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quindos

qdcams
Measurement of Cams and
Camshafts
Reference Manual
M41-151-000-211
1st Edition 1992

Measurement of Cams and Camshafts

Order No.:

M41-151-000-211 (english)

1st Edition 1992


Software-Version : QUINDOSR V1.2
Copyright E 1992 by Brown&Sharpe GmbH

The software described in this manual is provided under a license agreement


and may only be used and copied in accordance with this said agreement.
Brown&Sharpe takes no responsibility for software that was not delivered by it
or one of its dealers.
This manual contains information for the user. Warranty claims due to imperfec
tions in the contents are excluded. We reserve the right to changes. No part of
this book, including excerpts, may be reproduced or disclosed to third parties
without prior written authorization from the Brown&Sharpe GmbH.

Reference manual

Contents

Contents

QUINDOS QDCAMS

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Measurement of Cams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digitizing the Cam-Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
7
9
9
9

General Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
11
11
12

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


CAMCIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAMROT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAMSTK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAMTRN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAMVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ERRSTEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13
15
16
16
17
19
20
20
22
23
23
25
26
27
28
29
30
30
32

Camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAMSHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Explanation of the inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
36
39
39
41
42

Example of a measuring program for camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

Output of the results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


CAMSH1_P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cam Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAMECH_P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stroke-Error-Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAMSSA_P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stroke, Velocity, Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49
50
51
52
53
54
55

List of all commands in QUINDOS option QDCAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57
3

Contents

Reference manual

Introduction

Introduction
Until now almost every measurement of cams or camshafts was executed by specific
measuring equipment, which register directly the influence of the cam to a follower
system.
Using a 3DCoordinate Measuring Machine the camprofile is digitized by a high density of measuring points.
The evaluation of the actual camfunction, which is the influence that the cam has on
its followersystem, requires special mathematical algorithm.
The Software Option QUINDOS QDCAMS has all necessary tools to check the quality
and judge the function of cams and camshafts.

QUINDOS QDCAMS

Introduction

Reference manual

Measurement of Cams

Measurement of Cams
Digitizing the
CamProfile

All cam evaluations are executed independently from any specific measuring machine. Every function and algorithm to do the evaluation has access only to the measuring points of the cam profile. The cam profile therefore is digitized in a 2DSection
and the coordinates are stored as so called APTs (Actual Points) in QUINDOSElements.
Because the question is no longer the camevaluation, the measurement of the profile
can be optimized by selecting the most efficient and suited measuring device.
D LEITZ PMM-Measuring Machines are using the very powerful and fast SCAN
NING to digitize the cam-profile in order to gather a maximum of measuring
points in the shortest possible time and a maximum of measuring accuracy.
To increase the throughput any kind of a pallet can be used to put several cams or
camshafts at once on to the object stage.
The use of a rotary table is possible but not necessary.
Any number and kind of probe pin is suitable to measure the part in a static condi
tion. Consequently additional measuring errors such as using a rotary table or
bending of the camshaft are totally eliminated.
D The LEITZ SIRIO, one of the worlds fastest and most accurate measuring robots
digitizes the profile by means of 'STEP by STEP'-SCANNING.
D Optical Sensors.
D Laser.
D Any measuring device that produces cartesian coordinates of the cam can be
applied to do the measurement. Either direct within QUINDOS or indirect by
transferring the data into QUINDOS.

QUINDOS QDCAMS

Measurement of Cams

Cam Measurement

Reference manual

Measurement of Cams

Coordinate
system

The coordinatesystem should be set up according to the nominal data of the cam. By
measuring and connecting geometrical elements a corresponding coordinate system
for the cam measurement can be defined.

Example 1

Cam with indexdrilling:

X
D Plane on the top-surface of the cam disc.
D Cylinder in the cam bearing.
D Circle in the index-drilling.
D Axis through cam bearing and index-drilling.
D Establish coordinate system.

Example 2

Cam without additional elements:

Maximum of cam

Segment of circle
D Plane on the top-surface of the cam disc.
D Circle-Segment on the cam profile.
D Cam-Segment close to the cam maximum.
QUINDOS QDCAMS

Measurement of Cams

D Calculate the maximum distance between the measured cam-segment and the
circle center.
D Construct an axis of circle center and cam maximum.
D Establish coordinate system.

10

Reference manual

General Definitions

General Definitions
Requirements

The software option QDCAMS is a special addition to the option OPER2D in order to
check not only the profile but also the cam function as a basis for a cam judgement.
Tools of both software options are necessary for the complete evaluation of a cam.

Definitions

Normal vector :

The vertical vectors of the curve coordinates are called


'normal vectors', at the same time these vectors point
away from the material.

Clockwise and
Counter-clockwise
rotation :

Looking at a coordinate-system plane from the positive


direction of a coordinate axis - the clockwise rotation is a
right hand turn and the counter-clockwise rotation is a left
hand turn.

Inside\Outside
Identification :

Besides the sense of rotation when collecting measuring


points also the material-identification of an element (in
side\outside) is very important for the calculation of the
normal vectors. This identification has to be determined
when the measuring task is defined.

QUINDOS QDCAMS

11

General Definitions

Example

ME2DE (NAM=ELE_2D, INO=I)


The required identification results from the following context :

Material on right side

Material on left side

Counter-clockwise

Inside

Outside

Clockwise

Outside

Inside

INO=O

INO=I

CLW=N

CLW=Y

12

Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams


The following commands are used for the cam evaluation :
D CAMCIR

Calculation of the base circle

D CAMSTK

Camstroke calculation of a rotating cam and a translating follower

D CAMROT

Camstroke calculation of a rotating cam and a rotating follower

D CAMTRN

Camstroke calculation of a translating cam and a rotating or


translating follower

For further explanation see the diagrams on next page !

QUINDOS QDCAMS

D CAMVEL

Calculation of velocity and acceleration of a cam follower

D ERRSTEP

ErrorStep calculation

13

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

Cam Follower Arrangement


Flat follower

Central
follower

CAMSTK

rolling

Translating
follower

Dy

Result

Excentric
follower

Rotating cam

Xp

Rolling follower

<DL1>

a
f

CAMROT
Rotating
follower

Da

<PIV>

Flat follower

Result

<DL1>

<PIV>
f
Rolling follower

Translating
follower

CAMTRN

Dy

Curve bar
Rotating
follower

Da

Rolling follower

<DL1>

<PIV>

14

Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

CAMCIR

The range in which the cam radius keeps constant is called cam base circle. For some
calculations it is necessary to know the actual radius at the cam-profile. The command
CAMCIR can be used to determine radius and center point of a curve in a defined area.
CAMCIR calculates the best-fitted circle in space from all points in the range of the
base circle. As a result an element of the type CIR is created in QUINDOS. This means
in the following measurement it can be used as a normal geometrical element for
connections and evaluations.

CALCULATE CAM BASE CIRCLE

Command

= CAMCIR

Name of base circle element


Name of cam data element
Start angle of evaluation range
End angle of evaluation range

(NAM)
(ELE)
(BGN)
(END)

=
=
=
=

Rad. corr. of base circle ([Y]/N) (RCO) =


Name of element for remaining pts. (REM) =

REM

ELE

END
NAM
BGN

QUINDOS QDCAMS

15

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

Standard case

Calculation of a circle in a defined profile range in order to get the exact radius (base
circle radius) in this area.
The default evaluation consists of the X, Y, Z coordinates of the base circle center point
and its diameter.

Special cases

NAM

Name of the result element.

ELE

Name of the element containing the cam curve.

