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Thermometry And Thermal Expansion

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2.
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3.
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4.
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Define heat (a) on conventional basis (b) on the basis of kinetic


model.
(a) On the conventional basis heat is the from of energy
which causes in us sensation of warmth.
(b) On the basis of kinetic model, heat is the sum total of
kinetic and potential energies of all the molecules of a
substance.
Define temperature (a) on conventional basis (b) on the basis of
kinetic model.
(a) On the conventional temperature the degree of hotness or
coldness of a body.
(b) On the basis of kinetic model, temperature is the average
kinetic energy of all the molecules of a substance.
State three differences between heat and temperature.
(1) Heat is the sum total of potential and kinetic energies of all the
molecules of a substance, whereas temperature is the average
kinetic energy of all the molecules of a substance.
(2) Heat is an energy and is measured in joules, whereas
temperature is degree of hotness and is measured in degrees on
a suitable scale.
(3) The amount of heat in a body depends upon the number of
molecules, whereas temperature of a body depends upon its
average kinetic energy of molecules.
State four effects, which heat energy can bring about.
(i) Heat brings about change in temperature.
(ii) Heat brings about change in dimensions of a body.
(iii) Heat brings about change in state of a body.
(iv) Heat brings about chemical reactions in large number of
bodies.

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5.

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(a) Name the instrument for measuring temperature.


(b) Name two liquids which are commonly used as thermometric
liquids.
(c) State the principle on which common laboratory thermometer
works.
(a) Thermometer.
(b) Mercury and alcohol.
(c) Liquids expand on heating and contract on cooling.
State four characteristics of an ideal thermometric liquid.
(i) The liquid should have low specific heat capacity.
(ii) The liquid should have wide range i.e., high melting point and
low freezing point.
(iii) The liquid should have uniform rate of expansion.
(iv) The liquid should have large expansion for small rise in
temperature, such that it is visible to unaided eye.
State four reasons for using mercury as thermometric liquid.
Reasons for using mercury as thermometric liquid :
(a) It has a very low specific heat capacity.
(b) It has a uniform rate of expansion.
(c) It has a wide range, I,e., its b.p. is 357C and freezing point
39 C.
(d) It dose not stick to the sides of glass capillary tube.
(e) It is a good conductor of heat.
(f) It is opaque and shining and can be easily seen in glass.
State two disadvantages of mercury thermometer.
1. It cannot be used below 39 C as mercury freezes at this
point.
2. The expansion of mercury per C rise in temperature is very
small. Thus, fractional divisions of one degree are not
possible.

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9.
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10.
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12.

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State two advantages of alcohol thermometer over mercury


thermometer.
1. Expansion of alcohol is fairly large for one degree Celsius rise
in temperature as compared to mercury. Thus, fractional
divisions of a degree are possible.
2. It does not freeze up to 100 C. Thus, it can be used to record
very low temperature.
State two disadvantages of alcohol thermometer over mercury
thermometer.
1. Alcohol is a very poor conductor of heat. Thus, alcohol
thermometers are not quick in action.
2. Alcohol thermometer cannot be used beyond 78 C for
recording higher temperatures.
State six reasons for not using water as a thermometric liquid.
Reasons for not using water as thermometric liquid :
(a) It has the highest specific heat capacity of 4.2 jg 1C1 .
(b) Its rate of expansion is not uniform.
(c) It boils at 100 C and freezes at 0C and hence, does not have a
wide range.
(d) It is transparent and is not visible in glass.
(e) It sticks to the sides of glass capillary tube.
(f) It is a bad conductor of heat.
(a) What do you understand by the term standard point?
(b) Define the following and state their magnitude in (i) degrees
Celsius (ii) degrees Fahrenheit
(i) Lower standard point
(ii) Upper standard point.
(a) The melting point of pure ice and the boiling point of pure
water at a pressure of 76 cm of mercury are called standard
points of a thermometer.
(b) (i) The melting point of pure ice at a pressure of 76 cm of
mercury is called lower standard point.
Magnitude of lower standard point is 0 C or 32 F.

