior exposure to a single dose of heterologous irradiated S. mansoni

cercariae; giving further evidence of cross protection between animal and human schistosomes, and emphasizing the importance of natural heterologous immunity. Sheep can be partially immunized against S. bovis by previously exposing them to irradiated homologous cercariae, and an even better protection against S. bovis has been induced in cattle by homologous S. bovis vaccines (either cercariae or schistosomula) irrespective of the number of immunising doses and the routes of immunization. The resistance engendered by such irradiated parasites has been shown to deve1op rather rapidly (more so in cattle than in sheep) appears to be long-lasting, and does not seem to require the presence of adult worms. The vaccinations lead to reduced faecal and tissue egg counts, decreased parasite numbers, reduced severity of clinical and pathological manifestations and improved condition of the vaccinated animals. It is also clear that vaccination in cattle is safe, no untoward clinical effects that can be attributed to vaccination being

recorded. The final part of this thesis constitutes the first study of its kind

to test an irradiated schistosomal vaccine under field conditions. Calves

vaccinated with a single intramuscular injection of 10,000 3krad irradiated schistosonula have been compared with non-vaccinated

controls in S. bovis enzootic area in the White Nile Province. The results again indicated that vaccination enables the animals to stand well to the natural challenges as reflected by their reduced faecal and tissue egg counts, fewer worm burdens and lighter pathology in comparison to their non-vaccinated counterparts. In conclusion, it appears that there are prospects for applying vaccination in the control of S. bovis. A description of the field study area and of the epizootiology of S. bovis can be seen in the attached paper entitled "Observations on the epizootiology of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in the White Nile Province, Sudan by A. A Majid, T. F. docMarshall, M .F Hussein, H. O. Bushara,

M .G. Taylor and G. S. Nelson".

127. Hamza Mohamed Ahmed Tola (1988). On the Seroepidemiology of Hydatid Disease in the Sudan. M.V.Sc, University of Khartoum. Various sero-epidemiological aspects of hydatid disease (hydatidosis

/echinococcosis) caused by Echinococcus granulosus, in some selected areas in the Sudan were investigated. High infection rates were obtained

in camels from Butana area (61.3%), Khartoum (415%) and 53.2% in

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Sudanese camels exported to Egypt. The average prevalence rate in camels was (56.4%). Prevalence rates in sheep and cattle, 2% and 2.1%, respectively were, also, recorded. The average infection rates in sheep in Butana area and in Khartoum were 3.4 and 2.6, respectively. Infection rates in cattle were 2.4% in Butana and 2% in Khartoum. The type, location and structure of the cysts were observed in the infected animals. Fertile cysts were the most common (59.8%) and in cysts from sheep the fertility rate obtained was 60.4%. Cysts from cattle were frequently extensively calcified (36.4%) and the role of cattle in the disease cycle and serology seemed to be negligible. The majority of cysts collected from the different areas were of moncystic growth with thin transluscent wall and laminated layer. Large size cysts (up to 20 cm. in diameter) were reencountered in camel', while in sheep and cattle the average size was 5 cm in diameter The normal intensity of infection was 1 or 2 cysts/animal but multiple infections (with more cysts/animal) were also observed. The predilection sites of hydatid cyst in camel, sheep and in cattle were found to be the lung, the liver (more than 80%) and less frequently in other organs. An incidence rate of about 1.2 per 100,000 was observed in human population in Khartoum Province. A total of 20 cysts were removed from 14 patients. The liver, the lung and the peritoneum were the most common predilection sites. Most of the cysts (60%) were fertile and monocystic growth was common more than 68% of the patients were male and 68% were adult patients. The majority of the patients were from rural areas. They came to Khartoum from southern region (6 cases), eastern region (3 cases), northern region (2 cases) western region (2 cases) and only one patient was from Khartoum town. Highly sensitive (=reactive) camel HCF antigens were prepared, characterized and successfully applied. The semi-crude camel HCF antigen was selected as the antigen of choice with optimal dilution of 1:5; and 20-25 µg N2/ml (protein level) were the optimal conditions for maximum sensitivity (reactivity) of the antigen. The efficiency of serological tests in detecting echinococcal antibodies in the infected sheep, camel and human patients was determined. The IRA test showed varying sensitivity of 80% in human, 85.6% in camel and a very low rate (6%) in sheep. LA test showed sensitivity of about 68% in human, 69% in camels and 6% in sheep. LA test was of greater specificity, compared to IHA test. Field surveys, applying IHA and LA tests revealed infection rates of 63% in camels and 6% in sheep applying IHA test; and 38% in camels and 16% in sheep when applying LA test. IHA and LA tests gave an acceptable sensitivity and specificity especially if combined, for both

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routine diagnosis as well as for field surveys to detect human, sheep and camels echinococcosis (hydatidosis).

128. Hanan A.M. Karar; Abdalla, H.S and. Elowni, E. E. Prevalence Rate of Ascaridia galli in some poultry farms in Khartoum State, Sudan. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2005), 20: 55-60. In this study, 760 intestines of slaughtered commercial exotic and indigenous chickens were examined during the period April-October, 2000. The chickens originated from poultry farms at El Bageir, Hillat Kuku, El Hag Yousif, El Gereif East, Shambat and El Halfaya and Bahri market. Out of these 760 intestines, 250(32.89%) were infected with Ascaridia galli (A. galli). The prevalence rate was 46.53% and 10.18%

in the exotic and indigenous chickens, respectively. This indicated that

the overall prevalence rate was high.

