Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

HEBAT Bacaan BI

Unit 12

UNIT 12 :
NANO TECHNOLOGY

What is
nanotechnology?

How was
nanotechnology
developed?

What are the


benefits of this
kind of
technology?

Why is it
important in
our everyday
lives?

Can you name a


product using
nanotechnology?

262

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR BEGINNER LEVEL


BY THE END OF THE
LESSON,
STUDENTS CAN:

i.
ii.
iii.

Write antonyms and synonyms.


Find and select relevant information in a text.
Respond to innovations related to nanotechnology.

Reading Strategy: Skim and Scan


5W1H
STRATEGIES/
APPROACHES

LOTS: Understanding
HOTS: Analysing
21st Century Learning

VALUES
LEARNING/
TEACHING AIDS
SITUATION

Diligence
Worksheet
Flash cards
Public
Educational

TEXT FORMAT

Single

TEXT TYPE

Descriptive

COGNITIVE
PROCESS

Scan and locate


Represent literal and gist meaning

*refer to HEBAT Bacaan Bahasa Inggeris Reading Strategies


**refer to 21st Century Learning: Cooperative Learning Structures
***refer to Guide to Using HOTS in a Reading Classroom

263

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

ACTIVITIES

SKILLS/ APPROACHES

STEP 1
a. Students read TEXT 1.
b. Students fill in the blanks with correct synonyms and
antonyms (WORKSHEET 1).
c. Class discuss answers.

LOTS:
Understanding
Reading Strategy:
Skim and Scan

STEP 2
a. In pairs, students read TEXT 1 again and answer
5W1H* questions in WORKSHEET 2.
b. Students discuss answers with their face partner**.

Reading Strategy:
5W1H
HOTS:
Analysing
21st Century Learning:
Think-Pair-Share

STEP 3
a. In groups, students answer questions in a World
Cafe** activity (WORKSHEET 3).
b. Students discuss and answer the questions.

HOTS:
Analysing
21st Century Learning:
World Cafe

264

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

TEXT 1

WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY?
What is it?
The 'Nano' part is referring to the size of the thing being made.
A 'nanometer' is absolutely tiny, being a billionth of a metre. This is hard to imagine,
so to give you an idea, the smallest atom in the universe is the hydrogen atom. You
can line up ten hydrogen atoms in one nanometer.
So nano-technology is making devices at the atomic scale.
How did it come about?
It has been around for about 15 years. Maybe one of the most significant starting
points was when scientists developed a device that could spell 'IBM' on the surface
of a crystal by moving individual atoms around. They won the Nobel Prize for that.
Then along came a molecule going by the wonderful name of 'BuckminsterFullerene'. This is an arrangement of 60 carbon atoms in the shape of a football. It
showed that it was possible to make things at the atomic scale.
So thousands of researchers around the world started to look at what could be
made. Some looked at new materials with properties never-before seen. Others had
ideas to put atoms together in the shape of tubes and rods to see what they could
do.

265

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

The more over-excited scientists wrote books about tiny machines traveling
through your blood, fixing you from the inside-out, or making anything you
want from nano-glob, a bit like the star-trek machine that makes coffee from
nothing.

So what has it really done for us?


Medicine
Nano-technology has produced better ways of delivering vital drugs to the right place
in your body - but not in the shape of a tiny submarine! Nano-cages trap the drug
molecules and then carry them to where they are meant to go.
Materials
Nano-particles are added to steel and
plastics to give them improved properties.
For example:
A new type of carbon fibre, developed at
the University of Cambridge, could be
woven into super-strong body armour for
the military and law enforcement.
Input Sensors
Nano-technology is used to make very sensitive, tiny sensors for detecting various
physical effects. For example there are now sensors used in modern cars that can
detect the car being in a potentially lethal situation (i.e. crash), so allowing brakes
and safety devices to be used effectively in an emergency. MEMS = "Micro ElectroMechanical Systems".
Electronics
This is probably the most significant area for nano-technology. For the past fifty
years, engineers have made smaller and smaller devices; today they can make
electronics down to about 60 nano-metres.
There is a bit of leeway left, but around 35nm is just about the last stage engineers
can go before they have to take a different way. Transistors start to behave in weird,
unpredictable ways when they get smaller than this because individual atoms begin
to have an effect. These are called 'quantum' effects. With nano-technology you will
often see the word 'quantum' crop up.
It is early days, but nano-technology is making it possible to build up devices from
atoms, so devices will become ever smaller.

