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Philip Kotler

Northwestern University

Marketing Essentials

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1992

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1. :

' Peter F. Drucker. "Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices". N.Y.,


"Harper & Row", 1973, p. 64-65.

2 : < - ,

>. <

,

>. <-

>.

3 .: Kelvin J. Lancaster. "A New Approach to Consumer Theory".-Journal of


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4 . : Wroe Alderson. "Factors Governing the Development of Marketing


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13 .: Laurence P. Feldman. "Societal Adaptation: A New Challenge for


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14 -
. .: Leslie M. Dawson. "The Human Concept: New Philosophy for Business".
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15 .: Richard D. Farmer. "Would You Want Your Daughter to Marry a


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"William J. Stanton. "Fundamentals of Marketing", 5-th ed. N. Y.,
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18 Sir Winston Churchill.

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21 .: Donald L. Pike. "The Future of Higher Education: Will Private Institutions


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2.

1 ,
"Turmoil among the Brewers: Miller's Fast Growth Upsets
the
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3 : Glen L. Urban and John R. Hauser. "Design


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4
: E. Jerome McCarthy. "Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach".
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7 .: . Charles Ames. "Dilemma of Product/Market Management".- Harvard


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' "Key Role of Research in Agree's Success is


Told".- Marketing News, January 12, 1979.

2 "Marketing Information Systems: An


Introductory
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3 . Dick Warren Twedt, ed. "I 978 Survey of Marketing Research", Chicago,
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4 . : Paul E. Green and Donald S. Tull. "Research for Marketing


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8 .: Glen L. Urban and John R. Hauser. "Design and Marketing of New


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9
: Thomas . Kinnear and James R. Taylor.
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10 . .: Seymour Banks. "Experimentation in Marketing". N. Y., "McGraw-Hill", 1965.

11
: Roger D. Blackwell, James S. Hensel, Michael B. Philips and
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'2 CM. : b b J. a 1 d e ., "Focus Groups and the Nature of Qualitative


Marketing
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13 < >
: Harry . Chandis. "The Birth of USAir".- Marketing
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4.

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Tom Nicholson. "Cable TV's First Casualty". -Newsweek, September 27, 1982, p. 65;

"Sifting Through the Fallout ofCBS Cable". - Broadcasting, September 27, 1982, p.
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Harry F. Waters. "Culture Shock on Cables-Time, October 6, 1981.

2 , , <

1982-1983 .>, .

3 .: EllenGraham. "Advertisers Take Aim at a Neglected Market: The Working


Woman".- Wall Street Journal, July 5, 1977, p. 1.

4 100 .

50 . (

-50 . ).

5 .: Rachel Carson. "Silent Spring" Boston, "Houghton Mifflin", 1962.

6 "First Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality". Washington, D. C.,


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7 "The Coming Boom in Solar Energy". -Business Week, October 9, 1978, p. 88-104.

8 .: Karl E. Henion II. "Ecological Marketing". Columbus, Ohio, "Grid", 1976.

9 .: Alvin Toffler. "Future Shock". N. Y., "Bantam". 1970, p. 25-30.

10 : Dennis
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University
Press", 1970. . : Charles Panat. "Breakthroughs". Boston, "Houghton
Mifflin",
1980 "Technologies for the 80's". Business Week, July 6, 1981, p. 48 ft.

' ' .: Dennis D. Fisher. "Realemon Sales Tactics Hit". - Chicago Sun-Times, July
4, 1974.

12 Leo Greenland. "Advertisers Must Stop Conning Customers". Harvard


Business Review, July-August 1974, p. 18.

13 .: Edward Meadows. "Bold Departures in Antitrust". -Fortune, October 5,


1981, p. 180-188.

14 Bill A b rams. <"Middle Generation" Growing More Concerned with Selves>


Wall Street Journal, January 21, 1982, p. 25.

5.

1 : "The 100 Million


Object Lesson". Fortune, January 1971; "The End ofCorfam". Wail Street Journal,
March
17, 1971, p. 1.

2 .: "Statistical Abstract of the United States", 1980.

3 .: Kevin A. Wall. "New Market: Among Blacks, the Haves Are Now

Overtaking the Have-fiots".-Advertising Age, February 11, 1974, p. 35-36; Mary Jane
Schlinger and Joseph T. Plummer. "Advertising in Black and White". -Journal of
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Cunningham. "The Negro Market".-Journal of Advertising Research, April 1970, p. 312.

4 Melvin Helitzer and Carl Heyel. "The Youth Market". N.Y., "Media
Books", 1970, p. 58; George W. Schiele. "How to Reach the Young Consumer. "Harvard
Business Review, March-April 1974, p. 77-86.

5 . "The Graying of America".- Newsweek, February 28, 1977, p. 50-65.


6. .: Rena Bartos. "What Every Marketer Should Know about Women".- Harvard Business Review, May-June 1978, p. 73-85.

7 .: . . Kizilbash and E. T. Gar man. "Grocery Retailing in Spanish


Neighborhoods".- Journal of Retailing, Winter 1975-76, p. 15-22 ff.

8 .: Leo n G. S hiffman and Leslie L a z a r a n u k. "Consumer Behavior".


Englewood Cliffs, N.J" "Prentice-Hall", 1978, p. 343-356.

9 .: Harry L.Davis. "Decision Making within the Household".- Journal of


Consumer Research, March 1976, . 241 - 260; Harry L. Davis and Benny P. Rigaux.
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June
1974, p. 51-60; Harry L. Davis. "Dimensions of Marital Roles in Consumer Decision-Making".-Jouwa/ of Marketing Research, May 1970, p. 168-177.

