Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 211

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1.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1. . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1.
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1. . . . . . .

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11
11
13
14
15
16
18

2.
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1. . . . . . .
2.1.2. . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1. . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1. . .
2.3.2. .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . . . . .

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19
19
19
21
22
23
24
24
24
25
25

3.
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2. . . .
3.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4.
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1. . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1. . . . . . . .
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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29
29
29
29
30
32
32
33
33
34
35

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37
37
38
38
39
40
41
42
42

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4.
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1. . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3. . . . . .
4.1.4. . . . . . . . .
4.1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . .
4.2.1.

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4.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3.
4.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. . . . . . .
4.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2. . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3.
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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43
43
46
47
47
48
51
55
55

5.
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1. . . . . .
5.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6. () . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.1. , . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57
57
59
61
63
65
66
67
69
70
70
71
73
74

6. -
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2. . . . . . . .
6.3. . . . . . . . . . .
6.4. . . . . . . . . . .
6.5. . . . . . . . .
6.6. . . . . .
6.7. , ,

75
76
76
76
76
77

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79
79
81
82
83
84
86
87

7. -
7.1. - . .
7.2. SS- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3. IMPES- . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4. SEQ- . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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91
93
93
95
96

8.
8.1. . . .
8.1.1. . . . . . .
8.1.2. . .
8.2.

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97
97
98
100
101

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8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
9.
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1. LU- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1. ILU- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.2.
10., ,
10.1. . . . . . . .
10.1.1. . . . . .
10.1.2. . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.3.
10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3. . . . . . . . .

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11.
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.1. OpenRMS . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.1. OpenRMS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1. 2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2. 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6. ( )
11.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.1. . . .
11.7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9. . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.10.1. PVT- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.11.1. . . . . . . . . . . .
11.11.2. . . . . .
11.11.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.11.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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105
105
106
108
109
109
111
112
114
114
116

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117
117
118
119
119
120
121

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125
125
125
127
127
128
128
129
129
130
130
131
131
133
135
135
138
139
139
139
142
143
144
145
147
147
148
151
152


11.14. . . . . . . . . .
11.15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.16.1. . . . . . . . .
11.16.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
11.17. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.17.1. . . . . . .
11.17.2.
11.18. . . . . . . . .
11.18.1. . . . . . . . .
11.19. . . . . . . . . . .
11.19.1. . . . . .
11.19.2. . . . . . . . .
11.19.3. . . . . . . . . .
11.19.4. . . . . . .
11.20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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152
153
154
154
156
159
159
161
163
163
164
164
164
165
166
168

12.

169

173

.
.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.4. 15 12
.4.1. PVT- . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.4.2. . . . . . . .
.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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.
.1. Petrel . . . . . . . . . .
.2. Petrel 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . .
.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.2.3. PVT- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.2.4.
.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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175
175
175
177
177
178
180
181

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201
201
201
202
203
204
205
206
206

209

211


: , .
:

;
;
;
;
.

1.


1.1.
() , ,

,
1 .
()
, .
(. . ) . , :
(. . ), ;
, .
, , . , , .
(. 1.1):
, () (, , , );
, , (, , );
, - (, , , );
: -, -, -, --.

. 1.1.
1

, ( ) .

11

1
, ,
.
(. 1.2):
, ( ) / ( );
,
;
, , .

. 1.2.
. , :
,
, ,
2 , .
(. 1.3):
, c (. . , );
, ,
(. . ),
, , ,
, , . . ,

;
, ,
.
2

12

, , . :
, , , , .

1.1

. 1.3.

1.1.1.
, , . ,
, . ( ) , . .
, , . (). . , ,
, .
(. 1.4):
, , ;
() ;
() ;
() ();
/ 3
/ ;
/ 4 ( )
/ ;
;
;

.
3

,
. , .
,
.
.
.

13

13

8
7

6
5 12
10

11

. 1.4. : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5
; 6 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10 ;
11 ; 12 ; 13

1.2.
-

, .
5 ,
. , 6 , .
:
, / ;
, ;
, ;
,
;
, ,
;
5

14

; .
.

1.2
, , .

1.2.1.
( ) :
, ;
, 7 (. . 20 1 = 760 . . = 101325 ),
.
:

300 . 500 . 3 ;
30 300 . 30 500 . 3 ;
5 30 . 5 30 . 3 ;
1 5 . 1 5 . 3 ;
1 . , 1 . 3 .

8 :
(): , ;
(): , 9 / 10 ;
1 (): , ;
2 (): , , , 1 ,
.
. , ,
.
- () , :
() 11 ,
;
( ) , 12 .
,
- . , ,
, .
:
7

10
11
12


.
A, B, 1 ; 2 , 1 .
() , 2 3 / ( 5 000 3 /). . . 22.
. 1.3
.
.

15

1
3 (): 13 ;
1 (): - (. .
/ ) ;
2 (): , .

1.3.
.
, , . , ( ) .
, , , .
, , ,
;
14 .
,
,
, (. 1.5):

. 1.5. : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ;
5 ; 6 ; 7

() , ;
;
;
13
14

16

. . 17.
1848 . . -.

1.3

, ;
15 ;
16 ;
;

: 900 , 165 .

.
(. 1.6):
, 5 ;
- ,
5 ;

. 1.6.
,
;
, ;
, () , ()
.
:
- ;

1 ;
:
( ) , , ;
(,
, , , . . . );
15
16

MD (Measured Depth).
TVD (True Vertical Depth).

17

1
,
;
:
( , , . . . );
-
;
,
;
,
, ;
-
- .

1.3.1.
. ( 3050 ). (. . )
.
. 500 , (
) . ,
.
, ( )
. .
/ . (. . )
.
, , . () . ( 2000 )
.

18

2.


2.1.
, /,
, , .
, ,
. , .

2.1.1.
. .
,
.
(. 2.1):
() ;
(-) ( ) ,
, ;
(. . ), .
(. 2.2):
: , , 1 ;
: , , ;
:
8 ;
-, ,
, .
1

: , .

19

. 2.1.

. 2.2.

:
,
( ) ;
-, : , , ,
;
(, ) ,
.
, ( , ). [/.]2 .
,
(-, )

= 2 , () = 2 3/2 (. 2.3).
2

20

= 25 64 /.;
= 70 100 /.

2.1
a

a
a

. 2.3.

( = / ) -

(. 2.3):

: = 1, . . 1/4 1/4 ( 1 1 );
: = 1/2, . . 1/6 2/6 ;
: = 1/3, . . 1/4
3/4 ;
: 1;
: 1/3;
: 1/5.

2.1.2.
:
/ / ( )
( ,
);
( )
;
(. .
, ) ;
, 3 .
(, , ) ;
( );
/ ;
/ ;
()
(. . ) ;
() ();
3

. . ,
.

21

2
() ;
, , ()
(. . , ) , ;
,
;

;
/// ;
;
, ;

;
, ,
() .

2.2.

(. 2.4):

. 2.4.

I ,
,
, (. . );

22

2.2
II ;

;
III , ; ,
, . .;
IV ,
.
, 70 95%
, .
(. . ,
/ ),
, 4 .
:
,
;
, ( 60%);
,
;
.

2.2.1.
( ), ,
.
:

() ,
;
( )
;
: ,
;

, ; , , , ,
;

;
, , ;
4

23

2

, . .
;
.
:
( )
,
;

.
, .

2.3.
(. . ).
, /
/.
, :

;
.

2.3.1.
,
;
100 , ; ,
;
, ;
,
;
,
;
, ;
,
, ,
.

2.3.2.
:
,

24

2.4
, , , . .
:
,

;
() ,
(, , , ), , 5 ;
,
;
( ) (, , ,
, )6 ;
,
.

2.4.
,
/ :
,
;
, ;
, - , ,
;
/, 400
( ) ;
() ( ) ; ,
, .

2.5.

.
5

,
(, ), 23 .
(, -
, ), , .

25

2
( ) , , ( ), ,
, .
:
/
, , ,
; ;
- ,
,
, ;
;
,
; , ;
, ;
, .
-

()7 , :

, ;
: - ,
, , ;
, ,
;
, , ;
(, );
, , , ,
.
,
.
(
) . . -. :
;
- ;
, , ;
.
7

26

, .

2.5

, , ,
.
-
() , .
( ) ,
.

27

3.


-,
, ,
.
( ).

3.1.
:

( );
;
;
.

3.1.1.
() , . ,
, . ,
.
, , , (. 3.1).
, , ,
.
, :

;
;
, , , ;
1 .

3.1.2.
() :
1

. 4.2

29

2
3

. 3.1. : 1 ; 2 ;
3
;
;
.
, , . :
( );
( -) ( , );
( );
( ,
, ).
( ) ( , ). ,
, . , (. 3.2).
,
, .

3.1.3.
() , .
- - , .
.
(. 3.3), , , .
, , .

30

3.1

. 3.2. : 1 ; 2 , ; 3
, ; 4 ;
5

. 3.3.

31

3.1.4.

2
1

() , 2 .

(. 3.4).

. 3.4. : 1 ; 2 ;
3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6

.
, .
:
()
( ) .
( ) ,
( ) .
()
.
()
.
.
,
.

3.2.
, , .
, - .
2

32

. . 62

3.3

() -

(, ) (, ), (, , ) .
- :

;
: , ;
();
.

3.2.1.
1) ( , , ) ;
2) , , ;
3) ( );
4) 3 ( , );
5) (, , ) ;
6) ;
7) .

3.3.
, .
() , .
:
, ;
( , , ,
, );
, ( ) (, ,
, ).
, - .
, , ,
, .
:
3

, -
.

33

3
( )
;
;
/ ;
;
: /
, - ;
; .
:
;
( , , , );
( : , , , , . . . );
( , ,
, , , . . . ).

3.3.1.
1) , .
2) (
), .
,
, . , .
, .
3) 4
, , , , (. 3.5): , ;
; / ; , .

.
4)
( )5 .
.
,
. .
, .
/
.
4
5

34

5.
10.1.

3.4

""

. 3.5.

5) 6 , .
. , . ,
, .
6) , , .
(,
, , ). ( ).

3.4.
, (. 3.6):
1)
2)
3)
;
.
.
4)
6

10.2.

35

. 3.6.