266

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

Recently a scientist/engineer won the 2007 Nobel prize for discovering a nano-scale
effect that allows hard-disk heads to be two thousand times smaller than the width of
a human hair. This is why you now see 1 Terabyte hard disks appearing. And the
future?

Renewable Energy
Scientists have recently used nano-wires 200 times thinner than a human hair to
create tiny solar power cells.
Medicine
Nano-technology is being used to create artificial corneas and develop new ways of
measuring your health.
World Health
Millions of people have no clean water to drink. Nano-clay and nano-fibres are being
used to create cheap, effective water filters for developing countries.
Smart dust
Engineers have recently made a radio component the size of a virus, so maybe
'smart dust' will become a reality where smart particles are spread over a battle field
to report back to base. Or the particles are placed in your body to report back on
your health.
Computers
Quantum computers, with processing devices at the atomic level, promise to be a
million times faster than today's supercomputers.
Global warming
Cars are adding to the global warming problem by burning fossil fuels. An alternative
to petrol is to use hydrogen. But no-one has figured out a convenient and safe way
of storing the hydrogen in the car. Nano-technology is being used to see if the
hydrogen can be stored inside a 'Buckminster-Fullerene' type atomic cage.
Nano-technology remains a fascinating field where surprises continue to crop up.

267

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12
WORKSHEET 1
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

Synonyms

Antonyms

Small :

Scientists :

Devices :

Developed :

Won :
Artificial

Improved:
Sensitive

268

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12
WORKSHEET 2
Answer all questions. Choose the correct answer and there might be more than one
correct answer.
1.

The first paragraph discusses


a)
The origin of nanotechnology
b)
The background of the founder
c)
What nanotechnology is all about

2.

They won the Nobel Prize for that. According to the text, which of the following
events has led to the winning of the Nobel Prize?
a) The arrangement of 60 carbon atoms in the shape of a football
b) The production of better ways of delivering vital drugs
c) The development of a device that could spell 'IBM' on the surface of a
crystal by moving individual atoms around
d) The invention of very sensitive, tiny sensors for detecting various
physical effects

3.

The more over-excited scientists wrote books about tiny machines traveling
through your blood, fixing you from the inside-out, or making anything you
want from nano-glob, a bit like the star-trek machine that makes coffee from
nothing.
What does the paragraph above tell you about the scientists reaction to the
discovery of nanotechnology?
a)
b)
c)
d)

4.

They are overwhelmed by the finding


They are too ambitious
They are afraid of being obsolete
They are adequately ready for new challenges

Read the statements and tick in the correct box.

No.
a.

b.

c.

d.

Statement
Nano-technology has produced better ways of delivering
vital drugs to the right place in your body in the shape of a
tiny submarine.
There are now sensors used in modern cars that can detect
the car being in a potentially lethal situation (i.e. crash
MEMS = "Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) so allowing
brakes and safety devices to be used effectively in an
emergency.
Transistors start to behave in weird, unpredictable ways
when they get smaller than 3.5nm because individual atoms
begin to have an effect. These are called 'quantum' effects
Quantum computers, with processing devices at the atomic
level, promise to be a million times faster than today's
supercomputers

True

False

269

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12
WORKSHEET 3

WORLD CAF
Students sit at different tables in a cafe setting and each table is
assigned a question for the participants to discuss and respond to.

Quantum computersWhat
do you know about this?
Global warmingHow can you
overcome this problem by
applying Nano Technology?

What do you know about Nano


Technology and how do you
explain that briefly?

270

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR INTERMEDIATE LEVEL


BY THE END
OF LESSON,
STUDENTS
CAN:

i. Analyse a text and answer Wh-questions.


ii. Classify and categorize information from a text
Reading Strategy: Skim and Scan
PARApoint
LOTS: Understanding

STRATEGIES/
APPROACHES

HOTS: Applying
Analysing
Evaluating
21st Century Learning

VALUES

Rationality

LEARNING/
TEACHING
AIDS

Worksheet
Picture

SITUATION

Educational

TEXT FORMAT

Single

TEXT TYPE

Description

COGNITIVE
PROCESS

Represent literal and gist meaning


Integrate and generate inferences

*refer to HEBAT Bacaan Bahasa Inggeris Reading Strategies


**refer to 21st Century Learning: Cooperative Learning Structures
***refer to Guide to Using HOTS in a Reading Classroom

271

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

ACTIVITIES

STRATEGY/
APPROACHES

STEP 1
a. Students guess the meaning of the word
nanotechnology.
b. Discuss definitions of the words nano and
technology (PICTURE 1).
c. Students check their answers (PICTURE 2).