10 .: "Flaunting Wealth: It's Back in Style".- U. S. News & World Report,


September
21, 1981, p. 61-64.

11 .: Gail Sheehy. "Passages: Predictable Crises in Adult Life". N.Y., "Dutton",


1974; Roger Gould. "Transformations". N.Y., "Simon & Schuster", 1978.

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Consumer Decision-Making".- Journal of Marketing Research, May, 1979, p. 244-245.

13 : Edward
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I r a J. D 1 i h. "Congruence Relationships Between Self-images and Product


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16 ,

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18

.
: John A. Howard and Jagdish N. Sheth. "The Theory of Buyer
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19 .: Chte L. Narayana and Ron J. Markin. "Consumer Behavior and


Product Performance: An Alemrnative Conceptualization".- Journal of Marketing,
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1975, p. 1 6.

< >,

J. A. Howard and J.N. Sheth "The Theory of Buyer Behavior".


< > , <
>.

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28 .: Elihu Katz and PaulF. Lazarsfeld. "Personal Influence". N.Y., "Free


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6.

' : "The College Caterers are Dropping Out".- Business

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2 Frederick E. Webster, Jr. and Yoram Wind. "Organizational Buying


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3 Patrick J. Robinson, Charles W. Paris and Yoram Wind. "Industrial


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4 Webster and Wind. Op. cit., p. 6.

5 Ibid., p. 78 80.

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: Ernest Dichter. <Industrial Buying is Based on Same "Only


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7 Webster and Wind. Op. cit.. p. 33-37.

8 Robinson, Paris and Wind. Op. cit., p. 14.

9 Albert W. Frey. "Marketing Handbook", 2d ed. N.Y., "Ronald Press", 1965,


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7. ,

.

' : "Coke's Big Marketing Blitz". Business Week, May


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2 . "R.J. Reynolds Stops a Slide in Market Share". Business Week. January 26,
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5 : Franklin . Evans. "Psychological and Objective Factors in


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6 Ralph Westfall. "Psychological Factors in Predicting Product Choice". Journal

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9 .: Daniel Yankelovich. "New Criteria for Market Segmentation". Harvard


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" : George H. Brown. "Brand


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14 Natalie McKelvy. "Shoes Make Edison Brothers a Big Name". Chicago


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15 R. William Kotrba. "The Strategy Selection Chart". Journal of Marketing,


July 1966, p. 22-25.

16 ,

8. :

, , ,

' . "Marketing Definitions: A Glossary of Marketing Terms", complied by the


Committee on Definitions of the American Marketing Association. Chicago, American
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2 . 6.

3 .: Harper W. yd, Jr. and Sidney J. Levy. "New Dimensions in


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4 Theodore Levitt. "The Marketing Mode". N.Y., "McGraw-Hill", 1969, p. 2.

5 "Marketing Definitions ..." . cit.

6 "Marketing Definitions ..." . cit.


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7 "Marketing Definitions..." . cit.

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9 "Research Suggests Consumers Will Increasingly Seek Quality".- Wall Street


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: "Name Game". Time, August 31, 1981, . 41-42.

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13 "Product Tryouts: Sales Tests in Selected Cities Help Trim Risks of National
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17 "Marketing Definitions..." . cit.

9. :

' . ,
: " & G's Aren't Chips Of the Old Spud, Bit They Are
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2 David S. Hopkins and Earl L. Bailey. "New Product Pressures".- Conference Board Record, June 1971, p. 16-24.

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nibalism and New Product Development".- Business Horizons, October 1978, p. 2531.

5 Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaitman. Targeting Prospects for a New


Product".- Journal of Advertising Research, February 1976, p. 7-20.

6 William E. Cox, Jr. "Product Life Cycles as Marketing Models".- Journal of


Business, October 1967, p. 375-384.

7 Robert D. Buzzell. "Competitive Behavior and the Product Life Cycle in New
Ideas for Successful Marketing", ed. John S. W right and Jac L.Goldstucker.
Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1966, p. 51.

8 Ibid., p. 51.

9 Ibid., p. 52.

10 .
.:

Philip Kotler. "Phasing out Weak Products".- Harvard Business Review, March - April
1965, p. 107-118, Paul W. Hamelman and Edward M. Mazze. "Improving
Product Abandonment Decisions".- Journal of Marketing, April 1972, p. 20-26.

11
: Theodore Levitt. "Exploit the Product Life Cycle".-Harvard
Business Review, November-December 1965, p. 81-94; Nariman K.Dhalla and
Sonia Yuspeh. "Forget the Produkt Life Cycle Concept".-Harvard Business Review,
January-February 1976, p. 102-112. . ,
-

, ,

Journal of Marketing 1981 .

10. :

' Philip Kotler. "Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations". Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
"Prentice-Hall", 1982, p. 303-304.

2 David J.Schwartz. "Marketing Today: a Basic Approach", 3d ed. N.Y.,


"Harcourt Brace Jovanovich", 1981, p. 271.

3 "Departmental Merchandising and Operating Results of 1965". N.Y., National


Retail Merchants Association, 1965.

* Lee E. Preston. "Profits, Competition and Rules of Thumb in Retail Food


Pricing". Berkeley University of California Institute of Business and Economic
Research,
1963, p. 31.

5 Ibid., p. 29-40.

6 .: Daniel A. Nimer. "Pricing the Profitable Sales Has a Lot to Do With


Perception". -Scales Management, May 19, 1975, p. 13-14.

7 . : Edward R. Hawkins. "Price Policies


and Theory". -Journal of Marketing, January 1954, p. 233-240.

11. :

1 .: Joel Dean. "Managerial Economics". Englewood Cliffs, N.J., "PrenticeHall", 1951, p. 420 ff.

