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AgrammaroftheArabiclanguage

CarlPaulCaspari,WilliamWright,WilliamRobertsonSmith,MichaelJanGoeje

AgrammaroftheArabiclanguage CarlPaulCaspari,WilliamWright,WilliamRobertsonSmith,MichaelJanGoeje
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EHAND S^ANTOHD-JVNfOR-'VMVERSinnr

EHAND S^ANTOHD-JVNfOR-'VMVERSinnr
LEIAND -SEAHFORD vUVMOR-YMVEHSHT r

LEIAND -SEAHFORD vUVMOR-YMVEHSHT

r
r
*
*
*
I

A GEAMMAB

OF THE

ARABIC LANGUAGE.

/'

A GEAMMAB OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE. /'

HonDon:

C. J. CLAY

and SONS,

CAMBEIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AVE MARIA LANE,

®la«00bi: 263. ARGYLE STREET.

WAREHOUSE, AVE MARIA LANE, ®la«00bi: 263. ARGYLE STREET. F. A. BBOCKHAU8. Icipjig: fMn gorft: MACM1LLAN AND

F. A. BBOCKHAU8.

Icipjig:

fMn gorft: MACM1LLAN AND CO. tiombaD'.

GEORGE BELL AND SONS.

®la«00bi: 263. ARGYLE STREET. F. A. BBOCKHAU8. Icipjig: fMn gorft: MACM1LLAN AND CO. tiombaD'. GEORGE BELL

A GRAMMAR

OF THE

ARABIC LANGUAGE,

TRANSLATED

FROM THE GERMAN OF QASPARI,

AND EDITED

WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS

BY

W) WRIGHT, LL.D.,

LATE PBOFESSOB OP ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OAHBBTDOE.

THIRD EDITION

REVISED BY

W: ROBERTSON SMITH,

LATE PBOFE880B OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVEB8ITY OF CAHBBIDQE

AND

M. j: de GOEJE,

PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LF.YDEN.

VOLUME

CAMBRIDGE:

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

1896

AND M. j: de GOEJE, PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LF.YDEN. VOLUME CAMBRIDGE: AT

w

©ambrilgt :

PRINTED BY J. AND 0. P. CLAY,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

117410

w ©ambrilgt : PRINTED BY J. AND 0. P. CLAY, AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 117410

PKEFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

HHHE Second Edition of Wright's Grammar of the Arabic - - language had been out of print long before the death of its

author, but he was never able to find the leisure necessary for preparing a New Edition. more and more pressing, Prof. W. Robertson Smith, who well deserved the honour of succeeding to Wright's chair, resolved to undertake this task. illness which cut short his invaluable life soon interrupted the work. revision had extended over 30 pages more. made use of some notes of mine, which he had marked with my initials, and it was for this reason among others that the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press invited me, through After earnest deliberation

Prof. Bevan, to continue the revision.

consented, influenced chiefly by my respect for the excellent work of one of my dearest friends and by a desire to complete Moreover Prof. Bevan promised his assistance in correcting the English style and in seeing the book through the press. I have of course adhered to the method followed by Robertson Trifling corrections and additions and such suggestions as had already been made by A. Miiller, Fleischer and other scholars, are given

I

The demand for it having become

He began it with his usual ardour, but the

At his death 56 pages had been printed, whilst the

Robertson Smith had

that which another dear friend had begun.

Smith in that part of the Grammar which he revised.

in square brackets.

to take all the responsibility upon initials. the end of the Second Volume, Wright had noted here and there

Besides the printed list of additions and corrections at

Only in those cases where it seemed necessary myself, have I added my

the printed list of additions and corrections at Only in those cases where it seemed necessary

VI

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

on the margin of his own copy some new examples (chiefly from the Nakaid) which have been inserted, unless they seemed quite I have found but very few notes by Robertson Smith on the portion which he had not definitely revised ; almost all of these have been marked with his initials. small number of passages (for instance § 252, § 353), where I felt Once or twice Wright

sure that he would have done it himself. has noted on the margin " wants revision." The notes bearing upon the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic languages have for the most part been replaced by references to Wright's Comparative Grammar, published after his death by Robertson Smith (1890). I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr Du Pre Thornton, But my warmest thanks must be given to my dear friend and colleague Prof. Bevan, who has not only taken upon himself all the trouble of seeing this revised edition through the press, but by many judicious remarks has contributed much to the improving of it. The Second Volume is now in the printers' hands.

who drew my attention to several omissions.

superfluous, without any distinctive sign.

Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively

Letden,

February, 1896.

M. J. de GOEJE.

any distinctive sign. Wright's own text has been altered in a comparatively Letden, February, 1896. M.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

A SECOND Edition of my revised and enlarged translation of

-*- *- Caspari's Arabic Grammar having been called for, I have

thought it my duty not simply to reprint the book, but to subject it again to a thorough revision. new work ; for there is hardly a section which has not undergone alteration, and much additional matter has been given, as the very size of this volume (351 pages instead of 257) shows. In revising the book I have availed myself of the labours of Of the former I

may mention in particular the 'Alflya (SeAJ^I) of 'Ibn Malik, with

Arab Grammarians, both ancient and modern.

In fact, the present is almost a

the Commentary of 'Ibn 'Akil (ed. Dieterici, 1851, and the Beirut

edition of 1872); the Mufassal (jJokjH) of 'el-Zamahsarl (ed.

Broch, 1859) ; and the Lamlyatu 'l-'Afal (Jlil*5r 3^»<)) of 'Ibn

Malik, with the Commentary of his son Badru 'd-din (ed. Volck,

1866).

'l-Talib fl Bahti '1-MaMlib MlkjT si-Lj ^

that is, the Bahtu 'l-Matalib of the Maronite Gabriel Farhat, with the notes of Butrus 'el-Bistani (Beirut, 1854); 'el-Bistani's smaller Grammar, founded upon the above, entitled Mifiahu 'l-Misbah

(^U-aJI flau, second edition, Beirut, 1867); and Nasif 'el-

Yazigi's Faslv 'l-Hitab (^UauiJI J-oi, second edition, Beirut,

1866).

Among European Grammarians I have made constant use of the works of S. de Sacy (Grammaire Arabe, 2de ed., 1831), Ewald (Grammatica Critica Linguae Arabicse, 1831-33), and Lumsden (A Grammar of the Arabic Language, vol. i., 1813); which last,

Of recent native works I have diligently used the Misbahu

^JUdf ^CLo),

of the Arabic Language, vol. i., 1813); which last, Of recent native works I have diligently

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

Vlll

however, is based on the system of the Arab Grammarians, and therefore but ill-adapted, apart from its bulk and rarity, for the use of beginners. grammar of Professor Lagus of Helsingfors (Larokurs i Arabiska Spraket, 1869). Professor Fleischer of Leipzig, whose notes on the first volume of De Sacy's Grammar (as far as p. 359) have appeared from time to time in the Berichte der Konigl. Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissensckaften (1863-64-66-70), in which periodical the student will also find the treatises of the same scholar Ueber einige Arten Ueber das Verhdltniss und die Construction der Sack- und Stoffworter im Arabischen (1856). In the notes which touch upon the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages, I have not found much to alter, except in matters of detail. has been published of late years upon this subject the fanciful lucubrations of Von Raumer and Raabe, as well as the learned My standpoint remains, however, nearly the same as it formerly was. The ancient Semitic languages Arabic and iEthiopic, Assyrian, Hebrew), and Chaldee and Syriac) are as closely connected with each other as the Romance languages Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Pro vencal, and French : they are all daughters of a deceased mother, standing to them in the relation of Latin to the other European In tongues, particularly the Hebrew, may bear the greatest re semblance to this parent speech ; but, on the whole, the south Semitic dialects, Arabic and iEthiopic, but especially the former, have, I still think, preserved a higher degree of likeness to the original Semitic language. the Assyrian*, as it appears in even the oldest inscriptions, seem

languages just specified.

Canaanitic (Phoenician and

and scholarly treatises of Nbldeke, Philippi, and TegneV.

I have also consulted with advantage the

But I am indebted above all to the labours of

der Nominalapposition im

Arabischen (1862) and

I have read, I believe, nearly everything that

Aramaic (so-called

some points the north Semitic

The Hebrew of the Pentateuch, and

* As regards Assyrian, I rely chiefly upon the well-known works of Oppert, Sayce, and Schrader.

of the Pentateuch, and * As regards Assyrian, I rely chiefly upon the well-known works of

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

IX

to me to have already attained nearly the same stage of gram matical development (or decay) as the post-classical Arabic, the spoken language of mediaeval and modern times. I have to thank the Home Government of India for con tributing the sum of fifty pounds towards defraying the expenses of printing this work; and some of the local Governments for subscribing for a certain number of copies ; namely, the Govern ment of Bengal, twenty, and the Home Department (Fort William), twenty-five ; the Government of Bombay, ten ; of Madras, ten ; My friend and former school fellow, Mr D. Murray (of Adelaide, S. Australia), has also given pecuniary aid to the same extent as the India Office, and thereby laid me, and I hope I may say other Orientalists, under a fresh obligation. Professor Fleischer of Leipzig will, I trust, look upon the dedication as a mark of respect for the Oriental scholarship of Germany, whereof he is one of the worthiest representatives ; and as a slight acknowledgment of much kindness and help, extending over a period of more than twenty years, from the publication of my first work in 1852 down to the present year, in which, amid the congratulations of numerous pupils and friends, he has cele brated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate.

and of the Punjab, sixty copies.

Cambridge, 1st July, 1874.

W. WRIGHT.

brated the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate. and of the Punjab, sixty copies. Cambridge, 1st July,

The Syndics of the Press are indebted to the liberality of Mr F. Du Pre Thornton for the copyright of this Grammar, which he purchased after the death of the author and presented to them with a view to the publication of a New Edition. They desire to take this opportunity of expressing their gratitude to Prof de Goeje for the courtesy with which he acceded to their request that he would complete the revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst of many important literary engagements.

revision and for the great labour which he has expended upon the task in the midst

CONTENTS.

PART FIRST.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY.

PAGE

I. The Letters as Consonants 1 II. The Vowels and Diphthongs 7 III. Other Orthographic
I.
The Letters as Consonants
1
II.
The Vowels and Diphthongs
7
III.
Other Orthographic Signs
13
A. Gezina or Sukfin
13
B. Tesdld or &edda
13
C. Hemza or Nebra
16
D. Wasla
19
Medda or Ma#a
The Syllable
E.
24
IV.
26
V.
The Accent
27
VI.
The Numbers
28
PART SECOND.
ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
I.
THE VERB.
A.
GENERAL VIEW.
1.
The Forms of the Triliteral Verb
The First Form
The Second Form
The Third Form
The Fourth Form
29
30
31
32
34
1. The Forms of the Triliteral Verb The First Form The Second Form The Third Form
Xll CONTENTS. PAGE The Fifth Form The Sixth Form The Seventh Form The Eighth Form
Xll
CONTENTS.
PAGE
The Fifth Form
The Sixth Form
The Seventh Form
The Eighth Form
The Ninth and Eleventh Forms
The Tenth Form
The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Forma .
36
38
40
41
43
44
46
2. The Quadriliteral Verb and its Forms
47
3. The Voices
49
4. The States (Tenses) of the Verb
51
5. The Moods
51
6. The Numbers, Persons, and Genders
52
B.
THE STRONG VERB.
1. The Active Voice of the First Form
53
a.
The Inflexion by Persons
53
1. Separate Pronouns
54
2. Suffixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative .
.
55
3. Prefixed Pronouns, expressing the Nominative .
65
6.
Forms of the Tenses and Moods
The Imperfect Indicative
The Subjunctive and Jussive
The Energetic
The Imperative
57
57
60
61
61
2. The Passive Voice of the First Form
63
3. The Derived Forms of the Strong Verb
63
4. The Quadriliteral Verb
67
5. Verbs of which the Second and Third Radicals are Identical .
68
C.
THE WEAK VERB.
1. Verba Homzata
72
2. Verbs which are more especially called Weak Verbs.
A. Verba Primee Radicalis ^ et ^£
78
B. Verba Media; Radicalis _j et ^
81
C. Verba Tertije Radicalis ^ et ^
88
3. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak.
Doubly Weak Verbs
Trebly Weak Verbs
92
95
Tertije Radicalis ^ et ^ 88 3. Verbs that are Doubly and Trebly Weak. Doubly Weak
CONTENTS. Xlll PAGE Appendix A. The Verb JJj I. 96 II. The Verbs of Praise
CONTENTS.
Xlll
PAGE
Appendix A.
The Verb JJj
I.
96
II.
The Verbs of Praise and Blame
97
III.
The Forms expressive of Surprise or Wonder
98
Appendix B.
The Verbal Suffixes, which express the Accusative .
.
100
II.
THE NOUN.
A.
THE NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.
1. The Derivation of Nouns Substantive and Adjective, and their
different Forms
106
a. The Deverbal Nouns.
(a)
The Nomina Verbi
110
(/3)
The Nomina Vicis
122
(y)
The Nomina Speciei
123
(8)
The Nomina Loci et Temporis
124
(f)
The Nomina Instrument
130
(f)
The Nomina Agentis et Patientis and other Verbal
Adjectives
131
b. The Denominative Nouns.
(a)
The Nomina Unitatis
147
(/3)
The Nomina Abundantiao vel Multitudinis .
.148
(y)
The Nomina Vasis
149
(8)
The Nomina Relativa or Relative Adjectives
149
I.
Changes of the Auxiliary Consonants
Changes of the Final Radicals _j and ^J
.
.
151
II.
' :'('
III.
Changes in the Vocalisation
159
(e)
The Abstract Nouns of Quality
165
(C)
The Diminutive
166
(ij)
Some other Nominal Forms
175
2. The Gender of Nouns
Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives
Forms which are of both Genders
177
183
185
3. The Numbers of Nouns
The Dual
The Pluralis Sanus
The Pluralis Fractus
187
187
192
199
Genders 177 183 185 3. The Numbers of Nouns The Dual The Pluralis Sanus The Pluralis

XIV

CONTENTS.