5)
6) -
()
. - 7 ( ) - () .

36

- ,
, , , ,
, .

4.

, . . .
, , :

( );
;
;
;
;
.

, ( ).
, ,
, () . , , :
( );
( );
( ).
-


, (, , ,
.);
;
, , , , , , ;
: , , , , , , ,
.

4.1.
- (PVT-)1 ,
, :
1

PVT : Pressure (), Volume (), Temperature ().

37

;
;
;
.

PVT- (, , ,
) .

4.1.1.

. ( ):

1
=
,
(4.1)

, , ; ;
.
, , , .
, :
( = 0 1 ): ;
(0,145 < < 1,4504 1 ): , (. . ,
);
( > 14,5038 1 ): .

4.1.2.
, -

(4.2)


( ).
, , (. 4.1).
(4.2) (4.1),

1
=
(4.3)

, (4.3) , .
:
0
= 0 ( ) ,

(4.4)

0 0 2 .
= 0, = 0 = .
2

38

0
.

4.1
4.1.

, /3

0,598

0,717

1,2928

400650

650800

680720

8001060

1000

10101070

1030
13001350
(
)
, 0 ,
(4.4) :
]
[
)2
(
) 1 (
= 0 1 + 0 + 2 0 + . . .
2!
, -

:
(
(
))
0 1 + 0

(4.5)

( ) (4.4) -, PVT- :
=

(4.6)

3 ; (. .
4 ); =
3
8, 314 106
K .

4.1.3.
5 , .
(. . ) (. 4.1):
, =

(4.7)

;
,
,
.
3

, (1 = 1,660538782(83) 1027 ).
() , -
= .
, .

39

4
RG,o

pb

. 4.1.

.
,
( ) , 6 . ,

.
, , . , , 7 .
:
, =

(4.8)

;
,
,
.

4.1.4.
.

:
=

(4.9)

, , ; .
( ), ( ).
. 4.2.
6

,
. .
7
. 38

40

4.1
Bw

Bo

Bg

pb

. 4.2.

,
- (. 4.2). .
(
, ),
.

4.1.5.
8 ( ) -

. (
) :
=

.
( ) (. 4.2).
4.2.

,
0,012

0,01

0,0172

0,73

110
1,79
() , .
: ,
.
8

,
.

41

4
(
), ( ).
( )
, (. 4.3).
w

pb

. 4.3.
(. 4.3). ( ). .

4.2.
- , : .

4.2.1.
, .
, .
(, ) .
, :
=

; .
, .
:
=

(4.10)

, .
. , (. 4.3).
( ) ,
. , .
, .

42

4.2
4.3.

0,040,10
0,370,49
0,120,34
0,080,38
0,430,54
0,370,50

0,560,59
0,880,93

4.2.2.
-

(4.11)

(
0,0145 0,145 1 ).
(4.11)
0
= 0 ( ) ,

(4.12)

0 0 .
(4.12) :
[
]
(
) 1 2 (
)
0
0
0 2
= 1 + +
+ ...
2!

:
[
(
)]
0 1 + 0

(4.13)

4.2.3.
,
.
.
( ,
), .
:
=

(4.14)

;
; ; (
); .

43

4
1013 2
1012 2 . ():
1 1,02 1012 2 = 1,02 2 .
, , (. 4.4). ,
.
4.4.
()

0,00020,045
0,0130,051

0,00480,22

0,00053,0

29140

20180

0,0950,12
2451

(
, ), () .

, .
,
. ( , , ),
, , , . :


= ,
(4.15)

= (, = , , ).
9 ,
, = . , - . = = ,
, .
,
. .
, () ,
(. 4.4).
(4.14)
=

= 1, 2, 3,

= ; = 1 2 .
9

44

4.2

p1

Q1

p2

Q2
Q3

k1

h1

k2

h2

k3

h3

Q1
Q2
Q3

W
L
. 4.4. ,

=1

=1

,
3


,
=

=1

=1

=1



=
,

( ) /

=1

=1

, (. 4.5).

1 2 =

=1

=1

, ,
=

(1 2 )
,

,
=

= 1, 2, 3

45

p1

p2

p1

p2

p3

k1

k2

k3

L1

L2

L3

W
L
. 4.5. ,

,
3


=

=1

,
,
=

=1

4.2.4.
- , . ,
:
=

, ; .
= 1.
,
, , ,
+ = 1

(4.16)

, , 10 . ,
10

46

, .

4.3
, , . ,
, , = 1 .
:
;
;
, ;

(4.17)

+ = 1
,

(4.18)

+ + = 1

4.3.
4.3.1.
, .
, . (. 4.6) ,
.

12

12

s1

s1

s2

s2

s1 = s2 + 12 cos
. 4.6.
:
cos =

1 2
,
12

1 / 1;
/ 2; 1/ 2.
1 > 2 , , 1 , . .
, (
) (. 4.6). 2 .
, 2 ,
1. 1 < 2 (. . ) : 1
, 2 .

47

4
, ,
.
, , 11 ,
. ,
.
, :

, 12 ( );
;
, ,
, .
,
.

4.3.2.
, .
:
= ,
, .
- ( ) :
= ,

(4.19)

- ( )
=

(4.20)

, ,
(. 4.7). .
,
.
,
, :
= = ( ) ( ) = ( ) ,

(4.21)

; , , ; .
, :
2 cos
= ,
2
11
12

48

(4.22)

.
, (. . 25)
.

4.3

cos

. 4.7. -
; ; -.
,
(4.21) (4.22):
=

2 cos
= ( )

(4.23)

-:
=

2 cos
= ( ) ,

-; -; .
(4.23) , :
cos > 0, > 0 > 0
;
cos < 0, < 0 < 0
;
cos = 0, = 0 ( = = ) = 0
, , .

( )
(. 4.8).
, ( ). ,
.
(. 5.3.1).
, ( , ), .
, . . 1941 . , -

49

Pcow

Pcgo

swc

1-sow

1 sw

0 sgc

1-sog

1 sg

. 4.8.

, - .
, . , ,
.
, (. 4.9).

Lcap
Lcore
. 4.9.
(. . ) 13 :
=

4
,
8

; ;
; .
, :
= =
13

50

4
8

(4.24)

1840 . . , , , 1839
. . ( ) - . . ., . . .: , 1986. 736. . 81.

4.3
(. (4.10)) , ,
2
,

(4.25)

(4.26)

=
(. (4.14)):
=

; .
(4.24) (4.26) (4.25),
2 =

8
,

/ .
, ,

=
=
, = 8

(4.23),

( )
2
= =
= ( )
(4.27)

cos

1941 .
-14 .
,
.

4.3.3.
:
( )

=
= ,

, 100%
15 .
()
=

(4.28)

, (. 4.10).
:
0 6 6 1;
, (4.28) 100%- ;
14
15

- .
, ,
, . .

51

. 4.10.

- + 6 1 ,
- + 6 1
( );
6 6 1 ,
; ;
, .
.
,

. ,
,
.

52

4.3
. ,
, .
, :
= ( ) ,

= ( ) ,

= ( , )

( , ) , , ,
( ):

( , ) =

( )

(1 )

,
[1 ] [1 ]


{[
( , ) =

( )

] [

}
]

(1 )
+ [ + ] ,

> 0,

( ) = ( = 0)
=

= ( ) , ,
( ); = ( ) ,

= ( ) ,
-; = ( ) ,
, -; :


, > , = 1 ,
1

, > ,
=
1

=
= 1 ,
1

; ( -).
,
, :
= + ( ) ,

=1

,
1

, .

(. 4.11).
(. 4.12):
;
0 100% ( 0 1) ;
, ;
, ;

53

4
sg = 100%

0,05
0,25

so= 100%

0,85

0,125

0,5

sw = 100%

sg = 100%

sg = 100%

0
0,0
3
0,0
5
0,1
0,1
5
0,2
0,3 5

0,6
0,525
0,4

so= 100%

0,275
0,15

sw = 100%

0,05
0

so= 100%

sw = 100%

. 4.11. ,

sg = 100%

sg = 50%

so = 20%

so = 100%
sw = 30%

sw = 100%

. 4.12.
,
= 1 ;
, , . 4.12,
30% 50% (, , 20% );
( , ). , , . 4.10, , , . 4.11.
.
,

54

4.4
, (. 4.13). ,

sg = 100%

swc
sog

-
-

sgc
so = 100%

sgc

--
-

swc

sow

sw = 100%

. 4.13.
, , , , ,
, . , = 0
.

4.4.
, -
16 . ,
- (. 5.3.1). , ,
.

4.5.
. :
;
();
.

, ,
.
16

, .

, .
. , , ,
.
1989 ( )
5 000 .

55

4
(
) . ,
,
.

56

5.


,
.

5.1.
, , (. 5.1).

x+x

. 5.1.
, . . .
, = . ,
= /. ,
, , ,
1 .
, 2 .
()| ,
+

()|+
1

(. (4.10)) , = ,
.
.

57

5

( )|+ ( )| ,

(5.1)

.
, (, ) / , . . /
. /
,
, > 0 < 0 .

:
[
]
( )|+ ( )| = ()| ()|+ + ,
0 0,

()
()
=
+

(5.2)

, .
( )3 :
=

(5.3)

; 4
; ; .
:

;
;
;
, ;
( ) 5 ;
, .
(5.3) 0, :
=
3

58

-,
.
(. (4.14)) , :
.
, .

5.1
:

)
,

(5.4)

;
6 .
, , , ( 104 105 / ).
(5.4) (5.2), :
(
])
[
()

+
(5.5)
=

,
(
).
, : , . ,
, .

5.1.1.

( ) ( = 0 ),
:
( [
])


+ =0

0
, :
(
)

+ =0

0
(. . = )
2
+
=0
2
0
() (. . = 0),
2
= 0,
2
. ,
. , , .
6

/ .

59

5

(c. (4.5)) (c. (4.13)) :
( )
(
)
2 2
2

=
+ 2

+
( 0 + )

(
)
- , 1+ 0 1 (. . = 0 ),
, . .

<1

, , ,

=
+ 0 ,
2



, = 0 + .