RCO

Radius correction for base circle during calculation ([Y]/N).

D Calculation of a circle in a defined profile range in order to get the exact radius
(base circle radius) in this area.
Y

REM

ELE

END
NAM
BGN

Entire cam

Cam area

Basic circle
area

BGN

Begin of base circle, specified as an angle.

END

End of base circle, specified as an angle.


The inputs <BGN> and <END> are in reference to the positive Xaxis
of the coordinate system.
E.g.:
The cam maximum is located in the positive Xaxis and the
base circle extends symmetrically over a range of 200 degree
:
BGN = 80
END = 280

D Store all points belonging to the cam base circle as APT's in addition to the
calculated circle (e.g. for a RUNOUTPlot).
APT

16

Should all actual points (APT's) belonging to the base circle be stored to
the element specified under (NAM) ([Y]/N). If the points are not needed
for further evaluations the input 'N' will save both, space and time.
Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

D All points belonging to the cam curve, which are the points outside the range of
the base circle, should be stored as a separate element (e.g. for the camstroke
calculation).
REM

Element for the remaining curve. This element will contain all points of
the cam curve excluding the points which define the base circle.

Basic circle area

Example

Cam shape area

Calculate the base circle of cam A1 of a camshaft in the range from 90 degree to 270
degree. The resulting points of the base circle as well as the points of the actual cam
profile should be stored at their destination elements.

CALCULATE CAM BASE CIRCLE

Command

= CAMCIR

Name of base circle element


Name of cam data element
Start angle of evaluation range
End angle of evaluation range

(NAM)
(ELE)
(BGN)
(END)

=
=
=
=

A1CIR
A1
90
270

Rad. corr. of base circle ([Y]/N) (RCO) = Y


Name of element for remaining pts. (REM) = A1REM

E V A L U A T I O N S
EVAL.
FORM
DM
RA
X
Y
Z

QUINDOS QDCAMS

NOMINAL
0.0000
34.0000
17.0000
0.0000
0.0000
66.7000

N.T

U.TOL.
0.0000
0.1500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500

L.TOL.
0.0500
0.1500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500

ACTUAL

AN

0.0118 0.0118
33.9386 0.0614
16.9693 0.0307
0.0187 0.0187
0.0078 0.0078
66.7161 0.0161

CONTR.

TEXT

FN
VN
VN
DN
DN
DN

17

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

CAMROT

Using the command CAMROT the cam stroke for rotating cams with an oscillating
follower is calculated. This movement, i.e. the changing angle of the cam follower, is
stored as a result of the cam stroke calculation. Thereby the measuring data of a
profile section have to be parallel to a coordinate system plane (XY, YZ or ZX).
The basis for the calculation are the parameter of the cam follower.
<PIV>
(pivot-distance),
<FD1>
(roller diameter),
<DL1>
(arm-length of the cam follower)
<SRC>
(Cam profile)
Additional control parameter adjust the evaluation to the nominal data. An evaluation
range (<BGN>, <END>) can be defined. The step increment of the stroke evaluation
as well as a pre-alignment to the nominal data can be given in variable settings
(<STP>, <OFF>).
The results of the evaluation are stored to the destination element <DST>.
The actual points (APTs) include the result of every evaluation step :
X
Angle of the pivot-arm (angle at base circle + stroke angle)
Y
Current rotation angle of the cam in degree
C
Current rotation angle of the cam in radiant
Z
Stroke angle difference of pivot-arm between base circle and cam range.
The actual element (ACT) shows the maximum cam stroke :
X
Maximum angel of the pivot-arm
Y
Rotation angle of the cam at maximum stroke
Z
Maximum stroke angle

CALCULATE CAM STROKE


FOR ROTATING FOLLOWERS
Command
Name of source element
Name of destination element
Anglular increment
[1]
Start angle of eval. range
[1]
End angle of eval. range
[360]
Offset angle
[0]
Type of Evaluation ([ROL],FLA)
Pivot length
Length of follower arm
Roller diameter D1 (master)
Base circle diameter of cam
Abscissa/Ordinate
[XY]
Curve clockwise ?
(Y/[N])
Curve open ?
([Y]/N)
Name of error element
Name of copy element
Angles in degrees

18

= CAMROT
(SRC)
(DST)
(DLT)
(BGN)
(END)
(OFF)
(TYP)
(PIV)
(DL1)
(FD1)
(CIR)
(A_O)
(CLW)
(OPN)
(ERR)
(CPY)
(DEG)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

y
<DL1>

a
a

x
<PIV>

Standard case

<DL1>

<PIV>

Calculate the stroke of an oscillating follower for a measured cam in the range from 1
degree to 360 degree.
The following input are necessary to do a standard stroke evaluation :

Special cases

SRC

Name of the source element.


Radiuscorrected measuring points of the cam.

DST

Name of the destination element. If no destination element is given, the


calculated stroke values shall be stored in the source element.

PIV

Pivot distance.
It is the distance between the rotating point of the cam system and the
rotating point of the follower system.

DL1

Length of follower arm.


For evaluation type 'FLA' means the normal distance, the height of the
follower lever.
A negative value means the follower will probe the cam in the negative
Yarea.

FD1

Roller diameter. [0]

CIR

Base circle diameter.


Examples for possible inputs:
a) numerical value :
10.5
b) real variable :
DIA (assign a value e.g. DIA=10.5)
c) element name :
<name>.ACT.ABS.PT.X

D Variation of the angle step increment.


DLT

(Delta).Angular step for the stroke evaluation [1].


A positive step performs a counter clockwise rotation of the cam. A
negative delta turns the cam clockwise. The angles of the result element
always start with <BGN> (first evaluation) and count absolute delta
values <DLT> up to <END> (last evaluation).

D Limitation of the evaluation range.

QUINDOS QDCAMS

BGN

First angle for stroke evaluation [1].

END

Last angle for stroke evaluation [360].


The inputs for BGN and END are related to the cam rotation.
19

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

D The angle of the reference cam is not 0 degree.


OFF

Offset angle [0].


The cam will be rotated before the stroke evaluation is started. This
means that the measured cam can be adjusted to the nominal position.

D A flat follower is moved by the cam.


TYP

Type of evaluation.
[ROL] = Roller follower
FLA = Flat Follower (Plane)

D The cam profile is not parallel to the XYplane of the coordinate system.
A_O

AbscissaOrdinate.
This input indicates which abscissa and ordinate values are to be used.
([XY]/YZ/ZX)

D The measuring points are not in a counter clockwise order.


CLW

Cam data clockwise ([N]/ Y)

D The measuring values don't describe the complete cam profiles (open profile!).
OPN

Curve open ? ([N]/Y)

ERR

Name for error element.

D Evaluations are not copied from the default element DEF$CAM1.


CPY

Name for copy element.

D Angle shall be given in radiant.


DEG

Angle in degree ? ([Y]/N)

The measured stroke angles can be given in degree or in radiant.