PAGE

4. The Declension of Nouns 234 I. The Declension of Undefined Nouns . Diptotes .234
4.
The Declension of Nouns
234
I.
The Declension of Undefined Nouns .
Diptotes
.234
239
II.
The Declension of Defined Nouns
247
Appendix.
The Pronominal Suffixes, which denote the Genitive
.
252
B.
THE NUMERALS.
1. The Cardinal Numbers
253
2. The Ordinal Numbers
260
3. The remaining Classes of Numerals
262
C. THE NOMINA DEMONSTRATIVA AND CONJUNCTIVA.
1. The Demonstrative Pronouns and the Article
The Conjunctive (Relative) and Interrogative Pronouns
264
270 (a) The Conjunctive Pronouns 270 The Interrogative Pronouns The Indefinite Pronouns (b) 274 277
270
(a)
The Conjunctive Pronouns
270
The Interrogative Pronouns
The Indefinite Pronouns
(b)
274
277

THE PARTICLES.

III.

A. THE PREPOSITIONS.

The Inseparable Prepositions The Separable Prepositions 279 280 B. THE ADVERBS. The Inseparable Adverbial Particles
The Inseparable Prepositions
The Separable Prepositions
279
280
B.
THE ADVERBS.
The Inseparable Adverbial Particles
The Separable Adverbial Particles
Adverbial Accusatives
282
283
288
C. THE CONJUNCTIONS.
The Inseparable Conjunctions
The Separable Conjunctions
290
291
D. THE INTERJECTIONS
294
PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS
298
The Inseparable Conjunctions The Separable Conjunctions 290 291 D. THE INTERJECTIONS 294 PARADIGMS OF THE VERBS

PART FIRST.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY.

THE LETTERS AS CONSONANTS.

I.

Arabic, like Hebrew and Syriac, is written and read from A

1.

right to left.

ija^yJI, AjjUw^JI Oj^*Jt, or ^4j

number, and are all consonants, though three of them are also used as vowels (see § 3). nected with a preceding or following letter, and, for the most part, terminate in a bold stroke, when they stand alone or at the end of a word. along with their names and numerical values.

The letters of the alphabet (»W-»JI ojjj*-, «-»$j*-

i_ij^».) are twenty-eight in

They vary in form, according as they are con

The following Table gives the letters in their usual order,

NAME.

FIGURE.

Connected.

B

NUMERICAL

VALUE.

Uncon nected. With a pre ceding l .letter. With a fol lowing letter. With both.
Uncon
nected.
With a pre
ceding
l .letter.
With a fol
lowing
letter.
With both.
1
I.
:
'V.'
oUI » f Elif. " 1 1 1 SW Ba. 2 w) J V £
oUI » f Elif. "
1
1
1
SW Ba.
2
w)
J
V
£
Ili Ta.
O
3
-
W*.
400
JLJ Ta.
i
A
A
J
500
j*-/*? Gim.
t
tfc]
*
*M
3
JU Ha.
t
trc]
-
*M
8
$L Ha.
t
tr^i
>
*W
600
Jlj Dal.
>
.j).
Jk-
4
j.
jli Dal.
i
JL
700
w.
3 JU Ha. t trc] - *M 8 $L Ha. t tr^i > *W 600 Jlj

Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

FIGURE.

[§1

Connected. NUMERICAL NAME. Unoqn- VALUE. neoted. With a pre ceding With a fol lowing .
Connected.
NUMERICAL
NAME.
Unoqn-
VALUE.
neoted.
With a pre
ceding
With a fol
lowing
. letter.
With both.
tlj' Ra. J 200 - \ Zay. J J- <? 7 9 O-s-t Sin. tJ-
tlj' Ra.
J
200
-
\ Zay.
J
J-
<?
7
9
O-s-t Sin.
tJ-
KJ"
Mf
60
*
&s** Sft.
b.
*
A
4m
300
iU. Sad.
u*
«a
tj*
10
90
B
*U> Dad.
t^»
#0
mA
800
lU, Ta.
u
Ik
1%
9
lC£ Za.
Jfc
it
k
900
O** 'Ain.
e
c
£
X
70
v>«e Gain.
e
k
6
A
1000
lli Fa.
o
oi
i
A
80
Jli Kaf.
J
3
J
i
100
J&> Kaf.
J
*
i
J).
£
£=>
20
>
$
Lam.
J
J
)
X
30
*
jk*
Mini.
<
j>
*
<
40
j*
J
0>J Nun.
O
O-
j
-
50
'
:u Ha.
*
A
A
v
4
5
^1^ Waw.
i
.
>
.
.
.
.
.
6
JO Ya.
\J
i
*
10
L**"
O O- j - 50 ' :u Ha. * A A v 4 5 ^1^ Waw.

§

1]

I.

3

The Letters as Consonants.

forms the figures A This combination is called lam-eli/, and is generally

I in connection with a preceding J

Rem. a.

y. reckoned a twenty-ninth letter of the alphabet, and inserted before ^. a, § 3, from elif as the spiritus lenis (elif with hemza, I, § 15).

The object of it is merely to distinguish elif as the long vowel

*$> ^-

The order of the letters » and _j is sometimes inverted. The Arabs of Northern sequence ; viz.

Rem. b.

Africa arrange the letters in a different

They distinguish >_» from J> by giving the former a single point At the

below, and the latter one above, thus : » a /, but i k k*. end of a word these points are usually omitted, oi, ^.

Rem. c. the letters are interwoven with one another, and form ligatures, of which the following are examples.

In manuscripts and elegantly printed books many of

g bh. s~> sh. J fy. £ <* ^ <Ph L & C *; gh.
g
bh.
s~> sh.
J
fy.
£
<*
^
<Ph
L
&
C
*; gh.
s*
'g.
s^ Imh.
J* Mf.
±? A-
4
yh-

[These ligatures, in which one letter stands above another, are very inconvenient to printers, especially when, as m this book, English and Arabic are intermingled; and most founts have some

device to bring the letters into line.

or, in the fount used for this grammar, as »>».

method is a recent innovation, first introduced by Lane in his D Arabic Lexicon, and its extreme simplicity and convenience have caused it to be largely adopted in modern founts, not only in Europe but in the East. to use the old ligatures as they are shewn in Mss. or in the more elegant Eastern founts.]

appears as ^js\s*- ,

Thus ^

The latter

But in writing Arabic the student ought

In some old Mss., on the other hand, k has the point below, », a, or even

* This is not confined, in the earliest times, to African Mss.

f

on the other hand, k has the point below, », a, or even * This is
4 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 1 a Rem. d. guished from one another
4
Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.
1
a
Rem. d.
guished from one another in writing only by the aid of the small
Those letters which are identical in form, and distin
dots usually called diacritical points (ikiJ , plur. iaJu), are divided
t
-
*
0
J d<#
i
y
>
o*
m
by the grammarians into iJLe^oJI i*ijjmJ\, the loose or free, i.e.
J
-
*
0 JO*
J
J
J
9*
unpointed, letters, and ioj^jt-oJI ±JjjmJ>, the bolted or fastened, i.e.
pointed, letters.
To the former class belong ., a, j, ^, ^o, J»
and
c ; to the latter
«.,
J, j,
ch>
t»>« > J» and
£
The letters ^j,
O, «1> and ^ are generally distinguished as follows :
t,
«_j is called Sjl».^sJI iUI, <A« J k*</i ,>,;« ^o/'/// (j) ;
O U-*^» O-0 SUJ^JI 2wt, the i with two points above (7) ;
^ lyhfcj ^>-o 3Ul«Jt iUI, //c i with two points below (.»)*;
£>
illicit 2l5f, the J wt</i Mm' ^otnfo (3).
The unpointed letters are sometimes still further distinguished
from the pointed by various contrivances, such as writing the letter
in a smaller size below the line, placing a point below, or an angular
mark above, and the like ; so that we find in carefully written
c
manuscripts £ ^mL; li, j jj', os'lt'^J5; t-*» m<» ug 5 k *> \
c
i
fe ; etc.
Also f or * by way of distinction from ».
In some
old Mss. iji» has only one point above, and then ^
below.
takes a point
Rem. e.
which take their names from the particular part of the vocal organs
that is chiefly instrumental in producing their sounds.
The letters are also divided into the following classes,
j
*3
*
5
iiio*
jfi
*
A
*
9
*
*
ibytuJI ojj»Jt or SuyiuiJS, the labials (iii a lip), uJjt j.
ii
'-
-'
j
j
j
*
ijjjyjt ojjjikJi, the gingivals, «1> J Ji, in uttering which the
-pv
tongue is pressed against the gum (<LLUI).

<UL>'N)t oij^aJl, the sibilants, j ^

with the tip of the tongue (1L<*9I).

^a, which are pronounced

* [With final ^£ the use of the two points below is optional. Some modern prints, especially those issued at Bairut, always insert them except when the ^ represents elif maksura (§ 7, rem. b): thus

especially those issued at Bairut, always insert them except when the ^ represents elif maksura (§

2]

I.

The Letters as Consonants.

3

S

*

w

*>

J

J

3

0,

iJUJJI «_»jjj»Jt or iJUjJJI, the liquids j J J, which are pro- A

nounced with the extremity of the tongue (jyjJI or JkJjJJI). ^, which are uttered

through the open orifice of the lips (jm. AM). A.jrJa,JI t_jj^»Jt or rtj»h,:ll, the letters OjJ», which are uttered by pressing the tongue against the rough or corrugated portion of

the palate (*.LuM or «JLvJI).

ajj=*J;.\\ o^jaJI, the letters «- ^

^jUj^yJUl ^)tt|^Jt, the letters JJ an^ *» *n uttering which the B

uvula (SlyJUt) is brought into play.

c

is

JUUJt w?_j_^»- or AgxUfcJI ojjaJI, the gutturals, U*

The letters 1 j ^ are called k>JUI >-J)j*- or <UJUt vi^/aJI, //<*'

so/"< letters, and dJbt)l ^J^j^., the weak letters.

2. The correct pronunciation of some of these letters, for ex

ample »- and c, it is scarcely possible for a European to acquire, The following hints will, C however, enable the learner to approximate to their sounds. ! with he~mza (I, I, see § 15) is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks,

the K of the Hebrews (as in ~\12H, 3NT

pared with the h in the French word homme or English hour. w> Cj is the Italian dental, softer than our t. «£> is pronounced like the Greek 0, or th in thing. and Persians usually convert it into the surd s, as in sing. it is commonly confounded with O, less often with ^.] In Egypt and some parts of Arabia, however, it has the sound of the Heb. 3, or our g in get. ^, the Heb. |"|, is a very sharp but smooth guttural aspirate,

Europeans, as well as Turks and Persians, rarely attain the correct pronunciation of it. i. has the sound of ch in the Scotch word loch, or the German Rache. > is the Italian dental, softer than our dK v

stronger than », but not rough like -.

except by long intercourse with natives.

is our b.

«- corresponds to our g in gem.

CpXfi).

It may be com-

The Turks

[In Egypt

j)

It is sounded

5 bears the same relation to > that «i> does to O.