2 .: George Stigler. "The Theory of Price", rev. ed. N.Y., "Macmillan", 1952,
p. 215 ff.

3 .: "Flexible Pricing". -Business Week, December 12, 1977, p. 78-88.

4 . "Pricing Strategy in an Inflation Economy". Business Week, April 6, 1974,


p. 43-49.

5 Norman H. Fuss, Jr. "How to Raise Prices - Judiciously - to Meet Today's


Conditions". Harvard Business Review, May-June 1975, p. 10 f.

6 : Kent . Monroe. "Buyers' Subjective


Perceptions of Price".-Journal of Marketing Research, February 1973, p. 70-80.

7 Alfred R. Oxenfeldt. "Pricing for Marketing Executives". San Francisco,


"Wadsworth", 1961, p. 28.

12. :

' : Russell Leavitt. "Billions in Blossoms". -

Fortune, May 18, 1981, p. 68-75.

2 : Edmund D.
McGarry. "Some Functions of Marketing Reconsidered".-"Theory in Marketing", ed.
Reavis Cox and Wroe Alderson. Homewood, 111., "Richard D. Irwin", 1950, p.
269- 273, Louis P. Bucklin. "A Theory of Distribution Channel Structure".
Berkeley, Institute of Business and Economic Research, University of California,
1966, p.
10-11.

3 RonaldAbler, John S. Adams and PeterGould. "Spatial Organization: the


Geographer's View of the World". Englewood Cliffs, N. J., "Prentice-Hall", 1971, p.
531-532.

4 William G. Zikmund and William J. Stanton. "Recycling Solid Wastes: a


Channels-of-Distribution Problem".- Journal a/Marketing, July 1971, p. 34.

'Bert C. McCammon, Jr. "Perspectives for Distribution Programming"


"Vertical Marketing Systems", ed. Louis P. Bucklin. Clenview, 111. "Scott Foresman",
1970, p. 32-51.

6 Ibid., p. 45.

7 .: Robert E. Weigand. "Fit Products and Channels to Your Markets".


Harvard Business Review, January-February 1977, p. 95-105.

8 : Frederick E. Webster, Jr. "The Role of Industrial Distributor".


Journal of Marketing, July 1976, p. 10-16.

9 .: Bert Rosenbloom. "Marketing Channels: a Management View". Hinsdale,


111., "Dryden Press", 1978, p. 192-203.

10 .: McCammon. Perspectives for Distribution Programming, p. 43.


" .: B.J. LaLonde and P. H. Zinszer. "Customer Service: Meaning and

Measurement". Chicago, National Council of Physical Distribution Management,


1976.
12 .: Jurgen F. Ringer and Charles D. Howell. "The Industrial Engineer

and Marketing"-"Industrial Engineering Handbook" (2d ed.), ed. Harold Bright

Maynard. N.Y., "McGraw-Hill", 1963, p. 10, 102-103.

13. :

' LizRomanGallese. The Cheese at Spag's Is Next to the Rugs Over by the Golf
Balls" Wall Street Journal, January 2d, 1983, p. 1; "The Discount Twist in Suburban

Shopping Malls". -Business Week, July 7, 1980, p. 94-96; WalterMcQuade. "The Man
Who Makes Millions on Mistakes". -Fortune, September 6, 1982, p. 106-116; John
Merwin. "Lemons to Lemonade".-Fortes, August 30, 1982, p. 60-61.

2 "Statistical Abstract of U.S.", 1982-1983.

3 "Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys".-Retailing, June 1983.

4 JohnDennisMcDonald. "The Game of Business", N.Y., "Doubleday", 1975,

p. 102.

5 Phyllis Berman. "Too Big for Miracles". -Forbes, June 15, 1977, p. 26.

6 ErnestSamhaber. "Merchants Make History". N.Y., "Harper & Row", 1964, p.


345-348.

7 : Walter J. Salmon, Robert


D. Buzzell, Stanton G. Cort, and Michael R. Pearce. "The Super Store-Strategic
Implications for the Seventies". Cambridge, Mass., Marketing Science Institute,
1972, p. 83.

8 . "Supermarkets Eye The Sunbelt".-Business Week, September 27, 1976, p. 61.

9 "Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys".-Retailing, June 1983.

10 Salmon et al. "The Super Store", p. 4.

' ' : R n a I d
R.
Gist. "Retailing Concepts and Decisions". N.Y., John Wiley", 1968, p. 45-46.

12 "Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys".-Retailing, June 1983.

13 .: Jonathan N. Goodrich and Jo Ann H ffman. "Warehouse Retailing:

The Trend of the Future". -Business Horizons, April 1979, p. 45-50.

14 "Catalog Showroom Hot Retailer". -Chicago Tribune, December 6, 1978, Sec. 4, p.


12; "Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys".-Retailing, June 1983.

15 Leo Bogart. "The Future in Retailing".- Harvard Business Review, NovemberDecember 1973, p. 26.

16 Belden Menkus. "Remote Retailing a Reality by 1985?"- Store Age


Executive, September 1975, p. 42.

17 "Millions by ".-Forbes, March 15, 1976, p. 82.

18 < >
: Bob Stone. "Successful Direct Marketing Methods", 2nd, rev. ed. Chicago,
"Crain Books", 1979.

19 .: G. R. Schreiber. "A Concise History of Vending In the U.S.A". Chicago,


"Vend", 1961, p. 9.

20 .: "How the 'New Sell' is Raking in Billions". -U.S. News & World Report, May
8, 1978, p. 74-75.

21 .: Ronald R. Gist. "Marketing and Society: Text and Cases", 2nd ed.
Hinsdale, 111., "Dryden Press", 1974, p. 334.