129. Hanan D. Mohammed Ahmed; EL Owni, E. E. and Susan F. Ali.

New Reports for Some Intermediate Hosts of Poultry Tapeworms in Khartoum State. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2006). 21: 45-51.

A search for natural intermediate hosts for poultry cestodes was carried

out during 2000-2001 in poultry houses at Elhalfaya and Shambat localities in Khartoum State. Four species of beetles were found carrying cysticercoides infections. Two of them namely Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Anthicus formicarius (Coleoptera:

Anthicidae) were infected with Choanotaenia infundibulum cysticercoid whereas the other two, Carcinops troglodytes (Coleoptera: Histeridae) and Hypocalccas praecox (Coleoptera: Histeridae), were found harbouring Raillietina cesticillus cysticercoids. No cysticercoids were encountered in adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

or

Musca domestica larvae (Diptera: Muscidae). This is the first record

of

Anthicus formicarius, Carcinops troglodytes and Hypocalccas praecox

as intermediate hosts for Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina cesticillus.

130. Hanan Dafalla Mohammed Ahmed (2003). Establishment Studies of the life cycle of Raillietina cesticillus, Choanotaenia infundibulum and Hymenolepis carioca. M.V.Sc. University of Khartoum. Establishment of the life cycle of three cestodes Raillietina cesticillus,Choanotaenia infundibulum and Hymenolepis carioca was studied in three insects that act as intermediate hosts, namely Tribolium castaneum, Alphitobius diaperinus and Musca domestica and in white Leghorn chicks, the definitive host. Insects were experimentally infected with gravid segments of the three cestodes. White Leghorn chicks were reared in insect- proof cages and experimentally infected with

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cysticercoids previously established in adult T. castaneum and A. diaperinus. In a field study, 1205 different insects collected in Shambat and Elhalfaya in Khartuom North, were dissected to determine their natural infection with poultry cestodes. Raillietina cesticillus, C. infundibulum and H. carioca established in adult T. castaneum whereas C. infundibulum was the only tapeworm that established in adult and larvae of A. diaperinus. Nevertheless, R. cesticillus and C. infundibulum did not established in M. domestica larvae. R. cesticillus had the highest infectivity to T. castaneum compared to the other tapeworms. Raillietina cesticillus, C. infundibulum and H. carioca established in white Leghorn chicks. Age of the cysticercoid and type of intermediate host in addition to the procedure of administering the infection affected their establishment. Search for natural intermediate hosts for poultry cestodes in the field revealed the presence of four species of beetles carrying meta- cestode infection. Two of the beetles, Anthicus formicarius and A. diaperinus, were found infected with C. infundibulum whereas the other two, Hypocalcculus praecox and Carcinops troglodytes, were found harbouring R. cesticillus cysticercoids. No metacestodal infection was found in adult T. castaneum or M. domestica larvae. This is the first record of A. formicarius, H. praecox and C. troglodytes as intermediate hosts for C. infundibulum and R.cesticillus in the Sudan. It is concluded that the present findings contribute to the understanding of the properties of some experimental models e.g. C. infundibulum in A. diaperinus, R. cesticillus in T. castaneum and H. carioca in T. castaneum that can be used in several fundamental investigations (chemotherapy, immunology etc.). Immune mechanism of the insect may be an essential factor that reduces the infectivity of C. infundibulum cysticercoids developed in A. diaperinus. The nature of this reaction requires further investigations. It is recommended that for the purpose of control of these cestodes it is essential to manage their potential intermediate host(s). 131. Haroun E M, A.A. Elsanhouri, A.A. Gameel. (1989). Response of goats to repeated infections with Fasciola gigantica. Veterinary Parasitology, 30 (4) : 287-296. One or two mature primary infections with Fasciola gigantica which had been removed by anthelmintic treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of flukes recovered from challenge infection as compared with that from controls. Characteristic lesions of fascioliasis were seen in the livers of the 3 groups, however, goats with two primary abbreviated infections prior to challenge showed more severe lesions than those of animals with one primary abbreviated infection or those of

84

challenge controls. The former group also showed the highest serum glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase peaks following challenge infections and pulmonary fascioliasis was encountered in one of the goats of this group. Haemoglobin concentration and packed-cell volume decreased after infection in the three groups of goats.

132. Haroun E M, George V. Hillyer. (1986). Resistance to fascioliasis. A review. Veterinary Parasitology, 20, (13): 63-93. Attempts to actively stimulate or passively transfer resistance to Fasciola hepatica or F. gigantica in various laboratory and farm animals including mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, goats and cattle have been reviewed. These attempts comprised sensitization by primary homologous or heterologous normal or irradiated infections per os, sensitization by subcutaneous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal implantation with the various fluke stages, sensitization by somatic extracts or metabolic products of mature or immature flukes and passive transfer of resistance by immune serum or sensitized lymphocytes.