20

Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

CAMSTK

With the command CAMSTK (calculate cam stroke) the stroke of various cam
followers will be calculated.
Thereby the measuring data, a profile section of the cam, have to be parallel to a
coordinate system plane (XY, YZ or ZX), <A_O>.
The calculation is based on the parameter of the cam follower <TYP> and the cam
base circle <CIR>.
Additional control parameter adjust the calculation to the nominal values. An
evaluation range can be defined (<BGN>, <END>). The step increment for the cam
stroke evaluation as well as a pre-alignment to the nominal values can be given in
variable settings (<STP>, <OFF>).
The calculated stroke values are stored to the destination element <DST>.
The resulting points (APTs) will have the following meaning :
X
Y
B
Z

Distance between the cam center and the cam follower


Current rotation angle of the cam in degree
Rotation angle in radiant (Y-value * PI/180).
Stroke of the cam-follower

The actual element (ACT) shows the maximum cam stroke as follows :
X
Y
Z

Radius of the cam at the stroke maximum


Rotation angle (position) for the stroke maximum
Maximum stroke for the evaluated positions

CALCULATE CAM STROKE

QUINDOS QDCAMS

Command

= CAMSTK

Name of source element


(SRC)
Name of destination element
(DST)
Anglular increment
[1] (DLT)
Start angle of eval. range
[1] (BGN)
End angle of eval. range
[360] (END)
Offset angle
[0] (OFF)
Base circle diameter
(CIR)
Type of eval.
([PLA],PNT,ROL) (TYP)
Diameter of roller follower [0] (RDI)
Xposition of follower
([0])(ROX)
Abscissa/Ordinate
[XY](A_O)
Curve clockwise ?
(Y/[N])(CLW)
Curve open ?
([Y]/N)(OPN)
Name of error element
(ERR)
Name of copy element
(CPY)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

21

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

TYP = PLA

<ROX>

TYP = ROL

TYP = ROL

ROX = 0

ROX = 10

Calculation types
Standard case

Special cases

Stroke calculation of a flat follower whereby the follower is positioned in the positive
y-direction of the current cam coordinate system. The stroke calculation is based on a
complete cam rotation (0 degree to 360 degree).
SRC

name of the source element.


Radiuscorrected measuring points of the cam.

DST

name of the destination element.


If no destination element is given, the calculated stroke values shall be
stored in the source element.

CIR

Diameter of the base circle


Examples :
- Numerical value

10.5

- Real variable

DIA (assign a value e.g. DIA=10.5)

- Element name

<Name>.ACT.ABS.PT.X

D Variation of the angle step increment


DLT

(Delta). Angular step for the stroke evaluation [1].


A positive step performs a counter clockwise rotation of the cam. A
negative delta turns the cam clockwise. The result angles start with
<BGN> (first evaluation) and count absolute delta values up to
<END> (last evaluation).

D Limitation of the evaluation range


BGN

First angle for the evaluation [0].

END

Last angle for the evaluation [360] [360].


The inputs for BGN and END are related to the cam rotation. The
calculation of the stroke values are based on the assumption that the
stroke follower is positioned in the positive ydirection of the current
cam coordinate system.
Example :
The cam maximum is positioned in the positive xdirection and the base
circle extends symmetrically over a range of 200 degree (BGN=0,
end=180), this means you have to add 10 degree to the whole stroke
range for a correct evaluation.

22

Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

D The angle of the reference cam is not 0 degree


OFF

Offset angle [0].


Before the first stroke evaluation is to be executed the cam can be
rotated by an offsetangle in order to prealign the cam to the nominal
data.

D The cam has not a flat follower


TYP

Typ of cam follower


[PLA]
PNT
ROL

Flat follower (plane)


Point follower
Roller follower

D A roller follower is selected, the roller diameter has to be given.


RDI

Roller diameter of follower [0].


This input is only with <TYP> = ROL necessary.

D A roller follower is selected. A possible eccentricity of the roller can be given (dis
tance to the yaxis)
ROX

Xvalue for the roller position [0].

D The cam profiles are not parallel to the XY plane of the coordinate system.
A_O

Abscissa/Ordinate ([XY]/YZ/ZX).

D The measuring points are not in a counter clockwise order.


CLW

Curve clockwise? ([N]/Y).

D The measuring data don't describe the complete cam profiles (open profile!)
OPN

Curve open ? ([N]/Y).

D The evaluations are not executed by the default element DEF$CAM1.


CPY

QUINDOS QDCAMS

Name for copy element

23

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

CAMTRN

The command CAMTRN (calculate cam stroke for translating cams) calculates the
movement of a follower (translating or rotating) in a translating cam system
(Barrel-cam).
(<TYP>=ROT) means rotating cam follower
(<TYP>=TRN) means translating cam follower
The measuring data of a profile section have to be parallel to a coordinate system
plane (XY,YZ or ZX),<A_O>.
The calculation is based on the parameter of the cam follower:
<PIV>

Pivotpoint (X,Ycoordinates for the point of rotation, necessary when


<TYP> = ROT)

<FD1> Roller diameter


<SRC> Name of the source element (cam profile)
Additional control parameter adjust the evaluation to the nominal values
(<BGN>, <END>, <STP>, <OFF>).
The resulting points <DST> of the evaluation are stored to the destination element
with the following meaning :

The actual points (APTs) show the results for every evaluation step :
<TYP> TRN
X
Y
Z

Current stroke (distance between follower and Xaxis, disregarding


base level).
Current cam movement (value of the xshift).
Current stroke (cam stroke movement; including base level).

<TYP> ROT
X
Y
Z

Angle between positive Xaxis and arm of cam follower (disregarding


base level).
Current cam movement (value of the Xshift).
Current stroke angle (cam stroke movement; including base level).

The actual element (ACT) shows the maximum cam stroke :


<TYP> TRN
X
Y
Z

maximum cam stroke (disregarding base level)


Value of Xshift for maximum stroke
maximum cam stroke (disregarding base level)

<TYP> ROT
X
Y
Z
24

maximum stroke angle between positive Xaxis and arm of cam


follower (disregarding base level)
Value of Xshift for maximum stroke.
maximum stroke angle (including base level)
Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

CALCULATE CAM STROKE


FOR TRANSLATING FOLLOWERS
Command

= CAMTRN

Name of source element


Name of destination element
Anglular increment
[1]
Start angle of eval. range
[0]
End angle of eval. range
[360]
Offset angle
[0]
Type of evaluation
([TRN],ROT)
Pivot point
(X,Y)
Length of follower arm
Roller diameter D1 (master)
Base level
[0]
Abscissa/Ordinate
[XY]
Curve clockwise ?
(Y/[N])
Curve open ?
([Y]/N)
Name of error element
Name of copy element

(SRC)
(DST)
(DLT)
(BGN)
(END)
(OFF)
(TYP)
(PIV)
(DL1)
(FD1)
(BAS)
(A_O)
(CLW)
(OPN)
(ERR)
(CPY)

a
y
<DL1>

<PIV>

TYP=ROT

Standard case

QUINDOS QDCAMS

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

TYP=TRN

Calculate the movement of a roller follower in a translating cam system. The follower is
located in the Y-axis of the cam coordinate system. The cam movement goes along
the X-direction
SRC

Name of the source element.


Radiuscorrected measuring points of the cam.

DST

Name of the destination element.

DLT

(Delta). Step increment for the stroke evaluation [1].


A positive step performs the movement of the cam in positive Xdirection. A
negative delta performs the movement of the cam in negative Xdirection.

BGN

First cam position for the evaluation [0].

END

Last cam position for the evaluation.


The input for BGN and END are related to the cam movement.

OFF

Offset [0].
Before the first stroke evaluation is to be executed the cam can be shifted
along the Xaxis by the offset value; ie adjusting the cam to the nominal
position.
25

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

Special cases

FD1

Diameter of roller follower [0].

BAS

Base level [0].


The value for the base level is the reference level for the cam stroke
(Stroke=0).

D Calculate the stroke of an oscillating cam follower (rotating). The following


parameter of the cam follower are necessary :
TYP

Typ der Auswertung.