STEP 2
a. Students read the article about nanotechnology using
PARApoint* or PREVIEW, ANALYSE, RE-READ and
ACCENTING important points(TEXT 1).
b. Students answer the questions and discuss with a
shoulder partner**. (WORKSHEET 1)
c. Class discuss answers and teacher gives feedback.

LOTS:
Understanding
Vocabulary

Reading Strategy:
Skim and Scan
PARApoint
HOTS:
Analysing
Evaluating
21st Century
Learning:
Think-Pair-Share

STEP 3

a. Students study examples of new inventions in


WORKSHEET 2.
b. Students use a suitable i-THINK*** Map to categorise
the inventions according to:

HOTS:
Applying
Analysing
Evaluating
i-THINK

i. Nanotechnology Inventions
ii. Non Nanotechnology Inventions
c. Class discuss answers in a Round Robin** activity.

21st Century
Learning:
Round Robin
Round Rally

272

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

PICTURE 1

PICTURE 2

273

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

TEXT 1

What is Nanotechnology?
What is it?
The 'Nano' part is referring to the size of the thing being made.
A 'nanometer' is absolutely tiny, being a billionth of a metre. This is hard to
imagine, so to give you an idea, the smallest atom in the universe is the
hydrogen atom. You can line up ten hydrogen atoms in one nanometer.
So nano-technology is making devices at the atomic scale.
How did it come about?
It has been around for about 15 years. Maybe one of the most significant
starting points was when scientists developed a device that could spell 'IBM' on
the surface of a crystal by moving individual atoms around. They won the Nobel
Prize for that.
Then along came a molecule going by the wonderful name of 'BuckminsterFullerene'. This is an arrangement of 60 carbon atoms in the shape of a football.
It showed that it was possible to make things at the atomic scale.
So thousands of researchers around the world started to look at what could be
made. Some looked at new materials with properties never-before seen. Others
had ideas to put atoms together in the shape of tubes and rods to see what they
could do.
The more over-excited scientists wrote books about tiny machines traveling
through your blood, fixing you from the inside-out, or making anything you want
from nano-glob, a bit like the star-trek machine that makes coffee from nothing.
So what has it really" done for us?
Medicine
Nano-technology has produced better ways of delivering vital drugs to the right
place in your body - but not in the shape of a tiny submarine! Nano-cages trap
the drug molecules and then carry them to where they are meant to go.

274

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

Materials
Nano-particles are added to steel and plastics to give them improved properties.
For example, a new type of carbon fibre, developed at the University of
Cambridge, could be woven into super-strong body armour for the military and
law enforcement.
Input Sensors
Nano-technology is being used to make very sensitive, tiny sensors for
detecting various physical effects. For example there are now sensors used in
modern cars that can detect the car being in a potentially lethal situation (i.e.
crash), so allowing brakes and safety devices to be used effectively in an
emergency. MEMS = "Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems".
Electronics
This is probably the most significant area for nano-technology. For the past fifty
years, engineers have made smaller and smaller devices; today they can make
electronics down to about 60 nano-metres.
There is a bit of leeway left, but around 35nm is just about the last stage
engineers can go before they have to take a different way. Transistors start to
behave in weird, unpredictable ways when they get smaller than this because
individual atoms begin have an effect. These are called 'quantum' effects. With
nano-technology you will often see the word 'quantum' crop up.
It is early days, but nano-technology is making it possible to build up devices
from atoms, so devices will become ever smaller.
Recently a scientist/engineer won the 2007 Nobel prize for discovering a nanoscale effect that allows hard-disk heads to be two thousand times smaller than
the width of a human hair. This is why you now see 1 Terabyte hard disks
appearing.
And the future?
Renewable Energy
Scientists have recently used nano-wires 200 times thinner than a human hair
to create tiny solar power cells.

275

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

Medicine
Nano-technology is being used to create artificial corneas and develop new
ways of measuring your health.
World Health
Millions of people have no clean water to drink. Nano-clay and nano-fibres are
being used to create cheap, effective water filters for developing countries.
Smart dust
Engineers have recently made a radio component the size of a virus, so maybe
'smart dust' will become a reality where smart particles are spread over a battle
field to report back to base. Or the particles are placed in your body to report
back on your health.
Computers
Quantum computers, with processing devices at the atomic level, promise to be
a million times faster than today's supercomputers.
Global warming
Cars are adding to the global warming problem by burning fossil fuels. An
alternative to petrol is to use hydrogen. But no-one has figured out a convenient
and safe way of storing the hydrogen in the car. Nano-technology is being used
to see if the hydrogen can be stored inside a 'Buckminster-Fullerene' type
atomic cage.
Nano-technology remains a fascinating field where surprises continue to crop
up.