CpXfi). It may be com- The Turks [In Egypt j) It is sounded 5 bears the
6 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy. [§ 2 A like the 8 of the modern
6 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.
2
A like the 8 of the modern Greeks, or th in that, with.
Persians usually convert it into z.
oftener d.]
The Turks and
[In Egypt it is sometimes z but
j
is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r, as in run.
j
is the English z.
v* is the surd s in sit, mist; Ji>, sh in shut.
\jo, the Heb. Y, is a strongly articulated s, somewhat like ss in

" \jb is an aspirated d, strongly articulated between the front part of the side of the tongue and the molar teeth (somewhat like th in [In Egypt

this). it is an emphatic d, without aspiration, more difficult to an English tongue than the true Bedouin u«-] J», the Heb. £3, is a strongly articulated palatal t.

bears, strictly speaking, the same relation to J» that «i> and 5 and y palatal z, though many of the Arabs give it the same sound as ^ The Turks and Persians To distinguish it from vo , ii is some-

times spoken of as <Ul£«JI lUaJI. c, the Heb. y, is a strong (but to .[most] Europeans, as well as Turks and Persians, unpronounceable) guttural, related in its nature It is described as produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe It is wrong to treat it, in any of the Semitic languages, as a mere vowel-letter, or (worse still) as

and forcible emission of the breath.

to »-, with which it is sometimes confounded.

change it into a common z.

C [with which it is often confounded in Mss.].

The Turks and Persians usually pronounce it like z.

do

to

O

It is usually pronounced like a strongly articulated

D a

nasal n

b

or ng.

is a guttural g, accompanied by a grating or rattling sound, as y modern Greeks, the Northumbrian r, and the French r grassfye, are approximations to it*. is J, the Heb. p, is a strongly articulated guttural k; but in parts of Arabia, and throughout Northern Africa, it is pronounced as a

of the

in gargling, of which we have no example in English.

«-i

our /

The

* [Hence fc is sometimes replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLe

for >Usl«, Hamdani ed. Miiller 193, 17 etc., and often in Mss. De G.]

replaced by j as in the Yemenite jLe for >Usl«, Hamdani ed. Miiller 193, 17 etc.,

7

The Vowels and Diphthongs.

§§

3,

4]

II.

hard g ; whilst in [Cairo and some parts of] Syria it is vulgarly con- A founded with filif hemzatum, as 'ultu, ya'ulu, for kultu, yakidu. When immediately followed by the letter ^>, without any vowel coming between them, (j takes the sound of m : as ^.-'f gemb, j~& 'ambar, il*il> sembau, not ghib, 'anbar, sinbau.

the beginning, of a syllable ; e.

grammatical termination 3 L, the dotted 5 [called »i~JU)l iU] is pro nounced like O, t)*. _) and (^ are precisely our w usually give _j the sound of v.

B

&, \}>J>> and (j. are exactly our k, I, m, n.

h.

It is distinctly aspirated at the end, as well as at

is our

II.

g.

_*a hum, »iU»l 'ahlaka.

and y.

In the

The Turks and Persians

THE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS.

To indicate the long vowels and diphthongs they made use of the three consonants that come nearest to them in sound : viz. I (without hemza, j

*

see § 1, rem.

3. The Arabs had originally no signs for the short vowels.

)

la,

^ji ft,

a, and

^^

§ kai, ^1 dit, £ lau.

15) for a,

^j for

l and ai,

for u and au.

E.g., C

4. At a later period the following signs were invented to express the short vowels.

(a) L fith (»-3) or fetha (*»Jtf), a, d (as in pet), e (nearly the

French e muet); e.g. Ji-l»- halaka, tr-o-i simsun, j*ij^ kerimun.

',

0

*

%

-

0

s

(b) kdsr (j ^) or kesra («/ ^), i (as in pin), t (a dull, obscure i,

resembling the Welsh y, or the i in bird) ; e.g. <v bihi, hS\ aBtun.

*

(c) i damm L&&) or damma (*« *), w (as in 6«//), o, o (nearly as

the German o in Mortel, or the French eu in jeune) ; e.g. <J /«Am,

?«», j-o* 'omrun.

J)

* In point of fact, this figure 3 is merely a compromise between modern » (Heb. ,*] ), in which last the » is silent.

the ancient O 1 (Heb.

(ah), and the

J"|

i

H

)>

the old pausal

(Heb. ,*] ), in which last the » is silent. the ancient O 1 (Heb. (ah),

8 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

5

The distinction between the names feth, kesr, danim,

A Rem. a. and fetha, kisra, dam ma, is that the former denote the sounds a, i, u, the latter the marks L, , L.

and W3S

endings a, u, are sometimes applied to .1, L in other positions; e.g. gUfcJI v>a>i <Lj^akJI.

De G.l'

The terms y^ii and %ij, commonly used of the case-

Compare the Hebrew PIllS, ""DfcJ'

O

*

Or

[Another name for damm is Mw, y£.

* A vowel is called a£»j»-, * , . a motion, plur. Oe>j* « , ; its

B mark is termed ^l&i, ybrm or figure, plur. JlSwl or JjXi- Rem. c. expressed by dots (usually red), one above for fetha, one below for As gards the signs L, _, L the third is a small j and the other two are probably derived from 1 and ^£ or a- respectively.

5. Rules for the cases in which these vowel-marks retain their

original sounds, a, i, u, and for those in which they are modified, through the influence of the stronger or weaker consonants, into d, e,

C«, o, or o, can scarcely be laid down with certainty; for the various

dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points ;

Rem. b.

,

In the oldest Mss. of the Kor'an, the vowels are

re

kesra, and one in the middle, or on the line, for damma.

and besides, owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are uttered, the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. The following rules may, however, be given for the guidance of the learner*.

(a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals ~--t.cc,

or the emphatic consonants ^jo ^o is ii J|, fetha is pronounced as a, though with the emphatic consonants its sound becomes rather obscure, D approaching to that of the Swedish & ; e.g. j*>»- hamrun, ^-»i la'bun,

Under the same circumstances kesra is

iA bakiya, jj~o s&drun.

* [Learners whose ears and vocal organs are good, and who have an opportunity of hearing and practising the correct pronunciation of the consonants, will find that the proper shades of sound in the three vowels come without effort when the consonants are spoken rightly and naturally. are mainly useful as a guide towards the right way of holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels.]

The approximate rules for pronunciation here given

holding the mouth in pronouncing the consonants as well as the vowels.] The approximate rules for

The Vowels and Diphthongs.

§ 6]

II.

9

pronounced as i, e.g. jj& 'ilmun, j*»~< sthrun, jJiS k\Srun; whilst A

damma assumes the sound of an obscure o, inclining with the gutturals

(especially »- and e) to o ; e.g. tJUsJ latofa, uUa) lot/un, ^>~». kosnun

9

Oj

9

9

j

hosnun, >^j ro'bun,j+e 'o'mrun. (b) emphatic consonants, and in open syllables which neither commence with, nor immediately precede, one of those letters, fetha either has

a weaker, less clear sound, approaching to that of a in the English

In shut syllables in which there are neither guttural nor

or

words hat, cap, e.g. c.;Ifi» katabta, j£a\ 'akbaru ; or it becomes a B simple £ or e (the latter especially in a short open syllable followed

by a long one), e.g. J^ bel, *-*£=<y> m&rke'bun, Jl»w sim&kun, \j~t~>

9,

,

semlnun, <Ljjlo medinitun.

before and after r (which partakes of the nature of the emphatics), when that letter is doubled or follows a long a or a, e. g. Sj*. garratun,

S^-o marratun, »jU gdratun, *jyo mratun ; and also in general at the end of a word.

pure sound of a

It retains, however, its

The long vowels d, i, u, are indicated by placing the marks C

6.

of the short vowels before the letters I, ^J, and ^, respectively, e.g. JUf kola, £& bVa, Jlj-) sukun ; in which case these letters are called

ju»JI wij^fc, literae productionis, "letters of prolongation.'

binations ^ - and _j must always be pronounced i and w, not S and 5; though after the emphatic consonants _j i. inclines to the sound of o, and i to that of the French u or German u, e.g. j>J», i>J», nearly torun, tunun. Rem. a. long vowels, and hence it happens that, at a later period, after the invention of the vowel-points, it was indicated in some very common words merely by a fetha ; e.g. aJJI, ij^jB*J)\, ^Jkjjt, J?i» *\, 05J-*.

The com

a was at first more rarely marked than the other -p.

i

£

'

I

/

ty

/

»

«*

'9

%

1*9

t

J

j

*

&5j(, OI^JJI, i^JU\, oSH or &}, iUi, tjJi, U^», IJJub. More exactly, however, the fetha should be written perpendicularly in this case, so as to resemble a small elif ; e.g. aJUI, ^>«j»yJI, iCJLoJI,

Oljauill, i^iJI (<Ae resurrection, to be carefully distinguished from

w.

2

elif ; e.g. aJUI, ^>«j»yJI, iCJLoJI, Oljauill, i^iJI (<Ae resurrection, to be carefully distinguished from w.

10 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

7

A ****) tlrMmilu, price, value), Uy», iJUj.

The words «l>^l5, a5vi,

and OjTyJ, are also frequently written defectively wJLj, ££U,

^^JlL> ; and occasionally some other vocables, such as j^i^j and

0>-^J > <^>^ ;U1(' 15^ j l^W^i l>^*j 1 ant* other proper names

0

J IJ

J

1

5

/

1/

9

1

91

JIO^JIO'

ending in ^j\jl ; i^Jk#U\ ; ijytc ; jd*., »iLU, <£>aJt, ^o fiJt, and

*

*

*

*

*

This

is more common in MagribI Mss. than in others. The long vowel 1 is in a very few instances written defectively at the end of a word,

B e.g. iJUjf, U-Hafi, u»Wf, tl-'Asi, j£3\ J^ &i^, Hodeifitu 'bnu

other proper names of the forms J*li and ,J*UJt ; jiji ; etc.

; j££\ for ^J^l*.

'l-Yemdnl, for ,/UJt, LroWI, ^O

The letter », preceded by damma, is used by the Arabs

Rem. 6. of North Africa and Spain to indicate a final o in foreign words ; e.g.

aJjlS, Carlo ; ojiaj ,J^J, Don Pedro ; <tj\ ^>^j, the river Guadiaro.

Rem. c. localities, from a toe, just as that of fetha does from a to e (see

The sound of li inclines, in later times and in certain

C a, and § 4, § 5, b). This change is called SJU^JI. tl-imala, the
C a, and
§
4,
§
5, b).
This change is called SJU^JI. tl-imala, the
t
" deflection " of the sound of a and a towards that of t and i
MagribI Arabs actually pronounce a, in many cases as I.
The
Hence

wj^>j rikao, ^jiJ lutein, ^l^ 6aJ, ^LJ Jisdre, are sounded rt&eft,

fij&ira, 6ti, iimn ; and,

Caniles, Lebrilla, are written a».b, ^jU»-, ^JJiii, aIIj-J.

conversely, the Spanish names Beja, Jaen,

7. t corresponds to fetha, j^ to kesra, and _} to damma ; whence

D t is called <U»2Ut c».l, £/«? sister offe~tha, \j, S^J3I c-»-l, *A« sister of

Fetha before ^ and

_j forms the diphthongs ai and «m, which retain their original clear

kdsra, and ^, 3f-aJI C**>t, <fe yis^w of damma.

*

t

,

sound after the harder gutturals and the emphatics, e.g. 0U0 saifun,

* [The omission of final ^£ in these cases is hardly a mere ortho graphical irregularity, but expresses a variant pronunciation in which See Noldeke, Gesch. d. QorAn's,

p. 251.]

the final i was shortened or dropped.

/

a variant pronunciation in which See Noldeke, Gesch. d. QorAn's, p. 251.] the final i was

§

The Vowels and Diphthongs.

7]

II.

11

o^i- haufun; but after the other letters become nearly e (Heb. *r) A

and o (Heb. ^-), e.g. o^-» se'fun, *Z>y» m"otun (almost sefun, mutun).

After _j at the end of a word, both when preceded by

Rem. o. damma and by fetha, I is often written, particularly in the plural of

This 1, in itself quite superfluous (elif otiosum), is intended to guard against the possibility of the preceding _j being separated from the body of the word to which it It

is

called <Ll3yi uUI, the guarding Uif, or iLoUJI oU"^l, the separating

Uif.

belongs, and so being mistaken for the conjunction 1 and.

verbs ; e.g. I_j^-aj , \y»j , \jj*-> .

--

^

o

-*

Rem. b.