133. Haroun E. M., Haga A/Gadir and A. A. Gameel. (1986). Studies on naturally-occurring ovine fascioliasis in the Sudan. Journal of Helminthology, 60 (1): 47-53. Haematological, biochemical and pathological changes were investigated in 214 sheep naturally infected with Fasciola gigantica in an endemic area in the Sudan together with 82 uninfected controls. Infected animals showed a clear decrease in erythrocyte counts, haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume, a normochromic, normocytic anaemia, leucocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum concentrations of the enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and glutamate oxaloacetic acid transaminase were also elevated in the infected group, indicating hepatic damage. This was confirmed by histopathological changes, which comprised degenerative and necrotic changes in hepatocytes associated with haemorrhage, fibrosis, increased lobulation of the liver, mononuclear cell infiltration with haemosiderin deposition in fluke tracks and portal areas and the formation of granulomata around fluke eggs and fluke remnants. In the infected group there was slight hyperglobulinaemia and a marked hypoalbuminaemia, with a decrease in A/G ratio. A slight rise in the level of serum bilirubin was also observed.

134. Haroun EM, Elsanhouri AA, Gameel AA. (1989). Response of goats to repeated infections with Fasciola gigantica. Veterinary

Parasitology;30(4):287-96.

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One or two mature primary infections with Fasciola gigantica which had been removed by anthelmintic treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of flukes recovered from challenge infection as compared with that from controls. Characteristic lesions of fascioliasis were seen in the livers of the 3 groups, however, goats with two primary abbreviated infections prior to challenge showed more severe lesions than those of animals with one primary abbreviated infection or those of challenge controls. The former group also showed the highest serum glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase peaks following challenge infections and pulmonary fascioliasis was encountered in one of the goats of this group. Haemoglobin concentration and packed-cell volume decreased after infection in the three groups of goats. 135. Haroun EM, Hillyer GV. (1988). Cross-resistance between Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica in sheep. J Parasitol.;

74(5):790-5.

Five sheep were exposed to 5,000 S. mansoni cercariae percutaneously and the stools examined for 20 wk to determine patency. The sheep were found to be partially susceptible to a primary infection and showed great individual variations in their pathophysiological responses. All of the sheep acquired a patent infection with S. mansoni and eggs were first seen in feces 9 wk postexposure with no eggs detected after 14 wk. At necropsy 20 wk postexposure only dead S. mansoni worms were found. KOH digests revealed that tissue egg counts were low, ranging from 0 to 133 in the liver, and 0 to 257 in the intestine. Primary infection of sheep with S. mansoni followed by oral infection with F. hepatica metacercariae 10 wk later resulted in a reduction of 51% in F. hepatica worms recovered over controls infected with F. hepatica for 10 wk. All 5 of the S. mansoni-infected/F. hepatica-challenged sheep developed 71 or less F. hepatica worms. In contrast, 3 of the 5 F. hepatica-infected sheep developed 113-197 worms. However, although the experimental mean worm burden was lower than the control group, the variability in the control group was too great to obtain significance between the groups. There was a clear tendency toward normocytic normochromic anemia following a primary infection with S. mansoni; however, blood values were more reduced in the F. hepatica challenge controls than in the animals that received primary infection with S. mansoni. 136. Haroun EM, Hussein MF. (1975). Clinico-pathological studies on naturally-occurring bovine fascioliasis in the Sudan. Journal of

Helminthology;49(3):143-52.

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An investigation was made of the pathological, haematological and biochemical aspects of naturally-occurring bovine fascioliasis in the Sudan. 228 animals infected with Fasciola gigantica and 25 non-infected controls were used in the study. The infected cattle revealed emaciation, typical liver pathology, and, occasionally, lesions in the lung and the pancreas. Analysis of their sera also showed reduced albumin values, increased globulin concentrations and decrease albumin/globulin ratio, in addition to increased arginase activity. The serum iron concentration, on the other hand, was decreased, while the total iron binding capacity increased and the resultant iron saturation values reduced. Haematological findings in the infected animals included reduced erythrocyte counts, decreased haematocrit values, increased mean corpuscular volumes, eosinophilia and decreased neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Other parameters were similar in infected and control cattle.

137. Haroun EM, Hussein MF. (1976). Some clinico-pathological aspects of experimental Fasciola gigantica infection in calves. J

Helminthol.;50(1):29-30.

No abstract available.

138. Haroun EM; Ali., M.A.M.; Abd El Razig Y.M. and A.A. Gameel (1991). Epidemiological Studies on Fascioliasis in Central and Western Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. Vol. 30 (1): 51- 56. Surveys carried out in the white Nile and Southern Darfur provinces in central and western Sudan showed that Lymnaea natalensis population and infection rate follow a seasonal pattern in the localities endemic with fascioliasis. In the White Nile area, more snails were found in the swamps and small canals compared with the main canals and the white Nile River. In Southern Darfur province, however L. natalensis was found only in Gebel Marra area where permanent swamps or small streams exist. L. natalensis was not found in Bahr el Arab area in Southern Darfur. In both provinces, population densities and infection rates of L. natalensis were higher during the dry season than the rest of the year. Tracer calves surveys in both provinces showed that bovine fascioliasis occur throughout the year with peak incidence rates during the rain season.

139. Haroun, E.M. (1975). Studies on bovine Fascioliasis in the Sudan with particular reference to the White Nile Province, M.V.Sc. U. of

K.

No abstract available.

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140. Haroun, E.M., Yagi, A.I., Younis, S.A., El Sanhouri, A.A., Gadir, H.A., Gameel, A.A., Bushara, H.O. and Taylor, M.G. (1988) Use of ionizing radiation in the developmentof vaccines against Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma bovis in Sudanese cattle, sheep and goats. In: Nuclear Techniques in the Study and Control of Parasitic Diseases of Livestock. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 121. No abstract available.