Worksheet 1

276

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12
WORKSHEET 1

The excerpt below is taken from Text 1. Answer the questions based on the excerpt
and your understanding of the passage.

It has been around for about 15 years. Maybe one of the most
significant starting points was when scientists developed a device that
could spell 'IBM' on the surface of a crystal by moving individual
atoms around. They won the Nobel Prize for that.
Then along came a molecule going by the wonderful name of
'Buckminster-Fullerene'. This is an arrangement of 60 carbon atoms
in the shape of a football. It showed that it was possible to make
things at the atomic scale.

a) Both breakthroughs basically revolve only around the ability to move things
around (moving atoms to spell IBM and arrange atoms in the shape of a football).
What is the ground-breaking discovery that made the scientists won the Nobel Prize
for it?

Nano-technology has produced better ways of delivering vital


drugs to the right place in your body - but not in the shape of a
tiny submarine! Nano-cages trap the drug molecules and then
carry them to where they are meant to go.

b) How would people benefit from this technology?

There is a bit of leeway left, but around 35nm is just about the
last stage engineers can go before they have to take a
different way. Transistors start to behave in weird, unpredictable
ways when they get smaller than this because individual atoms
begin to have 'quantum' effects. With nano-technology, you
will often see the word 'quantum' crop up.
Nano-technology is making waves in producing novice devices
from atoms to create a better life for all.

c) What is quantum effect?


d) What is one advantage of having devices made smaller?

277

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12
Global warming
Cars are adding to the global warming problem by burning
fossil fuels. An alternative to petrol is to use hydrogen. But noone has figured out a convenient and safe way of storing the
hydrogen in the car. Nano-technology is being used to see if
the hydrogen can be stored inside a 'Buckminster-Fullerene'
type atomic cage.
Nano-technology remains a fascinating field where surprises
continue to crop up.

e) What is one challenge that needs to be overcome in order for hydrogen to be


used as an alternative fuel?
f) In your opinion, will there be any consequences from the advent of nanotechnology? Give the pros and cons.
OR

In your opinion, will nanotechnology continue to revolutionize ways to improve the


lives of people?

278

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

WORKSHEET 2

279

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR ADVANCED LEVEL


BY THE END OF
LESSON,
STUDENTS CAN:

i. Discuss the validity of a new nanotechnology product.


ii. Write short descriptions about the new product.
Reading Strategy: Skim and Scan
PARApoint

STRATEGIES/
APPROACHES

HOTS: Applying
Analysing
Evaluating
Creating
st

21 Century Learning
VALUES

Rationality
Youtube

LEARNING/
TEACHING AIDS
SITUATION
TEXT FORMAT
TEXT TYPE

Worksheet
Picture
Educational
Single
Description

COGNITIVE
PROCESS

Understand literal and gist meaning


Assess quality and credibility
*refer to HEBAT Bacaan Bahasa Inggeris Reading Strategies
**refer to 21st Century Learning: Cooperative Learning Structures
***refer to Guide to Using HOTS in a Reading Classroom

280

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

ACTIVITIES

STEP 1
a. Watch a video and discuss how nanotechnology
benefits human beings (SCREENSHOT 1).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7BjkXF2bxU

STRATEGIES/
APPROACHES

HOTS:
Analysing
Evaluating

(i) Students categorise facts by filling in the


Fact Table*** provided (WORKSHEET 1).

STEP 2
a. Students read an article on nanotechnology using
PARApoint technique (TEXT 1) and answer questions
(WORKSHEET 2) .
b. In groups, students present and justify their answers.

Reading Strategy:
PARApoint
Skim and Scan
HOTS:
Analysing
Evaluating

STEP 3
a. In groups, students invent a new nanotechnology
product as required in WORKSHEET 3.
b. Students present their innovation and classmates give
comments in a Carousel Feedback** activity.

c. Students discuss the validity of the new products and


give opinions on how best to improve them.