[TRN]
Translativer Nockenfolger
ROT
Rotierender Nockenfolger

TYP

Evaluation typ.
[TRN]
Translating cam follower
ROT
Rotating cam follower

PIV

Pivotpoint (rotation point) for cam follower.


(Example: (10,10) X=10, Y=10)

DL1

Length of the follower arm


(Only necessary when <TYP> = ROT)
A negative value means the follower will probe the cam in the negative
Yarea.

D The cam profiles are not parallel to the XY plane of the coordinate system.
A_O

Abscissa\Ordinate This input indicates which abscissa and ordinate


values are to be used. ([XY]/YZ/ZX).

D The measuring points are not in a counter clockwise order


CLW

26

Curve clockwise ? ([N]/Y).

Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

CAMVEL

For a qualitative evaluation of a cam system it is often necessary to know the velocity
and\or acceleration of the cam follower. The calculation of the velocity and
acceleration are executed by the command CAMVEL (velocity and acceleration of a
cam follower).
In CAMVEL the velocity is calculated by the numerical differentiation of the cam stroke
curve (path of the follower). The differentiation of the velocity goes to prove the
acceleration of the cam follower initiated by the cam-rotation.
Therefore velocity and acceleration are standardized depending on the input of the
speed per mm\sec resp. mm\sec2.
Units :
Velocity :

mm/sec

Acceleration :

mm/sec2

VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION FOR CAM FOLLOWER

Command

= CAMVEL

Cam stroke element


(STK)
Cam velocity element
(VEL)
Cam acceleration element
(ACC)
Revolutions per minute
[1] (RPM)
Abscissa/Ordinate
[YZ] (A_O)
Angle in degrees
([Y]/N) (DEG)
Curve clockwise ?
(Y/[N]) (CLW)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

The evaluation requires at least 6 measuring points.


Stroke in mm
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

QUINDOS QDCAMS

y = f(x) -> Stroke curve of the cam follower

-150

-100

-50

50

100

150

Rotation angle in decimal degrees

27

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

Velocity in
mm/degree

y = f'(x) -> Velocity of the cam follower


(1. derivation of the path to the angle)

12
8
4
0

-150

-4

-100

-50

50

100

150

Rotation angle in decimal


degrees

-8
-12

Acceleration in
mm/degree2

y = f(x) -> Acceleration of the cam follower


(2. derivation of the path to the angle)

40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30

Standard case

-150

-100

-50

50

100

150

Rotation angle in decimal


degrees

D Calculation of the velocity and acceleration of a cam follower. The speed of the
cam is one revolution per minute.
D The stroke of the cam follower is stored as APT's of element <STK>. The unit is
mm per degree. Field Y contains the angle in decimal degree, field Z contains the
stroke in mm.
STK

Name of the source element which contains the stroke of a cam follower
as a function of the rotation angle.

D The velocity is stored as APT's to element <VEL>. Field Y equals the angle in
decimal degree, field Z equals speed in mm/sec.
VEL

Name of the result element for the calculated follower velocity.

D The acceleration is stored as APT's to element <ACC>. Field Y equals the angle
in decimal degree, field Z equals the acceleration in mm/sec2.
ACC

28

Name of the result element for the calculated acceleration of the cam
follower.

Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

Special cases

D The cam speed <RPM> shall be given in variable settings.


RPM

Cam speed (number of revolutions per time unit).


Standard default [1/min.]

D The camstroke <STK> is not stored as APT's in the fields Y and Z.


A_O

Abscissa/Ordinate.
This input indicates which abscissa (rotation angle) and ordinate
(stroke values) are to be used as the stroke function.
Standard default:[A_O=YZ]

D The rotation angles also for the resultingelements don't appear in decimal
degrees but in radiant.
D The cam stroke doesn't have an increasing rotation angle.
CLW

Example

Curve clockwise ?
Standard default:[Y]

Calculate velocity and acceleration of a cam follower based on the stroke of a cam A1.
The speed is 1 revolution per minute.

VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION FOR CAM FOLLOWER

NOMCAM

= CAMVEL

Cam stroke element


(STK)
Cam velocity element
(VEL)
Cam acceleration element
(ACC)
Revolutions per minute
[1] (RPM)
Abscissa/Ordinate
[YZ] (A_O)
Angle in degrees
([Y]/N) (DEG)
Curve clockwise ?
(Y/[N]) (CLW)

= NOMCAM
= NOMVEL
= NOMACC
=
=
=
=

Stroke in mm
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

QUINDOS QDCAMS

Command

-150

-100

-50

50

100

150

Rotation angle in decimal degrees

29

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

NOMVEL

Velocity in
mm/degree
12
8
4
0
-4

-150

-100

-50

50

150

Rotation angle in decimal


degrees

-8
-12

NOMACC

100

Acceleration in
mm/degree2
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30

30

-150

-100

-50

50

100

150

Rotation angle in decimal


degrees

Reference manual

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

ERRSTEP

The command ERRSTEP (Error step evaluation) calculates and evaluates the
maximum error variation in a predefined window <WND>.
If form-evaluation <FRM> is selected as the evaluation-mode <MOD> each local form
is determined in the window and stored to the particular evaluation point.

CALCULATE ERROR STEP

Command
Name of result element
Name of source element
Range of Points for eval.
[1]
To store points
([Y]/N)
Search window
[2]
Curve open ?
([Y],N)
Mode. Error step or local form
evaluation (FRM).

= ERRSTEP
(NAM)
(ELE)
(STP)
(SAV)
(WND)
(OPN)

=
=
=
=
=
=

(MOD) =

The arguments have the following meaning :


NAM

Name of the result element

ELE

Name of the source element.


The deviations of this element (descriptor A of APT's) are used for
evaluation.

STP

Step increment for the evaluation [1]. The evaluation range will be shifted
stepwise <STP>.

SAV

Restore all the actual points (APT's) to the result element. ([Y]/N).

WND

Window for the evaluation (Window). The evaluation range is defined as


the current point number +\ <WND>. All points in this window are
compared with each other and used to determine the maximum error step
or local form.

OPN

Open curve ? [Y]/N.

MOD

Mode;
Use mode to select the type of evaluation.
The evaluation range is defined by a window of the size

QUINDOS QDCAMS

31

Measurement and Evaluation of Cams

In the STP mode the maximum error step between two neighbouring points
is evaluated.
<MOD> = STP
Error

WND WND
Step

Number of points

In the FRM mode the form deviation and the distance between the smallest
and the largest error are evaluated within the evaluation window.
<MOD> = FRM
Error

WND WND
Form
n

32

Number of points

Reference manual

Camshaft

Camshaft
The measurement of a camshaft in QUINDOS is basically performed in three steps :
D Measuring
The measurement of the camshaft can be limited to the probing of the campro
files. Using a 3Dmeasuring machine extends the possibilities for a precise mea
surement like Form- and Position-Tolerances, Statistics, etc.
D Calculation
After the measurement, ie the scanning of all measuring points the necessary cal
culations are performed. Special cam calculations as well as all element calcula
tions, which are not required for the measurement itself like building a coordinate
system, can be executed at a different time independent from the measurement.
D Printing the results
The display and the printout of the results can be performed independently.
Therefore standard records, plots and customized formats can be used (see
QUINDOS - GRABAS).