(, ) (5.5) :
(
)
(
[
])

+
=

(5.6)

,
- (4.6). , . , , , ,
(4.6) (5.5),
(
)
( )

=
+


( )
1
1
= 2
,

1 2
=
,

, (4.1),
=

1
1


2
1

=
2

1 2 2

2
2

2 )

+

2


( ),
2
1 2 2
2
=
+

60

5.1

h
rw,U
r

R,pr

. 5.2.

5.1.2.
(. 5.2).
, . ( = ) ( > ), ,
. , , 7 .
.
(5.2)(5.4) :
(
)
1

= 0,

(5.7)

=

, (5.7) .
, ,
/ .
:
=:

= ,

= :

(5.8)

(5.7):

(5.9)

, (5.8):

= ln
7

(5.10)

- .

61

5
(5.8), :

= + ln

(5.11)

(5.10), (5.11) :
=


ln

(5.12)

(5.12) (5.10), (5.11) :


=


ln ,

ln

=+


ln

ln

(5.13)

(5.13) , ,
. , , (. 5.3).

p
pr

U
R

rw

. 5.3.
(5.9) : (5.7) ( 6 6 ):
2 = 2

, (5.9),

= 2

(5.12) ,
:
=

2
ln

(5.14)

(5.14) 8 ; :
= ( )
:
=
8

62

2
ln

(5.15)

.
.

5.1

5.1.3. -
(5.14)
, ,
( , ) (. 5.4).

ks

. 5.4.
(. 5.4):
, ;
, , .
, 9 , ,
. , (. 5.4).
:

.
9

, , , .

63

5
(5.14), ()
:
=+

= ()
ln
2

() :
= +

ln
= ( )
2

,
,
(. 5.5). = ?

p
pr
p(k)
U
p(ks)
Us
lnrw

lnrws

lnR

lnr

S
. 5.5.
() , ( ) .
-:
= ln ln = ln

(5.16)

-
= + + =

,
- ; - ; - ; , - , . . , ,
.
, - , , .

64

5.2
(5.16) , , . . , :
= ,
(5.14) ,
:
=

2
ln +

(5.17)

(. 5.6).

R,pr

Rs
rw,U
ks
k

ks

. 5.6.
:
=

2
2
2
,
=
=

ln +
ln

ln

(
=

1 ln

- > 0 (. . < ) , .
< 0 ( > ),
(, , ).

5.2.
, ,
. :

= 1 + 2 + 3 ,

1 2 3
(
)
= , ,

1 2 3

65

5
(5.2), (5.4) :
()
() + ,
=

(5.18)

= ,

(5.19)

(4.15).

5.3.
(. 5.7).

. 5.7. ,
, () () :
: , ;
.
, , ,
: = {, }.
, . (5.4) :
(
)

=

,
(5.20)

;
; ; ; .

(. (4.28))), (5.20)
:
(
)

=

(5.21)



( )+ ( ) ,

66

5.3
.
(5.1),
( (5.2)):
( )
( )
=
+ ,

(5.22)

/ .
(5.21) (5.22),
:
[
(
)]
( )

+ ,
=

[
(
)]
(5.23)
( )

+
=

, = ( ), = ( ), = , , = ( ),
= ( ), (5.23) 2 4- , , , .
(4.16):
+ = 1
, (4.19)
= = ( )
(5.23) (4.16), (4.19) , , , .

5.3.1. -

, - . - () ,
. . = = 0. (5.21), (4.16) (4.19), ( )
(
)

= 0,

(
)
(5.24)

= 0,

= ( ), = , ; = ( );
= 1.
, - , .

=

(5.25)

= = 0, ,
.
, :

67

5
, ;
, ;
, .
(5.24)

= ,


= , + ( ) ,
, = ( ) .
, = 0, . . 6 ,
.
,

= ,

= , + ( ()) ( ( )) + ( )
= 1 ,
.
(. . )
( ( )) = , :

= ,

= ,

(5.26)

= ,

= ( ) .
:
() = ( ()) = + ( )

(5.27)

(4.27) -
( ()) =

cos
( ) = () ( )


( ) =

()
()

1 - ,
(
)
()
= 1
,
()

68

5.3

0 Swc

1 Sw

p
po

Cpc

Sow
z

pw
z

. 5.8.

() (5.27).
(5.26):
() = , + ( )
, - , ,
, . 5.8.

5.3.2.

.
, ( , = ). (5.23),
(4.16), (4.19) (5.25), :

[ + ] =
+
+ ,

(5.28)

(
=

(
)

(5.28) ,
)
(
)
(

+ = () =

( ,
) .
,
(
)

= +
+ [ ]
,

( )
=
( )

+
( ) +
( )

(5.29)

69

5
( ) ( ) (. 5.9), 10 .

1
F
kro

Swc

krw

Sow

. 5.9. ( ) / = 0,25
(5.23),
:
[
(
)]

+
+
+ [ ]
=
+
(5.30)

(5.30)
( ), -11 .
-12 .

5.4.
, () ()
, :
[
]
( )

= ( ) + , = ,

(5.31)
+ = 1,
=

5.5.
.
13 ,
10

11
12
13

70

: ,
, .
. . 1953 .
. . 1942 .
, .

5.5
,
--.

( black oil),
1936 . . 14 .

5.5.1.
(. 5.10):


( )

( )

. 5.10. ,

: (), (), ();
: ( ), () (),
() ();
( ) ;
, ( );
;
(. . ).
15 .
4.1.2 ,
.
, , ,

; , ; ,
;

,
.
14
15

-.
, , .

71

5
, (4.9),

.
:

,

=
= ,

(5.32)

(5.33)

.
, (4.7):

,

,

+
,

(5.34)

; ,
.
( , ),
:
( )
( )


+
(5.35)
=

)
+

(5.36)

,
( [
])

(
)


,

+ , +
+

(5.37)

(, ,
).
; , /
.
:
=

)
(

, (4.18):
+ + = 1

72

(5.38)

5.5
(4.19), (4.20):
= ,
=
, , :
)
(
)
(

=
+

)
(
)
(

1 +

])
(
)
( [

1 + , + + ,
=

(5.39)
)
(


, = {, , },
=

+ + = 1,
= ,
=

5.5.2.
, . ,
, 16 .
(5.39) :
( )
( )

=
+

(
[
])
(
)

,
,

+
+
=

(
[
])
(
)

,

=
+
+

(
)

, = {, , },

+ + = 1,
= ,
=

,
.
16

, 750800 /3 120140 .
, 830850 /3 60
65 .

73

5.6. ()

. . 17 :
;
( 6 3);
.
= {1, . . . , }, , .
:

,
, ,
(5.40)
=
,


; =
, ;
,

, =

,
; ,
; ; ,
.
:

, =

,
= ,

= {1, . . . , } :
(
)

, =
, +
, ,

(5.41)

(5.42)

, /
.
= {, , } (5.38):
)
(

(5.40), (5.38) (5.42),


(
)
(
)]

, =
, +
,

:

,

+ 2

(5.42), (5.38):
17

74

, .

5.6 ()

( , = 1)

1
( 1)

1
+ 2

. , , ,
. = + 1 ,
.

5.6.1.

, .
, :
, ,
(. ).
(5.41)
, = ,

,
, ,
,
,
=
= ,
=
,
,


,

= {, }.
(4.7) (4.9),



, = , /,
,
, =
,

= , = , = 1
, ,
, = , = , = , = , = 0


= /,


= /,
=
,
,

= /,

(5.43)

(5.44)

= {, }.
(5.43) (5.42) (5.44),
)
(

,
,
,

,
=

,
,


, = (5.44),
= {, , }:
(
)
(
)

1
1
1

=
+
,

(
)
(
)

1
1
1

=
+
,

( [
])
(
)
,
,
,
1

1
1

+
+
+
,

(5.39).

75

5.7.
5.7.1. ,
, (5.3) . ,
, .
, ,
:
)
(

,
(5.45)
(I + ||) =
I ; ; || =

2 + 2 + 2 .

(5.45), , , .
(, ) ,
.
,
:
=

)
(


()

( )
:
() = 0 ||1 ,
0 .

5.7.2.

( , ) . ,
. .
5.7.3.
, - , , . . :

76

;
;
;
;
;
.

5.7

5.7.4.
o ,
.
, . . :
, ;
, .
, ( ). . . ,
.
. , , .
, .

77

6.

-
, . ,
.

, . - . - , , .
, . ( )
; ,
. ,
.
-
:
(
)

=
,
(6.1)

= +

6.1.
:
;
;
.
() (. 6.1):
;
.
,
, .

79

6 -

. 6.1.
.
.
- 1 .
.
- . ,
.
.
, . (, ) 8
(6 ), 3 X, Y, Z.
(), 1

80

, .

6.2
.
(, ) .

.
,
.
(, )
. .
,
. , . , ,
, . , , , ,
, .
, ,
.
, :
, ;
,
.

6.2.
, = 1, . . . , (. 6.2).

xi-

i-1

xi+

i+1

i
xi

. 6.2.
- . (6.1) :
(
)
(
)
(
)

+ 1
1
=
,
(6.2)
2
2
+ 1
1

2

1 , ( 1);
(
) 2


.
(
)
+ 21 :
( )
+ 1

+1
2

=
,
+ 1
+
+
(

1
2

= ( , ); +1 = ( + + , ).

81

6 -
(6.2) :
+ 1 (+1 ) + 1 (1 ) =
2

+ ,

(6.3)

1 = 1
2

1
2

= ,

(6.3) - (6.1).
(6.3) ( , ) ,
, 2 .
, (6.3) 1 +1 . () (, )
, 1 ,
2
, .

6.3.
)
(
+ 12

(
,+ 1 =
2

(
+ 12

)
,
+ 12

/ , ; / ( ) ,
.
(
)
1
+ 2
)
)
(
+1 (
+ 1
+ 1 = + 1
+1 + 1 ,
2 /2
2
2 +1 /2
2
)
(
+ 1 + 12 .
2
,
+ 1
2

+ 1
2

(+1 )

+ 1 ,
2

+ 1 =
2

+ +1
/ + +1 /+1

, , ,
:
{
)
(
,+1 , ,+ 1 > 0;

2
= ,+ 1 =
,
(6.4)
2
+ 1
, ,
,+ 1 6 0.
2

,+ 1 = ,+1 , ,+ 1 (+1 ).
2
2
,
.
2

82

, ,
.