HOTS:
Applying
Analysing
Creating

21st Century
Learning:
Carousel Feedback

281

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12
SCREENSHOT 1

282

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12
WORKSHEET 1

Tick(/) the correct column


NO

CATEGORY

FACTS
SAFETY

Creates an invisibility
cloak

Produces bullet proof


business suit

Cures paralysed limbs

Recharge portable
gadgets through
clothes or fabric

Blades made of
Damascus steel can
cut through stones or
metals

Nanobots consume
matter on earth by selfreplicating

Damages brain

Produces higher
quality papers

Produces high tech


boots to scale smooth
buildings

10

Cure cancer

MEDICAL

INDUSTRY

283

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

TEXT 1

284

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

WORKSHEET 2

Answer the questions based on the excerpt and your understanding of the passage.

Manufacturing Advantages
Nanotechnology is already making new materials available that could revolutionize many
areas of manufacturing. For example, nanotubes and nano particles, which are tubes and
particles only a few atoms across, and aerogels materials composed of very light and strong
materials with remarkable insulating properties, could pave the way for new techniques and
superior products. In addition, robots that are only a few nanometers in length, called
nanobots, and nanofactories could help construct novel materials and objects.

1. Based on the excerpt above, the manifestation of nanotechnology results in


creation of new techniques and superior products. What makes this technology
better compared to the previous ones?

2. With the marked change in the manufacturing sector caused by nanotechnology,


it has resulted in the creation of nanobots and nanofactories. How do you think
this will affect job opportunities in a country?

Energy Advantages
Nanotechnology may transform the ways in which we obtain and use energy. In particular,
its likely that nanotechnology will make solar power more economical by reducing the cost
of constructing solar panels and related equipment. Energy storage devices will become
more efficient as a result. Nanotechnology will also open up new methods of generating and
storing energy.

3. Based on the excerpt above, what is likely to happen if nanotechnology is not


utilised in generating energy?

285

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

Environmental Effects
Some of the more extravagant negative future scenarios have been debunked by
experts in nanotechnology. For example: the so-called gray goo scenario, where
self-replicating nanobots consume everything around them to make copies of
themselves, was once widely discussed but is no longer considered to be a credible
threat. It is possible, however, that there will be some negative effects on the
environment as potential new toxins and pollutants may be created by
nanotechnology.
Economic Upheaval
It is likely that nanotechnology, like other technologies before it, will cause major
changes in many economic areas. Although products made possible by
nanotechnology will initially be expensive luxury or specialist items, once availability
increases, more and more markets will feel the impact. Some technologies and
materials may become obsolete, leading to companies specializing in those areas
going out of business. Changes in manufacturing processes brought about by
nanotechnology may result in job losses.

4. Nanotechnology, as stated above, is said to have negative effects in many areas,


which can disrupt a countrys economy. In your opinion, explain how the adverse
effects of nanotechnology to the environment affect a countrys economy?

Privacy and Security


Nanotechnology raises the possibility of microscopic recording devices, which would
be virtually undetectable. More seriously, it is possible that nanotechnology could be
weaponized. Atomic weapons would be easier to create and novel weapons might
also be developed. One possibility is the so-called smart bullet, a computerized
bullet that could be controlled and aimed very accurately. These developments is
indeed a boon for the military.
5. The author strongly claims that nanotechnology has brought great advantage in the
private and security area. But in your opinion how far is this true if these developments fall
into the wrong hands?
6 The smart bullet and many other developments are said to benefit the army when they
fall into the wrong hands, the consequences would be dire. In your own words, explain
the undesirable effects caused by these developments.

7. If you were asked to create a new technology, what will it be and in which
area/field will your creation benefit the most?

286

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

WORKSHEET 3
A. Create a new technology that helps to improve ones life in various areas.

1. Area: Education

Problem: Heavy bags

Solution
New Technology: ___________________________________

Description
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

287

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

2. Area: Search & Rescue

Problem: Locating trapped victims in buildings

Solution
New Technology: ___________________________________

Description
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

288

HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 12

ASSESSMENT / PROJECT
Students imagine that they are in a real world situation as marketing executives. They
are required to promote and market the innovative product their group created in the
Advanced Level activity.
In groups, students plan a marketing project.
ACTIVITIES

STEP 1
a. Students are asked to reflect on the activity that they
have done for the Advanced Level.
b. In this project, they will be asked to develop a marketing
strategy for their product.
c. Marks will be given based on:
i. Cooperation
ii. Creativity
iii. Presentation
iv. Supporting material

SKILLS/
APPROACHES

Action Oriented
Task

HOTS:
Applying
Analysing
Evaluating
Creating

*Teacher will determine a suitable time frame for completion


of the project.

STEP 2
a. Students will present their project in class via Gallery
Walk**.

21st Century
Learning:
Collaboration

289