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The tractive effort (Ft) is the force developed by the traction unit at the rim of the driving wheels

for moving the unit itself and its train (trailing load). The tractive effort required for train propulsion

on a level track is

Ft = Fa + Fr

If gradients are involved, the above expression becomes

Ft = Fa + Fg + Fr

for ascending gradient

= Fa Fg + Fr

for descending gradient

where

Fg = force required to overcome the effect of gravity

Fr = force required to overcome resistance to train motion.

(a) Value of Fa

If M is the dead (or stationary) mass of the train and a its linear acceleration, then

Fa = Ma

Since a train has rotating parts like wheels, axles, motor armatures and gearing etc., its effective

(or accelerating) mass Me is more (about 8 15%) than its stationary mass. These parts have to be

given angular acceleration at the same time as the whole train is accelerated in the linear direction.

Hence, Fe = Mea

(ii) If Me is in tonne and in km/h/s, then converting them into absolute units, we have

Fa = (1000 Me) (1000/3600) a = 277.8 Me a newton

(b) Value of Fg

As seen from Fig. 43.13, Fg = W sin = Mg sin

In railway practice, gradient is expressed as the rise (in metres) a track distance of 100 m and is

called percentage gradient.

%G =

BC = 100 BC

= 100 sin

AC /100

AC

get

Fg = Mg G/100 = 9.8 102 MG

2

(i) When M is in kg, Fg = 9.8 10 MG newton

(ii) When M is given in tonne, then

2

Fg = 9.8 10 (1000 M) G = 98 MG newton

Fig. 43.13

(c) Value of Fr

Train resistance comprises all those forces which oppose its motion. It consists of mechanical

resistance and wind resistance. Mechanical resistance itself is made up of internal and external

resistances. The internal resistance comprises friction at journals, axles, guides and buffers etc. The

external resistance consists of friction between wheels and rails and flange friction etc. Mechanical

resistance is almost independent of train speed but depends on its weight. The wind friction varies

directly as the square of the train speed.

If r is specific resistance of the train i.e. resistance offered per unit mass of the train, then

Fr = M.r.

(i) If r is in newton per kg of train mass and M is the train mass in kg, then

Fr = M.r newton

(ii) If r is in newton per tonne train mass (N/t) and M is in tonne (t), then

Fr = M tonne r = Mr newton*

Hence, expression for total tractive effort becomes

Ft = Fa Fg + Fr = (277.8 Me 98 MG + Mr) newton

Please remember that here M is in tonne, in km/h/s, G is in metres per 100 m of track length

(i.e. % G) and r is in newton/tonne (N/t) of train mass.

The positive sign for Fg is taken when motion is along an ascending gradient and negative sign

when motion is along a descending gradient.

If Ft is the tractive effort and is the train velocity, then

output power = Ft

(i) If Ft is in newton and in m/s, then

output power = Ft watt

(ii) If Ft is in newton and is in km/h , then converting into m/s, we have

*

If r is in kg (wt) per tonne train mass and M is in tonne, then Fr = M tonne (r 9.8) newton/tonne = 9.8

Mr newton.

Armature Drive

Shaft

Pinion

Gear

Axle

Field

(Fixed the

Stator)

Plan View

Cross Section

Armature

(Rotating the

Rotor)

Traction Motor

Case

Armature Drive

Shaft

End View

Cross Section

Armature

(Rotating)

Field

(Fixed)

through a pinion and gearwheel

Traction motor schematic diagram

( )

1000 watt = Ft kW

output power = Ft

3600

3600

If is the efficiency of transmission gear, then power output of motors is

= Ft . / watt

in m/s

Ft

kW

in km/h

=

3600

Energy (like work) is given by the product of power and time.

E = (Ft ) t = Ft ( t) = Ft D

where D is the distance travelled in the direction of tractive effort.

Total energy output from driving axles for the run is

E = energy during acceleration + energy during free run

As seen from Fig. 43.11

1

1

E = Ft area OAD + Ft area ABED = Ft Vm t1 + Ft Vm t2

2

2

where Ft is the tractive effort during accelerating period and Ft that during free-running period.

Incidentally, Ft will consist of all the three components given in Art. 43.37 whereas Ft will consist of

(98 MG + Mr) provided there is an ascending gradient.

It is the energy output of the driving wheel expressed in watt-hour (Wh) per tonne-km (t-km) of

the train. It can be found by first converting the energy output into Wh and then dividing it by the

mass of the train in tonne and route distance in km.

Hence, unit of specific energy output generally used in railway work is : Wh/tonne-km

(Wh/t-km).

We will first calculate the total energy output of the driving axles and then divide it by train mass

in tonne and route length in km to find the specific energy output. It will be presumed that :

(i) there is a gradient of G throughout the run and

(ii) power remains ON upto the end of free run in the case of trapezoidal curve (Fig. 43.11) and

upto the accelerating period in the case of quadrilateral curve (Fig. 43.12).

Now, output of the driving axles is used for the following purposes :

1. for accelerating the train

2. for overcoming the gradient

3. for overcoming train resistance.

(a) Energy required for train acceleration (Ea)

As seen from trapezoidal diagram of Fig. 43.11,

Ea = Fa distance OAD = 277.8 Me 1 Vm.t1 joules

2

Vm

V

= 277.8 Me 1 Vm m joules

Qt1 =

2

V 1000 Vm

= 277.8 Me 1 . m

joules

3600

2

It will be seen that since Vm is in km/h, it has been converted into m/s by multiplying it with the

conversion factor of (1000/3600). In the case of (Vm /t), conversion factors for Vm and a being the

same, they cancel out. Since 1 Wh = 3600 J.