6.4

6.4.
(6.3) 0 = 0, 1 = , . . . , = .
(6.3) + :
(
)
(
)

,
(6.5)
+1
+ 1 +1 + + 1 1 + 1 1 =
+

2
2
2
2

= ( , ); +1
= ( , + ).

= { , , , } (. 6.3):

= 1

= +1 + (1 ) ,

3 , 0 6 6 1.

U
=1

Un+1

Un

=0
t

t+t

. 6.3.
= 0 ,
, +1 . (6.5)
:
(
)
+1

=
+ 1 1 + +

(6.6)
1 +1 +
12 1
2
2
2

, = 0 = ( , 0) ,
(6.6) +1
.

+1
,

, +1
, (. . = 1).
(6.5) :
( +1
)

+1
+1 +1
+1
+1
+1 +1
+1
(6.7)
+ 1 +1 +
+ + 1 + 1 +1

2 1


2
2
2
+1
( = 1, . . . , ),

.
.
(6.7) :
(
)
(
)
1 +1 +1
1 +1 +1
+1
+1 = 0,
T
+
D

D
+

,
.

83

6 -


,
:

1
1
1 1
1
2
2 2 2
2

..
..

..
..
.
.

= , = = , =

..
..

..
..
.
.

.
1
1 1 1
1

T :

1 1 1+ 1
2
2

2 1 2+ 1

2 1
2
2
2

..
..
..

.
.
.

,
+ 1
1
1
T=

2
2
2

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

1
1
1

1 2
1 2
1+ 2
1
1
2
2

1 = 1 + + 1 ,
2
2
2
D :

.
..

D=

.
.

1 1

2 2

..

,

=

..

1 1

T+1 +1 , (6.7) , .
, .

6.5.
-4 .
4

84

6.5
: , ( ) () = 0.
.

+1 ,

( +1 )
( ) .
|
| < | |,( )|| .
, | +1 | < , .
(
) (
)
, () , +1 , +1 = 0 ,
. .:

)
(
+1

0=

= +1 :
= ,


=

( )
( )
, = = , +1 = + . (??) ,
( +1 )
, |
| < .
- - (??), . , 0 = ( ) =
+1 = + , = 1, . . . , , = 1, 2, . . . .
(??) :

J = ,


J = ( ) =
,

, = 1, . . . ,

(??), ( + 1)- +1 . , -
:

(
=

| |

)1/
< ,

>1

=1

-
0 .
( ).
, . +1 ,
.

85

6 -

6.6.
, . ,
.
( ) ,
:
(0, ) = 1 ()
- , :
(
)
1
1
1+
1
2 = 1
1 + 2
1 + 2
- .
: = 0 (. 6.4) ,
1 () 0

p0

p1

x1

x1

p2

. 6.4.
- (6.3) = 1:
1+ 1 (2 1 ) + 1 1 (0 1 ) = 1
2

1
+ 1

(
)
1
1+ 1 2 + 1 1 1+ 1 1 = 1
+ 1 1 1 1
2
2
2
2

( ) :
)
(

= 2 ()

=0
:
(
)

2 () =
1 1 (1 0 )
2
=1 1
2

- (??) :
1
+ 1 + 2

:
1+ 1 2 1+ 1 1 = 1
2

86

6.7 , ,
(. ) 10
100 ;
, ,
.
, :
(
)

= , = ( 1 + [ 1 ]) ,
=0
; ; ; 1
.
:
(
)
= 0 0 ,
=

, ;

( + ) ; 0 ; 0 .

6.7. , ,
(6.1)

(
)

=
,

-
+ 1 (+1 ) + 1 (1 ) =
2


+ + ,

= 1, . . . ,

, ( ); -
+1

=

, -
(, ).
- , :
0 0, 0,
.
, ,
() ,
().

87

6 -
- (6.3) (6.1):
= ,
( ). , -
,
0 0, 0
, , , .
1956 . . 5 :
(-).
.
, . - .
:
( ),
;
, .
- (6.6), (6.7) :
+1 = B
+ k,

= 0, 1, . . . ,

B .
:
. , B . , ,
B .
(6.6) , ; . :

> +
1 +
12
2

= 1, . . . , ,
,

6 min

+ 1 +
1
2

.
5

88

. . 1967 ,
.

6.7 , ,
, . ,
( ) .
(6.7) , +1

. .

89

7.

- .
(
).
, : ,
, .
(5.23):
[
(
)]
(
)

[
)]
(
(
)

(7.1)


- (7.1).
6.3
(
)

+ 1 (+1 ) + 1 (1 ) ,
2
2

(
1 =
2

)
12


[
(
)]
[
]


, 1 ,1 , , 1 (1 ) +
2
2

[
]
+,+ 1 ,+1 , ,+ 1 (+1 ) ,
2

(7.2)

(
, 1 =
2

)
12

91

7 -
(7.1)
:
[
(
)]
[
(
)]

[
(
)]
[
]

- (7.1)
[
(
)]
[
]


]
[
, 1 ,1 , , 1 (1 ) +
2
2
]
[
+,+ 1 ,+1 , ,+ 1 (+1 )
2

, 1 ,
1
2
2

(7.3)

[,1 , ]

,+ 1 ,+
1
2
2

[,+1 , ] ,

(
, 1 =
2

)
12


,
(7.1) :
(
)
(
)


=
( ) ,

1/ ; = +1 .
-
( ) = ( )+1 ( ) =
]
= ( )+1 +1 + ( )+1 + ( )+1 ( ) =
(
)
= ( )+1 + ( ) = ( )+1 + +1 +
[

=
,

=
=
,

=
=
,

= ,

= ,

= ,

- (7.1)
(
)

( ) =

]
)
1 ( [ +1
=

+ + +1 +1
=

[
]
1
1 +1 +1
=
(1 ) +1 +

92

(7.4)

7.1 -
- (7.1):
(
)

( ) =

(
)]
1 [
=
( )+1 + +1 + =

[
]
]
1 +1
1 +1 [ +1
=

+ +

(7.5)

1/ ; = / ; = ( ).
, (7.4) (7.5)
, , , , :

,
1 =
2

,1 ,
,
,1 ,

+1

,
= +1
, ,

,
=

+1
, ,

+1
, ,

+1

,
,
+1

,
,

,
(7.6)

= {, }

7.1. -
, - (7.1):
, 1 [,1 , ] + ,+ 1 [,+1 , ]
2

, 1 ,
1
2
2

[,1 , ]

,+ 1 ,+
1
2
2

[,+1 , ]

, 1 , 1 (1 ) ,+ 1 ,+ 1 (+1 ) =
2
2
( 2
)
( 2
)
+1
+1

= , , , + , , ,
, ,

(7.7)

, 1 [,1 , ] + ,+ 1 [,+1 , ]
2

, 1 , 1 (1 ) ,+ 1 ,+ 1 (+1 ) =
2
2
( 2
)
( 2
)
+1
+1

= , , , + , , ,
, ,

, =

]
]
[ +1
+1 [ +1

, , + , , , =

, ,
, ,
,

) [ +1
]
(

, =
1 ,
, + , , , = +1
+1
,

7.2. SS-
- 2 :
[
] [
]
= ,1 ,1 ,2 ,2 . . . , , = 1 2 . . . ,
[
]
= , , -; ,
.
- (7.7)
:
(
)

= 0 = ,

(7.8)
T
D +1

93

7 -

T ; D ;

; /; .
,

:
,
]
, 1 , 1 (1 )
2
2

,
, 1 , 1 (1 )

[
=

[
]
,

=
,
,

[
]
,

=
,
,

, 1 , 1 (1 ) =
2

= , 1 , 1 (1 ) + ,+ 1 ,+ 1 (+1 )
2

D, T 2 .
(2 2):
]
[
D = D, ,

]
[
T = T,1 T, T,+1 ,

D, = 0 = ; T, = 0 = 1, , + 1;
[
]
]

, 1 , 1 ,
1
, ,
2
2
2
D, =
, T,1 =
,
, ,
0
, 1
2
[
]

, 1 ,+ 1 , 1 ,
1 + ,+ 1
1
2
2
2
2 ,+ 2
2
T, =
, 1 ,+ 1
0
[

(7.8) (SS)1 ,
(
)

= 0 =
,
T D +1

- -
.
:
(
)
+1
+1 = 0 =
+1
T+1 +1 D +1
-

J = ,

J = ( ) =

= +1,+1
+1,

. , SS
.
1

94

SS = Simultaneous Solution.

7.3 IMPES-

7.3. IMPES-
(IMPES)2
- , (7.7).
IMPES:
;
, , ;
;
, .
(
)
+1

(7.7) , , ,
,
.
(7.7) (, /, ) (7.7):
)
(
,

1 +
, 12 [,1 , ] +
, , 2
(
)
,
+

1 +
,+ 12 [,+1 , ]
, ,+ 2
(
)
,

[,1 , ]
1
1
, , 2 , 2
(
)
,

[,+1 , ]
1
(7.9)
1
, ,+ 2 ,+ 2
)
(
,
, 1 , 1 + , 1 , 1 [1 ]

2
2
2
2
,
(
)
,

1
1 +
,+ 12 ,+ 12 [+1 ] =
, ,+ 2 ,+ 2
(
) [
)
] (
,
,
+1

, + , , ,
, + ,
=
,
,
, , , ( + 1) 3 .
(7.9)
[
]

= D +1
,
(7.10)
T +1

[ ] [
]
,
T = = ( + + ) + , =

1 +
, 12 ,
, , 2

,1
[ ]

= = ( + ) , , = ,

1
1,
, , 2 , 2
+ ,+1

1
[ ]
= = ( + ) , = ,

1
1 +
, 12 , 12 ,
, , 2 , 2
+ +1
[ ]
[ ]
,
= = , , + ,
D = =
, + , ,
,
,

[ ]
= , ,

2
3

IMPES = IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation.


, . , .

95

7 -
, D +1 , +1
+1
,

(7.10) .
+1
, (7.7) +1 :

[
[
]
])
1 (
+1
+1
+1

, 1 +1

,1
,+1
,
,
,+ 12
2
,
)
1 (

, 1 ,

1 (1 ) +
1
1 (+1 )
,+ 2 ,+ 2
2
2
,
)
, ( +1

,

, , +
,
, ,

+1

,
= ,
+

, .
.