22 .: Rollie Tillman. "Rise of the Conglomerehant".- Harvard Business Review,


November-December 1971, p. 44-51.

23 .: Phyllis Berman. "Melville, Corp.: Discounting with a Difference".Forhes, April 16, 1979, p. 93-94.

24 , ,

: Roger A. Dickinson. "Retail Management: a Channels Approach". Belmont,


Calif. "Wadsworth", 1974, p. 9.

25 David Elsner. "Shopping Center Boom Appears to Be Fading Due to


Oberbuilding".- Wall Street Journal, September 7, 1976, p. 1.

26 Menkus. "Remote Retailing", p. 42.

27 . : Philip Kotler. "Atmospherics as a


marketing Too}".-Journal of Retailing, Winter 1973/74, p. 48-64.

28 Harold Haydon. "Galleries: a Little Push Is Better That Too Much or No


Promotion at All".-Chicago Sun-Times, October 30, 1970, p. 55.

29 .: DavidA.Revzan. "Wholesaling in Marketing Organization". N.Y., John


Wiley", 1961, p. 10-11.

30 . "Statistical Abstract of U.S.", 1982-1983.

14. :

' < >.

2 < >,

: "Marketing Definitions: a Glossary of Marketing Terms". Chicago,


American Marketing Association, 1960. < >
-

, ,
,
,

, .

<>,
.

3 .: Michael L. Ray and William L. Wilkie. "Fear: the Potential of an


Appeal Neglected by Marketing". -Journal of Marketing, January 1970, p. 55-56;
Brian
Sternthal and C. Samuel Craig. "Feal Appeals Revisited and Revised".- Journal of
Consumer Research, December 1974, p. 22-34.

4 Brian Sternthal and . Samuel Craig. "Humor in Advertising".- Journal of


Marketing, October 1973, p. 12-18.

5 Carl I. Hovland and Wallace Mandell. "An Experimental Comparison".Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, July 1952, p. 581-588.

6 .: . I. Hovland, A. A. Lumsdaine and F. D. Sheffield. "Experiments


on Mass Communication", vol. 3. Princeton, N.J., "Prinston University Press", 1948,
chap. 8.

7 .: James F. Engel, Roger D. Blackwell and


David T. Kollat. "Consumer Behavior", 3d ed. Hinsdale, 111., "Dryden Press", 1978,
p.
346-348.

8 .: Thomas S.Robertson. "Innovative Behavior and Communication". N.Y.,


"Holt, Rinehart & Winston", 1971, chap. 9.

9 .: Philip Kotler. "Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool". -Journal of Retailing,


Winter 1973/74, p. 48-64.

10 P.F. Lazarfeld, B. Berelson and H. G a u d e t. "The People's Choice", 2d ed.


N.Y., "Columbia University Press", 1948, p. 151.

" Herbert . Kelman and Carl I. Hovland. "Reinstatement of the Communication in Delayed Measurement of Opinion Change."- Journal of Abnormal and
Social
Psychology, 48, 1953, p. 327-335.

12 : Daniel Seligman. "How Much for Advertising?" Fortune, December 1956, p. 123.

13 Albert Wesley Frey. "How Many Dollars for Advertising". N.Y., "Ronald
Press", 1955, p. 65.

14 Ibid., p. 49.

15 .: G. Maxwell Ule. <A Media Plan for 'Sputnik' Cigarettes>.- "How to Plan
Media Strategy". American Association of Advertising Agencies, 1957 Regional
Convention, p. 41-52.

16 .: Sidney J. Levy. "Promotional Behavior". Glenview, 111., "Scott, Foresman",


1971, chap. 4.

17 Ibid.

18 Sales and Marketing Management, February 23, 1981, p. 34.

19 "How Advertising Works in Today's Marketplace". - "The Morrill Study". N.Y.,


"McGraw-Hill", 1971, p. 4.

20 "What IBM Found about Ways to Infuence Selling". Business Week, December 5,
1959, p. 69-70. . : Harold . Cash and William J. Crissy.
"Comparison of Advertising and Selling"-"The Psychology of Selling", vol. 12.
Flushing,
N.Y., Personal Development Associates, 1965.

15. :

' Bob Spitz. "Caution: Men at Work on Men at Work".-Esquire, July 1983, p.
105-109; urt Lode . "Men at Work: Out to Lunch". -Rolling Stone, June 23, 1983,
p.
16-19, 87, 88.

2

<
> 16 10 1981 . <

1982-1983 .>

3 .: Russell H.Colley. "Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising

Results". N.Y., Association of National Advertisers, 1961.

4 .: William L.WiIke and Paul W.Farris. "Comparison Advertising:

Problem and Potential". -Journal of Marketing, October 1975, p. 7-15.

5 .: Russell L.Ackoffand James R.Emshoff. "Advertising Research at


Anheuser-Busch; Inc. (1963-1968)." -Sloan Management Review, Winter 1975, p. 115.

6 John C.Maloney. "Marketing Decisions and Attitude Research".-"Effective


Marketing Coordination', ed. George L. Baker, Jr. Chicago, American Marketing
Association, 1961, p. 595-618.

7 Dik Warren Twedt. "How to Plan New Products, Improve Old Ones, and
Create Better Advertising". - Journal of Marketing, January 1969, p. 53-57.

8 .: William A. MindakandH. Malcolm bee. "Marketing's Application


to Fund Raising". -Journal of Marketing, July 1971, p. 13-18.

9 .: L. Greenland. "Is This the Era of Positioning?" -Advertising Age, May 29,
1972.