141. Higazi, T.B; Younis, S.A; and Mukhtar, M.M. (1999). A Comparative Study of Protein and Antigen Profiles of Onchocerca gutturosa and Onchocerca volvulus Isolates from Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 38 (1&2):

124- 130. Fourty four isolates of Onchocerca gutturosa female worms and one Onchocerca volvulus isolate were separately collected and extracte by physical homogenization followed by freeze-thawing, and by partial enzymatic digestion. The lysate were electrophoretically separated on 12.5% SDS PAGE and stained with Commassie Brilliant Blue to compare their protein profiles. All Onchocerca guturosa isolates had identical protein profiles that differed from O. volvulus profile. Twenty protein bands were detectable in the lysate with Mwt between 12.5 to 130 kd. Immunoblotting of selected lysate with human hyperimmune sera showed identical reactions and the human sera reacted more intensely.

142. Husna M. El Bashir; Saadia A. Younis; Zakia A.Mohammed; Fayza A.Omer; Osman, A. Y and Elmansoury, Y. H. The Effect of Chloroquine, Ivermectin and Artemether on some Haematological Indices and Histopathological Changes in Zebu Calves Naturally Infected with Onchocerca gutturosa. The Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2007). 22: 1-10. In the present study, some haematological indices and histopathological changes were investigated in male zebu calves naturally infected with Onchocerca gutturosa (O.guttursosa), and medicated with either Ivermectin, Chloroquine or Artemether. Their administration had no significant effect on Haemoglobin concentration (Hb %), packed cell volume (PCV) and total white blood cells (WBCs) count (P>0.05). However, there was an increase in the circulating eosinophils due to the death of microfilariae (mf) following treatments. Sections of skin before treatment revealed active cellular reactions due to the presence of microfilariae. These reactions were more intense after treatment and the

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subsequent death of dermal mf. No adverse side effects were observed in the treated calves.

143. Husna,M El Bashir., Osman, AY., Saadia A Younis., and El Sinnary KA (1998). In vitro effect of two antimalarial compounds, on Onchocerca gutturosa. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 15: 7-

14.

This study was designed to provide additional information about the possible filaricidal effects of two antimalarial compounds (Chloroquine phosphate and Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) compared to known filaricidal compounds (Ivermectin and Diethylcarbamazine) using adult males and microfilariae of Onchocerca gutturosa in vitro. Drug efficacy was determined in Tyrode , s medium at pH of 7-7.4 and supplemented with 100iu/ml penicillin and 100µg/ml strptomycine. The two drugs produced a decrease in parasite motility and an increase in mortality rate in a concentration and time dependent fashion (r > 0.9). Similar results were obtaine with Ivermectin on adult males and microfilariae and diethylcarbamazine on microfilariae only. From the lethal concentration values (Lc 99). Chloroquine was found to be the most potent drug used, followed by ivermectin. Sulfadoxine and diethylcarbamazine. Adult males appeared to be more susceptible to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, and ivermectin than microfilariae.

144. Husna, M. El Bashir., Osman, AY., Saadia A Younis., and El Sinnary KA (1996). In vitro maintenance of adult males and

microfilariae of Onchocerca gutturosa under different physical and chemical conditions. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 14: 61-

66.

The survival of Onchocerca gutturosa adult males and microfilariae was

found to be dependent on both the pH and temperarure when the parasites were incubated in Tyrods solution, Phosphate Buffer Saline, Hank , s Buffer Salt solution, Normal Saline or PRMI 1640. All adult worms survived normally for 7 days at a pH of 7-7.4 and at either room temperature 37C. At this pH, the survival of microfilariae in various media on day 7 was ranged between 83-93% and 55-85% at 22-27 0 C and 37 0 C respectively. At 4 0 C the survival of both adult and microfilariae was markedly reduced regardless of the pH or the media used.

145. Hussein HS, Arzoun IH, Hussein MF. (1985). Haemonchus longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 in goats in the Sudan. J

Helminthol.;59(1):79-81.

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Haemonchus longistipes specimens were collected from experimentally infected Sudanese goats and camels for morphological studies. The specimens from goats were much smaller than those from camels, but their infectivity to camels was not affected by their passage in goats. Goats inhabiting the same areas as camels in the Sudan were found to be naturally infected with H. longistipes, but sheep were not and were resistant to experimental infection.

146. Hussein HS, Atta el Mannan AM, el Sinnary K. (1988). Onchocerca armillata Railliet and Henry, 1909 and Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann, 1910) in camels (Camelus dromedarius L.) in the Sudan. Vet Res Commun.;12(6):475-80.

A study undertaken to determine the Onchocerca species infecting

camels that live in the same localities as cattle in the Dinder Region, Blue Nile Province, Sudan revealed concurrent infections with the bovine parasites Onchocerca armillata in the thoracic aorta, brachiocephalic trunks and brachial arteries and Onchocerca gutturosa in the ventral side of the lamellar parts of the ligamentum nuchae. The

microfilariae of both species had the same predilection sites in the skin

of the ears, head and neck regions. Those of O. gutturosa outnumber

those of O. armillata but both are smaller than the respective uterine microfilariae. Males and microfilariae of both species are smaller than

those of cattle origin.