7.4. SEQ-
(SEQ)4 ( IMPES)

( SS) .
SEQ:
( IMPES);
.

96

SEQ = SEQuential solution.

8.


/ ,
.

( , , . .), (, , , , - . .).
:
, , 1 ;
( , ,
/);
,
;
, .
, /: .

8.1.
, . , , . 1978 . ,
, ,
. , ,
.
, (. (5.14)):

() = +
2
1

(
)

ln
,

(8.1)

,
.

97

8
; ;
.
0 , , 0 2 ,
0 :
(
)

() = 0 +
ln
(8.2)
2
0

= 0 +
2

(
)

ln
0

(8.3)

8.1.1.
(. 8.1)

(8.4)

=1

= 1, 2, 3, 4 , 0,
=

(8.5)

= = ; = .
(8.5) (8.4):

(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 40 ) =

(8.6)

14 .
- ( 0- ), , (8.2),
(
)

= 0 +
ln
, = 1, . . . , 4
(8.7)
2
0
,
0. (8.6) (8.7), 0 3 :
( )
0
=
0.208
(8.8)

2
. 8.2
, 0 (8.8).
(8.3) (8.8) ,
. :
= (0 )
2
3

98

(8.9)

, .
, 0 = 0.1982 ,
./, 1937 .

8.1

p
p1

p0

U
r0 rw

r a

. 8.1.

=

1
2
( )
ln 0 +

- , ( ).
,
(, ).
- :
=

2
( )
ln 0

1983 , =

99

r0 /a = 0,208

r0 /a = 0,196

r0 /a = 0,433
a

r0 /a = 0,193

r0 /a = 0,72

. 8.2.
:
0
1
= 0.140365,

()2 + ()2 ,

-4
(
= lim

1
ln

)
=

=1

ln
0.5772157

1983
[(
0 = 0.28

)1/2

()2 +
(

)1/4

)1/2

()2

)1/4

]1/2
,

8.1.2.
(. 8.3).

:
[
( +
0 = 0.28073 (
4

100

)1/4

]1/2

)1/4 ,

8.2

5-

9-

. 8.3.

8.2.
( )
:
;
/ : ( ), ( ), ,
( + + );
( ).
(
):
/ (, / )
;
/ , , ;

, ;

;

.
, :
/ , ;
;
.

101

8

(8.9) .
0:
,0 = ( )0 ,0 (,0 0 ) ,
( )0 0:
( )0 =

2
( )
,
ln 0 +

,0 0, (. (6.4)):
(
)

,0 =
0

= ( )0 ,0 ,0 ,
,0 = ,0 0 ; ,0 = ,0 ,0 .

(, ) , (
):
, , :

,


=

= + , = {, , }:
=
=

= {, , }:

=
( )

, ,

102

8.3

8.3.
0 ( ), . . , . ,
10 , 5 .
, ( = 1, 2, 3)
1 , 2 , 3 , :

2
( )
=
, , = ,
(8.10)
ln 0 +

[( )
1/2

0 = 0.28

( ) +
( )1/4

( )1/2

( )

( )1/4

]1/2
,

.

.
(8.10) 5 , . .
;
, (- ).

8.4.
, , .
. .

1989 . . .

103

9.

(). , . .
. , , , .
1 . 2 .
IMPES-, .
,
.
: . ,
.
:
A = ,
A ; ;
.

9.1.
,
, .
:
-
3 ;
- ;
1
2
3

.
50% .

. -
.
.

105

9
, :
( ):

1
1

1,1
1,2 . . .
1,

2,2 . . .
2, 2 2

..
..
.. .. = .. ,
..
.
.
.
. . .

0
0 ...
,
;
- ,
.
LU-.

9.1.1. LU-
LU- ( )
( ) .
A L U, L
:

1
0
...
0
0
2,1
1
...
0
0

..
.
.
..
..
..
..
L= .

.
.

1,1 1,2 . . .
1
0
,1
,2 . . . , 1 1
U :

1,1 1,2
0 2,2

..
U = ...
.

0
0
0
0

...
...
..
.

1, 1
2, 1
..
.

. . . 1, 1
...
0

1,
2,

..
.

,
,

:
( LU-). A LU-,
. LU- A
, LU- .

LU A 2 2 2,1 , . . . , , 1 , 1,1 , . . . , , :
, =

, , ,

(9.1)

, = 1, . . . ,

=1

, , = 1, , = 0 < , , = 0 > , (9.1)


:

, , =

=1

=1

106

, , =

, , + , , +

=1
1

=1

, , + , , +

, , =

=+1

=+1

, , =

, , + , ,

=1
1

=1

, , + , ,

9.1
( = 1, . . . , )
, = 1,
, = ,

, , ,

= 1, . . . , ,
= 1, . . . , ,

=1

(
, =

(9.2)

)
, ,

/, ,

= + 1, . . . ,

=1

L U A = A =
LU = L = 2 :
1) L = ;
2) U = .
LU-
LU-

(
)
10 7 0
1,1

A = 3 6 2 =
,

D
5
0 5
( )
(
)
(
)
3
6 2

1,1 = 10; =
,
= 7 0 , D =
.
5
0 5
L, U:
)
)
(
(
1,1

1 0
, U=
L=
0
U
L

(9.3)

LU A
)
) (
(
1,1


1,1

=
A=
1,1
+ A

1,1 = 1,1 ,

=
,
= /1,1 ,

(9.4)

A = L U = D

, LU- LU- ( 1) ( 1).
(9.2) (9.4), , .
,

10 7
0
1
0 0
10 7 0
A = 3 6 2 = LU = 0, 3 1 0 0 2,2 2,3 ,

0, 5 3,2
1
5
0 5
0
0 3,3

A =

) (
)
(
)
)
6 2
0, 3 (
3, 9 2
7 0 =

= L U
0 5
0, 5
3, 5 5

107

9
A :
(
) (
) (
)
2,2


3, 9 2
1
0

A =
=
,
0 2,2
2,2
+ A
0, 897 1

A = 5 0, 897 2 = 3, 206 = L U
, LU- A

10 7 0
1
0
0
10 7
0
1
0 0 3, 9
2
A = 3 6 2 = 0, 3
5
0 5
0, 5 0, 897 1
0
0 3, 206
1 ( LU-). LU- ( 3,2 = 0.897, 3,2 = 0).
, LU ,
.

9.1.2.

1 1
2 2

A:

1
1

2
2 2

3 3
3 3
.. ..
.. .. ..
. = .
.
.
.




. .
.. .. ..
. .. ..
.
.

1 :
1 =

1 1 2
1

1 :
(
)
2 1
2 1
2
2 + 2 3 = 2
1
1
2 1
1 1 + 1 = 1 ,

1 =

1 1
1

1 :
(
)
1
2 1

+ 1 =
1
1
= 1 /1 = 1 /1 , :
+ +1 =
:

108

9.2
1 , . . . , 1 , . . . , , :
1
,
1
1
=
,
1
=

1 = 1 , 1 = 1 ;
1 , . . . , ,
=

= 1, . . . , 1
=

+1

( ) LU-. A,
, 4
: = [ ], = [ ], = [ ], = [ ].

9.2.
, . .
4 .
5 : , . (), . . , .
, . , , ,
, .

9.2.1.
, .
A = 6, = 16:

9 0 0 3 0 1
0 2 5 0 0 2

0 6 1 0 0 0

A=

1
0
0
4
0
5

0 0 0 0 8 0
7 4 0 3 0 8
4

, A ( = 3, 5, 7), ,
.
: , 0 ( ).
.

109

9
, :
,
;
, ;
,
.
8
6
6

1
3
3

1
1
4

7
1
6

5
3
2

8
5
5

3
4
1

4
2
6

4
4
4

1
6
1

2
6
2

9
1
1

2
2
2

5
6
4

6
2
3

3
4
6

, A
(, ) , , = 0:
() = {(, ) : , = 0},

(9.5)

, = 1, . . . ,

.
(CSR)6 , . :
,
( );
,
;
+1, - ,
- 7 .

9
1
1

3
4
4

1
6
7

2
2
9

5
3
12

2
6
13

6
2
17

1
3

1
1

4
4

5
6

8
5

7
1

4
2

3
4

8
6

, , ,
. (CSC)8 . CSR-, CSC-.
(MSR)9 ,
:
+ 1: ; ( + 1) ; ( + 2)-
, , .
+ 1: ( + 1)- , ; ( + 2)- ,
.
6
7
8
9

CSR = compressed sparse row


[ + 1] [] - .
CSC = compressed sparse column.
MSR = modified sparse row.

110

9.3

9
8

2
10

1
12

4
13

8
15

8
15

18

3
4

1
6

5
3

2
6

6
2

1
1

5
6

7
1

4
2

3
4

.
, (5) = (6) = 15 , 5- ( ).
A 10 , CSR-
(BCSR)11 . CSR-, : ,
. .
,
. , (. . 2 )
, .
:
, ;
,
.

9.3.
, ,
, .
. , .
:

(1) < 1 ,

(9.6)

, ;
; 1 , .
, ,
.
(9.6)
= A < 1 ,
.

, .
, , , .
10

11

, . : = 2, = 3.
BCSR = block compressed sparse row.

111

9.3.1.
A = - A .
( )
1
(9.7)
() = (A, ) , ,
2
(, ) .
, * ,
(* ) = A* = 0,
A* = , . . * A = b.
:
0 ,
,
. , ;
, , ,
;
.
(CG)12 .
A ( A-)13 ,
(
)
(9.8)
, A = 0, =
0 , 1 , . . . , , CG, (9.7):
+1 = + ,

= 0, 1, . . . ,

;
- .
(
)
, +1 , . .
(
)
(
) (
)


, = 0,
=
A

(
) (
)
, A ,

(A , )

( )
,
=
,
(A , )

(9.9)

= A .
+1 = A+1 = A
12
13

(9.10)

CG = conjugate gradients
. , A
, (9.8)

.