10 Philip'H. Dougherty. <Bad "Pulses" the Market>.-New York Times , February


18, 1975, p. 40.

.: David B.Montgomery and Alvin J.Silk. "Estimating Dynamic


Effects of Market Communications Expenditures". - Management Science, June
1972,
p. 485-501.

12 . Rober D.BuzzeIl. "E.L Du Pont de Nemours & Co.: Measurement of


Effects of Advertising"-R. D. Buzell. "Mathematical Models and Marketing
Management".
Boston, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard
University, 1964, p. 157-179.

13 .: Roger A. Strang. "Sales Promotion-Fast Growth, Faulty Management". - // Business Review, July-August 1976, p. 115-124.

14 Ibid., p. 116-119.

15 .: Roger A. Strang, Robert M. Prentice and Alden G. Clayton.


"The Relationship between Advertising and Promotion in Brand Strategy".
Cambridge,
Mass., Marketing Science Institute, 1975, chap. 5.

16 Strang. "Sales Promotion", p. 124.

17 :

John F. Luick and William Lee S i e g I e r. "Sales Promotion and Modern Merchandising". N.Y., "McGraw-Hill", 1968.

18 : Carl-Magnus Seipel.
"Premiums-Forgotten by Theory". -Journal a/Marketing, April 1971, p. 26-34.

19 .: Fred. . Allvine. "The Future for Trading Stamps and Games". - Journal
of Marketing, January 1969, p. 45-52.

20 . "Our L'eggs Fit Your Legs". - Business Week, March 27, 1972.

21 .: Walter A. Gaw. "Specialty Advertising". Chicago, Specialty Advertising


Association, 1970.

22 .: Suzette Cavanaugh. "Setting Objectives and Evaluating the Effectiveness


of Trade Show Exhibits".-Journal of Marketing, October 1976, p. 100-105.

23 Rusell D. Bowman. "Merchandising and Promotion Grow Big in Marketing


World".- Advertising Age, December 1974, p. 21.

24 .: Strang. "Sales Promotion", p. 120.

25 .: George Black. "Planned Industrial Publicity". Chicago, "Putman Publishing", 1952, p. 3.

26 .: Arthur M.Merims. "Marketing's Stepchild: Products Publicity". - Hari-drd Business Review, November-December 1972.

16. :

1 Michael Waldholz. <How a 'Detail Man' Promotes New Drugs to Tennessee


Doctors>. - Wall Street Journal, November 8, 1982.

2 Robert N.McMurr . "The Mystique of Super-Salesmanship. - Harvard Business


Review, March-April 1961, p. 114.

3 .: William R. Dixon. "Redetermining the Size of the Sales Force: a Case


Study". - "Changing Perspectives in Marketing Management", ed. Marting R. Warshaw. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1962, p. 58.

4 Roger M.Pegram. "Selling and Servicing the national Account". N.Y., Conference Board, 1972.

5 William H.Kaven. "Managing the Major Sale". N.Y., American Management


Association, 1971; Benson P. Shapiro and Ronald S. P s n e r. "Making the Major
Sale".-Harvard Business Review, March-April 1976, p. 68-78.

6 .: Walter J. lie . "How to Design Sales Territories". -Journal of Marketing,


January 1961, p. 7-13.

7 .: Marketing News, February 5, 1982, p. 1.

8 - <
>, Business Week,
February 1,
1964, . 52.

9 McMurry. "Mystique of Super-Salesmanship", p. 117.

10 Ibid., p. 118.

" David Mayer and Herbert M.Greenberg. "What Makes a Good


Salesman". -Harvard Business Review, July-August 1964, p. 119 125.

12 "Double-Digit Hikes in 1974 Sales Training Costs." - Sales and Marketing Management, January 6, 1975, p. 54.

13 : W.J.
E.Crissy, William H. Cunningham and Isabella C.M. Cunningham. "Selling: the Personal Force in Marketing". N.Y., "John Wiley", 1977, p. 19-29.

14 Mark Hanan. "Join the Systems Sell and You Can't Be Beat". -Sales and
Marketing Management, August 21, 1972, . 44. . : Mark Hanan, James
Cribbin and Herman Heiser. "Consultative Selling". N.Y., American Management
Association, 1976.

17. , ,

' Melville . Branch. "The Corporate Planning Process". N.Y., American


Management Association, 1962, p. 48-49.

2 .: Peter Drucker. "Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices". N.Y.,


"Harper & Row", 1973, chap. 7.

3 Theodore Levitt. "Marketing Myopia".- Harvard Business Review, July-August


1960, p. 45-56.

4 Charles
H. Granger. "The Hierarchy of Objectives". Harvard Business Review, May-June
1964,
p. 63-74.

5 H. Igor An soft. "Strategies for Diversification". - Harvard Business Review. September-October 1957, p. 113-124.

6
: Doyle L.Weiss.
"Determinants of Market Share". -Journal of Marketing Research, August 1968,
p. 290 295; Donald E. Sexton, Jr. "Estimating Marketing Policy Effects on Sales of a
Frequently Purchased Product",-Journal of Marketing Research, August 1970, p. 338347;

Jean Jacques Lambin. "A Computer On-Line Marketing Mix Model". -Journal of
Marketing Research, May 1972, p. 119-126.

7 .: Russell Ackoff and James R. Emshoff. "Advertising Research at


Anheuser-Busch." - Sloan Management Review, Winter 1975, p. 1-15.

8 .: Philip tier. "A Guide to Gathering Expert Estimates". -Business


Horizons, October 1970, p. 79-87.

9 .: Philip Kotler. "Marketing Decision Making". N.Y., "Holt, Rinehart &


Winston", 1971.