QUINDOS QDCAMS

33

Camshaft

CAMSHAFT

CAMSHAFT (cam stroke evaluation for camshaft) is an efficient collection of various


functions from the QUINDOS options OPER2D and QDCAMS for the evaluation of
camshafts and camsystems.
Therefore the following elementary QUINDOS-functions are performed :
D 2D - radius correction (alternatively performed with <RCO>).
D Calculation of the cam base circle (choose different methods with <TYP>).
D Calculation resp. determination of the individual cam angle (choose different
methods with <TYP>).
D Camstroke calculation for the individual cam <ACT>.
D Best fitting of the stroke data into stroke nominal data (alternatively performed
with <FIT>).
D 2D Actual nominal comparison for the stroke values.
D Determine the maximum error step in a predefined window (<WND> and
<EST>) of the stroke curve.
D Printout of the results
As a first step the angular position of the reference cam and the actual cam is determined. Different procedures can be used <TYP> to determine the angle of the actual
cam. The difference between the angle of the (individual) actual cam and the angle of
the reference can is the required cam angle.
Before the stroke evaluation is to be executed the actual cam can be rotated by the
determined angle to the nominal position.Then the cam stroke is calculated in specified angular steps <DLT>, from the first angle <BGN to the last <END>.
In front of the actual nominal comparison of the stroke curves, alternatively a bestfit of
the actual stroke values to the nominal stroke values can be executed. This bestfit
gives the angle of the individual cam to the nominal data and shifts the actual stroke
curve best possible to the nominal stroke curve. The actual nominal comparison results the stroke-deviation at the nominal points <NOM>.
The error step, ie the maximum error deviation in a defined evaluation
area(<WND>,<STP>) is determined over all points after the actual nominal comparison.

34

Reference manual

Camshaft

CAM EVALUATION FOR CAMSHAFT

Command

= CAMSHAFT

Name of actual element


(ACT) =
Name of nominal element (stroke as YZ val)(NOM) =
Name of reference cam
(REF) =
Name of result element
(RES) =
Actual cam clockwise ?
([Y]/N)(ACW) =
Nominal cam clockwise ?
([Y]/N)(NCW) =
Reference cam clockwise ?
([Y]/N)(RCW) =
Probe radius correction
([Y]/N)(RCO) =
Size of base circle in degrees
[120](CIR) =
Nominal cam angle
(NAN) =
Anglular increment for eval.
[1 Degree](DLT) =
Start angle for evaluation
[1 Degree](BGN) =

End angle for evaluation


[360 Degree](END)
Offset angle
[0](OFF)
Abscissa/Ordinate
[XY](A_O)
Curve open (ACT, REF)
(Y/[N])(OPN)
Radius of follower
([ ])(RAD)
Error step increment
([1])(EST)
Window for error step (max =100)
([5])(WND)
Type of angle det. (STK/[CAR]/NOM/CMX/SMX)(TYP)
Best fitting of stroke
([Y]/N)(FIT)
Name of error element
(ERR)
Name of copy element for evalaution
(CPY)
Typ of base circle. det.
([FIT]/FIX/EXC)(TYC)
Angle at max. nominal stroke
([0])(MXN)

QUINDOS QDCAMS

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

35

Camshaft

Evaluation procedure
CAMSHAFT
Start

CAMCIR
<REF>

Calculation of the basic


circle of the reference
cam

CAMSTK
<REF>

Calculation of the stroke


of the reference cam

X
Y

FGX2D
<REF>

Angle of the reference cam


in the coordinate system

<ACT>=<REF>
CAMCIR
<ACT>

Basic circle of the


actual cam
X
Y

Ist-Winkel
<ACT>

f -f

Angle of the actual cam


to the reference cam

CAMSTK
<ACT>

Calculation of the stroke


of the actual cam

ACT CAM

REF

X
Y

Y
<FIT>=N

BFIT

<ACT><NOM>

ACT

ACT

ERRSTEP
<RES>

Write back
results

NOM

Fitting of the actual cam into


the nominal stroke curve

f ACT + f FIT
ACNO2D
ACT/NOM

fACT

Angle of the actual cam in


the coordinate system
Y

REF

f CAM

ACT=REF

Max.

Actual nominal comparison


of stroke

Calculation of the error step

f NOM

ACT

NOM
X

Y
ERRSTEP

f
fREF
fCAM
fACT
fNOM

=
=
=
=

Angle to reference cam


Angle of reference cam in CSY
Angle of actual cam in CSY
Angle of actual to nominal cam

ESY:REF_ANG
ESY:CAM_ANG
ESY:NOM_ANG

End

36

Reference manual

Camshaft

Standard case

Special cases

After having measured a complete cam shaft , the necessary evaluations for all cams
of the shafts are executed with CAMEVA.
ACT

Element name of the actual cam.


Actual points (APT's) of the measured cam. The cam contour should be
measured in a 2D - plane (XY / YZ / ZX) .

NOM

Element name of the stroke nominal data. The actual points (APT's) of the
stroke curve as YZ-coordinates. The cam maximum should be located in
the center of the plotting area. .

REF

Element name of the reference cam.


Radiuscorrected points of the reference cam. The cam called 'reference'
applies as a reference to determine the cam angles.

RES

Name of the result element.


The calculated, characteristic cam parameter as well as the stroke nominal
data including the determined deviations and the error step are stored as
results.

NAN

Nominal angle.
Angle of the actual cam against the reference cam. (Enter nominal angel!)

D Variation of the angle step increment.


DLT

(Delta). Angular step of the stroke evaluation [-1].A positive step per
forms a counter clockwise rotation of the cam, a negative delta turns the
cam clockwise. The angles of the result element always start with
<BGN> (first evaluation) and count to <END> in steps DLT.

D Limitation of the evaluation range.


BGN

Start angle for the stroke evaluation [-180].

END

Last angle for stroke evaluation [360].


The inputs for BGN and END relate to the rotation of the cam.

D The angle of the reference cam is not 0 degree.


OFF

Offset angle [0]


Angle of the reference cam in the coordinate system resp. to the nomi
nal data.First the reference is turned into the nominal position.This
angle has to be in a positive sense of rotation to the Xaxis.(Mathemati
cally positive, perhaps with sign. Example: <OFF> =-8 or <OFF> =
352)

D The collected measuring points are not in a counter clockwise order.


ACW

Actual data clockwise. ([N]/Y)

NCW

Nominal data clockwise. ([N]/Y)

RCW

Reference data clockwise. ([N]/Y)

D No radius correction of the profile data.


RCO
QUINDOS QDCAMS

Radius correction of the actual points? ([Y]/N)


37

Camshaft

D Variation of the base circle range.


CIR

Base circle range [120 Grad].


The cam base circle is calculated in the (specifically) defined area of 180
degree compared with the cam maximum (nominal angle).

D The cam profile is not parallel to the XYplane of the coordinate system.
A_O

Abscissa/Ordinate ([XY]/YZ/ZX).

D The measuring data don't describe the complete cam profiles (open profile!)
OPN

Open contours (actual and reference contour) ([N]/Y).

D Not using a flat cam follower for the evaluation.


RAD

Radius of the cam follower. [No input: flat cam follower]

D Variation of the parameter for the error evaluation.


EST

Step width for error step [1].


The evaluation range is shifted each time by <EST>.

WND

Window for the 'error search process' [1].


An evaluation window with the range +/ <WND> is set up around the
actual evaluation point. In this area all points are compared with each
other and the maximum error step is determined (WNDmax = 100!).

D The actual cam angle shall not be determined by the bestfit of the cam stroke
curves.
TYP

Type of the bestfit for the determination of the cam angle [STK].
STK
CAR
NOM
CMX
SMX

Bestfitting of the actual stroke curve to the reference stroke


curve.
Bestfitting of the actual cam to the reference cam (cartesian).
No bestfit, taking over of the nominal angle.
No bestfit, maximum distance determines the actual angle of
the measured cam (cartesian).
No bestfit, maximum distance determines the actual angle of
the actual stroke curve.