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(ii) The boiling point of pure water at a pressure of 76 cm of


mercury is called upper standard point.
Magnitude of upper standard point is 100 C or 212 F.
(ii) Refer to point 11, Unit I.
Magnitude of upper standard point is 100 C or 212 F.
13.
Name two thermometric scales, commonly used for laboratory
thermometers. State the relation for converting temperature from
one scale to another scale.
Ans. (i) Celsius scale or centigrade scale (C)
(ii) Fahrenheit scale (F).
C F 32 C F 32
Relation :
=
or =
100
180
5
9
(a) Draw a neat labelled diagram for clinical thermometer.
14.
(b) Answer the following questions regarding clinical
thermometer.
(i) Why is its stem thin and short?
(ii) Why is its stem made triangular?
(iii) Why is the scale on it marked from 95F to 110F ?
(iv) Why is its capillary tube provided with constriction?
(v) Why is its bulb made fairly large?
(vi) Why this thermometer is washed with water and jerked
before use?
(vii)What does it indicate when temperature recorded by it
is (a) below 98.4F (b) above 98.4 F.
Ans. (a) Diagram is given below.

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(b) (i) The stem is made short as it is a specialised thermometer


which records temperature between 95 F to 110 F or 35
C to 43 C.
The stem is made thin so that it can easily fit in mouth
cavity.
(ii) Total internal reflection takes place in triangular stem,
Thus, a thin thread of mercury in the capillary tube
appears as a broad band and hence the temperature can be
easily read.
(iii) It is because temperature of human body does not fall
below 95 F or rise above 110F as in either case death
occurs. Thus, in order to keep thermometer sensitive, its
stem is marked between 95 F to 110 F.
(iv) The constriction in capillary tube does not allow the
mercury to flow back into bulb, when thermometer is
taken out from the mouth of patient. Thus, it helps in
recording accurate temperature of the patient.
(v) Larger the bulb, more is the amount of mercury in it and
hence more is the expansion of mercury for 1C rise in
temperature. As the expansion of mercury increases per
degree rise in temperature, therefore divisions on the stem
can be marked far apart. This helps in making
thermometer sensitive.
(vi) It is washed with water to remove any germs or bacteria
sticking to it. It is jerked so that mercury flows back to
bulb and thermometer is ready for use.
(vii)If the temperature recorded is below 98.4 F then person is
considered to be suffering from some kind of weakness. If
the temperature is above 98.4 F then person is suffering
from fever.

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15.

State two ways to make a thermometer (a) Quick in action (b)


Sensitive.
Ans. (a) To make thermometer quick in action.
1. The bulb should be made from very thin glass.
2. The size of bulb should be decreased.
(b) To make thermometer sensitive.
1. The bore of capillary tube should be made as fine as
possible.
2. The bulb should be made of large volume.
Criticize the action of a nurse who sterilised clinical thermometer
16.
in boiling water.
Ans. Nurse did not realise that the maximum temperature a clinical
thermoteter can record is 110 F, whereas temperature of boiling
water is 212 F. Thus, when clinical thermometer is placed in
boiling water, it is likely to break, because there is no space for the
expanding mercury.

Numerical Problems
Express 350 C into Fahrenheit scale.
17.
Ans.
9

F = C + 32.
5
9
= 350 + 32 = 662 F.
5
Express 250 C into Fahrenheit scale.
18.
F 32
C
=
Ans.
9
5
9
9
F =
C + 32 = (250) + 32 = 450 + 32 = 418 F.
5
5

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19.
Express 112 F into Celsius scale
Ans.
Temperature in Fahrenheit scale = 112 F.
C
F 32
=

5
9
5
5
5

C=
(F 32) =
(112 32) = = 44.44
9
9
9
C.
Express 58 F into Celsius scale.
20.
Ans.
Temperature in Fahrenheit scale = 58 F
5
5
5
Temp. in Celsius, C = (F 32) = ( 58 32) = 90
9
9
9
= 50 C.
21. The temperature of human body rises by 1 C. Calculate the
corresponding rise in temperature on Fahrenheit scale.
Ans. Degrees between standard points on Celsius scale
= (100 0) = 100
Degrees between standard points on Fahrenheit scale
= 212 32 =180.
Now,
100 C = 180 F
180
= 1.8 F.