147. Hussein HS, El Sammani SE (1990). Onchocerca raillieti: release from skin snips, maintenance in vitro and periodicity of microfilariae. Vet Res Commun.;14(1):31-9. Several media were tested for the release of Onchocerca raillieti microfilariae from skin snips and for their subsequent in vitro maintenance. Tyrode's solution containing 20% equine serum and antibiotics was the best medium tested, followed by phosphate buffered

saline. Tyrode's solution alone or distilled water were poor media. A temperature 7-12 degrees C lower than the host's body temperature favoured release of the microfilariae from skin snips. The microfilariae were best maintained at 4-10 degrees C, when they remained alive for up

to 5 days. O. raillieti microfilariae had an evening periodicity which

could be related to a possible vector's peak of feeding activity.

148. Hussein HS., and El Sammani SE, (1983). Morphological studies on Onchocerca raillieti Bain Muller, Khamis Gullhon and Schilihorn Van Veen, 1976 from Sudanese donkeys. Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 24(1&2):35-42.

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Onchocerca raillieti from Sudanese donkeys, though different in predilection site, is similar to the original description of the species. Males are superficialy located and it is easy to remove complete specimens, while female occur in deep fibrous capsules intricately enmeshed with the tissues and difficult to extract. The taxonomic status of the worm was discussed and its morphological features were compared to other striated Onchocerca species.

149. Hussein M. F., A. A. Saeed & G. S. Nelson (1970). Heterologous Schistosome Immunity in Cattle. Bull. World Hlth Org. 429: 745-

749.

Previous studies have shown that when mice and monkeys are infected with bovine schistosomes they develop a considerable degree of heterologous immunity against subsequent challenge with Schistosoma mansoni. The present report describes a study on the reverse effect in which calves were first exposed to cercariae of S. mansoni and then challenged with cercariae of S. mattheei. The calves developed patent infections with S. mansoni, excreting viable eggs in the faeces, and it is suggested that cattle may be a source of infection to man under natural conditions. The immunizing effect of exposure to S. mansoni was demonstrated by a reduction in the S. mattheei egg load and adult worm burden in the immunized, as compared with the control, animals. The results suggest that previous exposure ofcattle to S. mansoni may reduce the severity ofbovine schistosomiasis in endemic areas.

150. Hussein M. F., H. O. Bushara and K. E. Ali (1976). The pathology of experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in sheep. Journal of Helminthology, Vol: 50 (4), 235-241. Five desert sheep were exposed to 5000 or 10000 Schistosoma bovis cercariae each, and the parasitological, clinical and pathological parameters were recorded. The pre-patent period was approximately 7 weeks and from that time onwards, the animals became progressively ill and emaciated. Following necropsy at the 12th week, a percentage schistosome recovery ranging from 36%63.6% was found, and there were high egg densities in the intestinal tract and the liver. These organs revealed severe pathological lesions which were described in detail along with the changes occurring in other tissues.

151. Hussein MF (1980). Prospects for the control of Schistosoma bovis infection in Sudanese cattle. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.;74(5):559-

60.

No abstract available.

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152. Hussein MF and Haroun EM. (1976).The pathology of pulmonary and pancreatic fascioliasis in cattle. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 17:60-67. In 5 Sudanese cattle which were heavily infected with Fasciola gigantica, flukes and their eggs were found within large fibrosed and partly calcified nodules in the lungs. These lesions were heavily infiltrated by eosinophils and surrounded by connective tissue capsules. Besides, the lungs showed various other lesions e.g., bronchitis and peribronchitis, interstitial thickening, oedema, focal collapse, emphysema and diffuse eosinophilic infiltration. Patchily distributed areas of atypical interstitial pneumonia were also seen in 4 of these animals; these were indicated by alveolar epithelialization, septal fibrosis and accumulation of numerous , large phagocytes within the alveolar lumina. In one animal, the pancreas also showed a nodule containing flukes and eggs. The whole organ was greatly fibrosed and atrophied, showing parenchymal degeneration, diffuse infiltration of eosinophils and giant cells and multiple foci of fat necrosis.

153. Hussein MF, Haroun EM. Pulmonary fascioliasis in Sudanese cattle. Br Vet J. 1977 May-Jun; 133 (3):316-7. No abstract available.

154. Hussein MF, Nur OA, Gassouma MS, Nelson GS. (1975). Onchocerca gutturosa (Neumann, 1910) infection in Sudanese cattle. Br Vet J.;131(1):76-84. No abstract available.

155. Hussein MF., Ali KE., Gameel AA., and Bushara HO (1976). Some aspects of helminth immunity. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 16( 2):58-66. No abstract.

156. Hussein, M. F. 1972. Preliminary observations on the use of the indirect fluorescent antibody technique in the diagnosis of bovine schistosomiasis. Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol 9: 21-26. No abstract available.

157. Hussein, M. F., Taylor, M. G. and Dargie, J. D., 1981. Pathogenesis and immunology of ruminant schistosomiasis in the Sudan. In:

Isotopes and Radiation in Parasitology IV. 75-82. IAEA, Vienna. No abstract available.

158. Ibrahim K, Thomas R, Peter K, Omer RA. A molecular survey on cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state (Sudan). Chin Med J (Engl). 2011 Sep;124(18):2829-33.