*

I

J

'

*0*

J to*

^ at the end of a word after a fetha is pronounced B

like t, e.g. \Ji fata, ,-<y ramd, .Jl 'ila*, and is called, like I itself

in the same position (e.g. 1 iyJ BehnesO,, \ji gaea), S^euLJI oU^)t,

</*« e/t/" <Aa< cart 6e abbreviated, in contradistinction to <Ae lengthened

J*

3

0*

Oj*

S

to*

Uif, Oj.**-*" uU^I (see § 22 and § 23, rem. a), which is protected by

ht'inza. with a kemza conjunctionis (see § 19, rem. f), it is shortened in pronunciation before the following consonant, as are the _j and ^ in

It receives this name because, when it comes in contact

it

t

'0*

y\ and ,jt before _^jjyi (see § 20, b)\.

Rem. c. in ^,1. , the ^ is sometimes retained according to old custom, as in

If a pronominal suffix be added to a word ending n

o\fftj or <u«j, but it is commonly changed into I, as oUj.

0

a

*

o

*

,

* [But ^i, with the mark gezma (see § 10), as in ,«&, ^£J*i is the diphthong at.]

old Mss. by the letters A. suprascript; e.g. iUx»u> r,' * ^^& 1 ' ^«*i, cL " i.e. ^Jjo ' "

yedai, not yidd.

t [It would seem that the early scribes who fixed the orthographical

The diphthong ai, when final, is often marked in

usage made a distinction of sound between y£L and \ , pronouncing y* On the other hand many Mss., even very ancient ones, write \L where the received rules require \£L .

According to the grammarians Uif maksura is always written \£ in words of more than three letters unless the penultimate letter is Ya

In origin of the final a must be considered ;' a "converted Fa" gives t£~ , a "converted Waw" gives II. etc.]

(as L»->

the former nearly as e ; cf. rem. d.

*

0

*

*

Oi

he will live, l,J,j world).

words of three letters, the

See the details below §§ 167, 169, 213

; cf. rem. d. * 0 * * Oi he will live, l,J,j world). words of

12 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

8

In some words ending in 51.1 we often find 5_jl. instead

A Rem. d.

9

*

*

9

\

*

9

*

*

t

t

-

r>

*

*

9\*9\*9\*

of 51.1 , as o^~a- or 3^*., SjJ-o or S^Uo, »j£>j or »>%>. <>>» ->, 5jji*,

5yV.if>», 5yU, and so also t^jj, I^JjJI for bj. bpl ; further 2j for

-*

*

f

'

*'

51.1 in the loan-word <b;>> or 3jj^3 ; according to which older mode

of writing we ought to pronounce the 1.1 nearly as a or e re spectively *.

8. The marks of the short vowels when doubled are pronounced This is called

ijjyjt, the tfaiwin or "nunation" (from the name of the letter ^ nun),

,, and takes place only at the end of a word ; e.g. <Ujjk medlnitan,

with the addition of the sound n, L an, _ in, lor" un.

v^ bintin, JU malun.

See § 308.

L takes an I after all the consonants except 5 ; as bb,

Rem. a.

bfcjj, but iaJLi

However, when it precedes a ^, no 1 is written,

as in j_£jdk ; nor, according to the older orthography, when it ac-

companies a hemza, as in t<£, for which we more usually find liw. This elif in no way affects the quantity of the vowel, which is always short : bdbdn, rlAdn.

To one word _j is added, without in any way affecting

the sound of the tenwln, viz. to the proper name _sj-o* 'Amr (not

'Amru),

!/««,

rarely l^j-e*, [or, when the

Rem. b.

genit.

*

_)j*£, accus.

0

9

*

to,

tenwln falls away (§ 315, a, rem. 6) ^-o-c in all three cases], so

written to distinguish it from another proper name that has the

The

j of _5_^o* and $}+£ is, however, often neglected in old manuscripts.

[Cf. the use of ) to represent tenwln in proper names in the Nabataean inscriptions.] Rem. c. by doubling the dots which represent the vowels; =L, _ =_,

In old Mss. of the Kor'an, the tenwin is expressed

same radical letters,

viz.

_j<* 'Omar, genit. and accus. j<*.

0

0

9

-

* [The prophet said yti\ for

L 114. De G.]

ait,

}J>o- for it Ju»-.

ZamahsarT, Faik

and accus. j<*. 0 0 9 - * [The prophet said yti\ for L 114. De
§11] III. Other Orthographic Signs. A. Gezma or Sukun. 13 III. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC SIGNS. A
§11]
III. Other Orthographic Signs.
A. Gezma or Sukun.
13
III. OTHER ORTHOGRAPHIC SIGNS.
A
A.
Gizmo, or Sukun.
9.
Gezma, j>jm- or <Uj*k (amputation), -, is written over the final

consonant of all shut syllables, and serves, when another syllable

follows, to separate the two ; e. g. J-> bhl, je* hum, j^jtSa katabtum,

It corresponds there fore to the ShZea quiescens of the Hebrew, with which its other name

0>£->, rest, coincides.

>-« >.,) se/sefa, &\j& kor- anun (not ko-rdnun).

A letter which has no following vowel is called w9^ * B

Rem. a. ,j^Li, a quiescent letter, as opposed to JjjmJLt i-Jj*-, o movent ZeMcr.

See § 4, rem.

Rem. 6. Letters that are assimilated to a following letter, which receives in consequence the tesdid or mark of doubling (see § 11 and § 14), are retained in writing, but not marked with a gezma;

j i

fl

b.

iU

fi

*l

j

\

one*

*s

o

hi

o-

i

Rem. c. and ijeznia, as between feth and/e</«i, etc. (see § 4, rem. a).

Older forms of the gezma are L and ,1 , whence the C In some old Mss. of the KLor'an a small horizontal (red) stroke is used, .

later 2 , instead of the common 2. or L .

The same distinction exists between the words j/eztn

Rem. d.

10. ^ and j, when they form a diphthong with fetha, are marked

with a gezma, as J-J, ^o^j, j^», ^Jy ; but when they stand for elif productionis they do not take this sign (see § 7, rem. b, c, d). Rem.

letters of prolongation, e. g. JU, jy~o, ^-f > and over the Slif

In many manuscripts a g&zraa is placed even over the

maksura, e.g. ^z, ^jJk for ^yU, ^jjk.

B. T^d or Sedda.

11. A consonant that is to be doubled, or, as the Arabs say,

strengthened f^jJtU), without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. a), is written only once, but marked with the sign ;, which is called

D

without the interposition of a vowel (see rem. a), is written only once, but marked with

s

[§ 11

Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

14

A jujuiiJI, the tisdld (strengthening)*; e.g. !jwl M-kulla, >& kullan,

It corresponds

^fr-JI h-semmi, ^-> semmin, j+i\ el-murru, j* murrun.

therefore to the Daghesh forte of the Hebrew.

Rem. a.

The solitary exception to this rule, in the verbal forms

jJj^S kuunla and J^jJu tukuwila, instead of J|y> and J(yAJ, admits

of an easy explanation (see § 159). When a consonant is repeated in such a manner that a vowel is interposed between its first and second occurrence, no doubling, properly so called, takes place, and

B consequently the tesdld is not required ; e.g. Ojji, 2d pers. sing. masc. Perf.
B
consequently the tesdld is not required ; e.g. Ojji, 2d pers. sing.
masc. Perf. of ji ; CjaLi, 3d pers. sing. fern. Perf. of the fifth form
of Jj.
Rem. b.
Rem. c.
excepted, admit of being doubled and take tfesdld.
when a vowel precedes and follows it.
form no exception to this rule.
All consonants whatsoever, not even 81if hfenizatum
Hence we speak
A consonant can be doubled, and receive tesdld, only
The cases treated of in § 14
-
^
-
A
-
*
and write ^jIIj ra"dsun, JIU sa"aln7i, »-IU na"cUjun.
Q
Rem. d.
- is an abbreviated ^t, the first radical of the name
jujJU, or the first letter of the name »jJ*, which the African Arabs
use instead of the other.
in the oldest and most carefully written manuscripts its form is * .
Or it may stand for jw (from }j*£*o), since
A
*
*
~
Its opposite is <-*+-, i.e. oU. (from Jifei lightened, single); e.g.
t*
*
*
,
a
io^Lej tj^i secretly and operdy.
Rem. e.
tween the consonants and these vowel-marks, as may be seen from
Tes'did, in combination with -, -, -, -, is placed be
D
the above examples.
* instead of £ ; but elsewhere, at least in old manuscripts, £ may
In combination with - the Egyptians write
stand
for
1
as
well as i.
The African Arabs constantly write

In the oldest Mas. of the Kor'an, tesdld is

£> 5) *> for -,?,-. expressed by « or v, which, when accompanied by kesra, is some In African Mss. the vowel is not always written with the sedda ; f; alone may ,

be

times written, as in African Mss., below the line.

=

t

ifcc.

* [The nomen unitatis is SjujuU. De G.]

f; alone may , be times written, as in African Mss., below the line. = t
§ 14] III. Other Orthographic Signs. B. TUdld or Sedda. 15 12. Te^dld is either
§ 14]
III. Other Orthographic Signs.
B. TUdld or Sedda.
15
12.
Te^dld is either necessary or euphonic.
A
13.
The necessary teSdtd, which always follows a vowel, whether
short (as in i>i*) or long (as in jU), indicates a doubling upon which
the signification of the word depends.
Thus j*\ (amara) means he
,st
,
commanded, but j*\ (ammara), he appointed some one commander;
tj
.
j
.
j* (murrun) is bitter, but a word j* (murun) does not exist in the
language.
Rem.
long vowel and terminating in a consonant.
necessarium scarcely ever follows the long vowels _j and ^, as in
The Arabs do not readily tolerate a syllable containing a
Consequently teSdid B
J
OS
to
£
JTI
£
-
ffl

wjjJI

J)»3> though it is sometimes found after I, as in jU, o^U,

-

^

J

Of

0

Nor does it occur after the diphthongs _}.! and

^jU^u (see § 25).

1^1 , save in rare instances, like a "£* and Arfji [see § 277].

14. The euphonic tMdtd always follows a vowelless consonant,

which, though expressed in writing, is, to avoid harshness of sound, passed over in pronunciation and assimilated to a following consonant.

It

With the letters O, «£», >, J, j, j, ^,, Ji, y*, y*, J», J»,

J, Oi (dentals, sibilants, and liquids,) after the article Jl ; e.g. j+Z)\

is used

(a)

:

»

%

0

S

*

j

01*

~

j

o

£

*

0

U-timru; vj-0*v^' ar-rahmdnu; Um*&i\ U-semsu ; .^Xkll 'az-zolmu;

(J-Xil el-leilu, or, in African and Spanish manuscripts, JJI.

These letters are called .y.^JI ojj^JI, //i« gofar

Rem. a.

letters, because the word u~»~'> swn, happens to begin with one of

them; and the other letters of the alphabet <LJ^r*)\ oj/»Jt, </te mwar letters, because the word j+S, moon, commences with one of D them.

This assimilation is extended by some to the J of ji

Rem. b.

'

- ols

and J^, especially before j, as C^jtj Jjk.

(b) With the letters j, J, j>, j, ^, after « with gezm,

e.g.

<Vj O-0 »/?r rabbiht, J-J ,> , JiSj jjl ; and after the nunation, e.g.

of the

' «_>U=» kitabum mubinun, for kitabun mublnun.

i

*

The w

, JiSj jjl ; and after the nunation, e.g. of the ' «_>U=» kitabum mubinun, for

16

Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

[§15

0

0

-

oi

A words l>*, k>c, {j\, is often not written when they are combined with

/ O'-

**> i>«> ^ J e.g. ^>^o for o^0 or i>* i>*> ^-o* f°r ^° v>*> jb f°r

Rem. a.

If to the above letters we add ^ itself, as ^^O ^1 >

the mnemonic word is O^-*^ *

Rem. 6.

*9 ,jl is equally common with *$\, but ^>o-o, o-o*- U*«

Lo*, are hardly ever written separately; >) ^^e, on the contrary,

always.

Similarly we find "^l for *j&\ (if not), Ut for U^l (if, with

s

*

si

B redundant lc) and occasionally Ul for U,jl (<Aa«, with redundant to).

With the letter O after «i>, a, i, ^o, i», J» (dentals), in

(c)

certain parts of the verb ; e. g. o-t~l tibittu for C~J lebittu ; Ojjl

.0-1

bit

,

&t

0

3

6

*

St

'aratta for Ojjl 'aradta; ^qJJujJI 'attahattum Ioi-^jJo^jI 'attahattum;

.> basattum. reject this kind of assimilation altogether, and rightly, because the absorption of a strong radical consonant, such as *, t^o or J», by a

C weaker servile letter, like O, is an unnatural mutilation of an essential part of the word. Rem. a.