1 C =
100
22.
The average temperature of human body is 98.6 F, Calculate the
equivalent temperature in Celsius scale.
5
(F 32)
Ans.
Temperature in Celsius scale C =
9
5
= (98.6 32) = 66.6 = 37 C.
9

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23.

The mercury thread rises by 3/5 parts between the standard points
on Celsius scale when the bulb of thermometer is placed in hot
water. Calculate the temperature (a) in Celsius scale (b)
Fahrenheit scale.
Ans. (a) Number of divisions between standard points on Celsius scale
3
3
= 100. of Celsius scale = 100 C = 60 C.
5
5
(b) Temp. on Fahrenheit scale,
9
9
C + 32 = 60 + 32 = 108 + 32 = 140 F.
F=
5
5
Mercury thread falls by 9/16 parts between two standard points on
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Celsius scale when boiling water at 100 C is allowed to cool.
Calculate the temperature in (a) Celsius scale (b) Fahrenheit
scale.
Ans. (a) Number of divisions between standard points on Celsius scale
= 100.
9
9

of Celsius scale =
= 56.25 C
16
16
Fall in temperature = 56.25 C
Temperature on Celsius scale = 100 5625 = 43.75 C.
9
(b) Temperature on Fahrenheit scale, F = C + 32
5
9
= 43.75 + 32 = 78.75 + 32 = 110.75 F.
5

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25.

The mercury thread falls by 7/8 parts between two standard points
on Fahrenheit scale when pure boiling water at 76 cm pressure is
allowed to cool to room temperature. Calculate the room
temperature in (a) Fahrenheit scale (b) Celsius scale.
Ans. (a) Number of divisions between standard points on Fahrenheit
scale = 180
7
of Fahrenheit scale =
180 = 157.5 F.
8
Fall in temperature = 157.5 F
Temperature on Fahrenheit scale = (212 157.5) F = 54.5 F.
5
Temperature on Celsius scale, C =
(F 32) = (54.5 32)
9
5
= 22.5 = 12.5 C.
9
The mercury thread rises by 11/16 parts between two standard
26.
points on Fahrenheit scale when placed in hot milk. What is the
correct temperature in (a) Fahrenheit scale (b) Celsius scale.
Ans. (a) Number of divisions between standard points on Fahrenheit
scale = 180.
11
11

of Fahrenheit scale =
= 123.75 F.
16
16

Rise in temperature = 123.75 F.


Temperature on Fahrenheit scale = (123.75 + 32) =
155.75 F.
5
5
(b) Temperature on Celsius scale, C = ( F 32) =
= (155.75
9
9
5
32) = 123.75 = 68.75 C.
9

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27.

At what temperature, numerical value of Celsius and Fahrenheit


thermometers is same?
Ans. Let the common value be x.
C F 32
Now, =
=
5
9
x
x 32

=
5
9
9 x = 5x 160
x = 40
4 x = 160
Thus, 40 C and 40 F are common values on both scales.
When will Celsius thermometer read twice as much as Fahrenheit
28.
thermometer ?
Ans.
Let the temperature on Fahrenheit scale = x

The temperature on Celsius scale = 2x


C
F 32
Now,
=
5
9
2x x 32

=
5
9
18x = 5x 160
160
13x = 160.
x=
= 12.30 F.
13

Fahrenheit temp. = 12.30 F

Celsius temp.
= 2 (12.30) = 24.60 C.
What do you understand by the term linear expansion of solids?
29
Ans. If the surface area of a material is too small, such that it can be
neglected, then increase in length of material on heating is called
linear expansion.

