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From the inspirational and immortal lines of Henry David Thoreau success
usually comes to those who are too busy to be looking for it and Alexander
Pope tis education that forms the common mind: just as the twig is bent the
trees inclined. On the other hand, education is a very significant key in achieving
our much-awaited dreams and ambitions. If we act and aim for a meaningful life, we
will have it for we have dreamed and determined to become successful and inspire
others to strive and to succeed. We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude and
appreciation to the following persons who have greatly helped and contributed for
the success of this endeavor:
To the Almighty Father, for all the blessings of life, good health, wisdom, love,
faith and knowledge,
To our beloved parents and guardians, for the moral and financial assistance
through the years,
To our groupmates/classmates, for the help, assistance and support for the
accomplishment of this compilation,
To Dr. Maria Lady Sol A. Suazo, for all the patience, kindness, pieces of
advice, teachings and guidance through the years,
And lastly, to the future readers of this compilation, for the sincere
appreciation and compliments of this endeavor.

The Mentees

Translation and Editing Text reveals the beauty and meaning of a certain
language which embodies linguistic approaches and principles that can help reveal
and discover the translation of a certain language. Translation is a diplomatic
approach in which language is used to convey meaning and to give emphasis on
source language and target language that everyone of us deserves understanding
of a certain language or contexts of a language.
Furthermore, it teaches us on how to translate a certain language with
respect to semantic and syntactic levels that we shall be able to share thoughts and
emotions which are related and meaningful to cherish and to preserve its creative
and stylistic meanings of a language. Translation is the soul of communication that
conveys emotions and thoughts to situations and settings where language is used
to define connections and to appreciate levels of understanding regardless of
sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics and culture of human nature. In other words,
translation brings impact to understanding human language, beliefs and culture.
Translation and Editing Text is a very scientific approach in defining and unfolding
the mystery and covert meaning of a language.
Henceforth, this compilation of instructional plan and reports in MS Word and
PPT formats of English 29 (Translation and Editing Text) will present and
showcase in summary salient and comprehensive pieces of information of scientific
principles and approaches of translation and editing text of a certain language.

The Mentees


English 29 (Translation and Editing Text)
At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:

Define Translation Loss and Translation Gain;

Distinguish the differences between Translation Loss and Gain;
Discuss the Translation Loss and Translation Gain;
Determine the kinds and levels of loss and gain translation;
Appreciate the significance of translation loss and gain in real-life situations.

Hand-outs, Visual Aids, White Board Marker
Translation Loss and Gain
6.1.TRANSLATION LOSS: Losses occur on all language levels: Morphological,
Syntactic, Textual and Stylistic/Rhetorical. With respect to the 2 languages, it
underlies the linguistic/stylistic, semantic, textual, stylistic and cultural levels. In
same manner, cultural differences give rise to lexical gaps evinced in incongruous
ideological, social and ecological terms w/c relate to highly sensitive issues
Inevitable Loss: It occurs because of the divergent systems of the two languages
regardless of the skill and competence of the translator who cannot establish
equivalence and therefore resorts to compensatory strategies.
Avertable Loss: it attributes to translators failure to find appropriate equivalence.

MORPHOLOGICAL LEVEL: it happens when the formation of words in terms of

derivation and inflection is not well-attained.
SYNTACTIC LEVEL: The discrepant systems of English and Arabic generate loss
w/c necessitates compensatory strategies to aid the translator to look for functional
rather than formal equivalence.
Tense and Aspect: When combined together there are 12 tenses in English, some
of which have no equivalents in

Arabic, such as present perfect and present

continuous or progressive. The Arabic past or perfective tense refers to past,

present or future time. The failure to capture the exact reference to time may result
in a serious semantic loss.
Condition: it is another problematic syntactic area where loss in translation can be
detected. In English, there are 4 kinds: Real (Factual), Probable (Likely to happen),
Improbable ( Unlikely to happen) and Impossible.



There is no equivalence in the target language especially in the domain of

culture- specificity.
The most serious loss in the translation is when the meaning be it denotative
or connotative is lost or distorted.

Cohesion is one of the most significant constituents of the text:
Arabic and English deal with coordination and subordination different ways:

Coordination is employed to express thoughts which are syntactically and

semantically equal.
The excessive use of coordinated, conjoined clauses in English may make

the text rather boring to read and hard to focus on the ideas expressed in it.
Subordination is deemed more elegant and by corollary, more favored than
coordination based on parallelism which is a rhetorical device or figure of

speech and a salient feature of good style in Arabic.

The Arabic coordinator wa, is equivalent to the English subordinator though,

even though rather than the additive coordinator and.

Four of the following ten translators have rightly opted for subordination, two
for coordination, one has lexicalized phrase, ie., seeing that and three
translators have missed it altogether.


The common rhetorical device metaphor is a clear case point. Where literal
rendition into English may not only cause unintelligibility but also a comic

The translation of the metaphor libaas as garments of which the singular
means a sort of covering, as vestment meaning a ceremonial garment

especially one worn by priest in church, or as raiment which is archaic.

According to At-Tabari and Ibn Kathir, libaas means sakan which denotes

the pleasure and comfort enjoyed by husbands living with their wives.
Some translators have adopted the strategy of turning the metaphor into
simile while other opted for the ground of the metaphor.
Jollian S. Montenegro
Sheila D. Papong