Still more to be condemned are such assimilations

as j* for Ojrf-, ia-ji. for Corny*- Rem. 6. second O in the above cases, so that only one O is written, but the

If the verb ends in O, it naturally unites with the

Many grammarians, however,

ti

*

*

»«

*

*

j>t*M i basattum for^h

,

»-j

union of the two is indicated by the tesdld ; as 0%*j for >

*

D 15.

C.

Hemza or Nlbra.

Elif, when it is not a mere letter of prolongation, but a con

sonant, pronounced like the spiritus lenis, is distinguished by the

mark * henna (>** or »>**, compression, viz. of the upper part of the

windpipe, see § 4, rem. a), which is also sometimes called riebra (*>J ,

%.t

.1-

l

*l.

So

*

*

f

*

%.i

I.,

elevation); e.g. <*->!, JU, Iji, ^>\j, \ji\, J^Jil, U»*.,^ol, IW.

'

'IS

Rem. o. and rem. rf, e) at the beginning of a word receives its own vowel, the grammarians omit the hfemza and write merely the vowel ; e.g.

In cases where an tlif conjunctions (see § 19, a, 6, c,

-

J

C

0

I,*

»

OJOJ

aJU ,\,m. II praise belongs to God, \ji\, ^jj\, Ji»l.

where an tlif conjunctions (see § 19, a, 6, c, - J C 0 I,* »

§ 17]

III. Other Orthographic Signs.

C. Hemza or Nebra.

17

Rem. b. 1 is probably a small c, and indicates that the elif is to A

be pronounced almost as 'ain.

In African (and certain other) Mss.

it is sometimes actually written J ; e. g. Jl, JiW.

Mss. of the Kor'an, hemza is indicated by doubling the vowel-points;

e.g., ^IjJUl = jj'*/*M> ^y-o.j.^JI = ^jyUc^oJI.

such Mss. by a large yellow or green dot, varying in position accord ing to the accompanying vowel (see above, § 4, rem. c).

Rem. c. accompanies it, or the gczma (see the examples given above) ; but B

we often find ^j^JU/la. for ^j- 'U-, _j£w for j-w (see § 16), and occa-

In the oldest

It is also marked in

Hemza is written between the I and the vowel that

sionally Iki. or Iki- for Ua*., ,jl or ,jl for ^jl, ^Jiw for ,J£-> or

Juw, and the like.

Rem. rf. ear at the commencement of a syllable in the middle of a word,

The effect of the hemza is most sensible to a European

*.t

»

,

preceded by a shut syllable; e.g. SJL_«, mas-'cdatun (not ma-salatun)

j i-a it'

&\\jii\, tt-kor-anu (not U-ko-rdnu).

16. ^ and _j take hemza, when they stand in place of an eli/G

hdmzatum* (in which case the two points of the letter ^£ are com-

'

it

,

'

t

tj

mouly omitted); e.g. C*£*> for OL, ,j*£«»U. for ,>»L.U., ^^ for

17. Hemza alone (*) is written instead of I, I, ^, j, in the fol lowing cases. («)

or a consonant with gezma, e.g. «Ul, {/a a, lb,, fljy; «L5».) fi'a, J)

Always at the end of a word, after a letter of prolongation

'^fih > *y> sa un > ly*' *i^» l*k> or m01-e commonly U*J» (see § 8,

rem. «); and in the middle of a word, after an Uif productionis, pro-

vided the hemza has the vowel fetha, as ^j^JjUJj, J^>t\^e-\ (but for

jJoAjjA and^o^iljkftl the Arabs usually write^Cljiel and>S»jlji*t).

Rem. Accusatives like ILJ* and £*]» are often written, though

w.

* [See below, §§ 131 seq.)

and>S»jlji*t). Rem. Accusatives like ILJ* and £*]» are often written, though w. * [See below, §§

18

Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

[§ 17

A contrary to rule, L£, LoJ» ; and in old Mas. we find such instances
A
contrary to rule, L£, LoJ» ; and in old Mas. we find such instances
as Ibj for llij.
(b)
Frequently iu the middle of words, after the letters of pro-
longation _j and ^, or after a consonant with gezma, e.g. »«}ji*
for S^jjjU, oUj^ for OLjj-o, >»«>» for >»!> , J i for Jl i ; and also
after kesra and damma before the ^
and _} of prolongation, e.g.
B (^jdJsl*. for j^-SJsl*., ^r*}^ for ^jjj.
Hemza between 7«, m&, d«, i*,
ati, and ««, is, however, more frequently, though improperly, placed
over the letter of prolongation itself; e.g. lyj*+ for Stj^io, a.Ui*. for
°*
*'
'
4
2'
9
J
9
Is
4;k«. or 5i_Ja»- ^r^jj for tr-jij or \j*}jj, which words must always be
pronounced makruatun, hatl'atun, ruusun.
Rem. a.
After a consonant with gezma, which is connected with
a
following letter, hemza and its vowel may be placed above the
C
connecting line ; as ^Ji-il, for Jlwl.
Rem. b.
A hemza preceded by u or i, and followed by a or a,
may
be changed into pure j
or
^
; as u>^-
f°r Oi*L*> »)'> * ^or
Jl^w; ij-o for aJU, joU for >UJ. If preceded by
u
or
J,
or
the
diphthong at, the hemza may likewise be changed into _j or ^£,
tiJt'
%*
»
*
t
J*'
whatever be the following vowel ; as fjj-i-* for SjjyjLa, from SjjjJLo;
«u»v for i^, from 2^ ; ,J for J^y,
3'
*'
s
.
%*
*
%*****
»
*
j
i
for
;, from
J^;
'
'
'
t
D
Uw for llji. If the hemza has gezma, it may [lose its consonantal
power and] be changed into the letter of prolongation that is hoiuo-
*
1
1-
j
4
ti
geneous with the preceding vowel, as ^Ij for ^Ij, jtji for >ojJ, » ^ forji;;
geneous with the preceding vowel, as ^Ij for ^Ij, jtji for >ojJ,
»
^
forji;; necessarily so, if the preceding consonant be an elif with
hemza, as £y»\\ or £y»\, tj-yt, ^j\-*i-, f°r k>*"> O-y1' u'-o-'!-
.
,
1
,
,-
1
l
*
,
It
1
tl
1
[This

is called «j-»yH ouii-J. |

Rem. c.

Rem. c.

The name

The name jj^b or jj/lj, David, is often written j^l>, but must always be pronounced Dil'udu.

c. Rem. c. The name The name jj^b or jj/lj, David, is often written j^l>, but
§ 19] III. Other Orthographic Signs. D. Wash. 19 D. Wasla. 18. When the vowels
§
19]
III.
Other Orthographic Signs.
D.
Wash.
19
D.
Wasla.
18.
When the vowels with hemza (I I I), at the commencement of A

a word, are absorbed by the final vowel of the preceding word, the elision of the spiritus lenis is marked by the sign - , written over the

Slif, and called J»ej, or SJUoj, or £Lo (see § 4, rem. a), i.e. union;

e.g. 0UL»Jt jlj* 'a/ufa 'l-meliki for iU-oJI jl-* ViMm el-meliki; «i<w. C-jIj

rdeitu 'bnaka for .ii-vl Ooli ra-eitu 'ibnaka.

*

f seems to be an abbreviation of j^o in .J-ej or dJLe ; In the oldest Mss. of the B Kor'an the wasl is indicated by a stroke (usually red), which some In ancient MagribI Mss. the stroke is used, with a point to indicate the

times varies in position, according to the preceding vowel.

or rather, it is the word <ULe itself.

Rem. a.

I

.

-

'

'

I

-

-

'

-

,

original vowel of the elided filif; e.g., 4&L ,J-«~> , J, i.e. <nit ; ^ojC

3y«M.}t-, i. e. Sj.au ,11.

T" T T 'JL L instead of the usual

Hence even in modern African Mss. we find

I.

'** Though we have written in the above examples *iU^J!

Rem. b.

and 2X0 1. yet the student must not forget that the more correct C

9,.

»

orthography is JJU«H and »iUjl.

See § 15, rem. «, and

§

19,

rem.

</.

19. This elision takes place in the following cases.

(a) With the t of the article Jl ; as jij^H ±>1 for jij^i\ y>\, the

father of the wizir.

With the t and t of the Imperatives of the first form of the

(b)

regular verb ; as *.©->. J13 for *«-<. J13, fo said, listen ; J^SI J15 for D

Jill Jl3, Ae said, kill.

(c) With the I of the Perfect Active, Imperative, and Nomen

actionis of the seventh and all the following forms of the verb (see

§ 35), and the I of the Perfect Passive in the same forms ; e.g. j»jyj\ y»

for vftJv5' j*, he was put to flight; *'***' was appointed governor ; j\ ju3^)l the being ". able (to do something) ; « **-» uo\jiJ*$\ . J\ till the downfall or extinction.

,

J^»i-bj for J+*Z*\j, and he

/

able (to do something) ; « **-» uo\jiJ*$\ . J\ till the downfall or extinction. ,

20

Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

[§ 19

A (d) With the I of the following eight nouns : 0 0 fit 0*0
A
(d)
With the I of the following eight nouns :
0
0
fit
0*0
9'0
^>j1, and ^i\
or j&S, a son.
iyl, a daughter.
^UjI, two (masc).
O^*"-1'" two (fern.).
.
*
*
i-
i^«l, orjij-*', « »»«».
»'j-«', « woman.
0
0
»
0
«J
C»~»1, £fe awws.
_^~>t (rarely^o t), a name.
Rem. a.
With the article Jj»ol and »l^»l take, in classical
B
Arabic, the form I^JI and St^eJt.
Rem. 6.
The hemza of ij-ojI, oaths, is also elided after the
asseverative particle J, and occasionally after the prepositions jco
0
it
*
j
»
-**
and lj*» (which then takes fetha instead of gezma); as «UJt (^-e.^
by God (lit. by the oatlis of God), for which we may also write
1' in.
dJUl t>frJ, omitting
the
I altogether,
or, in
a contracted
form,
0
Rem. c.
In the above words and forms, the vowel with hemza
is
in part original, but has been weakened through constant use (as
in
the article, and in v>o-|1 after J) ; in part merely prosthetic, that
is
to say, prefixed for the sake of euphony to words beginning with
a
vowelless consonant, and consequently it vanishes as soon as a
vowel precedes it, because it is then no longer necessary.
Rem. d.
It is naturally an absurd error to write I at the begin-
ning of a sentence instead of elif with hemza, as a!} _* c- " instead
i
j
»
,
u
"
of eSi >o«.ll.
The Arabs themselves never do so, but, to indicate
J)
that the filif is an elif conjunction-is (see rem.y), they omit the hemza
! 0
>
*
C-
and express only its accompanying vowel, as all ^0mM
rem. a, and § 18, rem. 6.
See § 15,
Rem. e.
junclionis (see rem. f) is neglected, especially after the article, as
In more modern Arabic the elision of the tlif con-
J*00*
/
!»<«
f
J
0
0«*
*
0
0
£
,
t,
jljui^l, k^olJL5,9l L«JI,>o-'*!" u~^i jtr*\iW «**^> but the gramma-
0 0
*
0
«
*
-
~ c--
^
0
.
0
j
j

rians brand this as ^mM «>akJ^ -jjjOI >»"il^=> ^>c jri)^

0 * 0 « * - ~ c-- ^ 0 . 0 j j rians brand

§ 20]

III. Other Orthographic Signs.

Rem. /

D.

Wasla.

0 *e*>

j

I

j

-

21

o

,

The elif which takes wasla is called J-o>)t <JUI or S^a A '

*

,J-o^Jt, Mi/" or hbnza conjunctionis, the connective elif ; the opposite

being xJaJUl uUI, elif sejunclionis or separalionis, the disjunctive Slif.

'

.

.

20. The 81if conjunctionis may be preceded either by a short To

vowel, a long vowel, a diphthong, or a consonant with $ezma. these different cases the following rules apply.

(a) vowel ; see § 19, A short vowel simply absorbs the Slif conjunctionis with
(a)
vowel ;
see § 19,
A short vowel simply absorbs the Slif conjunctionis with its
c.
b and
B

(b) A long vowel is shortened in pronunciation, according to

the rule laid down in § 25 ; e.g. ^UJI ^i ft 'n-nasi, among men;

'abu.