112

9.3
, .
0 = 0 .
:
+1 = +1 + ,

(9.11)

.
CG +1 , . .
(
) (
)
(
)
0 = +1 , A = +1 , A + , A ,

( +1
)
, A
=
( , A )

(9.12)

CG:
:
(9.10) (9.9),
(
) (
)
(
)
+1 , = , A , = 0

(9.13)

:
(
)
0 = 0 , (9.13) , 1 , 0 = 0. ,

)
(
+1
(9.14)
, = 0
(9.10), (9.11), (9.13) (9.14), (9.9), (9.12) :
( )
(
)
( )
,
, + 1 1
,

=
=
=
,

(A , )
(A , )
(A , )
(
)
+1
( +1
)
( +1 +1 )

+1 ,

,
A

(
)
=
=

=
+1
( , A )
( , )
,

, CG :
1) 0 0 = A0 0 = 0 ;
2) = 0, 1, . . .
a) = A
( , )
b) = ,
(
)
c) +1 = +
d) +1 =
(+1 ,+1 )
e) =
( , )
+1
f)
= +1 +
, A .
CG - . , , 1 (. (9.6)) .
CG
(BCG)14 .
14

BCG = biconjugate cradients. BiCG.

113

9.4.
, ,
. , ,
. ,
A , , . M1 , . .

M1 A = M1,

(9.15)

M x. M , (9.15) 15 . ,
. . ,
.
, :
( ) ;

;
(, ), ;
16 .
(9.15),
M:
( ) A
M = A, (9.15) E = A1, E
. , . . A1 .

= A, = M1 A, M = .
, .

9.4.1. ILU-
LU. , . .
(. 1).
A = L U A :
A = LU + R,

(9.16)

L, U, R :
15

16

, . , M , .
.
, , .

114

9.4
L, U , ;
() LU
, . .
() () = ,

[ ], = [], (, ) ()

L, U ( A) ,
. .
() () ( ) ()
A LU LU- 17 (ILU(0)-18 ) A.

ILU(0)- . LU- (9.2), , , = 0,


, = 0, , = 0:
, = 1,
, =

, =

0,

0,
(

= 1, . . . , ,

(, ) () ,

, , , (, )
/ () ,

(, ) () ,

>

/, , (, ) () ,

>

=1

)
, ,

(9.17)
,

=1

= 1, . . . ,
ILU- M =
LU, :
A, . . ();
, . . ;
(9.17).
ILU(0)-

10 7 0
A = 3 6 2
5
0 5
ILU(0)

1
0 0
L = 0.3 1 0 ,
0.5 0 1

10 7 0
U = 0 3.9 2
0
0 5

R = A LU

0 0

R= 0 0
0 3.5
17

18

0
0
0

, L, U .
ILU- = incomplete factorization

115

9
L, U, ILU(0)-, L , U , LU- (. 9.1.1):

1
0
0
10 7
0
1
0 , U = 0 3.9
2
L = 0.3
0.5 0.897 1
0
0 3.206
2 ( ILU-). ILU(0) :
( L, U A);
( ).
ILU(0)- . ILU-,
LU-. , ILU(p)-, L, U.

9.4.2.
CG (. . 113) A = M, . . ,
A .
CG :
1) M
2) 0 0 = A0 , 0 = M10 0 = 0
3) = 0, 1, . . .
a) = A
( , )
b) = ,
(
)
c) +1 = +
d) +1 =
e) +1 = M1+1
(+1 ,+1 )
f) =
( , )
g) +1 = +1 +

116

10.

, ,
10.1.
,
1 .
.
() ,
.
, , :
, , ;
/// : , ,
;
/// , ;
;
(, ) ;
, ;
- , ;
, , .
( ):
( );
;
, ( ,
, ,
)
,
, . .
1

, , , .

117

10 , ,

, .

2 .

10.1.1.
, , .
. ,
.
, :

;
;
;
.

:
;
;
.
.
:
1) ( , )
:
;
;
;
.
, .
.
2)
:
;
( ).
3)
.

.
2

118

10.1
4) -
- , / / ( , , , , ), : / , /
.

10.1.2.
, . , . , ,

. .

,
. , -
, ,
.

.
- ,
, .

. , . .

. , 3 .
:
=

( )2 ,

=1 =1

; -
; ,
; -
; - ;
= {1 , 2 , . . . , } .

10.1.3.
1) .
2) .
, ,
.
3) .
3

, .

119

10 , ,
,
.
4) .
, , .
-, , , .
5) .
. , , . .
, .
6) .
, . (
4) .

10.2.

. , ,
, . , ,
,
, ,
. .

,
.
.
.
, .
, , ,
. (, ).
,
,
. ,
.

.
. , , ,
.

120

10.3
, . , ,
.
; , , .
, .

10.3.
, . , .

. , ,
, .
. - . , ,
, ,
.
, .
(
), , ,
.

121

123

11.




- .
. () 15 .
15 . .1 .2.
C example.

11.1.
15
| .
:
: ;
: C:\example;
: .
.
( )
(. 11.1).
:
X , ( 12) ( . .4);
X , Petrel 2014.1 Schlumberger ( . .2);
Petrel 2014.1,
( . .1).
X .

11.2.
(, , )
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(
)1
+
= + 1
= 1
, [] = /3 ;

= + (1 ) .

= (, , , );
= (, , , ) ,
= (, , , ).

= 1, . . . , 1;

1
1 , 2 ,
2 = 0.
= (, , . . . , ) ,

= ( , 1 , . . . , 1 , ) ,
= ( , 1 , . . . , 1 , ) ,
...

181


, = , = , =

=
=
= 1,

=
=
=
=
=
=
= 0,

= 1, . . . , 1,

,
, =

, ,


=
=
+
(1 )
(1 )
=
(1 )
+ (1 )
= 1
= ( , ) = = ( + ),
= (, , ) -,
= ( ) -,
= (, , ) -
= ( , ) = + = + ( + ),
= (, , ) -,
= ( ) -,
= (, , ) -
[
(
)]
= ( , , , ) = / 0 1 + 0 ,
= (, , ) ,
0 = 0 (, , ) ,
0 = 0 (, , ) 0
= ( , , , , , , )
, =
{ , , } = (, , , )
= ( , ) , = , ,
= , = , , ,
= ( ) ,
= ( , 1 , . . . , 1 ) ,
= ( , 1 , . . . , 1 ) ,
=
= (, , ),


( = ).
:
(
)]
[


=
( (1 ))
,

= , , ,

(.1)

= , 0, 1, . . . , 1,

= ,

182

(.2)

.5
,
=

(.3)

(
)
= () = [ ] ; () - 1 ; = () ; = ( ); ;
.
{
1, = ;
, =
0, = .
:

=0
1

, = 1, = , , ;
= 1, = , , .

=0

0 = 1

=1


(.1) ( SS):

= () ( > 0) :
= <+1> <>

(.4)

(.1)
:
( <+1>
)]
[

1
<+1>
<+1>
<+1>


=
( (1 ))

,
(.5)

= <+1> <> .
, , - ( -):
<+1,+1> = <+1,> + ,
<+1,+1> = <+1,> + ,
<+1,+1>

<+1,>

= 1, . . . , 1,

(.6)

+ ,

(, ) -; , ,
.
= ()
<+1> <+1,+1> = <+1,> + ,

(.7)

, (.4),
<+1,> <> +

( ) () = ()

().

183


, < + 1 >,
<> <> +

(.5) :
)]
) ( <>
[(

<>
<>

=
+

+

] (
)
1 [
<>
=
( (1 ))<> ( (1 ))<> + ( (1 ))

() [ ]
:

[ ]

) ( <>

)]

[]

+

=

[]

)
[
]
(
,

<>
+

( (1 ))<> ( (1 ))<> + ( (1 ))

[(

<>

<>

[ ]

[ ]

[] ; <>

(. (.14) (.21)).
,
, , :
[

<>

<>

[
]

<>

[] ( )[]
+
[] []

[]
[]

[ <>
]

[ ]

<>
<>

( (1 ))[ ] +
( )[ ] =
[] []

[]

[ ] [
+
( (1 ))<> ( (1 ))<>

<>
[ ]

[ ]

(.8)

:
[

[]

[ ] [ ]
,
[]

[] = [ ] + [ ] ; [ ]
; [ ] .
(.8), :
<>
<>
= <>

[ ] [ ]

<> <>
<> <>
[
] [ ] + [ ] [ ]
<>
<>
[ ] + [ ]

= [ ] [ ] ,
<>
[]
=

184

<> <>
[
[] <>
] [ ]
[] = [] <>
<>
[]
[ ] [ ] + [
] [ ]

.5
(.2),
)
(
]
[]
<> [
<>
<>

[ ] [ ] +
( )[] + []
[]
[]

)
)
1 (
(
]
<> <> [
<>

+[]
[ ] [ ] +
[]
[]

=1
)
(
]
<> [
<>
[ ] [ ]

+[]
[]

(
)

[ ]
<>
<>

[]

( )[]
( (1 ))[ ] +
( )[ ] =
[]

)
]

(
[ ] [
<>
<>
<>
<>
<>

= []
<>
+
(
(1

))

(
(1

))

[ ]

[
]

[]

(.9)


(.9). . (.17).
[

[
[
]<>
]<>
1



+
+
=

=1
[
(
)]<>

+
= <>

(
)]<>
1 [

<>
+
+

=1
[
(
)]<>

<>
+

]<>

]<>
+

]
1 [

<>
=1

]<>

(.10)

(.11)

( (1 )) =
]<>
[
]
[
]<>
1
<>

( (1 ))
+
( (1 ))
+
( (1 ))
=

=1
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]

<>
<>
<>
= (1 )
+
+

]<>
1 [

+<> (1 <>
)

=1
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]<>

<> <>

,
+

(1 )

(.12)

185

, =

= > 0;
1,
= 0,
= > 0;

1, = 0.