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Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD). Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan. A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species. The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2 - 5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were > 5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2 - 5 years and > 5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5 - 7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2 - 4 cm) and small (< 2 cm) respectively. The highest fertility rate was found in camel cysts with 85.4% (35/41) followed by cattle (50.0%, 32/64) and sheep (39.0%, 11/28). All examined cysts belonged to Echinococcus canadensis G6, which was confirmed to be the overwhelmingly predominant species in that area. The epidemiological situation in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state is characterized by intense transmission of Echinococcus canadensis G6, thereby closely resembling the situation in most other regions of Sudan.

159. Ibrahim K., Romig T., Kern P., and Omer RA, (2013). A molecular survey on Echinococcosis in dogs in Sennar and Blue Nile States, Sudan. 25th World Congress of Echinococcosis, Khortoum , Sudan , November 2013.

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A survey of echinococcosis in dogs was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. A total of 130 fecal samples from stray and semi stray dogs around Sinnar and Singa slaughterhouses were collected randomly. These samples were identified by the experience technicians who collected the samples recognized the species of mammal that had excreted each sample, based particularly on morphology, color and the footprints or tracks left by dogs on the soil. Some fecal samples collected immediately after defecation. All faecal samples collected during study were frozen at -80˚C for two weeks to kill infectious eggs. Taeniid egg were recovered from feces by zinc chloride and lysed in 10μl of 0.02 N NaoH at 95˚C for 10 min and used directly as a template for PCR. Identification and characterization of genotypes and species of Echinococcus was done using a new method for differentiation of the known Echinococcus species which are endemic in Africa, with subsequent digestion of the amplification products with the restriction enzyme (Hph1). Out of 130 fecal samples which were examined microscopically, 91(70%) found to be harbored taeniide eggs. And the average number of eggs/1gm of fecal sample/animal was 3.3. DNA was isolated from a total of 180 eggs obtained from the 91 faecal samples in which taeniid eggs were found. 51 of these samples (56%) showed a digestive pattern similar to that of E.canadensis (G6) when digested with the (Hph1). Sequencing of partial cox 1 and nad 1 genes of five samples showed 100% homology with the (camel strain) G6 of E.canadensis when compared with data on GenBank® (Accession No. 208063). From this study we concluded that the epidemiological situation in Sinnar and Blue Nile States is characterized by intense transmission of E. Canadensis (G6). 160. Ibtisam A Goraish, Abdelsalam EB, Tartour G. Susceptibility to homologous reinfection with Fasciola gigantica in goats. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1991;44(1):69-73. Goats previously infected with 100 viable Fasciola gigantica metacercariae and treated with rafoxanide (Ranide, 7.5 mg/kg) at week 4 were not protected against subsequent homologous challenge with 250 metacercariae administered two weeks later. Reinfection resulted in more severe hepatic lesions and a higher percentage of flukes recovered as compared with primarily infected controls. However, the size of flukes originating from the second (challenge) infection was considerably reduced. The plasma enzyme activity of aspartate amino- transferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SD) increased to a similar extent with primary and

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challenge infections. However, the plasma antibody response to F. gigantica was less pronounced in reinfected goats.

161. Ibtisam A Goraish., AbdElsalam, E B., Tartour, G. The effect of Levamezole (L.Tetramezole) treatment on the susceptibility to Fasciola gigantica infection in goats (1988). Treatment on the susceptibility to Fasciola gigantica infection in goats. Revue Elev. Méd. vét. Pays trop., 1988, 41 (3) : 283-287. The repeated administration of a total of six weekly doses of levamisole (L. tetramisole, 7.5 mg/kg S/C) was found to increase the resistance to Fasciola gigantica infection in goats. The increased resistance was refaxed by reduced worm recovery at necropsy and by the development of less severe hepatic lesions. Elevation of the plasma enzyme activity associated with Fasciola-induced liver damage was less marked at levamisole-treated goats. Levamisole treatment was also associated with a higher antibody response against Fasciola gigantica infection.

162. Ibtisam A Goraish; Abdelsalam, E.B. and Tartour, G. (1991).The Prospect of vaccination with gamma irradiated metacercariae against F. gigantica infection in goats. Acta-Veterinaria-Beagrad, 41(1): 69-72. No abstract available.

163. Ibtisam A Goraish; Abdelslam E B; and Tartour G (1995). Study on the existence of cross resistance between Schistosoma bovis and Fasciola gigantica in Nubian goat. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry vol. 34 (1&2): 106-112. The susceptibility of Nubian goats to the experimental infection with Fasciola gigantica was investigated in connection with cross infection with Schistosoma bovis. The resistance was assessed by the number and size of worms’ recovered at necropsy and by the extent of liver damage and sequential changes in serum enzyme activity in infected goats. The results showed that cross infection with 100 S. bovis cercariae was found to induce substantial resistance to heterologous challenge with F. gigantica. No evidence of resistance was obtained by cross- infection with 500 S. bovis cercariae.