This abbreviation of the naturally long vowel is retained even when the lam of the article no longer closes the syllable containing that vowel, but begins the next syllable, in consequence of the elision of a following 81if (either according to § 19 or by poetic license).

j-jjyi\ y»\ 'abu 'l-wezlri, the father of the wezir, for fi and

in the beginning, is pronounced as if written Q

Hence slju^l ^,

ftjuJli ; u"=y*^' «* (for c^j^l)* upon the earth, as u°jte ; J*5U*5)I _ji

-

0

0*o

*

9

J

(for J*5U"5)I)> subject to change (a weak letter), as J'jUJi.

of these examples the t is an elif conjunctionis; in the other two it is an Slif separationis, but has been changed for the sake of the metre into an Slif conjunctionis.

^_ and ^ji, may assume before the article the older forms ^_ and

^j; e.g. ^jJI ^<*J my grace which, Jsl^aJI ^JJkl guide me on the D

way, instead of ^jJI it^»j and J»l^a)l ^jJ*\, which latter forms are equally admissible.

In the first

The suffixes of the 1st pers. sing.,

(c) A diphthong is resolved into two simple vowels, accord ;

ing to the

law stated in § 25,

viz. ai into ai, and au

into au

as

'ainai 'l-meliki, in the eyes of the king, for

«iU«JI l_5i-s>-* ^j-* /*

*o*

o,o,

*iUJI (^5^ L5~* > ->"!>**' \J^*A

*

o so*

*

o

u

ihstii 'l-kauma, fear i llahi, the elect of God, for <JJI jAk^w.

*

*

the 'people;

The silent filif (§ 7, rem. a) does not prevent the resolution of the diph-

aJUI ^Akua* mustafau

* * the 'people; The silent filif (§ 7, rem. a) does not prevent the resolution

20

22 Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

A thong, as «jla^»JI \ycj ratnau 'l-hitjarata, they threw the stones ;

Jl Ijlj \+Xi fa-lamma ra'au 'n-neg~ma, and after they saw the star.

'l ^J (/" fo u«»<

But }\ and y take kesra, as 4*~il jl or his mime ; J,:il

(d) it had one ; or assumes that which belongs to the Slif conjunctions ; or adopts the lightest of the three vowels, which in its nature ap Hence the pronouns of the

proaches nearest to the g"ezma, viz. kesra.

A consonant with gezma either takes its original vowel, if

B 2d and 3d pers. plur. masc.,^Jl you, and^e* they, the pronominal

0 1 (J suffixes of the same pronouns, j^ your, you (accus.), and j** their,
0
1
(J
suffixes of the same pronouns, j^ your, you (accus.), and j** their,
them, and the verbal termination of the 2d pers. plur. masc. Perf. j*?,
take damma (in which they originally ended) ; as O^i^" vo-^' Ve are
lit *
j
>
*
"
*
j
z
*
j
t at*
the liars; <»JL)I ^ayiai maS G°d curse them ! J*>-jM ^-i'j ye have seen the
man.
The same is the case with j-o. since, from which time forth,
because it is contracted for Ju*.
The preposition (>*, from, takes
Gfeika
before the article, but in other cases kesra ; as ^}*y-^ 0*°< t>*
djj\.
All other words ending in a consonant with gezma take kesra ;
viz. nouns having the
tenwln, as ^*-J, Je> * MohammMuni 'n-ne!nyu;
the pronoun ^>*, as w>tJJ3t ^>« tw««2 'l-kaddabu ; verbal forms like
OsssOlOsOO
}
w*
*****
cJU5, y^Ci, L^-Afc-I, as^jJt cJJ3 katalati r-Rumu; and particles,
such as o*» Oj. J^> **> J-*. OA etc.
0
1
0
D In certain cases where ^h becomes ^M (see § 185,
Rem. a.
j
rem. 6) the wasl may be made either with damma or kfesra, >0A
Rem. 6.
sometimes effected by throwing it back upon the preceding vowel-
If the vowel of a prosthetic 81if be damma, the wasl is
l J
i
-'
S3
)
I
J
l
0
t

less consonant or tfenwln ; as I^^JxJl ^J3, for l^jJiJt Ji, instead of

l^jJaJl J3 ; --/i-t C-Jlij ; ljJUi.il »^IL> selamunu 'dhulu.

Rem. c. is rejected, so that the wasl is effected by the preceding fetha ; as

The final ^j of the second Energetic of verbs (see § 97)

so that the wasl is effected by the preceding fetha ; as The final ^j of

§

21]

III.

Other Orthographic Signs.

D.

Wasla.

23

uUjI wJj-aJ ^} /a tadriba 'Imaka, and not JJL^I ^jjj-iu ^) to ladribani A

'bnaka. 21. I is altogether omitted in the following cases. (a) In the solemn introductory
'bnaka.
21.
I is altogether omitted in the following cases.
(a)
In the solemn introductory formula aAJI^, j, for AUI^^-b,

i

As a compensation for the omission of the I, the copyists of Mss. are accustomed to prolong the upward stroke of the letter v. thus: ^«-J.

in the name of God, D7l7Xn DEO-

(b) In the word ^1, son, in a genealogical series, that is to say, B

when the name of the son precedes, and that of his father follows in the genitive ; provided always that the said series, as a whole, forms For example,

part either of the subject or the predicate of a sentence. «oJI ju« ,j^ <-*>£ cH >**-' >*** O-i -KJ *! >"* Zeid, the son of Halid,

[Cf. 8 315, rem. b.] But if the second noun be not in apposition to the first, but form part of the predicate, so that the two together make a complete sen-

tence, then the 1 is retained; as jj^c- ^t juj Zeid (is) the son ofC

'Amr; ^IIxLm ^j\ j+s. 'Omar (is) the son of el-Hattdb.

struck Sa'd, the son of 'Auf, the son of 'Abdu 'llah.

f

i?

*

'

*

Rem. a.

»»

»

«

i

i*i;,,,

,

Even in the first case the I of ^>jI is retained, if that word happens to stand at the beginning of a line.

If the name following ^1 be that of the mother or

Rem. b.

ie

1/

J

»*

*

grandfather, the I is retained ; as jv>j* ^' i«~e*> Jesus the son of

Mary; jy-a' ^f\ jl+£, 'Ammdr

wise, if the following name be not the real name of the father, but a J)

surname or nickname ; as iy->^ O^ >' »* . Mikdad lite son of

Like

ifte (grand)son of Mansur.

U-'Aswad (the real name of eVAsioad, "the black," being 'Amr, jj^s./.

interposition of an adjective; e.g. Oy~» Cw' > </£)' ^je*-l, Yahyd

Or if the series be interrupted iu any way, as by the

tlie noble, the son of Meimun ; ^j^yo CH* \jlj^& ^ff^J' Ri^b*

(pronounced like the word zirba) the son of Musa.

(c) In the article Jl, when it is preceded :

'

-

i

-

--

(a) by the preposition J to, as ^»-j^ to the man, for J**ji^.

(c) In the article Jl, when it is preceded : ' - i - -- (a)

24 Pakt First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

22

A If the first letter of the noun be J, then the J of the article is also

omitted, as 2XJJ to tfte «/»/« £, for itjiw. and that for iXM*).

(fi) by the affirmative particle J

truly, verily, as Jl^JJ, for

In nouns, verbs, and the article J1, when preceded by the

(d)

interrogative particle \ ; as t&Ujt, for m/M, is thy son ? O^-Xil, for

Oj-~&M, is it (fein.) broken? jjj**3\> for^jutJn, ^ar# y# received 1

B *UJI, for A^JM, is the water ?

The elif of the article may however be

retained, so that il»JI with the interrogative I is often written il«Jte. Rem. a. elif has fetha, the two 31ifs may blend into one with medda (see

In this last case, according to some, when the second

below) ; as $jJs. ^

i^

It, is el-Hasan in thy house ? for ^

awHI ;

J^*i£)T^o« ^gi>'Jii\, he o/KoreiS or he of Takif? AL^> <*Df J^jf, is

thy oath ' by God'? (see § 19, rem. b) for «A)7 t>*jil.

C Rem. b. frequently omitted, in Mss. of the Kor'an, after the conjunction

The prosthetic elif of the Imperative of Jl«<, to ask, is

wi ; as Jlli, for jUt*. [Cf. § 140, rem. a.] E. Medda or Matta.
wi ; as Jlli, for jUt*.
[Cf. § 140, rem. a.]
E.
Medda or Matta.

22. When elif with hemza and a simple vowel or tcnwiu (I, I, etc.)

is preceded by an Slif of prolongation (1.1), then a mere hemza is written instead of the former, and the sign of prolongation, medda or matta

j) (juo, Sj^o or SJayc, i.e. lengthening, extension), is placed over the latter;

e.g.

.U~< sema'un, eU. gd'a,

Rem. a.

(j^eL-i; yatasaaluna, for IU-», tl»>,

As mentioned above (§ 17, a, rem.), we find in old

Mss. such forms as ll»-. Ibj, for tW, Sbj-

Rem. 6.

In the oldest and best Mss., the form of the medda is

i

Its opposite is j*oS (i.e. j-o.5, shortening), though

(i.e. ,vo).

* [Note also the cases, in poetry, cited in g 358, rem. c ; further the

contracted tribal names j+i*Xj, OjfcA.i I'm j-~o«JI ^^, O^aJI ^J De G.]

cited in g 358, rem. c ; further the contracted tribal names j+i*Xj, OjfcA.i I'm j-~o«JI

§ 23]

III. Other Orthographic Signs.

E. Medda or Matta.

25

this is but rarely written. is expressed by a horizontal yellow line ^ .

In some old Mas. of the Kor'an medda A

23. When, at the beginning of a syllable, an Slif with heinza

and fetha (I) is followed by an elif of prolongation or an 81if with

t

hemza and gezma (I), then the two are commonly represented in writing

by a single elif with medda ; e.g. il~>t for >lwl, ^^X£s\ for QjX&W,

Lut for Lull (see § 17, rem. b). either the hemza, or the vowel, along with the medda.

times find U, see § 174.]

In this case it is not usual to write

[But we some- B

t is called iyy*+*)\ oU^JI, the lengthened or long elif,

in opposition to Sj^-aieJI oU^I, the elif that can be abbreviated or shortened (§ 7, rem. 6).

Rem. 6. written with hemza and a perpendicular fetha, instead of with

Occasionally a long elif at the beginning of a word is

Rem. a.

-

i

'-

-

«

medda (see § 6, rem. a) ; e.g. Uot instead of Lul or Lull.

Rem. c. prolongation, _j and ^g, when followed by an elif hemzatum, only

Also over the

the hemza being written (§ 17, a) ; as ly », lie»->*

Medda is sometimes placed over the other letters of C

i lit

111

111

final vowels of the pronominal forms^oJai,^,^, » or o,^*.^* or^jk,

and the verbal termination j£, when they are used as long in

J iVl

*1

1

poetry; e.g. ^S ,^*A.

The mark -, often written over abbreviations of words,

*3 for

Rem. d.

So

has nothing in common with medda but the form.

j-Jlij, He (God) is exalted above all; _^* for>»^JLJI aJLc, peace be D

upon him / jffitivo for^Lwj aJIc hJJI (_jJLo, GW fifes* him and grant

Aim peace ! duoj for dUc 4JUI iy«j, may God be well pleased with, or

gracious to, him/ «-j or a».j for dJJI «v»o.j, way GW Aa»e mercy

upon him/ -i-Jt for «^<kt ^jJI or U^i-I ,JI, to <A« ena* o/" it, i.e. eto.;

Uj for Ujjk»-, /(». narrated to us ; Lit or U for Li^kl, A« informed us;

Cfor >» *,;,;» , <Aew. The letters j> j> are written over words or

verses that have been erroneously transposed in a manuscript, for

w.