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30.
Describe an experiment to prove that solids expand on heating.
Ans. Take Gravesands ring and ball
apparatus. Check that ball passes
through ring at room temperature.
Heat the ball strongly on a flame
for five minutes and try to pass
the ball through ring. It is observed
that ball does not pass through ring.
Thus, experiment proves that solids
expand on heating.
Name three factors which determine the thermal (linear)
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expansion of solids
Ans. Factors on which linear expansion depends :
(i) Linear expansion in a solid is directly proportional to its
initial length.
(ii) Linear expansion in a solid is directly proportional to rise in
temperature.
(iii) Linear expansion in a solid depends upon nature of material.
What do you understand by the following terms ?
31.
(i) Superficial expansion
(ii) Cubical expansion :
Ans. (i) Superficial expansion, If the material is in the form of a
plate, such that its thickness is too small as compared to
surface area and hence, can be neglected then increase in
surface area on heating is called superficial expansion.
(ii) Cubical expansion : Increase in volume of a material on
heating is called cubical expansion.
State two examples in which thermal expansion of solids is put to
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good use.
Ans. (i) During rivetting of metal plates the expansion of solids is put
to good use.
(ii) In mounting iron rims over wooden wheels expansion of solids
is put to good use.

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34.
Give two examples where expansion of solids is hindrance.
Ans. (i) The expansion of solids is a hindrance in laying electric
transmission wires as they sag in summer and snap in winter
due to expansion and contraction.
(ii) The expansion of steel rails during summer is a hindrance as it
tends to bend the rails.
(a) What is a bimetallic strip ?
35.
(b) Name two devices which use bimetallic strip ?
Ans. (a) The thin plates of two different metals, which are riveted
together at number of points in such a way that they cannot
slids on being heated or cooled is called bimetallic strip.
(b) (i) Thermostat (ii) Fire alarm.
36. How bimetallic strip is used in the construction of thermostat ?
Illustrate your answer by diagram.

Normally, the contact points are in contact with each other and
hence, current flows through heating coils. When the temperature
rises to some particular value, the bimetallic strip bends
downward. This breaks the electrical circuit and hence,
temperature stops rising. When the temperature. falls, the contact
points rejoin and again current starts flowing. Thus, a constant
temperature is maintained.

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37.

Diagram alongside shows a steel washer. Explain how the


following are affected when washer is heated to 100 C.
(i) Internal diameter (ii) External diameter (iii) Mass.
(iv) Density (v) Volume.
Ans. (i) Internal diameter of washer increases.
(ii) External diameter of washer increases.
(iii) Mass of washer remains same.
(iv) Density of washer decreases.
(v) Volume of washer increases.
A compound bar of brass and invar
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is shown in diagram. Copy the diagram
and on it show the changes which
occur, when bar is heated. Indicate
by completing the diagram, how the
bar could be used to operate a fire
alarm system at a particular temperature.
Ans. When the temperature rises to some pre-determined value, the
bimetallic strip bends and makes contact with the contact screw.
This in turn completes electrical circuit and hence bell starts
ringing.

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39

The diagram shows a bimetallic strip as


used in a simple fire alarm.
(a) Name suitable materials for A and B.
(b) What adjustments would you make to
the arrangement shown, to make the alarm
operate at lower temperature ? Give reasons
for your answer.
Ans. (a) A is invar and B is brass.
(b) The contact points are brought closer to one another. This
makes the bimetallic strip to make contact at lower
temperature and hence, bell starts ringing.
Diagram alongside shows a bimetallic
40
strip, a battery B and two bulbs L1 and L2.
Copy the diagram and complete the electric
circuit such that:

(a) L1 glows when temperature falls


20 C, below the room temperature.
(b) L2 glows when temperature rises
50 C, above the room temperature.

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41. Explain the following :


(a) Why are tonga drivers seen to pour water over wooden wheels
in summer?
(b) Why are telegraph wires not fixed very tightly in winter?
(c) Why are small gaps left between rails of a railway track?
(d) Why does a thick glass tumbler crack when boiling water is
poured in it?
(e) Why are the griders supporting bridges mounted on roller?
(f) Why does a platinum wire fuse more easily in glass than
copper wire?
(g) Why is pitch filled in between the cement blocks of pavement?
(h) Why are rivets heated to red hot temperature during riveting
?
(i) Why does borosil glass not cracks on heating directly on a
flame?
(j) Why does a hot glass chimney cracks when drop of water falls
on it?
(k) Why do we put hot water on the jammed metal cap of an
inkpot?
Ans. (a) The iron rims mounted on wooden wheel expand in summer
due to heat. There is a possibility that iron rim may expand to
such an extent that they may slip from wooden wheel. To
prevent such a slippage cold water is poured over the wheels
which does not allow the rims to expand.
(b) This is to allow for contraction of wires in winter. If we do not
keep the wires some what loose, then in winter they will
contract to such an extent that they may snap.
(c) This is to allow for expansion of rails in summer as otherwise
when the rails expand, they will bend. This in turn will cause
derailment.