-
(.10)(.12), (.9)
[
(
)]
]<>
[


<>

[] +


[]

<>

(
)]
1 [


<>
<>
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+

+[]

<>
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<>
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<>

[]

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)]
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[] +


[]
)
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)
(
[
]
<>
<>

[ ] [ ] +
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[] []

)
)
1 (
(
[
]
<>
<>

+[]
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[]
[]

=1
)
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)
(
[
]
<>
<>
+[]

[ ] [ ]
[] []

]
<>
<> [
[ ] [

<>
] (1 [ ] )

[ ]

[ ]
]<>
<> 1 [

[ ] <>

[ ] (1 [ ] )

+ ,
[ ]

[ ]
=1

<>
[ ] <>
[ ] [ ]

]<>

(1 )

[ ] +
( )[ ] =

[ ]

)
]

(
[ ] [
<>
<>
<>
<>
= []

<>
+
(
)

(
)

<>

[ ]

[
]
[]

(.13)

(.13) - .

,

= ().

<>
[ ]

186

<>
<>
[ ] [ ] [ *]

)
(
<>
,

[ ]

(.14)

.5

<>
<>
<> [ ] ,
[ ] = [ ]

(.15)

[ ] = [ ]

[ * ] :
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:
)
(


<>
[^ ] .
[^ ] [^ ] /

=
(.16)
[^ ]

[^ ] / [ ] ,
.
(.13):
[
]
]
]
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1 [

<>
<>
<>
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+
+
=

=1
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)]<>
[

+
=
+
+

(.17)
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1 [

+

+
+

=1
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)]<>
[


+
+

(.14) (.17) (.13), - ,


.

,

(
).
(.7)



<>
=

<+1>

+
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[^ ]
[^ ]
[^ ]
[^ ]
[^ ]

(.18)
= , 0, 1, . . . , 1, = , , , = 0, . . . , 1,
.
(.14), (.15),
(.19)

<> = <> + <> ,

<> =

[^ ]

<>
,
[^ ]

<> =

(
)
<>
<>
<>

[^ ]
[^ ]

[^ ]

<>
[^ ]

<>
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^ *]

)
(
<>

[^ ]

187


(.19) (.18), :
=

<>

1
<>
[^ ]
<>

(.20)

[^ ]

(.20) (.14),
(
) <>
[ ]
<>
<>
<>
<>
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<>
=

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
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(.21)

[^ ]

<> =

<>

<>

(.22)

<>
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).
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) (.14) (.21) FLR(

<>
2
<>
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[^ ]

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(.13), -
, .

=
,


=
,

=
+


(
)
(
)


(
)
(
)
(
)

(
)
(
)

FLR- = FLowRate-.

188

.5

= ;

1,
1,
= ;
=

, = .
1 +

0,
= ;

= ;
= 0,

, = .

,
= ;

= ;
= 0,

, = .

,
= ;

= ,
= ;

, = .

= ;

0,

= ;
= ,

+ , = .

, = ;

= ;
= 0,

, = .

= 0 ,

= 0,

=0

= 0, = 0, . . . , 1

=0

=
,

= 0,

= 0.

/ , / , /
.

189

190
, 15 ( , )
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,  1,  = + 1;

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2Y +

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[NB]*H
$
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$

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Water &
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!Water &
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Water &
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193

194
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Water &
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=0

!Water &
!Oil & Gas

Water &
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=0

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i = 1,,h-1

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 0:
[P]*H+h / [P]*H+h

!Water
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1
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[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h / [P]*H+i / [P]*H

Water &
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[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h / [P]*H+i / [P]*H

Water &
!Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h / [P]*H+i / [P]*H

!Water &
Oil & Gas
[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h

!Water &
Oil & !Gas
[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h

!Water &
!Oil & Gas
[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h

Water &
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=0
=0
=0

[P]*H+h / [P]*H
[P]*H+i / [P]*H+q

[P]*H+h / [P]*H
[P]*H+i / [P]*H+q

[P]*H+h / [P]*H
[P]*H+i / [P]*H+q

[P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h
[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+q

[P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h
[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+q

[P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h
[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+q

=0

i=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+q

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+q [P]*H+h / [P]*H+q [P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+q [P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+q [P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+q

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+h

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+h [P]*H+h / [P]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

Water & Oil & Gas

i = 1,,h-1
i=0
i = 1,,h-1

.
-
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6 $
$
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?

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M -

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MT -

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas

[P]*H / [P]*H / [P]*H / =0


=0
=0
[P]*H /
[P]*H / [P]*H

[P]*H / [P]*H

[P]*H / [P]*H

=0

=0

=0

[P]*H / [P]*H

.
-

[P]*H / [P]*H+q

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

.S -

[P]*H / [P]*H+h

[P]*H / [P]*H+h

[P]*H / [P]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

. -

6 $
M 6 $
Mp $
M
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M1 $
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$
$
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C
+ min g - ; 0h o[ - ?@A
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M B -
M -
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M -
B M -

i- (i = 0,,h-1)

6 $
$
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4
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-
$

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8
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C
MT -

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / [P]*H+i / =0
[P]*H+h / -

!Water & Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / -

!Water & Oil & !Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / -

!Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas

=0
=0
i = 1,,h-1

[P]*h+(h-1) / -

[P]*h+(h-1) / -

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+h / -

=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H

[P]*H+i / [P]*H

=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h

[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [P]*H

[P]*H+h / [P]*H

=0

[P]*h+(h -1)/ [P]*h

[P]*h+(h -1)/ [P]*h

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+q

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+q

=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+q

[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+q

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+q

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+q

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+q [P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+q

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+h

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

M1 $
MpW $
6 $
6 M@A $
M
6 $
$
$
C = o[ - ?@A /W C
C
+ min g - ; 0h o[ - ?@A
,
L1 + ? C ;2< 2 - =P + min g - ; 0h o[ - ?/W
N/
OC
M -
B - 
M -
B M - 
M W B - 
?

.
-
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. -

MpW $
6 $ M1 $
6 M@A $
M
6 $
$
$
C = o[ - ?@A /W C
? C ;2< 2 - = + min g - ; 0h o[ - ?/W
C
+ min g - ; 0h o[ - ?@A
N/W OC
M -
B -  M -
B M - 
B - 
M

i- (i = 0,,h-1)

195

$
67
$
7 - o[ - 4@A7 /W7 8
B7 -7

MpW7
8
M -

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / =0
[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h / -

!Water & Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / -

!Water & Oil & !Gas


=0

!Water & !Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / -

Water & !Oil & !Gas

=0
i = 1,,h-1

[P]*h+(h-1) / -

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / -

=0

i=0

[P]*H+h / -

=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H

=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H

[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h

=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [P]*H

=0

[P]*H+h / [P]*H

[P]*h+(h -1)/ [P]*h

=0

[P]*h+(h -1)/ [P]*h

=0

i=0

.
-

196

MpW7
4
8
MRS -
4

MpW7
8
MT -

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / [P]*H+q
=0
[P]*H+i / [P]*H+q

!Water & Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+q

!Water & Oil & !Gas


=0

!Water & !Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [P]*h+q

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+q

=0

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+q

[P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+q

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [P]*h+q

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h

=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+h

=0

[P]*H+h / [P]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

Water & !Oil & !Gas


=0
i = 1,,h-1

i=0

MpW7
67
M
7
67 M@A7
67
M17
M
$
$
+ min g7 - ; 0h o[ - 4@A7
X/
Y8
8 = o[ - 4@A7 /W7 8
L4
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8 ;2 2 - =P + min g7 - ; 0h o[ - 4/W7
8
M -
B7 -7 M -
M - <
B7 M -7
M W7 B7 -7

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6 $
C
B -

$
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?
C
$ M 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
[P]*H / [N]*H
[P]*H / [N]*H
[P]*H / [N]*H
=0
=0
=0
[P]*H / [N]*H
.


[P]*H / [N]*H+q

[P]*H / [N]*H+q

[P]*H / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

=0

=0

.S 

[P]*H / [N]*H+h

[P]*H / [N]*H+h

[P]*H / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

. 

 - Mp $
4
8
$ MRS 
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?
C
$ MT 

Mp $
6 $
M
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M1 $
6 M@A $
M 6 $
$
$
?
C = o[  ?@A C
C +?
C ;2< 2  =P + min g  ; 0h o[  ?
C
+ min g  ; 0h o[  ?@A
L?
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M 
B  M 
M 
B M 
M B 
/ y- (y = 0,,h-1)

$
 - Mpw $
4
8
$ M 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
[P]*H / [N]*H
[P]*H / [N]*H
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
.


[P]*H / [N]*H+q

[P]*H / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

.S 

[P]*H / [N]*H+h

[P]*H / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

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. 

 - Mpw $
4
8
$ MRS 
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4
8
$ MT 
4

Mpw
6 $
6 M@A $
M
6 $
M1 $
$
$
C
+ min g  ; 0h o[  ?@A
,
8 = o[  ?@A /w C
L1 + ? C ;2< 2  =P + min g  ; 0h o[  ?/w
N/
OC
M w B  
M 
B  
M 
B M  
4

Mpw
6 $
M1 $
6 M@A $
M
6 $
$
$
? C ;2< 2  = + min g  ; 0h o[  ?/w
C
+ min g  ; 0h o[  ?@A
8 = o[  ?@A /w C
N/w OC
M 
B   M 
B M  
B  
M

.S -
. -

/ y- (y = 0,,h-1)

$
 - Mpw7 $
4
8
$ M 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
[P]*H / [N]*H
=0
[P]*H / [N]*H
=0
=0
=0
=0
.


[P]*H / [N]*H+q

=0

[P]*H / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

=0

=0

.S 

[P]*H / [N]*H+h

=0

[P]*H / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

. 

 - Mpw7 $
4
8
$ MRS 
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4
8
$ MT 
4

M17
67
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67
Mpw7
M
7
M
$
$
+ min g7  ; 0h o[  4@A7
X/
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8 = o[  4@A7 /w7 8
L4
8 +4
8 ;2 2  =P + min g7  ; 0h o[  4/w7
8
M 
B7 7 M 
M  <
B7 M 7
M w7 B7 7

- = o[ - ?@A /W

6 $
C
B - 

i- (i = 0,,h-1) /

$
- Mp $
?
C
$ M 
$

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4
8
$ MRS 
$

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?
C
$ MT 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
i = 1,,h-1
.

[P]*H+h / [N]*H

[P]*H+h / [N]*H

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

.S 
. 

i- (i = 0,,h-1) / y- (y = 0,,h-1)

$
- Mpw $
4
8
$ M 
$
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4
8
$ MRS 
$

- Mpw $
4
8
$ MT 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
=0
[P]*H+h / [N]*H

!Water & Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h

!Water & Oil & !Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h

[P]*h+(h -1)/ [N]*h

[P]*h+(h -1)/ [N]*h

[P]*H+h / [N]*H

=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+q

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

!Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
=0
=0
i = 1,,h-1
.