4

The letters j> j> are written over words or verses that have been erroneously transposed in

26

Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

[§ 24

A j*»j «, <o 6« placed last, and>»jJL«, to be placed first. On the margin
A
j*»j «, <o 6« placed last, and>»jJL«, to be placed first. On the margin
of Mss. we often find words with the letters -, ^j, and ^< over
1
'
*
'
them.
a copy, another manuscript ; the second means that a word has been
indistinctly written in the text, and is repeated more clearly on the
The first of these indicates a variant, and stands for iA
',
margin, ^l^, explanation ; the third implies that the marginal
reading, and not that of the text, is, in the writer's opinion, the
correct one 9~o, it is correct, or >»< » tc3, correction, emendation.
B
Written over a word in the text, ****> stands for 9**o, and denotes
that the word is correct, though there may be something peculiar in
its form or vocalization. Again Uke (i.e. lx«, together) is written
over a word with double vocalization to indicate that both vowels
are correct.
dJU) over a word on the margin implies
a conjectural
emendation dSjii, perhaps it is.
IV.
THE SYLLABLE.
C
24.
The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a vowel, which
we call an open or simple syllable, may be either long or short; as
J15 ka-la.
25.
The vowel of a syllable that terminates in a consonant,
which we call a shut or compound syllable, is almost always short ;
as Ji kul, not J>5 (Heb. 7}p).
pause, where the final short vowels are suppressed, that the ancient
Arabic admits of such syllables as in, un, an, etc.
Generally speaking, it is only in
D
Rem.
(see § 13, rem.).
Before a double consonant a is however not infrequent
[Such a long a preceding a consonant with yezma
sometimes receives a medda, as ^j^JLo. )
A syllable cannot begin with two consonants, the first of
Foreign words, which com
mence with a syllable of this sort, on passing into the Arabic language,
26.
which is destitute of a vowel, as sf or fr.
5
0
i
0

take an additional vowel, usually before the first consonant ; as * it,

oTroyyos ; O^*"^*'' nA.aTuj' ; mjjity, the Franks {Europeans) ; j- £>l ,

an elixir, to fripov (medicamentum siccum).

27. A syllable cannot end in two consonants, which are not

either separated or followed by a vowel (except in pause).

A syllable cannot end in two consonants, which are not either separated or followed by a

>

§ 31] V. The Accent. 27 V. THE ACCENT. A 28. does not take the
§ 31]
V.
The Accent.
27
V.
THE ACCENT.
A
28.
does not take the accent.
The last syllable of a word consisting of two or more syllables
Exceptions are :
(a) The pausal forms of § 29 and § 30, in which the accent
remains unaltered ; as ya-ktl, kd-n&n, mu'-mi-nin, kd-ti-bdt, fi-rind,
'a-kdl, ma-far, ku-teil, bil-ldur, bu-nii.
2
2
*
;1_ or il_, Jj_, and \^£ ,
*
*
**
*
throw back the accent as far as possible in their pausal forms ;
Rem.
But words ending in
^
,
y
,
2
-j
i
-
2</

^jiyi Ko-ra-hi-yun becomes Ko^raSi, ^yJ ni-bt-yun, ni-bl ; ^j* 'a-du-

vmn, 'd-du ; jUJCit 'ik-ti-na-'un, 'ik-ti-nd ; l\j+*- ham-ra-'u, hdm-rd ; o

IjjJlo mak-rdr-'un, mdk-ru ; %iJ*i ba-ti-un, bd-ti.

(6) Monosyllables in combination with I, »_>, j), J, .$, and <«3,

which retain their original accent ; as *>)l 'a-la, *^»\ 'a-fala, W> bi-ma,

aj bi-hl, \j£» ka-da, ^>*) li-mdn, Ui la-na, j^$ ica-ldm, hii fa-kdt,

J3j wa-kul. Rem. interrogative enclitic j>; as jtf bi-ma, ^i li-ma, in contrast with C

The only exception to this rule in old Arabic is the

Loj bi-md, UJ li-md.

See § 351, rem.

29. The penult takes the accent when it is long by nature, i. e. is

an open syllable containing a long vowel ; as Jl» ka-la, ^Jyii ya-ku-lu,

£>»UJ kd-na-nun, &~*y mu -mi-m-na, OU3& kd-ti-ba-tun.

30. The penult has likewise the accent when it is a shut syllable

and consequently long by position ; as «^~u kai-bun, ^i di -bun,

6i

9

t

4'*

j

*

'

'

!w bur-'un, v~k**-\ 'ig-Hs, J*Jji fi-rin-dun, Jit a-kdl-lu, jk* ma-fdr- D

r»», v>l>*i ya-kii-ldn-na, J-*3 ku-bfi-la, jy^, bil-lau-run, ^^4 bu-nii- yun.

31. When the penult is short, the accent falls upon the ante

penult, provided that the word has not more than three syllables, or, if it has four or more syllables, that the antepenult is long by

nature or position ; as >-^=> kd-ta-ba, c*;

kd-ta-bat, lj.8If> kd-ta-

bit, ^JlSa kd-ti-bun, »,JJ» fd-la-bun, l»JJ\ 'ei-na-md; l>lwip ta-ra-

^

c*; kd-ta-bat, lj.8If> kd-ta- bit, ^JlSa kd-ti-bun, »,JJ» fd-la-bun, l»JJ\ 'ei-na-md; l>lwip ta-ra- ^

28

Part First. Orthography and Orthoepy.

[§ 32

0 J > J - sit)** A sa-layJ9^^\^ kdr-nu-nu-hum, 1^2^ ka-tab-tu-ma. In other cases the
0
J
>
J
-
sit)**
A
sa-layJ9^^\^ kdr-nu-nu-hum, 1^2^ ka-tab-tu-ma. In other cases the
accent is thrown as far back as possible ; as fayMb ka-ta-ba-ta, UL*a
mas- a-la-tun, lyX a was- a-la-tu-hd, lo^s^n* kd-sa-ba-tu-hu-md.
Rem.
Egypt and among the Bedawln, see Lane in the Journal of the
German Oriental Society, vol. iv., pp. 183-6, and Wallin in the
same journal, vol. xii., pp. 670-3, [also Spitta, Gram, des arab. Vul-
gardialectes von Aegypten (1880), p. 59 sqq.]
On deviations from these principles of accentuation, in
B
VI.
THE NUMBERS.
To express numbers the Arabs use sometimes the letters of
In the former case, the
numerical value of the letters accords with the more ancient order
They are written
from right to left, and usually distinguished from the surrounding
This arrange
ment of the alphabet is called the 'AbiigM or 'Abg"M, and is con-
32.
the alphabet, at other times peculiar signs.
of the Hebrew and Aramaic alphabets (see § 1).
words by a stroke placed over them, as juti*, 1874.
q
tained in the barbarous words :
xiaue Jn*J ww/3 ^oixw i>«A£3 13^^ j}* *>% *t
(otherwise pronounced:
0
s
f
0
s
s
0
*
s
s
0*9*
0
*
*
*
Vt
J
©
i
*
0
y
Of

Xjjuo j^i-J wJy.3 uOttui |J-»^^ LS^1*" J** *J*-^')

or, as usual in North Africa :

iJJdo S*LJ wwj.j ^to

^oJ^s (-_yla»- J>* J'Jfc-.'l

The special numerical figures, ten in number, have been adopted

j) by the Arabs from the Indians, and are therefore called j^Jwyll -*V"> the Indian notation. of, calling them Arabian, Their form, however, differs considerably from that which our ciphers have gradually assumed, as the following table shows.

They are the same that we Europeans make use

because we took them from the Arabs.

Indian: \ 1 ^ 8 ^ $*>*:£- ° Arabic : \ « r (< jc
Indian:
\
1
^
8
^
$*>*:£- °
Arabic :
\
«
r
(< jc
t
<>
9
3
-i
y
a
*
.
Europ. :
123
4
5
67890

They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals ; e.g. >*vt, 1874.

y a * . Europ. : 123 4 5 67890 They are compounded in exactly the

PAKT SECOND.

ETYMOLOGY OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

THE VERB, JjUJI.

I.

A.

General View.

1. The Forms of the Triliteral Verb.

i.

33. The great majority of the Arabic verbs are triliteral (^3^),

that is to say, contain three radical letters, though quadriliteral

3

,

j

(^Wj) verbs are by no means rare.

34. From the first or ground-form of the triliteral and quadri- B

literal verbs are derived in different ways several other forms, which

express various modifications of the idea conveyed by the first.

35. The derived forms of the triliteral verb are usually reckoned

fifteen in number, but the learner may pass over the last four, because (with the exception of the twelfth) they are of very rare occurrence.

JbJ] XI. JkU3 VI. Jii I. J^jJl XII. JiiM VII. j£ II. jjiil XIII. Jifil
JbJ] XI.
JkU3 VI.
Jii I.
J^jJl XII.
JiiM VII.
j£ II.
jjiil XIII.
Jifil VIII.
Jili III.
C
JuUl XIV.
Jii'l IX.
Jiil IV.
,JU*a XV.
JjOi-^ X.
J*A5 V.

The 3d pers. sing, niasc. Perf., being the simplest form

Rem. a. of the verb, is commonly used as paradigm, but for shortness' sake

we always render it into English by the infinitive ; jpi to kill, instead of he has killed.

but for shortness' sake we always render it into English by the infinitive ; jpi to

30

Pakt Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

[§ 36

A Rem. 6. The Arab grammarians use the verb Jjjj OJJSN as paradigm, whence the
A
Rem. 6.
The Arab grammarians use the verb Jjjj OJJSN as
paradigm, whence the first radical of the triliteral verb is called
by them iUII t/te fa, the second ^lit the 'ain, and the third>»SUi
the Idm.
Rem. c.
are those adopted in all the European Lexicons, the learner should
note them carefully.
As the above order and numbering of the conjugations
36.
The first or ground-form is generally transitive (.**£ ) or
*
intransitive (juCU #£ orj»j*$) in signification, according to the vowel
which accompanies its second radical.
B
37.
The vowel of the second radical is a in most of the transitive,
and not a few of the intransitive verbs ; e.g. ^>j-b to beat, s_~^> to
write, jii to hill, <^**j to give ; »,-*i to go away, jkij to go the right
way, tr-W to sit.
38.
signification, u invariably so.
indicates a temporary state or condition, or a merely accidental quality
in persons or things ; whilst u indicates a permanent state, or a
The vowel i in the same position has generally an intransitive
The distinction between them is, that t
C naturally inherent quality.
E.g. p-ji or JJ^ to be glad, OJ*- to oe
sorry, jJiA or jJa^ to be proud and insolent, jti\ to become whitish, *--*y-w
to become gray, j£-i to be safe and sound, \joja to be sick, j+&
to
become old, ^-©* to be blind; but &***> to be beautiful, «~i to be
ttyly, 0*3 to be heavy, U>j£ to be high or noble*, JJU» to be low or
*
j
*
*
j
*
mean,y£a to be large, j**o to be small.
D
Rem. a.
Many verbs of the form ,J*J are transitive according
to our way
of
thinking, and therefore govern the accusative,

e.g. jj* to knoto (scire), «^>

upon, * «-' to hear.

fc.

to tfiink, ^m.j to pity or have mercy

* [Or, to become noble, for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one was not before, Kamil, p. 415. De O.]

noble, for the form with u of the second radical often means to become what one

§ 41] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 31

Rem. b. though the distinction is in these languages no longer so clearly marked.

The same three forms occur in Hebrew and Aramaic, A

[See Comp. Gr. p. 165 seq.~\

39. The second form (J*i) is formed from the first (J**) by doubling the second radical.

40. The signification agrees with the form in respect of being

Originally it implies that

an act is done with great violence (intensive), or during a long time (temporally extensive), or to or by a number of individuals (numerically

intensive (a*JL*JU) or extensive (jti\M).

E.g. <->"' to B

extensive), or repeatedly (iterative or frequentative).

beat, s-jj-o to beat violently ; j £=> to break, j~& to break in pieces ;

%Li to cut, iJaJ to cut in pieces ; jji to separate, ,$j4 to disperse ;

^JiS to kill, J*3 to massacre ; JU. or oil* to go round, Jyo~ or <-ijJ»

to go round much or often; ^f to weep, ^jiy to weep much; JUJ! *^>y»

the cattle died off rapidly or in great numbers (OU to die) ; Sift

J^aJI the camel kneeled down,j^Ji\ J)ji the {whole drove of) camels kneeled down.

41. From this original intensive meaning arises the more usual C Verbs that are intransitive in the

causative or factitive signification.

first form become transitive in the second ; as 9-ji to be glad, ».ji

«-**-«> to be weak, ow-o

to weaken. transitive in the first become doubly transitive or causative in the

to gladden;

Those that are

second ; as^JU to know, jjie. to teach ; yii to write, -Ji£=> to teach to

write ; j4*> to carry, J^»- to make carry.

Rem. a. the second and fourth forms, the apparent difference being that it is original in the latter, but derived in the former.

The causative or factitive signification is common to J)

The second form is often rather declarative or estimative

than factitive in the strict sense of the term ; as «_>J^> to lie, *->S£=>

to think or call one a liar ; J juo to tell the truth, Jjlo to think that one tells the truth, to believe him.