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(d) The glass is a bad conductor of heat. Thus, when boiling water
is poured in glass tumbler, the inner surface suddenly
expands, but not the outer surface. This uneven expansion
builds a lot of strain within the glass and hence breaks it.
(e) This is to allow for expansion of girders in summer. When the
girders increase in length they move forward on roller, without
exerting any strain on supporting pillars.
(f) The cubical expansion of platinum and glass is almost same.
Thus, when platinum wire is fused in glass, it does not loosen.
However, the cubical expansion of copper is very large. Thus,
when copper wire is fused in glass, on cooling it contracts far
more than glass. Hence it loosens out.
(g) The cement blocks like any other solid expand on heating. If
no space is left in between the blocks, the force of expanding
block will produce cracks in them. Thus, to avoid such a
situation, gaps are left between blocks and then filled with
pitch. The pitch being soft gets squeezed out when blocks
expand.
(h) On heating the rivets expand. When the ends of rivets are
hammered after placing them in a hole in metal plate, their
length decreases. On cooling, they further decrease in length
and hence hold the metal plates very tightly.
(i) Borosil is a special kind of glass, whose cubical expansion is
very very small. Thus, when heated there is not much
difference in the expansion of external and internal surface.
Hence, no strain builds up in the vessel of borosil. Thus, it
does not crack on directly heating on flame.
(j) The point where drop of water falls, suddenly contracts.
However, rest of the chimney stays in expanded position. This
results in uneven expansion, which develops a strain within the
glass and hence it cracks.

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(k) The cubical expansion of metal cap is very large as compared


to glass. Thus, on pouring boiling hot water, the cap expands
far more than glass. Thus, cap loosens and hence can be easily
removed.
How will you prove experimentally that (i) liquids expand on
42.
heating? (ii) liquids expand more than solids for the same rise in
temperature?
Ans. Take a test tube completely filled with
coloured water, such that in its mouth
is fixed a stopper containing a long glass
tubing. Let the level of liquid in glass
tubing be at A. Place the test tube in a
beaker, containing boiling hot water.
It is observed that first the level of
water falls to B and then rises up to
C. The fall in level of liquid can be
attributed to the fact that initially the
glass tube expands, but not the water.
However, the level of liquid rises to C, when liquid starts
expanding. Thus, experiment proves:
(1) Liquids expand on heating.
(2) Liquids expand more than solids for the same rise in temperature.
What do you understand by the term anomalous expansion of
43.
water?
Ans. It means that water does not behave like normal liquids when
heated or cooled. It has been found that water has minimum
volume at 4 C. If the water is heated or cooled from 4 C, it
always expands.

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44.

Draw a graph between volume and temperature when 5 cm3 of ice


at 10 C is heated to form water at 10 C.

Ans.

45
How do fishes survive in frozen lakes ?
Ans. Only the top surface of lake freezes due to anomalous expansion of
water. Water below the surface of ice stays between 0 C to 4 C.
Thus, fishes can easily survive in water, below the surface of ice.
46.
A deep pond of water has its top layer frozen during winter. What
will be the temperature of water layer (i) just in contact with ice?
(ii) At the bottom of pond?
Ans. (i) The temperature of water just in contact with ice is 0 C.
(ii) The temperature of water at the bottom of pond is 4 C.
Adjacent figure shows a hard glass test
47.
tube containing coloured water, such
that level of water is up to point A. The
test tube is placed in a large beaker
containing boiling hot water. It is
observed that level of coloured water
first drops to B and then rises up to C.
Answer the following questions:
(a) Why is there a drop in the level of water ?