D No bestifit of the actual stroke curve to the nominal data.


FIT

Bestfit of the actual stroke curve to the nominal stroke curve. ([Y]/N).
Before the actual nominal comparison of the stroke curves, alternatively
a bestfit of the stroke curve to the nominal data can be executed.

D The evaluations are not executed by the standard element DEF$CAM2.


CPY

38

Name of the copy element.

Reference manual

Camshaft

D Variation of the base circle calculation.


TYC

Example

Type of the base circle calculation [FIT].


EXC

Bestfitting of the base circle centers of the actual cam and the
reference cam;then transformation of the actual element and
the reference element so that the circle center points are in the
origin of the coordinates.

FIT

(Bestfitting of the base circle centers of the actual cam and the
reference cam (No transformation!).

FIX

Base circle center = 0 - point (FIX).


For the base circle calculation merely bestfit the base circle
diameters.

Evaluation of a cam A2 of a cam shaft.Nominal data and reference cam are defined. All
results are stored to the result element.
Further parameter are taken over from standard defaults

CAM EVALUATION FOR CAMSHAFT

Command

= CAMSHAFT

Name of actual element


(ACT) =
Name of nominal element (stroke as YZ val)(NOM) =
Name of reference cam
(REF) =
Name of result element
(RES) =
Actual cam clockwise ?
([Y]/N)(ACW) =
Nominal cam clockwise ?
([Y]/N)(NCW) =
Reference cam clockwise ?
([Y]/N)(RCW) =
Probe radius correction
([Y]/N)(RCO) =
Size of base circle in degrees
[120](CIR) =
Nominal cam angle
(NAN) =
Anglular increment for eval.
[1 Degree](DLT) =
Start angle for evaluation
[1 Degree](BGN) =

End angle for evaluation


[360 Degree](END)
Offset angle
[0](OFF)
Abscissa/Ordinate
[XY](A_O)
Curve open (ACT, REF)
(Y/[N])(OPN)
Radius of follower
([ ])(RAD)
Error step increment
([1])(EST)
Window for error step (max =100)
([5])(WND)
Type of angle det. (STK/[CAR]/NOM/CMX/SMX)(TYP)
Best fitting of stroke
([Y]/N)(FIT)
Name of error element
(ERR)
Name of copy element for evalaution
(CPY)
Typ of base circle. det.
([FIT]/FIX/EXC)(TYC)
Angle at max. nominal stroke
([0])(MXN)

QUINDOS QDCAMS

A2
SOLL
A1
A2RES
270

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

39

Camshaft

Explanation of the
inputs

<NAN>
270

<NOM>

<ACT>
A2
<REF>
A1

Standard evaluations
in the printer report

-f

-180

180

E V A L U A T I O N S
TEXT
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM

Explanation of the
evaluation symbols

EVAL.
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2

NOMINAL

U.TOL.

L.TOL.

ACTUAL

MIN
0.0000
MAX
0.0000
FORM
0.0000
ERRSTP
0.0000
MAX_STK 10.0000
REF_ANG 270.0000
CAM_ANG
8.1670
NOM_ANG 278.1670
X
0.0000
Y
0.0000
Z
153.0000
BAS_RA
17.0000

0.0500
0.0500
0.0000
0.0250
0.0200
0.0500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.1000

0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0250
0.0200
0.0500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.1000

0.0407
0.0036
0.0443
0.0246
9.9856
269.9862
8.2436
278.1962
0.0001
0.0274
152.9409
16.9802

MIN

minimum deviation

MAX

maximum deviation

FORM

Form deviation

ERRSTP

maximum error step

ACTNOM
0.0407
0.0036
0.0443
0.0246
0.0144
0.0138
0.0766
0.0292
0.0001
0.0274
0.0591
0.0198

GRAFIK
.++#+
#++++
.++++++#+
.+++#
#.++++
#.++++
.++#+
.+#++
#++++
.+#++
#.++++
#.++++

Error step

Max.

ERR

40

Min.

Measuring points

Form

Reference manual

Camshaft

REF_ANG

Angle to reference cam

NOM_ANG

Angle to nominal (eventual bestfitted to nominal stroke curve)

CAM_ANG

Angle of reference cam in the coordinate system.

Y
REF_ANG

Reference cam

NOM_ANG

CAM_ANG

X - coordinate of cam rotation point

Y - coordinate of cam rotation point

Z coordinate of cam rotation point


Y

BAS_RA

QUINDOS QDCAMS

41

Camshaft

Example of a measuring program for camshaft


Define larger probing offset for probings to establish the first part coordinate
system.
.

DFNCMM

(NAM=OFFSET, POF=1, ENB=Y, CPY=GDBCMM:SAVE$CMM)

DSBSYS

(NAM=REPORT)

GOTO

(LAB=1234)

This part, to determine the first part orientation can be skipped during a pallet
measuring program.
.

MECIR

(NAM=(CIR_1,CIR_2), MOD=NOE)

COLPTS

(NAM=Z_AXI_1, ELE=(CIR_1,CIR_2))

BLDAXI

(NAM=Z_AXI_1)

MEAXI

(NAM=AXI_NUT, MOD=NOE)

MEPNT

(NAM=PNT_1, MOD=NOE)

BLDCSY

(NAM=ORI, SPA=Z_AXI_1, SDR=Z, PLA=AXI_NUT, PDR=+X, XZE=Z_AXI_1,


YZE=Z_AXI_1, ZZE=PNT_1)

1234:CONTIN

Determine final coordinate system :


.

USECSY

(NAM=ORI)

MECIR

(NAM=(L5,L3,L2,L1), CSY=ORI)

COLPTS

(NAM=Z_AXI_2, ELE=(L5,L3,L2,L1))

BLDAXI

(NAM=Z_AXI_2)

MEAXI

(NAM=REF_DIR, CSY=ORI)

MEPNT

(NAM=REF_PNT)

BLDCSY

(NAM=NUT_CSY, SPA=Z_AXI_2, SDR=Z, PLA=REF_DIR, PDR=X,


XZE=Z_AXI_2,YZE=Z_AXI_2, ZZE=REF_PNT)

USECMM

(NAM=SAVE$CMM)

Start of measurement
Scanning speed = 1.5 mm/sec.
Point density = 2 Points/mm
Scanning speed and point density could also be defined in the pallet organization program > No change within part-program necessary.
The measurement is separated into two steps to minimize probe changing and reduce
the movements to a minimum. First all of the cam profiles at one side of the fixture will
be measured. Then the cmm will be moved to the other side to measure the remaining
profile sections of the cams.
42

Reference manual

Camshaft

Measuring the cam profile sections at the right side of the fixture.
.

ME2DE

(NAM=A1_RE, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=E1_RE, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=A2_RE, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=E2_RE, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=E3_RE, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=A3_RE, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=E4_RE, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=A4_RE, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

Clearance points
(move the cmm from the right to the left side)
.

MEPNT

(NAM=VERF(1), MOD=(NOC,NOE))

Measuring the cam profile sections on the left side of the fixture.
.

ME2DE

(NAM=A4, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=E4, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=A3, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=E3, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=E2, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=A2, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=E1, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

ME2DE

(NAM=A1, MOD=(NOE,NOC))

Clearance points
(move back to the right side of the fixture to the start position in order to reach the next
part without any collision.)
.

