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With proper diagrams, explain all the equipment used for Arc Welding and
Gas Welding.

Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an
electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the
welding point. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and
consumable or non-consumable electrodes. The welding region is usually protected by
some type of shielding gas, vapor, or slag. Arc welding processes may be manual,
semi-automatic, or fully automated. First developed in the late part of the 19th century,
arc welding became commercially important in shipbuilding during the Second World
War. Today it remains an important process for the fabrication of steel structures and

The main components of the equipment required for welding are:

Power source
Electrode holder and cables
Welder protection
Fume extraction



Mostly AC power source is used for welding. Welding machine transformer may be
single phase, two phases, or three phases. For low current supply single phase
transformer is used therefore they are used for thinner section welding with minor
diameter electrode. For high current two phase and three phase supply transformers
are used. They are used for thicker welding plates.
Basically two type of the power source can be used for arc welding machine
purpose, i.e. AC transformer and DC generator rectifier. Power source consist the two
cables, electrode cables and earthing clamp; electrode holder stringer and electrode or

Electrode holder and cables

The electrode holder clamps the end of the electrode with copper contact shoes
built into its head. The shoes are actuated by either a twist grip or spring-loaded
mechanism. The clamping mechanism allows for quick release of the stub end. For
efficiency the electrode has to be firmly clamped into the holder, otherwise poor
electrical contact may cause arc instability through voltage fluctuations. Welding cable
connecting the holder to the power source is mechanically crimped or soldered.

It is essential that good electrical connections are maintained between electrode,

holder and cable. With poor connections, resistance heating and, in severe cases,
minor arcing with the torch body will cause the holder to overheat. Two cables are
connected to the output of the power source, the welding lead goes to the electrode
holder and the current return lead is clamped to the workpiece. The latter is often
wrongly referred to as the earth lead. A separate earth lead may be required to provide
protection from faults in the power source. The earth cable should therefore be capable
of carrying the maximum output current of the power source.

Welder Protection
Because many common welding procedures involve an open electric arc or
flame, the risk of burns from heat and sparks is significant. To prevent them, welders
wear protective clothing in the form of heavy leather gloves and protective long sleeve
jackets to avoid exposure to extreme heat, flames, and sparks. The use of compressed
gases and flames in many welding processes also pose an explosion and fire risk;
some common precautions include limiting the amount of oxygen in the air and keeping
combustible materials away from the workplace.
Exposure to the brightness of the weld area leads to a condition called arc eye in
which ultraviolet light causes inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the
eyes. Welding goggles and helmets with dark face plates much darker than those in
sunglasses or oxy-fuel goggles are worn to prevent this exposure. In recent years, new
helmet models have been produced featuring a face plate which automatically selfdarkens electronically.

Fume Extraction
When welding within a welding shop, ventilation must dispose harmlessly of the
welding fume. Particular attention should be paid to ventilation when welding in a
confined space such as inside a boiler, tank or compartment of a ship.
Fume removal should be by some form of mechanical ventilation which will
produce a current of fresh air in the immediate area. Direction of the air movement
should be from the welder's face towards the work. This is best achieved by localised
exhaust ventilation using a suitably designed hood near to the welding area.

Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas
welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen
to weld and cut metals, respectively. French engineers Edmond Fouch and Charles
Picard became the first to develop oxygen-acetylene welding in 1903. Pure oxygen,
instead of air, is used to increase the flame temperature to allow localized melting of the
workpiece material (e.g. steel) in a room environment.
In oxy-fuel welding, a welding torch is used to weld metals. Welding metal results
when two pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten
metal. The molten pool is generally supplied with additional metal called filler. Filler
material depends upon the metals to be welded.
The apparatus used in gas welding consists basically of an oxygen source and a
fuel gas source (usually contained in cylinders), two pressure regulators and two flexible

hoses (one for each cylinder), and a torch. This sort of torch can also be used for
soldering and brazing. The cylinders are often carried in a special wheeled trolley.

The regulator will maintain a steady working pressure as the cylinder pressure
drops from use. Basically, regulators work by admitting the high cylinder pressure
through a valve which is operated by a flexible diaphragm. By turning the regulator
adjusting knob or screw in or out causes a spring in the regulator to operate the
diaphragm which opens or closes a valve in the regulator. This in turn regulates the
outlet pressure and flow. By turning the adjusting knob in you increase the flow and
pressure, out decreases the flow and pressure. Most regulators have two gauges. One
shows the inlet pressure from the cylinder (the high pressure gauge) and the other (low
pressure gauge) shows the working pressure being supplied from the regulator. There
are regulators that are made for heavy duty or rough service that are not equipped with

gauges, (referred to as gaugeless) and have a scale in the regulator body that is used
to make pressure adjustments. There are two general types of regulators, single stage
and two stage. Both perform the same function but the two stage regulator will supply a
more constant pressure as the cylinder pressure falls by compensating for any drop in
cylinder pressure better than will the single stage unit.

Oxygen Cylinder
These cylinders are made of steel and are usually painted black. They range in
size from less than 1m3. To over 8 cubic m and contain compressed Oxygen at
pressures that can be as high as 15 Mpa. All cylinders have valves. If Oxygen comes
into contact with oil or grease, it will burst into flame. Never use oil or grease on Oxygen
cylinder valves or regulators. Make sure hands and gloves are free of oil and grease
before handling cylinders. Crack open the cylinder valve then close it before installing
the regulator to clear the valve of any dirt. With the regulator installed, always crack the
cylinder valve open first, then open it fully. This will lessen the chance of recompression
which is caused by high cylinder pressure entering the regulator, heating up and
damaging the regulator.

Fuel Gas Cylinder

These cylinders contain Acetylene under pressure, are painted red, made of steel
and have cylinder valves. They range in size from 1m3 to almost 11m3 capacity. The
cylinders contain a porous filler material which is wetted with acetone that allows the
Acetylene to safely be contained in the cylinder at 1.7Mpa. Always use an Acetylene

cylinder in the up right position so you don't draw any of the acetone out of the tank.
Only open the cylinder valve 1 to 1 1/2 turns, leaving the valve wrench on the valve in
the event it has to be shut off quickly. Acetylene should never be used at a pressure that
exceeds 100kpa as it becomes highly unstable which, depending on the condition,
could cause it to decompose and explode. As with the Oxygen cylinder, make sure the
cylinder valve is clean before installing the regulator.

The cylinder regulators and torch are usually connected together by double
insulated reinforced rubber hoses. The Oxygen hose is blue and the fuel line is red
(Acetylene) or orange (LPG). Hoses are available in three common sizes 5mm, 10mm
and 12mm ID.

The torch assembly consists of the handle, oxygen and fuel gas valves and
mixing chamber. Welding tips or a cutting attachment can be used with the handle
allowing it to be used for welding, heating and cutting operations. Oxygen and fuel gas
flow through tubes inside the handle which blend in the mixing chamber or tip. It is at
the tip that the mixed gases are ignited. There are two basic mixer types, the equal or
medium pressure type (also known as balance or positive pressure type) and the
injector type. The equal pressure type is the most common and is used with fuel gas
pressures that are above 1 psi. Oxygen and fuel gas enter the torch at almost equal

pressures. The injector type is used when fuel gas pressures are less than 1 psi. In this
type, Oxygen at high pressure pulls the fuel gas into the mixing chamber.