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(b) Why does the level of water start rising


after some time ?
(c) State two important deductions which can be made regarding
the action of heat on liquids from the above observations.
(d) If the test tube is placed in ice cold water, instead of boiling
hot water, state your observations with reasons.
Ans. (a) The test tube expands first, but not the coloured water. Due to
the increase in volume of test tube, the level of water drops
from A to B.
(b) It is because liquid after gaining heat expands and hence, level
of liquid rises to C.
(c) (i) Liquids expand on heating.
(ii) Liquids expand more than solids (glass).
(d) Initially, the level of liquid rises in glass tubing and then falls
down. It is because initially the test tube contracts but not
coloured water. Thus, level of water rises up. However, when
coloured liquid contracts the level falls down.
The adjacent figure shows Hopes apparatus, used to study
48.
anomalous expansion of water. Answer the following questions:
(a) Amongst A and B, which thermometer will register fall in
temperature first and why?
(b) Which thermometer will stop registering fall in temperature after
some time?
State the magnitude of lowest temperature recorded by this
thermometer.
(c) Give an explanation of your answer in (b).
(d) Why does the second thermometer goes on recording fall in
temperature?
(e) What conclusions can be drawn about the nature of water from the
above experiment?
(f) State one natural consequence of the above property of water.

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Ans. (a) Thermometer B. It is because, as the water in the region of


freezing mixture, falls in temperatrue, its volume decreases, its
density increases and hence it sinks down.
(b) Thermometer B. It is because,
when water attains a temperature
of 4 C, its density is maximum.
Thus, it just settles down and
cannot rise up. Thus, the temperature
of thermometer B stops registering
any fall in temperature.
(c) Refer to answer in 7(b).
(d) It is because, when the tem-perature
falls below 4 C, the water starts
expanding and hence moves
upward. Thus, ther-mometer A continues
registering fall in temperature.
(e) (i) Water has maximum density at 4 C.
(ii) Water has minimum volume at 4 C.
(iii) Water has anomalous expansion i.e., it expands, if heated
or cooled from 4 C.
(f) When the water bodies (such as lakes; rivers; seas), freeze in
cold countries in winter, only the upper surface freezes to form
ice. Water below ice stays at 4 C and hence, water animals
can survive.
49.
Draw a diagram showing the temperature of various layers of
water in an ice covered pond.
Ans.
Why are soft drink bottles not completely filled ?
50.
Ans. All soft drinks contain water. When soft drink bottles are chilled in
sub-zero temperatures, the water on account of its anomalous
expansion expands. Thus, to provide space
for expanding water, soft drink bottles are not completely filled as
otherwise they will burst.
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51.
Why do water pipes burst during severe frost?
Ans. When the temperature falls below zero degree Celsius, the water in
the pipes expands dueto anomalous expansion. However, if there is
no space for expansion, then it exerts tremendous pressure on the
pipes and bursts them.
Why does a glass bottle filled completely with water and tightly
52
corked, break in a freezer chamber of fridge?
Ans. When the temperature of water within the glass bottle falls below 4
C, it starts expanding due to anomalous expansion. Since, there is
no space for expansion, it exerts tremendous pressure and bursts
open the bottle.
53.
Why are exposed water pipes lagged with straw in hilly regions
during winter?
Ans. When the pipes are lagged, the temperature of water within the
pipes does not fall below 4 C. Thus, due to anomalous expansion,
water will not exert force on pipes and hence, escape bursting.
Why are the taps left dripping in sub-zero temperatures during
54.
winter?
Ans. The dripping taps will always create some space for expansion.
Thus, when water in the pipes freeze in sub-zero temperatures, due
to its anomalous expansion, it expands. This expanding water
always finds space for expansion as tap is dripping. Thus, water
pipes do not burst.
55.
Why do vegetables and fruits get damaged during severe winter?
Ans. When the water in the cell sap freezes, it expands due to
anomalous expansion. This expanding water breaks the cell walls,
which in turn damages fruits.
A partly filled balloon is placed close to an electric heater. After
56.
some time, it is noticed that balloon gets fully inflated. Explain.
Ans. It is because, gases expand on heating . The increase in volume of
gas in turn inflates the balloon.

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