10 .: James M. Hulbert and Norman E.Toy. "A


Strategic Network for Marketing Control". -Journal of Marketing, April 1977, p. 12-20.

' '

Arthur J. Dallas. "Protecting Service Markets with


Consumer
Feedback". - Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, May 1977, p.
73-77.

12 . : Donald R.Longman and Michael


Schiff. "Practical Distribution Cost Analysis". Homewood, 111. Richard D. Irwin",
1955.

13 . : Philip Kotler, William Gregor


and William Rodgers. "The Marketing Audit Comes of Age". -Sloan Management
Review, Winter 1977, p. 25-43.
: Philip Kotler. "From Sales Obsesion to Marketing
Effectiveness". - Harvard Business Review, November-December 1977, p. 67-75.

18.

' "Brazil: Campbell Soup


Fails to Make It to the Table". - Business Week, October 12, 1981; "Brazil: Gerber
Abandons a Baby-Food Market". - Business Week, February 8, 1982.

2 .: "The Reluctant Exporter". - Business Week, April 10, 1978, p. 54 66.

3 Bureau of Economic Analysis, U. S. Department of Commerce.

4 .: Warren J. Keegan. "Multinational Product Planning: New Myths and Old


Realities"- "Multinational Product Management". Cambridge, Mass., Marketing
Science
Institute, 1976, p. 1-8.

5
: F.T. . "Rating Investment Risks Abroad". - Business Horizons, April
1979,
p. 18-23.

6 : David
A. Ricks, Maril yn Y.C. Fu and Jeffery S. Arpan. "International Business Blunders". Columbus, Ohio, "Grid", 1974.

7 I gal Ayal and Jehiel Zif. "Market Expansion Strategies in Multinational


Marketing".- Journal of Marketing, Spring 1979, p. 84-94.

8 James . Sweeney. "A Small Company Enters the European Market". Harvard
Business Review, September-October 1970, p. 127-128.

9 .: David S.R. Leighton. "Deciding When to Enter International Markets""Handbook of Modern Marketing", ed. Victor P. Buell. N.Y., "McGraw-Hill", 1970,
p. 23-28.

10 :

Gordon E. Miracle and Gerald S. Albaum. "International Marketing Management". Homewood, 111., "Richard D. Irwin", 1970, chaps. 14 16.

! ' Warren J.Keegan. "Multinational Product Planning: Strategic Alternatives". Journal of Marketing, January 1969, p. 58-62.

12 Louis . Wells, Jr. "A Product Life Cycle for International Trade?" -Journal of
Marketing, July 1968, p. 1-6.

13 .: Miracle and A Ibaum. "International Marketing Management",


p. 317-319.

14 .: William D. Hartley. "How to Do It: Cumbersome Japanese Distribution


System Stumps U.S. Concerns". -Wall Street Journal, March 2, 1972, p. 1, 8.

'5 W a d i - N
a m-

biaratchi. "Channels of Distribution in Developing Economies". -Business Quarterly,


Winter 1965, p. 74-82.

16 . : Arieh Goldman. "Outreach of


Consumers and the Modernization of Urban Food Retailing in Developing Countries".
Journal of Marketing, October 1974, p. 8-16.

17 Yoram Wind, Susan P. Douglas, Howard V. Perlmutter. "Guide-lines for


Developing International Marketing Strategies". -Journal of Marketing, April 1973,
p. 14-23.

19.

' "Services Grow While the Quality Shrinks". -Business Week, October 15, 1971, p.
50.

2 ,
<>, : G. M. Hostage. "Quality Control
in a
Service Business". -Harvard Business Review, July-August 1975, p. 98-106.

3 .: W. Earl Sasser "Match Supply and Demand in Service Industries".Harvard Business Review, November-December 1976, p. 133-140.

4 .: Dan R. E. Thomas. "Strategy is Different in Service Businesses".- Harvard


Business Review, July-August 1978, p. 161.

5 .: Daniel . Carrol 1. "Ten Commandments for Bank Marketing". -Bankers


Magazine, Autumn 1970, p. 74-80; G. Lynn Shostack. "Banks Sell

Services-Not Things". - Bankers Magazine, Winter 1977, p. 40-45.

6 Public Relations News, October 27, 1947.

7 . : Philip Kotler and William


Mindak. "Marketing and Public Relations". Journal of Marketing, October 1978, p.
13-20.

8
.: Philip Kotler and Richard . n n r, Jr. "Marketing Professional
Services". -Journal of Marketing, January 1977, p. 71-76.

9 Carol Oppenheim. "Bucky Dent: the Selling of a Sudden Superstar". -Chicago


Tribune, December 16, 1978, sec. 2, p. 1.

10 "In the Groove at Mercury Records". -Chicago Daily News, October 16, 1976.
n JohnE-Cooney. "Eddie Fisher Discovers That Regaining Fame Is a Daunting
Goal?'-Wall Street Journal, February 20, 1978, p. 1.

12 Theodore White. "The Making of the President I960", N.Y., "Atheneum",


1961, Joe McGinness. "The Selling of the President 1968" N.Y., "Trident
Press", 1969.

13 .: E. Glick. "The New Methodology". Washington D.C, American Institute


for Political Communication, 1967, p. 1; Philip Kotler and Neil Kotler. "Business
Marketing for Political Candidates". -Campaigns and Elections, Summer 1981, p. 2433.

14 <->
-

: Betsy D. Gelb and BenM. Enis. "Marketing a City of the Future"."Marketing is Everybody's Business". Santa Monica Calif., "Goodyear", 1977.

15 .: Scott Cutlip and Alien H. Center. "Effective Public Relations", 3d ed.