MEPNT

(NAM=VERF(2), MOD=(NOC,NOE))

End of cam measurement


In order to optimize the time for measuring and evaluating a camshaft the whole part
program is submitted to a second process to to the evaluation while the process connected to the cmm is free to take the measurement of the next part.
.

QUINDOS QDCAMS

SUBMIT

(DIR=[QDSREMO], CPY=N)

43

Camshaft

Start of Evaluations
Append the measuring points of the individual cams from the right side to the corresponding cams at the left.
.

CPYAPT

(FRM=A1_RE, TO =A1, DEL=N)

CPYAPT

(FRM=A2_RE, TO =A2, DEL=N)

CPYAPT

(FRM=A3_RE, TO =A3, DEL=N)

CPYAPT

(FRM=A4_RE, TO =A4, DEL=N)

CPYAPT

(FRM=E1_RE, TO =E1, DEL=N)

CPYAPT

(FRM=E2_RE, TO =E2, DEL=N)

CPYAPT

(FRM=E3_RE, TO =E3, DEL=N)

CPYAPT

(FRM=E4_RE, TO =E4, DEL=N)

Calculating the cam stroke


.

CAMSHAFT

(ACT=A1, NOM=SOLL, REF=A1, RES=A1_RES, ACW=N, NAN=0)

CAMSHAFT

(ACT=A2, NOM=SOLL, REF=A1, RES=A2_RES, ACW=N, NAN=270)

CAMSHAFT

(ACT=A3, NOM=SOLL, REF=A1, RES=A3_RES, ACW=N, NAN=90)

CAMSHAFT

(ACT=A4, NOM=SOLL, REF=A1, RES=A4_RES, ACW=N, NAN=180)

CAMSHAFT

(ACT=E1, NOM=SOLL, REF=A1, RES=E1_RES, ACW=Y, NAN=111)

CAMSHAFT

(ACT=E2, NOM=SOLL, REF=A1, RES=E2_RES, ACW=Y, NAN=21)

CAMSHAFT

(ACT=E3, NOM=SOLL, REF=A1, RES=E3_RES, ACW=Y, NAN=201)

CAMSHAFT

(ACT=E4, NOM=SOLL, REF=A1, RES=E4_RES, ACW=Y, NAN=291)

End of Evaluations

Output of the results


Output on Printer :
.

SETPRI

CONDEV

(DEV=LP, DVN=TXA5:)

DFNQUE

(NAM=$CAM, MBR=ELE:??_RES, DEL=Y)

ENBSYS

(NAM=REPORT)

REPORT

(NAM=$CAM)

END

(STC=Y)

Output on Plotter :
Edit a toleranceelement for the plot evaluation (EDTAPT).
X = Angle
Y = positive tolerance-line
Z = negative tolerance-line for DRWPLY
Plot-procedure to do the CAM-STROKE-ERROR chart for all cams. (Inlet and Outlet-cams)
.
44

DFNQUE

$EXQUE, ELE:A?RES(), Y

Reference manual

Camshaft

DFNQUE

$INQUE, ELE:E?RES(), Y

USEPFR

LP_A3Q,N

CAMECHP

(EXQ=$EXQUE, INQ=$INQUE, EXT=EXTOL, INT=EXTOL, WKP=Y, FRM=Y,


REM=Nockenwelle: TEST)

Form feed
.

CLRPLO

EOFPFR

Indirect plot-procedure to put ERROR chart on printer


.

OFFPLO

(FRM=LP_A3Q)

End of measuring program


Save Measuring Program
Skip this part in automatic mode !
.

GOTO

(LAB=9999)

DELAPT

(NAM=ELE:*(), CNF=N, NOT=(ELE:A?(),E?(), A?RES(), E?RES(),


??TOL, SOLL))

SAVE

(WKP=NOWEL1, FIL=[QUINDOS.QDSLIB]NW026109101L.WDB)

9999:END

QUINDOS QDCAMS

45

Camshaft

46

Reference manual

Output of the results

Output of the results


Generally standard masks for printer or screen are used to output the results found
through QDCAMS.
The measuring results of special geometrics are often better displayed in customized
output formats. Hereto QUINDOS offers a vast flexibility, which the skilled user can
use easily for tailoring his reports or plot charts (see GRABAS; MASK-Definition, etc.)

Standard evaluations
in the printer report

E V A L U A T I O N S
TEXT
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM
CAM

List of resulting points


(partly)

EVAL.
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2

NOMINAL

U.TOL.

L.TOL.

ACTUAL

MIN
0.0000
MAX
0.0000
FORM
0.0000
ERRSTP
0.0000
MAX_STK 10.0000
REF_ANG 270.0000
CAM_ANG
8.1670
NOM_ANG 278.1670
X
0.0000
Y
0.0000
Z
153.0000
BAS_RA
17.0000

0.0500
0.0500
0.0000
0.0250
0.0200
0.0500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.1000

0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0250
0.0200
0.0500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.0500
0.1000

0.0407
0.0036
0.0443
0.0246
9.9856
269.9862
8.2436
278.1962
0.0001
0.0274
152.9409
16.9802

M E A S U R I N G
XCOORD
0.0000
0.0000

QUINDOS QDCAMS

YCOORD
179.0000
178.0000

P O I N T S
ZCOORD
0.0000
0.0000

ACTNOM
0.0407
0.0036
0.0443
0.0246
0.0144
0.0138
0.0766
0.0292
0.0001
0.0274
0.0591
0.0198

(A C T U A L

GRAFIK
.++#+
#++++
.++++++#+
.+++#
#.++++
#.++++
.++#+
.+#++
#++++
.+#++
#.++++
#.++++

P O I N T S)

NX

NY

NZ

DEVIATION

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

1.000
1.000

0.0269
0.0270

NO.
1
2

47

Output of the results

CAMSH1_P

CAMSH1_P calls a plot-procedure to display a complete camshaft. The plot shows the
position and the profile errors of every single cam as well as all evaluation values.

CAMSHAFT RESULT TABLE

Command

= CAMSH1_P

Queue with cam shape


Queue with cam results
Number of evaluations (ESY)
Scaling factor
Remarks
Plot WKP information ?
Plotting form
Standard plot form?

CAM

(CAM)
(RES)
(NBR)
(FAC)
(REM)

=
=
=
=
=

([Y]/N) (WKP) =
([Y]/N) (FRM) =
([Y]/N) (SPF) =

Queue with the names of all individual cam shapes.


(points must be in Caretesian coordinates)
Example : $CAM
Define the queue with the command
DFNQUE (NAM=$CAM, MBR=(ELE:A1,E1,A2,E2,A3,E3,A4,E4), DEL=Y)

RES

Queue with the names of all result elements of CAMEVA.


Example : $RES
Define the queue with the command
DFNQUE (NAM=$RES, MBR=(ELE:A?_RES(),E?_RES()), DEL=Y)

48

NBR

Number of evaluation symbols in the result element. [8]


The information given in the standard evaluation (ADDEVA, LISEVA, ED
TEVA) is used in the result table of the plot.

FAC

Error magnification for the stroke error chart [100].

REM

Remark;
This will be plotted in the lower plot field.

WKP

The current workpiece information will be plotted. ([Y]/N) ?

FRM

Plot Form ([Y]/N) ? frame and text will be plotted

SPF

Standard Plot Form ([Y]/N) ?


The standard plot form is HP_A4Q. To use any other plot form (e.g.
V240_A4Q for grafic screen) execute USEPFR before and set SPF=N.