2

1 V 1000 Vm

Vm

Ea = 277.8 Me . m

Wh

Wh

=

0.01072

3600

Me

2

Eg = Fg D

where D is the total distance over which power remains ON. Its maximum value equals the

distance represented by the area OABE in Fig. 43.11 i.e. from the start to the end of free-running

period in the case of trapezoidal curve [as per assumption (i) above].

Substituting the value of Fg from Art. 43.37, we get

Eg = 98 MG. (1000 D) joules = 98,000 MGD joules

It has been assumed that D is in km.

When expressed in Wh, it becomes

1

Wh = 27.25 MGD Wh

Eg = 98,000 MGD

3600

(c) Energy required for overcoming resistance (Er)

Er = Fr D = M . r (1000 D) joules

D in km

1000 Mr D

Wh = 0.2778 Mr D Wh

D in km

=

3600

total energy output of the driving axles is

E = Ea + Eg + Er

2

= (0.01072 Vm /Me + 27.25 MGD + 0.2778 Mr D Wh

Specific energy output

E

D is the total run length

MD

2

V M

D + 0.2778 r D Wh/t-km

= 0.01072 m . e + 27.25 G

D M

D

D

2

V M

D Wh/t-km

Espo = 0.01072 m . e + 0.2778 r

D M

D

Alternative Method

As before, we will consider the trapezoidal speed/time curve. Now, we will calculate energy

output not force-wise but period-wise.

(i) Energy output during accelerating period

Ea = Ft distance travelled during accelerating period

= Ft area OAD

Fig. 43.11

V

1

1

= Ft Vm t1 = Ft .Vm . m

2

2

V

= 1 . Ft 1000 .Vm . m joules

2

3600

V

= 1 . Ft 1000 .Vm . m . 1 Wh

2

3600

3600

Substituting the value of Ft , we get

Espo =

(

(

)

)

Ea =

e

2

(3600) 2

It must be remembered that during this period, all the three forces are at work (Art. 43.37)

(ii) Energy output during free-running period

Here, work is required only against two forces i.e. gravity and resistance (as mentioned earlier).

Energy

Efr = Ft area ABED

Fig. 43.11

= Ft (Vm t2) = Ft 1000 Vm . t2 joules

3600

1000

1 Wh = 1000

1 Wh

= Ft

V t2

F Vm t2 .

3600 m

3600

3600 t

3600

= 1000 . Ft D fr Wh = 1000 (98 MG + Mr) D fr Wh

3600

3600

where Dfr is the distance in km travelled during the free-running period*

Total energy required is the sum of the above two energies.

E = Ea + Efr

( )

=

*

( )

( )

2

1000 Vm (277.8 . M + 98 MG + Mr) + 1000 (98 MG + Mr) D Wh

fr

e

2

3600

(3600) 2

= Vm (t2/ 3600) because times are always taken in seconds.

fr

e

3600

(3600) 2 2

(3600) 2 2

2

Vm

1000

+ D fr Wh

(98 MG + Mr)

= 0.01072 Vm2 . Me +

3600

2 3600

2

V

V

V

1

1

m

m

m

Vm

Now,

= 2 3600 . = 2 3600 . t1

2 3600

E = 0.01072 Vm . Me +

1000

(98 MG + Mr) (Da + Dfr) Wh

3600

It is the same expression as found above.

It equals the total energy input to the traction motors from the supply. It is usually expressed in

Wh which equals 3600 J. It can be found by dividing the energy output of the driving wheels with the

combined efficiency of transmission gear and motor.

output of driving axles

energy consumption =

motor gear

It is the energy consumed (in Wh) per tonne mass of the train per km length of the run.

Specific energy consumption,

total energy consumed in Wh

specific energy output

Espc =

=

train mass in tonne run length in km

where

= overall efficiency of transmission gear and motor = gear motor

As seen from Art. 43.41, specific energy consumption is

V 2 M

D

M

D

D

V 2 M

D

M

D

The specific energy consumption of a train running at a given schedule speed is influenced by

1. Distance between stops 2. Acceleration 3. Retardation 4. Maximum speed 5. Type

of train and equipment 6. Track configuration.

It is given by the total weight carried on the driving wheels. Its value is Wa = x W, where W is

dead weight and x is a fraction varying from 0.6 to 0.8.

Adhesion between two bodies is due to interlocking of the irregularities of their surfaces in

contact. The adhesive weight of a train is equal to the total weight to be carried on the driving

adhesive weight, Wa

If

x =

, then,

dead weight W

Let,

Coefficient of adhesion,

If M is in tonne, then

Wa = x W

or

= maximum tractive effort possible without wheel slip

a = Ft /Wa

Ft = a Wa = a xW = a x Mg

It has been found that tractive effort can be increased by increasing the motor torque but only

upto a certain point. Beyond this point, any increase in motor torque does not increase the tractive

effort but merely causes the driving wheels to slip. It is

seen from the above relation that for increasing Ft, it is

not enough to increase the kW rating of the traction

motors alone but the weight on the driving wheels has

also to be increased.

Adhesion also plays an important role in braking.

If braking effort exceeds the adhesive weight of the vehicle, skidding takes place.

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