Englewood Cliffs, N.J., "Prentice-Hall", 1964, p. 10.

722

16 .: Philip Kotler and Gerald Z a 11 m a n. "Social Marketing: An Approach


to Planned Social Change". -Journal of Marketing, July 1971, p. 3-12.

17 .: Eduardo Roberto. "Strategic Decision-Marking in a Social Program: The


Case of Family-Planning Diffusion". Lexington, Mass., "Lexington Books", 1975.

18 .: Karl E. Henion II. "Ecological Marketing". Columbus, Ohio, "Grid", 1976.

20.

' : Peter . Hutchinson, Don E. Parkinson and


Charles B. Weinberg. "Water Conservation in Palo Alto".-Christopher H.
Lovelock and Charles B. Weinberg, eds. "Cases in Public and Nonprofit
Marketing". Palo Alto, Calif, "Scientific Press", 1971, p. 183-196.

2 Paul W. Stewart and J. Frederick Dewhurst with Louis Field. "Does


Distribution Cost Too Much?" N.Y., Twentieth Century Fund, 1939.

3 Jessica Mitford. "The American Way of Death". N.Y., "Simon & Schuster",
1963.

4 "Rattles, Pings, Dents, Leaks, Creaks-And Costs". -Newsweek, November 25, 1968,
. 92.

5 Ibid.

6 "The Breakfast of Fatties?"- Chicago Today, July 24, 1970.

7 Gerald B. Taliman. "Planned Obsolescence as Marketing and Economic


Policy".-"Advancing Marketing Efciency", ed. L. H. Stockman. Chicago, American
Marketing Association, 1958, p. 27-39.

8 David Caplovitz. "The Poor Pay More". N.Y., "Free Press", 1963.

9 , . < >, 1, 1968, . 11,


15.

10 .

. : Alan R. Andreasen. "The


Disadvantaged Customer". N.Y., "Free Press", 1975.

12 John Kenneth Galbraith. "The Affluent Society". Boston, "Houghton


Mifflin", 1958, p. 255.

13 <>,
.

14 Mark Hanan. "Corporate Growth through Venture Management". -Harvard'


Business Review. January-February, 1969, p. 44.

15 "FTC v. Procter & Gamble, 386 U.S. 568" (1967).

16 .: Morris Adelman. "The A & P Case: A Study in Applied Economic


Theory". -Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 1949, p. 238.

17 . : Philip Kotler. "What Consumerism


Means for Marketers". -Harvard Business Review, May-June 1972, p. 48-57,

PaulN. Bloom and Stephen A. Greyser. "The Maturing of Consumerism".-^ ^ Review, November-December 1981, p. 130-139.

18 Rachel Carson. "Silent Spring". Boston, "Houghton Miflin", 1962.

19 PaulR.Ehrlich and AnnH.Ehrlich. "Population, Resources, Environment:

Issues in Human Ecology". San Francisco, "W.H. Freeman", 1970.

20 Donnella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers, and


William H.Behrens III. "The Limits to Growth". N.Y., "Universe Books", 1972.

21 . ,
: "Flavored Algae from the Sea? - Chicago Sun-Times, February 3, 1965,
p. 54.

22 Earl L. Bailey. "Formulating the Company's Marketing Policies: a Survey".


N.Y., Conference Board, Experiences in Marketing Management, 1968, 19, p. 3.

. . . 8
. . 582

. . 664
-. . . 432
. . 576

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. . 165
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. . 386
. . 386

. . 331
. . 551
. . . 7
. . 40
. . 558
. . 645
. . 515
. . . 668, 672

. . 252
. . 111, 112, 133
. . 645
. . 639
. . 645
.. . 666

. . 47
. . 458

. . 404

. . 665

. . 162, 672, 673

. . 216

. . 165, 672

. . 624

. . 664

. . 300

. . 5, 6, 9, 13-16, 18-22,

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. . 65

. . 510

. . 442

. . 510

. . 216
. . 49

. . 16, 30, 33, 63, 285, 287,

578

. . 448, 449
. . 448, 449
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. . 65
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. 674
. 674
. . 558
. . 160
. . 549
. . 529
. 328

. . 111-113
. . 172, 664, 670, 672

. . 639
. . 639

. . 672
. . 433
. . 687, 691-694
. . 552, 553
. . 173, 645
. . 294

. . 511
. . 285

. . 171
. . 215
. . . 165

. . 639
. . 529
. . 670, 672
. . 274
. . 549
. . 515
. . 45
. . 404

. . 641
. . 510
. . 77
. . 165
. . 491
. . . 8

. . 81
. . 285
. . 549
. . . 553

. . 397
. . 646
. . 515

3. . 197, 198
. . 60, 328

. . 465
. . 510
. . 263
. . 547-549
. . 649

. . 433
. . . 663
. . 330

. . . 629
. . 261
. . 515
. . 262
. . 262
. . 252
. . 645
. . 673
. . 673
. . 630