164. Ibtisam A. Goraish; Williams, D. J.; McGarry, J.; Abdel Salam, E. B.; Majid, A. M. and Mukhtar, M. M. Protein Profile of Fasciola gigantica Antigens Sudan J. Vet. Res. (2008), 23:1-9. Fasciola gigantica proteins were extracted from its somatic (SO) and excretorysecretary (E/S) products and analyzed for studying their protein structures that could further be used for detection of its immunoreactive proteins. These proteins can be used for early diagnosis of the disease

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and development of a protective vaccine. Separation of both parasite products by SDS-PAGE resulted in protein bands of different molecular weights. The execretory/secretory products (E/S) contained fewer bands compared to the somatic extracts (SO). Dominant bands for both SO and E/S products were clustered between 11, 27 and 30 Kda. Major bands of 44, 55 and 66 Kda were observed in E/S products. The protein bands clustered between 11, 27 and 30 Kda contain the major enzymes that could play important biological and immunemodulatory functions in juvenile and adult parasites such as saponin-like protein family (FSAP- 2), cysteine proteinases, glutathione-S-transferase and haemoglobinase. These proteins can be considered as possible vaccine candidates for the disease control.

165. Ibtisam A. Goreish; Williams, D. J.; McGarry, J.; Abdel Salam, E. B.; Majid, A. M. and Mukhtar, M.M. (2009). Identification of Some Immunogenic Proteins of Fasciola gigantica using Immunoblotting Technique. Sudan J. vet. Res. 24: 5-10. Fasciola gigantica antigens were extracted from the somatic (SO) and excretory secretary (E/S) products and analyzed for detection of immunoreactive proteins that could be used for early diagnosis and development of a protective vaccine. SDS-PAGE resulted in protein bands of different molecular weights in both parasite products. The SO extracts and E/S products of F. gigantica were then probed by Western blotting technique using immune sera from naturally and experimentally infected cattle for identification of immunoreactive antigenic components. Polypeptides between 27 and 30 KDa were identified by the sera of all infected animals in both parasite products. Proteins of 44, 50, 60, 100 or 120 KDa were also detected in E/S products with 5 8 weeks post infection antisera.

166. Ibtisam Amin Goraish (1988). Studies on the Susceptibility to Fasciola gigantica Infection in Goats with Special Reference to Levamisole Treatment. M.V.Sc., University of Khartoum. The susceptibility of Nubian goats to the experimental infection with Fasciola gigantica was investigated in connection with primary infection, reinfection, cross infection with Schistosoma bovis and vaccination with F. gigantica-irradiated metaceraariae. Immunomodulatory effect of Levamisole (L-tetramisle) was also evaluated on the primarily infected animals and with vaccination with irradiated cysts. The results showed that repeated administration of a total of 6 weekly doses of Levamisole (7.5 mg/Kg s/c) has considerably increased resistance to the primary infection with the parasite. The

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resistance was assessed by the number and size of worms’ recovered at necropsy and by the extent of liver damage and sequential changes in serum enzyme activity in infected goats. The percentage recovery of the liver flukes was reduced from 27.3% in infected animal to 8.9% in Levamisole treated goats. The previous infection with 100 viable F. gigantica metacercariae, treated with Ranide at 4 week of age was not found to induce any degree of resistance to homologous challenge with a further 250 metacercariae. The number of worms recovered was greater in the liver of reinfected goats although the size of flukes originating from the second infection was considerably reduced. In addition, the F. gigantica induced hepatic lesions were more severe in reinfected goats. Cross-infection with 1000 S. bovis cercariae was found to induce substantial resistance to heterologous challenge with F. gigantica. However, no evidence of resistance was found by cress infection with 500 S. bovis cercariae. Previous administration of 250 irradiated F. gigantica metacercariae (3- krad) was found to produce partial resistance to homologous challenge with the same number of viable cysts. More than 44% reduction of the parasitic burden was produced by the irradiated metacercariae vaccine when given 4 weeks before challenge. However, the combined treatment with Levamisole was not found to alter efficiency of the irradiated vaccine. It was concluded that goats are probably similar to sheep in their higher susceptibility to fascioliasis and reduced ability to acquire sufficient resistance to reinfection. 167. Ibtsaim Amin Goreish (2002). Molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica antigens for diagnostic purposes and future development of a candidate vaccine. Ph.D. University of Khartoum. Fasciola gigantica antigens were extracted from the somatic (SO) and excretory-secretary (E/S) products and analyzed for detection of immunreactive proteins that could be used for early diagnosis and establishment of protective vaccine. Molecular techniques were further applied for identification of the parasite and differentiation between different species and strains. Separation of the parasite products by Sodium dodecyle sulphate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-P AGE) resulted in protein bands of different molecular weights in both parasite products, but the E/S products had fewer bands compared to SO extracts. Dominant bands for both SO and E/S products were clustered between 27 and 30 KDa. Major bands of 44, 55 and 66 KDa were also observed in E/S products. The SO extracts and E/S products of F. gigantica were then probed by western blotting with immune serum from naturally and experimentally infected cattle for identification of

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immunoreactive antigenic components. Polypeptides between 27 and 30 KDa were identified by serum of all infected animals in both parasite products. Also, protein of 44, 50, 60, 100 or 120 KDa was detection in E/S produces of 5 -8 weeks post infection. Enzyme -liked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was further used for monitoring serum antibody response in naturally and experimentally infected cattle using SO extracts and E/S products as antigens. A higher antibody response was obtained with E/S products than with SO extracts. The results, thus, confirmed that E/S products contain highly immunogenic proteins and, therefore, they should be used for early diagnosis. The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for identification of the parasite and determination of the DNA polymorphism within the same and different species. A noticeable difference in the banding profile of the PCR products was observed between F. giganica (5 bands) and F. hepatica (3 bands). However, additional two bands were also observed in the amplified DNA of some F. gigantica flukes. The presence of these bands may well reflect the co- existence of different strains of the parasite. The results indicated that RAPD is a reliable technique for identification and differentiation between different Fasciola species and strains.