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+q

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+q [P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+q

=0

=0

i=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

=0

=0

=0

i=0

.S 
. 

i- (i = 0,,h-1) / y- (y = 0,,h-1)

197

$
- Mpw7 $
4
8
$ M 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
=0
=0
[P]*H+h / [N]*H

=0

=0

!Water & Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h
[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h

!Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
=0
=0
=0
i = 1,,h-1
.

=0

=0

=0

i=0

198

- Mpw7 $
4
8
$ MRS 
$
- Mpw7 $
4
8
$ MT 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q
=0
=0

!Water & Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+q

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+q

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

!Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
=0
=0
=0
i = 1,,h-1
.S 
=0

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+h

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+h

=0

=0

=0

i=0

7 - = o[ - 4@A7 /W7

. 

67
8
B7 -7

i- (i = 0,,h-1) /

$
7 - Mp $
?
C
$ M 
$

7 - Mp $
4
8
$ MRS 
$

7 - Mp $
?
C
$ MT 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & Gas !Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
=0
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
=0
=0
=0
=0
i = 1,,h-1
.

[P]*H+h / [N]*H

=0

[P]*H+h / [N]*H

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

=0

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

=0

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

.S 
. 

i- (i = 0,,h-1) / y- (y = 0,,h-1)

$
7 - Mpw $
4
8
$ M 
$
7 - Mpw $
4
8
$ MRS 
$
7 - Mpw $
4
8
$ MT 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
=0
=0

!Water & Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h

!Water & Oil & !Gas !Water & !Oil & Gas Water & !Oil & !Gas
=0
=0
=0
i = 1,,h-1
.


[P]*H+h / [N]*H

=0

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h

=0

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+q

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

=0

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+q

=0

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+h

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

=0

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+h

=0

=0

=0

i=0

.S 
. 

:
i- (i = 0,,h-1) / y- (y = 0,,h-1)

$
7 - Mpw7 $
4
8
$ M 
$
7 - Mpw7 $
4
8
$ MRS 
$

7 - Mpw7 $
4
8
$ MT 

Water & Oil & Gas Water & Oil & !Gas Water & !Oil & Gas
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
=0
[P]*H+i / [N]*H
[P]*H+h / [N]*H

=0

[P]*H+h / [N]*H

!Water & Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h

!Water & Oil & !Gas


=0

!Water & !Oil & Gas


[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h

Water & !Oil & !Gas


=0
i = 1,,h-1
.

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+q

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+q

=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+q

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

=0

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+q

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+q

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+q

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

=0

[P]*H+i / [N]*H+h

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+h

=0

[P]*h+(i-1) / [N]*h+h

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

=0

[P]*H+h / [N]*H+h

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+h

=0

[P]*h+(h-1) / [N]*h+h

=0

i=0

.S 
. 

,

Water &
Oil &
Gas
[P]*H / -

xS - y 6 z${
- K -
$

y 6 z${
- K -

Water &
Oil &
!Gas
[P]*H / -

Water &
!Oil &
Gas
[P]*H / -

!Water &

!Water &

!Water &

Oil &
Gas
=0

Oil &
!Gas
=0

!Oil &

Gas
=0

Water &
!Oil &
!Gas
[P]*H / -

=0

=0

=0

[P]*H / [P]*H

[P]*H / [P]*H [P]*H / [P]*H [P]*H / [P]*H


.
-

i- (i = 0,,h-1)

min gxS - ; 0h y /W 6 z${


- K -
$

min gxS - ; 0h y /W 6 z${


- K -
$

Gas
=0

Water &
!Oil &
!Gas
=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

Water &
Oil &
Gas
[P]*H+i / -

Water &
Oil &
!Gas
[P]*H+i / -

Water &
!Oil &
Gas
=0

!Water &

!Water &

!Water &

Oil &
Gas
=0

Oil &
!Gas
=0

!Oil &

[P]*H+h / -

[P]*H+h / -

=0

=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H

[P]*H+i / [P]*H

=0

[P]*H+h / [P]*H [P]*H+h/ [P]*H

=0

i = 1,,h-1

.
-

i- (i = 0,,h-1)

z${

min gxS - ; 0h ;y7 /W7 67 = - K -


$

z${

min gxS - ; 0h ;y7 /W7 67 = - K -

Water &
Oil &
Gas
[P]*H+i / -

Water &
Oil &
!Gas
=0

Water &
!Oil &
Gas
[P]*H+i / -

!Water &

!Water &

!Water &

Oil &
Gas
=0

Oil &
!Gas
=0

!Oil &

[P]*H+h / -

=0

[P]*H+h / -

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H

=0

[P]*H+i / [P]*H

=0

=0

=0

=0

i = 1,,h-1

[P]*H+h / [P]*H

=0

[P]*H+h / [P]*H

=0

=0

=0

=0

i=0

z${
z${
xS - =
xS
 -
+ 1 -
;2 - 2xS =,

K - = KxS *xS - ,

KxS ; *xS - , ,


y# =

199

z${
xS - > 0, y -
= 1.

@A# B#
,
] @A] B]

Gas
=0

,
= , , ,

Water &

!Oil &

!Gas

=0
i = 1,,h-1

.
-

.1. Petrel
Petrel 2014.1.
, 15 ( C:\TecScheme15).
maintenancetool.exe.
TecScheme15 .
15
. Petrel (
) .
.
15 , 15 ( C:\TecScheme15),
PetrelPlugin. .
TecSchemePetrelPluginInstall.exe.
Petrel
.
Petrel 2014.1:
Petrel (12,15 )

.
, .

.2. Petrel 15
, Petrel 2014.1.
Petrel Petrel E&P
Software Platform 2014 TOSNIPI | Export to Tecscheme 15.
15:
1) 15: C:\example\\.simproj;

201


15
,
.
2) , ( )
.
( . .2.1-.2.6)
: ? .
. .
15: |
( F3) (
),
.
: .
15 10 Petrel.

.2.1.
15 ( . .2)
. .
Petrel Models (, 3D grid)
15

(, , )
(. .1).
15 1 Vertical
/ Straight (Linear). Straight (Linear),
. Vertical Pillar, ,
.
Petrel Models (, NTG),
15

(, , ).
:
(), ;
,
.
(, NTG ) (. .2).
.
1

(pillar) ( . 6.1).

202

.2 Petrel 15

. .1. Petrel

15, Petrel
( ). - (-) (--) ( ).
(, Sw) , >.

.2.2.
15 ( . .2)
.
.
-.
Petrel Input (, INJ) 15
(, , )
.

203

. .2. Petrel

.
15 () .
Petrel Input
(, Well tops) 15
(,
, ).
.

.2.3. PVT-
15 PVT
( . .2) .
Petrel Input Fluids (, Dead oil) 15

PVT (, , ).
(, ).
: ,
(DeadOil), (SweetWater).

, 15 -

204

.2 Petrel 15
,
.
Petrel Input
Rock physics functions (, Rock physics) PVT

(, ,
) .

.2.4.
15 ( . .2) .
Petrel Input
Rock physics functions (, sat func 2) 15
(, , ).
, , , ,
.
Petrel j- ,
(
. .2.4).
j-
Petrel j- ,
:
1) Petrel Input j- (, Water-oil J-function Rock physics functions) Convert to capillary pressure (. .3).

. .3. j-
2) , ,
X (
. .2.1)
.

205


3) (, sat func 1)
( . .2.4) .
4) J Function, , j- ,
(. .4).

. .4.

.2.5.
15 ( . .2)
.
Petrel Input (, Konture_neftegaz)
15
(, , )
.
.

.2.6.
15 ( . .2) .

206

.2 Petrel 15
Petrel Input
(, Liquid flow rate) 15
(,
, ) .
(, , , ),
15.
, (
)
.

. 11.14.

207



., . : . .
.: , 1982. 407 .
(: Aziz K., Settari A. Petroleum Reservoir Simulation. London: Applied Science Publishers
Ltd., 1979.)


Chen Z., Huan G., Ma Y. Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media.
Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2006.
Ertekin T., Abou-Kassem J.H., King G.R. Basic Applied Reservoir Simulation. Texas: Richardson,
2001.
. ., . ., . . . .: , 1972. 288 .
. ., . ., . .
. .: , 1984. 211 .
. ., . ., . . : . .: , 1993. 416 .: .
. . . . . .: , 1979. 303 . . . , 1977.
(: Crichlow H. B. Modern Reservoir Engineering A Simulation Approach. New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977.)
. . ..: ,
1949. 628 .
(: Muskat M. The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous Media. Ann Arbor:
I. W. Edwards, Inc., 1946.)
. . ..: , 1953.
606 .
(: Muskat M. Physical Principles of Oil Production. New York: McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., 1949.)

:
. ., . ., . . : . . .: -, 2000. 414 .: .
:
- . . : . . . . , . . , . . , . . /

209


.: , 1986. 608 .
(: Golf-Racht T.D. van, Fundamentals of Fractured Reservoir Engineering. Elsevier:
Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1982.)
:
. . . .: , 1965. 238 .
:
Saad Y. Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Systems. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial
and Applied Mathematics, 2003.

210


BCG . 122
BCSR . 118
CG . 120122, 125
CSC . 118
CSR . 117, 118
IMPES . 100, 101
MPI . 128
MSR . 118
PVM . 129
PVT- - . 32, 34, 128, 156, 158, 183, 186
SEQ . 101
SS . 99, 101
. 4, 5, 9, 68, 145, 157, 169
. 4, 5
. 2426
. 22, 26
. 4, 5, 9, 145
. 18, 27, 65, 83, 155
- . 29
. 25
. 14
. 14
. 14, 16, 20, 27, 44
. 25
. 25
. 20, 154
. iv, v, 4953, 132, 133, 160, 162165
- - . 29, 179
. 137
. 26, 155
. 111, 112, 115, 116, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125
- . 20
. 13, 57, 9, 11, 1517, 19, 21, 23, 25, 37, 39, 53, 148, 150

211