. . 261
. . 263

. 471

. 471

. 472

. 472

- . 472

. 550, 558-270
< > . 124

. 243
<.. > . 117, 124,

295

<> . 21, 122-125, 133-135



. 5

< > . 328


< > . 122, 135
. 128-131
<-> . 80, 519, 528
< > . 221
<> . 301

. 123
<> . 46, 86, 87, 391

. 53

< , .> . 53

< > . 166

< > . 161

< > . 124

< > . 275

<> . 254

. 471

<> . 335, 336

. 243, 244

. 158

. 124

. 86,
<> . 669
. 132

87

< > . 124


< > . 154

. 172

. 674, 684
< > . 403-405
. 153-159

77ft

< > . 115

< > . 73, 301, 312, 389

< > . 102, 257, 298-300,

337
< > . 73, 119, 236,

422

<> . 182
< > . 111
< > . 154
<> . 103, 104, 166, 179-181, 326

() . 614, 634
< > . 156

. 35, 275 325


348, 349, 505
. 344

. 345
. 345
. 347
< > . 124
< > . 124

- (1950.)
. 316

(1914 .) . 169

- (1975 .)
. 171, 317

- (1937.)
. 170


(1972 .) . 171, 317


(1970 .) . 170


(1958 .) . 170, 373


(1966.) . 170


(1968 .) . 170

(1966 .)
. 170, 306

(1975 .) . 171


(1914 .) . 169


(1906 .) . 169

(1978 .) . 171


(1950 .) . 170

(1906 .) . 169


(1966 .) . 170, 172

(1969 .)
. 170

>

(1975 .) . 171

- (1936.)
. 169, 372

- (1938 .) . 170, 661

(1890 .) . 169

<> . 64, 270. 285, 286, 296, 392,

553
. 363

. 363

. 363

. 363

. 132, 133, 705-707


< > . 296
< > . 46

< > . 139-141

<> . 368, 369

< > . 152

<-> . 73, 250-253, 421

< > . 509-511

<> . 267


. 171


. 123

< > . 245

. 95 97
. 97, 98
-

. 99-103
. 105, 106

. 482 485
. 482
. 482

. 482
. 482

. 148, 149, 355


. 355

. 356
. 356

. 168, 672-674, 684

. 149-151

. 594-599

. 61

. 10, 62, 64
- . 66

. 113, 114

. 115


. 116

. 117, 118, 121

. 60


. 60

< > . 650

< >
. 124

<> . 303

. 172-175

<> . 609, 610

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<> . 669

. 614
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. 444
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<- > . 254

. 47, 55

. 56-59, 80, 83, 698, 699

. 68-72

. 73

. 74

. 75

. 599

. 600
. 637 642, 652
. 643, 644, 653
. 645 647, 653
. 647-649, 653
. 650 653
. 658-670
. 671


. 675


. 676-681

. 141
. 142 144, 176
. 142, 152, 153, 176
. 145
. 145
-
. 145

. 146
-
. 146

< > . 117, 124


. 293-301
<> . 188
. 74, 610627, 699
. 620


. 621

. 623
. 630-632
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. 396, 397

. 399-403,
410-415

. 405-407

. 409

. 409

- . 416-418
< > . 115
< > . 80, 82
. 12
< > . 450
< > . 192, 193

- . 164,
166

(). 23, 30, 143, 144, 166, 167,

246, 270, 325, 334, 349


- ()

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. 170

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. 47

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. 51

. 458, 480

() . 152
. 88

. 90

. 90, 91, 250-255

. 93-95

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< > . 480, 481
. 575, 578-580

. 576
. 584 592
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. 182, 183, 189

. 189, 192

. 190, 193, 194

. 191

. 195

. 195

. 195

. 196

. 197-203
. 184

. 184

. 186

. 188
. 167, 168
<> . 669
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458
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. 48

. 56-59

. 90, 91

. 75

. 204
. 205
. 206, 207
. 208, 209
. 209, 210
. 210-212
- . 214-217

. 162-164

< > . 64, 73, 81, 101,


121, 301, 315, 322, 325, 512, 670, 677

. 538, 539
. 540

. 540
. 541
. 542, 543

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. 461
<.. > . 257, 258
. 460
. 511, 518, 697

. 512

. 512

. 513

. 513

. 513-515

. 518, 519

. 523-527

- . 530

. 516, 517
. 519-522
. 519
. 650
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< > . 669
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. 459
< > . 510
. 54

. 56

. 56

. 146, 181

. 147, 223-238

. 147,

239-241

. 147,

241-245

. 52
-

. 5

. 250-256,

279-281

. 256,

257

. 256, 260

. 256,

262-268

. 257, 258

. 270, 271

. 271-276

. 277, 278
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. 124

-- . 139-141
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() . 114

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() . 614
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<

> . 124
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. 57

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. 58

. 58

. 58

. 58

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. 59

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. 360

. 362

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. 489

. 490

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< > . 158
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. 495-497

. 498-503
. 530, 531, 544,

545

. 532

. 533, 534

. 535, 536

. 537

. 121, 136

. 122

. 123

. 133-135

<> . 491

. 613
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< > . 60

. 199, 200
. 197, 198
. 49, 282-286

. 287-290, 292, 293,

624

. 293-295

. 302

. 308-310

- . 316, 317

. 325-337
. 313, 314
. 310-312
. 418, 427-429

. 419

. 421

. 422

. 423

. 424-426
. 431, 432

. 434-463

. 466-479
-

. 8

. 454
. 554

. 555

. 556

. 557
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. 441

. 442
. 445

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. 302-307

. 243


. 171

. 75

. 80

. 83, 84

. 84-86
. 88


. 171

. 245


. 170, 171


. 243

. 638-640
. 641, 642

< > . 273, 274

. 171,
243

. 70,
168, 170, 171, 306, 517, 661, 666


. 171


. 243


,

. 167, 171


(1967 .) . 170

, (1938 .) . 169, 316

< > . 80-82, 252

<> . 274

<> . 124

<> . 327, 328

<> . 124, 669, 695

-
. 236

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. 352-358, 364-374
. 382
. 376, 390 393

. 378

. 380

. 381

. 384, 385

. 386

. 387

. 388, 389
-

. 614
. 12

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<> . 115
<> . 80

<> . 182
-- . 140

<> . 64, 282-284, 313, 498


. 161, 162
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<.. > . 102
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572.

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18
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19
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