168. Idris A, Adam SE, Tartour G.The anthelmintic efficacy of d.l. tetramisole against Haemonchus contortus infection in goats. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1984;37(2):165-74. No abstract available.

169. Imad Eldein El Amin El Tahir Aradeib (1988). Serologic Studies on Bovine Schistosomiasis. M. V. Sc., University of Khartoum. Bovine schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma bovis is one of the major veterinary problems in the Sudan. However, little is known in relation to the immunodiagnosis of the disease in domestic animals. In the present investigation, three experiments were carried out using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to study the immune response of calves against S. bovis. In the first experiment, 10 calves were immunized with schistosomula of S. bovis irradiated at 3 or 20 krad and three calves were kept as controls. Twenty-four weeks post immunization, three calves from the 20 krad group and two from the 3 krad (group) were challenged with normal cercariae of S. bovis. The immune response was monitored by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and the ELISA using adult worm antigen (AWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA). By AGID test precipitin lines were observed only with sera from challenged animals when AWA was used. Using ELISA, the

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immune response was first detected by the second week, peaking at 4-6 weeks post vaccination. Higher ELISA results were obtained with AWA than SEA in all vaccinated animals. The immune response of the three challenged calves was elevated 2 weeks post challenge, peaking at 8-10 weeks post challenge and remained high throughout the experimental period (3 months post challenge). In the second part of the study, zebu

calves were immunized with a purified 28 kilodaiton antigen (P28), from

S. mansoni, expressed in E. coli (P28-coli) and yeast (P28-yeast). The

control groups were injected with E. coli and yeast extract. The kinetics of antibody response was monitored by western blot and ELISA. BY

western blot, antisera from calves immunized with P28-coli or P28- yeast recognized a protein band at molecular weight of 28 kilodalton 3 weeks after the first immunization. Using ELISA, the antibody response of P28-coli immunized calves against the homologous antigen was first detected by day 21 from the first immunization, peaking by day 30, declining, slowly and remained significantly higher than the controls throughout the study period. A similar trend with characteristically lower absorbance values was obtained when the heterologous antigen (P28- yeast) was used. The immune response of P28-yeast vaccinated calves detected by day 21 after the first immunization, peaking by day 52 and remained significantly higher than the controls throughout the experiment (day 108). Also it has been concluded that P23 has no diagnostic potential in the ELISA for immunodiagnosis of experimental infection with S. bovis. In the third part of the study, two groups of calves were vaccinated with either whole eggs or adult worm antigens of Schist soma bovis emulsified in Freund’s Adjuvant. These vaccinated calves together, with a control group were challenged with 20,000 cercariae of S. bovis percutaneously. The immune response which developed was monitored by Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By AGID precipitin lines were first observed at 4 weeks from the first immunization in group D when AWA antigen was used. However, no precipitin line was observed when sera from calves in group A or C were used. In ELISA, both AWA and SEA produced antibody response. The results obtained showed no significant difference between all the groups as judged by faecal and tissue egg counts and worm recovery. This indicates failure of vaccination with crude antigen prepared from adult worms and eggs of

S. bovis to induce resistance against S. bovis challenge. Hence the

antibody response detected in the ELISA seemed to have no correlation

with protection.

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170. Iman Elnour Mohamed Nurelhuda (1987). The Efficacy of Various Anthelmintics against Chicken Tapeworm. M.V.Sc., University of Khartoum. The efficacy of the three compounds Niclosamide (Yomesan), Oxfendazole (Systamex), Praziquantel (Droncit) were tested against immature and mature poultry tapeworm Raillietina tetragona. All experiments were conducted using the controlled test of Moskey and Harwood (1941). This test has been advocated to be the most reliable for screening the anathematic activity of drugs. Niclosamide at 100 mg/kg b.wt caused only destrobilation of the immature and mature worms. However, the intact scolices would regenerate another body within 7-10 days. Thus, Niclosamide is unsatisfactory for radical treatment of poultry tapeworm. Oxfendazole was tried for the first time against poultry cestodes. The minimal dose of the drug which produced 100% efficacy against immature R. tetragona in chicken was 10 mg/kg, where the same effect on mature forms was 7.5 mg/kg. Lower doses than 10 mg/kg produced very variable effects against immature forms, whereas doses higher than 10 mg/kg eliminated all worms. Mature worms, however, responded to a lesser variable degree when exposed to doses lower than 7.5 mg/kg. No report before our present studies is available on the efficacy of Praziquantel against poultry cestodes. In this study, it was found that, both immature and mature worms were completely killed by Praziquantel at all doses tested, i.e. 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.5 mg/kg b.wt.

171. Inas A E and Magzoub M (2009). Validation of the efficacy of different floatation solutions for the identification of nematode eggs in camel (Camelus dromedaries). Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, vol.48 (1&2) 98-103. Samples from 166 camels were collected randomly from central Sudan. The samples were examined by floatation method using McMaster slide to demonstrate the presence and number of eggs per gram of faeces.

172. Intisar A Badawi., Saad MB., Abdalla HS., and El Tigani T, (1994). Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Vol

33(1&2):86-89