Reference manual

Output of the results

Cam Evaluations

Cam stroke deviations:

Magnification : 100

Evaluation range 90 ... +90 degree

Results :
EVALUATION

C A M

S H A F T

Camshaft : 026109101_L

QUINDOS QDCAMS

Inspector: QUINDOS
Date ....: 210192
Time ....: 17:43:45

49

Output of the results

CAMECH_P

The command CAMECH_P (Plotting a error chart for cam shaft evaluations) is used to
plot an error chart for camshaft evaluations.

STROKEERRORCHART P L O T

Command

= CAMECH_P

Queue with exhaust cams


Queue with inlet cams
Element f. exaust tolerance
Element f. inlet tolerance
Remark / Notation / Title
Plot workpiece info ?
Plot form ?
Standard plot formular

EX

(EX )
(IN )
(EXT)
(INT)
(REM)

=
=
=
=
=

([Y]/N) (WKP) =
([Y]/N) (FRM) =
([Y]/N) (SPF) =

Queue with the name of all individual exhaust cams to be evaluated.


Example : $EX
Define the queue with the command
DFNQUE
A4_RES),

(NAM=$EX,

MBR=(ELE:A1_RES,

A2_RES,

A3_RES,

DEL=Y)
IN

Queue with the name of all individual inlet cams to be evaluated.


Example : $IN
Define the queue with the command
DFNQUE
E4_RES),

(NAM=$IN,

MBR=(ELE:E1_RES,

E2_RES,

E3_RES,

DEL=Y)
EXT

Element to define various tolerances for the exhaust cams.


Define the tolerance element (APT's of a theoretical element) as shown be
low :
X
Y
Z

INT

50

angle
pos. tolerance value
neg. tolerance value

Element to define various tolerances for the inlet cams.


Define the tolerance element (APT's of a theoretical element) as shown be
low :
X
Y
Z

REM

=
=
=

=
=
=

angle
pos. tolerance value
neg. tolerance value

Remark.
This remark or title will be plotted in the lower field of information.
Reference manual

Output of the results

WKP

Plot workpiece information ? ([Y]/N)

FRM

Plot Form ([Y]/N) ?


Form will be plotted (Frame and Text)

SPF

Standard Plot Form ([Y]/N)


The standard plot form is HP_A3Q. To use any other plot form (e.g.
V240_A4H for grafic screen), execute USEPFR before and set SPF=N.

The stroke deviation (errors) of all cams of a camshaft are displayed. The outlet and
inlet cams are presented separately and can have different tolerances.

StrokeError
Chart

Exhaust Cams

nominal

Intake Cams

deviation

tolerance

Stroke Error Chart


Camshaft : 026109101_L

QUINDOS QDCAMS

Inspector: QUINDOS
Date ....: 200192
Time ....: 13:43:45

51

Output of the results

CAMSSA_P

The command CAMSSA_P (Plotting stroke, speed and acceleration) is used to plot
stroke, velocity and acceleration.

CAM EVALUATIONS: STROKE, VELOCITY, ACCELERATION

Command
Name of stroke element
Name velocity element
Name of acceleration element

= CAMSSA_P
(STK) =
(SPD) =
(ACC) =

Start angle for eval.


[180] (BGN)
End angle for evaluation
[180] (END)
Plotting form ?
([Y]/N) (FRM)
Standard plot form ?
([Y]/N) (SPF)

SPF

=
=
=
=

Standard Plot Form ([Y]/N) ?


The standard plot form is HP_A4H. To use any other plot form (e.g.
V240_A4H for grafic screen) execute USEPFR before and set SPF=N.

52

Reference manual

Output of the results

Stroke
Velocity
Acceleration

stroke of cam follower


max = 8.593

[deg.]
velocity of cam follower
[mm/deg.]

[deg.]
acceleration of cam follower
[mm/deg.2]

[deg.]
Cam :

CAM_STRK(1)

Speed

Cam Evaluations
Stroke
Velocity
Acceleration

QUINDOS QDCAMS

1 RPM

Inspector: QUINDOS
Date ....: 200192
Time ....: 12:13:45

53

Output of the results

54

Reference manual

List of commands

List of all commands in QUINDOS option QDCAMS

QUINDOS QDCAMS

CAMCIR

Calculate cam base circle

CAMECH_P

Plot a error chart for cam shaft evaluations

CAMROT

Calculate the movement of a rotating follower system

CAMSH1_P

Plot a camshaft result table

CAMSHAFT

Calculate all necessary informations about the individual


cams on a camshaft

CAMSSA_P

Plot stroke, velocity and acceleration of a cam follower

CAMSTK

Calculate the stroke of various cam follower

CAMTRN

Calculate the movement of a follower (translating or rotat


ing) in a translating cam system.

CAMVEL

Calculate velocity and acceleration of a cam follower

ERRSTEP

Calculate and evaluate the maximum error variation in a


predefined window

55

List of commands

56

Reference manual

Brown & Sharpe CMM products are available at the following Precision Centers.
World Headquarters
Precision park, 200 Frenchtown Road
North Kingstown, RI 02852-1700
Tel: 800 766-4673
Fax: 800 933-2937

B
Sh
G bH
Brown
& Sharpe
GmbH
Si
Siegmund-Hiepe-Str.
Siegmund
d Hiepe
Hi
St
Str. 22-12
12
35578 Wetzlar, Germany
G
Tel: (49) 6441 207
207-00
Fax: (49) 6441 207-122

Brown & Sharpe - USA


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Tel: (408) 733.1200 Fax: (408) 733-0198
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Tel: (847) 593-5950 Fax: (847) 593-6619
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Wixom,
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Charlotte,
Tel: (704) 525-0182
525 0182 Fax: (704) 525-3154
525 3154
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Cincinnati,
Tel: (513)
( ) 942-0800
942 0800 Fax: (513)
( ) 942-0804
942 0804
Middl b g Heights,
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H ight , OH
T l (216) 816-0440
Tel:
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F (216) 816-0536
816 0536
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Tel: (615)
( ) 331-0800
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( ) 331-0875
331 0875
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Tel: (206) 251-5953 Fax: (206) 251-6172

Internet: www.brownandsharpe.com

shaping the future of measurement

Brown & Sharpe DEA Spa


Strada del Portone
Portone, 113
10095 Grugliasco (To)
(To), Italy
Tel: (39)
( ) 11 4025 111
Fax: ((39)) 11 7803254

Brown & Sharpe - Europe


Ludwigsburg, Germany
Tel: 07141 87470 Tel: 07141 874788
Wetzlar, Germany
Tel: 06441 2070 Fax: 06441 207122
Telford United Kingdom
Telford,
Tel: 01952 681300 Fax: 01952 681310
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Swindon,
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Vilnius,
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g
Italyy
Tel: 011 4925111 Fax: 011 7803254
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Milano,
It ly
T l 02 93549608 Fax:
Tel:
F 02 93549609
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Pistoia,
It l
Tel: 0573 364664 Fax: 0573 364663
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Tel: 080 8770496 Fax: 080 8770495

Due to continuous product development, Brown & Sharpe reserves the right to change product specification without prior notice.

Order No.:
1st Edition 1992

M41-151-000-211 (english)

Villebon Sur Yvette Cedex, France


Tel: 01 69318400 Fax: 01 60146332
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Tel: 04 72579024 Fax: 04 72579027
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Tel: 05 61713774 Fax: 05 61713897
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j g, China
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Tel
F 861063186557
K
Kanagawa
Pref.,
P f Japan
J
T l 81 462346195 Fax:
Tel:
F 81 362 346158
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Tel: 81 33769 1421 Fax: 81 33769 3909
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Tel: 65 5463819 Fax: 65 542 6476
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