Rem. b.

to think or call one a liar ; J juo to tell the truth, Jjlo to

32

Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

[§ 42

A Rem. c. presses with various modifications the making or doing of, or being occupied
A
Rem. c.
presses with various modifications the making or doing of, or being
occupied with, the thing expressed by the noun from which it is
The second form is frequently denominative, and ex
*A*
9
'
o
-
'A'
derived ; e.g. ^jk. to ;«V<7( a fen< (<U^*- ) to rftoeK in a place, i£*».
to collect an army (cAt* ) ^»*y to pave w?t<A marble (j>\*i.j), ^>y
to become bent like a bow (^a^S), ^joj-o to nurse tJie sick (uZuja), J^»-
to s£in an animal, to frtnrf a book (jJL». <Ae «A?in, compare our " to
stone fruit " and " to stone a person "), }ji to clean an animal of
9
*J
0*
1
*
ticks (i\fi), ±£J3 to take a mote (^J*3) out of the eye.
Compare in
B
Hebrew ftSH, 33T
T?*
7|3D
etc-
Similarly, «£,* . he said to
him jU U jk». (;h<7// //<// nose, or the like, Je cut off), »L». Ae sato* to
ill* r
A
r
0'
'
*
C
r
him <0t)l d)L*. (may <3W prolong thy life), a^JLc^JLi /(« wiia* to Awn
^LJLcvs^lLf {peace be upon thee), Jjb he shouted the Moslem war-cry,
(j^\ 2b\), ^»*. jlii J*o j>o he who enters (the city of) ^a/ar,
m«s( «pea& Ilimyaritic (the language of Himyar, j~+t>-)- Sometimes,
like the fourth form, it expresses movement towards a place; as
*
S
*
m
1
o
-
-
£
i
o
i
,
a»j to seJ om< tn any direction (a»
j),
Jj^i to ao to <Ae ea«< (Jj/£JI),
w>^i to ao to </ie toes< (^jjAJt).
^
Rem. d.
J*J corresponds in form, as well as in signification, to
the Heb. 7fcp and Aram. htSp, ^&A [See Camp. GV. p. 198 sea.]
42.
The <A«Vrf form (J*U) is formed from the first (J**) by
lengthening the vowel-sound a after the first radical, as is indicated
by the elifproductionis,
43.
It modifies the signification of the ground-form in the follow
ing ways.
D
(a)
When jii denotes an act that immediately affects an object
(direct object or accusative), J*U expresses the effort or attempt to
perform that act upon the object, in which case the idea of reciprocity
1**
*
j
e*
(a&,l£»»J1) is added when the effort is necessarily or accidentally a
mutual one.
E. g. *ili he killed him, *A3lJ he (tried to kill him or)
J
l"
eft*
*
*
*
*
t
J
*
*
*

fought with him ; tjJ^. he beat him, »jJU> he fought with him ; **po

or) J l" eft* * * * * t J * * * fought with him

§ 43] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Trilateral Verb. 33

he threw him dawn, ACjlo he wrestled with him ; <*J14 he overcame him, A

fo outran him, a*jL< fo r«» ffl race

wM Aim; *i^S> A« surpassed him in rank, dAJJi, he strove to do so;

<>*«i he surpassed him in glory, »j*.\i he strove to do so, he vied with

him in rank and glory ; »jjd> he excelled him in composing poetry,

/li he competed with

him in a lawsuit, <Le^oU. he went to law with him.

*JU A<? frtoz to overcome him ; <uL

»

him in doing so; <ip.fi*. he got the better of

(b) When the first or fourth form denotes an act, the relation B

of which to an object is expressed by means of a preposition (indirect object), the third form converts that indirect object into the immediate The idea of reciprocity is here,

or direct object of the act (accusative).

as in the former case, more or less distinctly implied.

«iU»)l he wrote (a letter) to the king, .iU^JI wJt£» he wrote to the king,

j*

*

*

t

E.

g.

.Jl vif>

J**

*

corresponded with him ; *) JIS he said to him (something), aJjIS he

conversed with him ; ^UaJLJI .Jl J-yt he sent (a message) to the sultan, ^

mander of the Faithful, Q^**yJ\ %^a\ ^^ do. ; aj *3« he fell upon

him, attacked him, axitj <fo. ; a~U jlit &? advised him, «jjl A« cow-

sulted with him.

(c) When J*i denotes a quality or state, J)*U indicates £A«£

on« person makes use of that quality towards another and affects him

thereby, or brings him into that state.

harsh, Awli A* treated him harshly ; i>*-»- £0 fo </<**/ or Jhna, ***W

fc treated him kindly; &*$ to be soft or gentle, *^i*) he treated him

gently ; L-J to fe &wii, »UdS he hardened himself against him or it ;

or

E. g. t>£*.

to »3« rowgrA

D

jtpj or^*i to feaa" a comfortable life, a*cU fe procured him the means

of doing so.

Rem. a. ideas of effort and reciprocity are always more or less clearly implied.

E.g. witLo to double, from ouuo //<< /i£v> or equal ; JijU»

The third form is sometimes denominative, but the

W.

5

to double, from ouuo //<< /i£v> or equal ; JijU» The third form is sometimes denominative,

34

Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech.

[§44

A to double, fold (Jjp») on fold; ab\ i)lsU may God keep tlute safe

and well, from AJU robust health ; jiL/ to go on a journey (jA-»).

J*l* corresponds in form and signification to the Heb. StOlp (Arab, a - Heb. o) ; see Comp. Gr. p. 202 sey.

Rem. 6.

[Rem. c. the fourth. Thus Jj»-b. kSlw (<?Z. Geog.s.v. jA-i). Zamahsarl, tfiii,

Also *Jl^= MjI,

i.

In a few verbs the third form is used in the sense of

197 cites »j*l(, «lJU,

«^U for »jjl}\ ete.

B Aghani xiii. 52. De G.]

, ,»«

44. The fourth form (J**l) is formed by prefixing to the root

the syllable 1, in consequence of which the first radical loses its vowel.

If the

verb is intransitive in the first form, it becomes transitive in the fourth ; if transitive in the first, it becomes doubly transitive in the

fourth.

C ,_>J^.I to bid one sit down; J-aJI J£»l hi- ate bread, j~aJI aJL&1 he gave

E.g. i£h^ to run, ^5jj»-I to make run; J*)** to sit down,

45. Its signification is factitive or causative (<Lju£U).

him bread to eat ; \^\ ^$\j he saw the thing, f,^^! »ljl he skewed him the thing.

Rem. a. are causative (§ 41, rem. a), they have in some cases different

significations, in others the same.

E. g. ^U to knotv, j£* to teach,

When both the second and fourth forms of a verb

*

*

ot

'

'

St

*

*

si

j^e\ to inform one of a thing ; UJ to escape, ^j^J and ij^J\ to set at liberty, to let go.

The fourth form is sometimes declarative or estimative,

D Rem. b.

like the second ; as <*JU»jt he thought him, or found him to be, >"»* niggardly ; \-.-a*.\ he thought him, or found him to be, cowardly ;

J''

'

aju»».t he found him, or i<, to be praiseworthy or commendable ;

w*;/^' L5*^' ^* found the district abounding in fresh herbage.

Rem. c.

The fourth form comprises a great number of denomi are apparently intransitive, because the Such verbs combine with the idea of the noun, from which they are derived,

E.g. ^JA/l

natives, many

Arabs often regard as an act what we view as a state.

of which

that of a transitive verb, of which it is the direct object.

often regard as an act what we view as a state. of which that of a

§45] I. The Verb. A. General View. 1. Forms of Triliteral Verb. 35

to produce herbage (Ju^), (j>j.}t '" />*** <>**' leaves (J>j.j), j*->l to &«**" A

fruit (j-o->), jJx«l to (/tt'« or yiV;M rain (jJ**) ; w~a 'I to 6e^e< a no6& .w, Oj^ajl, 0*1>I, * /;« ioro a male or a female child, C~oUt sAe

6ore /».'/u.v (compare " to flower," " to seed," " to calve," " to lamb ") ;

%Xj\ to apeak eloquently, » tni\ to apeak with purity and correctness,

t>;

^**

,

,

a

t

~

,i

jJLjI to give a proof (**5lL/) o/" his prowess in battle; ^j ^\, *L>I,

to act well or ill, w~iil to commit a sin, Lfcutt to commit a blunder,

/auft or error, ^jUoI to cfo or «ay wAat is ri<?A< ; Lbul to 6e stow or B

//Of

£*

*

tardy ; pj~>\ to make /taste; JUfct to rctn witf/t outstretched neck;

ij~i\ to become fullgrown (from £>* a tooth) ;j>\&\ to aVaeU or remain

in a place. Another class of these denominatives indicates move ment towards a place (compare "to make for a place"), the entering upon a period of time (being, doing, or suffering something therein), getting into a state or condition, acquiring a quality, obtaining or having something, or becoming something, of a certain kind*.

E.g. J««5t to advance, jj}\ to retire (" reculer "), jtji\ to go on boldly C (compare, in Hebrew, I'DV"?, to go to tlie right, and ^N&BTl, to

a

£

jc

;

.

/

*

it

go to tlie left) ; j>\£>\ to go to Syria (jt\£i\), 1>«jI to go to el- Yimen

t

+ +9*

*

-

:t

J

it «i/

//Of

is*

(i>»-JI), ju^Jl to go to el-Negd (j^JJI), j<n3< to 90 to Tihama (iolyj),

Jij*l to go to el-'Irak (Jjlj*)!), >»j^t to enter <Ae liaram or aacrad

s

*

a

t

//Jt

^

of

territory; p-~ol, j^Jsl, i* *', to enter u/wn iAe <i»i« 0/ morning

(-.L-aJI), mid-day (j^JaJt), or evening (iL^JI) ; oUol, j_j^>l, to erafer

upon tlie summer (ou-cJI) or winter (iU-UI) ; J-»o-l to Aave many 1)

//

ot

camels, *~wl to abound in beasts of prey or to Aace one's flocks &' devoured by them, *^~o\ to abound in lizards (^~&) or to 6e foggy

(^Ij-o) ; y^l to become desert, «_> * > ' to sn^er ,/ront drought (of

people) or to 6e aVy (of a season), ^^Ail to become penniless (to oe

'

'*

serves (instead of VII. or VIII.)

Thus **£» /te </trew /tint on his face, yAl he fell on

* [Hence in a few cases IV.

as the EjUxo of I.

his face, * m -- he field him back,j^ m.\ he drew back, lie retired.]

on * [Hence in a few cases IV. as the EjUxo of I. his face, *

36

Part Second. Etymology or the Parts of Speech. [§ 46

A reduced to the last farthing, u-^i), j>J&\, j>*', to be reduced to utter want
A
reduced to the last farthing, u-^i), j>J&\, j>*', to be reduced to utter
want ; j&i\ to become cloudy, JEJUNI to become worn out (of a
garment) ; ^JXwl to become dubious or confused; ^j\f\ to become plain
or clear; ^jSLa\ to become possible. Another shade of meaning
(w~L-JI, deprivation) may be exemplified by such words as j-*»-l,
to 6rea& one's compact tvith a person;
<«££>l <o remove one's cause
of complaint; ^U&t ^^ cl Ae pointed (the text of) the book, literally,
D
J
B
fooA away its * * ii r-, obscurity or toan< of clearness.
Rem. d.
Jjiil corresponds in form and signification to the Heb.
S'biT!, Phcen. SD|T (^*0. Aram. St3pX, Vi^&of.
See Comp.
Gr. p. 204 seq.
prefix, instead of the feebler Arabic and Aramaic X-
The Hebrew, it will be observed, has Jl as the
Some traces
of the h are still discoverable in Arabic ; as j*-lj-* for «.tjt to give
rest to, to lei rest ; }\jh for >ljl to wish ; JjjjA for Jjtjl to pour out
C
(p*"Vl) : j^* f°r jW to mar& a cto<A / OU </it>e, for Ol
(rad.
.-31,
nJlN, to come) ; ^>*e* = t*DKil to believe.
Forms like Jjjyk are
treated in Arabic as quadriliterals (see §§ 67, 69, and 118), e.g.
imperf.
Jij^yJ or J^j-yJ, Q «tt.', nom. patient. Jjljy-o
or
v5W°>
46.
The ,/?/M form (J**3) is formed from the second (J*») by
prefixing the syllable O.
D
47.
This form annexes to the significations of the second the

reflexive force of the syllable O ; it is the cjUa^ of the second form,

that is to say, it expresses the state into which the object of the action denoted by the second form is brought by that action, as its effect or result.

In English it must often be rendered by the passive.

E. g. j~£j to he broken in pieces, Jj/*3 to be dispersed; xJcuu to be cut

in pieces, >^>j^>2 to be moved or agitated; >J>jiJ to be afraid (>-»»*. to

J

*t

*

* £**

9

9

*

J